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Quantitative and Qualitative research methods
Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91276064
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Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…

Quantitative and Qualitative
Words: 6879 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 12570660
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Vaismoradi, 2013)

Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.

With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…

REFERENCES

Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.

J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.

Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.

2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.

research in education qualitative quantitative
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19336558
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Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…

Goals Although Quantitative Methodologies Are
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 94007992
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Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).

Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…

Correlational research. This type of research identifies and evaluates the natural relationship that exists between different variables. According to Groat and Wang, "This characteristic means that it is particularly appropriate in circumstances when variables either cannot be manipulated for practical reasons or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons" (2003, p. 244).

Developmental designs. This type of research is used to measure changes that occur over lengthy periods of time (Developmental research, 2012). For example, a developmental design would be suitable for analyzing the differences in academic and social development in low-income vs. high-income neighborhoods. This research design is most common when working with children as subjects and can be undertaken using several methods: longitudinal, cross sectional, and cross sequential (Developmental research, 2012).

Survey research. Survey research collects data from a large number of respondents in an attempt to gain a better understanding about this sample as a whole (Grinnel & Unrau, 2005). According to Grinnel and Unrau, "It is essential, therefore, that survey research procedures produce data that is accurate, reliable, and representative so that findings can be generalized from a sample to the larger population or to different research situations" (p. 272). One of the main strengths of survey research concerns its flexibility for data-gathering purposes. De Vaus (2002) notes that, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so forth, can also be used in survey research. The distinguishing features of surveys are the form of the data and the method of analysis" (p. 3). This main strength, though, is offset somewhat by the constraints that are inherent in the approach, but these constraints are frequently related to

Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal
Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 90647310
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Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…

References

Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from  http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf 

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.

Fielding N 2010 Mixed Methods Research International
Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 4838384
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Fielding, N. (2010). Mixed Methods esearch. International Journal of Social esearch, 13 (2), 127 -- 138.

In the field of criminal justice and security management, there are a wide variety of techniques used to understand the best approaches for interacting with stakeholders. Fielding (2010) determined that the mixed method approach is the most effective. This is because it is examining different aspects of the problem and conducting a separate study to corroborate key ideas. These insights were used to show the underlying trends inside the U.S. And UK criminal justice systems. As Fielding determined, that both countries are wrestling with similar challenges including: rising criminal / gang related violence, juvenile delinquency and gun related crimes. This is illustrating the challenges impacting the two systems. In the future, these ideas can help to identify the root causes of these problems and the best approach for addressing them. The fact that similarities…

References

Ellicott, I. (2011). Procedural Justice in Contacts. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 17 (4), 592 -- 610.

Fielding, N. (2010). Mixed Methods Research. International Journal of Social Research, 13 (2), 127 -- 138.

Gorard, S. (2007). Where does Good Evidence come from? International Journal of Research, 20 (3), 307 -- 323.

Payls, T. (2012). Qualitative Research in the Digital Era. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11 (4), 114 -- 119.

Sampling Design & Data Method
Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38737103
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(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment to reduce the odds that a single applicant would alter results if assigned the rigid role of ex-con or clean record applicant.

In the second half of the research study the same set of potential employers was surveyed using a vignette method. The vignette described the scenario of applicants who matched the (tester) applicants. The employers who were screened by asking for the person in charge of hiring at the place of business were then asked to respond to the scenario by answering questions regarding if they would or would not hire or consider hiring the applicant in the vignette. Data was collected utilizing the responses to the survey questions, which avoided direct racial comparisons but simply stated the race of…

Works Cited

Pager, Devah and Lincoln Quillian.. "Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do." American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.

Gray, Paul S., John B. Williamson, David a. Karp, and John R. Dalphin the Research Imagination: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Social Epidemiology -- Methods Describe
Words: 2812 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93273090
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Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.

IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.

Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.

This…

Bibliography

Bonita, R. And R. Beaglehole. (2006). Basic epidemiology. Geneva: WHO Press.

Muntaner, C. (2003). "Qualitative and quantitative research in social epidemiology: is complementarity the only issue?" Gac Sanit, Vol. 17, Supl. 3.

Olsen, J. And K. Christensen. (2010). An introduction to epidemiology for health professionals. NY: Springer.

Rosnow, R. And R. Rosenthal. (1996). Beginning Behavioral Research. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mixing Methods Within Research Projects
Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84083495
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(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…

Bibliography

Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at:  http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf 

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at:  http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:  http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html

Dupont Research in Its Purest Definition Quantitative
Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 52186817
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Dupont esearch

In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…

REFERENCES

Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Qualitative vs Quantitative Social Science Sometimes Debates
Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10774586
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Qualitative vs. Quantitative

Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.

Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.

There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…

Works Cited

Bartholomew, L.M., & Horowitz, K. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology .

Monk, A.N. (1993). Mixing oil and water? Ethnography vs. experimental psychology in the study of computer-mediated communication. INTERCHI'93, 3-6.

Rusbult, C.E. (1980). Commitment and satisfaction in romantic associations: A test of the investment model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 16,, 172-186.

Rusbult, C.E. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1230-1242.

Frame Analysis vs Quantitative Frame
Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75809465
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A number of researchers think that qualitative and quantitative methodologies cannot be pooled because the assumptions fundamental to each tradition are so greatly different. "Other researchers think they can be used in combination only by alternating between methods: qualitative research is appropriate to answer certain kinds of questions in certain conditions and quantitative is right for others. And some researchers think that both qualitative and quantitative methods can be used simultaneously to answer a research question" (Barnes et al., 2005).

There are two sets of challenges that enfold the idea of frame and discourse analysis. The first takes place in the areas of data collection, analysis, and final presentation results. The challenge surrounds definitions and conceptualizations. Ideational concepts are intrinsically inaccurate and distinctions between frames, ideologies and discourses are often indistinct. Discourse and frames are connected and sometimes overlap. Cultural discourses can comprise frames. Ideologies frequently do the same things…

References

Barnes, B., Conrad, k., Demont-Heinrich, C., Graziano, M., Kowalski, D., Neufeld, J.,

Zamora, J. & Palmquist, M. (2005). Generalizability and Transferability. Retrieved from  http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/gentrans/pop2f.cfm 

Hathaway, R. (1995). Assumptions underlying quantitative and qualitative research:

Implications for institutional research. Research in higher education, 36 (5), p. 535-

Mixed Method Qualitative Quantitative Mixed Methodologies Quantitative
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50233499
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Mixed Method

Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies

Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research

Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…

References

Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:

http://www.wilderdom.com/research/QualitativeVersusQuantitativeResearch.html

The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:

 http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/gentrans/pop2f.cfm

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31510822
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In other words, one has the advantage of providing for both an objective and more interpretive and subjective approach to the research.

However, one must also take into account that both methods have certain disadvantages that must be taken cognizance of in choosing to combine these two methodological strategies in any specific research. This means that in effect the advantage of combining these two methods is dependent on the type of research that is intended and required. One would not for instance apply a mixed or combined approach to a study of patient's views and feelings, as this would be more suitable to a qualitative methodology. In other words, the central disadvantage in using a combined method lies in the possibly that such as approach would not be appropriate to the type of research being conducted. In essence this means that a combined methodology is not always the best research…

References

Hough, Helen, and Lorna Mckee ( 2007) "The Cultural Paradigm of the Smaller Firm."

Journal of Small Business Management 42 (4).

Myers M.D. Qualitative Research in Information Systems. Retrieved August 11,

2010 from http://www.qual.auckland.ac.nz/

Social Science Research Are Qualitative and Quantitative
Words: 4883 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70439606
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social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.

In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…

References

Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/

Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.

Social Sciences Quantitative Qualitative and Mixed Methods
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17281787
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social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).

In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…

References

Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved:

 http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.php 

First Response:

The correlation between evaluation research and research methods are they are applications for research and they are also purposes of research (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009). Evaluation research and research methods are distinct in the manner that they specify a specific purpose. The correlation when using the research is that they all correlate together to distinguish a common reason, intent, goal, or idea which is used in acquiring knowledge (Laureate Education Inc., 2009).

research design and methods used in leadership
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69889618
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Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…

Value of Shifting From Qualitative to Quantitative
Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63719267
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Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again

Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.

Qualitative to Quantitative

A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…

References

Black, K. & Fauske, J. (2008). Measuring case managers' advance care planning practice: Translating focus group findings to survey development. Care Management Journals, 9(4), 166-76.

Ullman, S.E. (2005). Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: A personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methodologies. Violence Against Women, 11(9), 1113-39.

Business Research Methods Brain Business
Words: 457 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65441760
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Furthermore, the research will eventually lead to the development of both an understanding and a means through which an individual can improve his or her business sense. Though some papers have been published on this topic, there has not been enough research in this respect.

Some preliminary questions will address;.

Is the brain programmed for business success in all individuals?

If one can remember most effectively images and associations, why do so many people use standard outlining techniques?

How can one use one's whole brain to make dreams come true?

How can on improve the brain in order to maximize one's abilities?

What are the ways to increase the power of our memory, focus and creativity?

With regards to research methods, mostly qualitative research methods will be employed during the research, such as the analysis of an interview, for instance, but the addition of quantitative methods will also be employed,…

References that may be utilized

Pillay S. (November 15, 2010) Your Brain and Business: The Neuroscience of Great Leaders

Buzan T., Think Buzan Inventors of Mind Mapping,  http://www.thinkbuzan.com/us/

Balanced Scorecard Method Performance Measurement
Words: 13021 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36300732
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However, none was found that centered on small hotels in China. This research add to the existing body of research by providing an assessment of the balanced scorecard method in this special business setting. The information obtained by this study will help to make small hotels in China more competitive and able to compete well into the future.

This research will play an important role in the development of the small hotel business in China in several important ways. It will help them to see what areas of their business need improvement, it will help them to pinpoint specific problems within their organization. It will help to bring weakness from obscurity into the forefront where solutions can be found. It will also show them their strengths and the area that could be developed for even greater prosperity in the future. This research will help small hotels to develop long-term vision…

References

Alleyne, P., Doherty, I. And Greenidge, D. (2006). Approaches to HRM in the Barbados Hotel Industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18, 2, 94 -- 109.

Balanced Scorecard Institute. 2009. Balanced Scorecard Basics. [Online]. Available at:  http://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/tabid/55/Default.aspx 

Business and Strategy Insight for You. 2009. [Online]. Available at:  http://strategy-insight.blogspot.com/2008/12/balanced-scorecards-case-study-in.html 

Chen, C.N. And Ting, S.C. 2002. A Study Using the Grey System Theory to Evaluate the Importance of Various Service Quality Factors', the International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 19, 6, 838 -- 861.

psychology phenomenology descriptive qualitative methods
Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33441726
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Assignment 1
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…

educational administration and research methods assessment
Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33560410
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This course fulfills its promise to help students understand research methods in education and educational administration specifically. Concepts of research have been covered clearly, to allow students better insight into how they might construct their own research from the proposal stage through the analysis and interpretation of results. Through encounters with original research like the Porter, Polikoff, Goldring, et al. (2010) study, students in this course also become more familiar with how researchers develop and implement assessments to evaluate the efficacy of different school leadership models.
Moreover, this course empowers students to adopt a professional mindset to evaluate the research of others, consider gaps in the literature, and contribute to the growing body of evidence on educational administration. The course has also covered theoretical orientations in educational research, encouraging students to consider their own points of view and the directions their research and their careers will take them. Ultimately, students…

Quantitative Research Designs Validity
Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30237066
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Validity, in essence, has got to do with the extent to which a given research study measures the accuracy of a specific concept – effectively meaning that a study can be said to have passed the validity test if it accurately mirrors that which the researchers set about to investigate. In quantitative research, as Polit and Beck (2012) point out, “researchers strive to design studies that are strong with respect to all four types of study validity” (p. 303). As the authors further point out, while an attempt to enhance one kind of validity may benefit another form of validity, efforts to ensure one kind of validity sometimes end up interfering with the achievement of other validity types. The four kinds of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and…

quantitative research
Words: 4778 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27150048
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infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.

DO NOT LEAVE ANY SECTION BLANK.

Caution:

Do not provide a "Yes" or "no" answer without an EXPLANATION. YOU MUST JUSTIFY ALL YOUR RESPONSES

ALL responses must be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. Do NOT use quotes.

Morike Adekemi

Full and Complete Reference for the Article: Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from http://searchproquest.com/docview/1325739253?accountid-35812

You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.

Problem

What is the problem the study was conducted to address? (1)

Response: The problem this study was conducted to address was self-advocacy in clinical research as well as practice. Despite self-advocacy being cited as a trait desirable among…

Quantitative and Qualitative Data Reporting
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54312642
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mixed research approach would work best. It could be argued that such an approach is usually the best methodology to use, because the mixed research approach allows for speculation and analyzing using more than just the numbers. One recent study determined that the "the combining or mixing of qualitative and quantitative methodologies is not a new or unique phenomenon" (Frels, Onwuegbuzie, 2012, p. 184). The same study found that researchers "routinely collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data as a necessary part of their profession" (p. 184).

The mixed research methodology is often used in other areas of study in a most effective manner. For example, a recent study states "addition to an adequate sample size for statistical analysis of outcomes, the validation of prognostic factors using a mixed methods approach also obviously requires a longitudinal design to reach the relevant endpoints, such as completion of treatment, hospital discharge, or…

Works Cited

Fendley, A.; (2010) Forensic scientist, New Scientist, Vol. 206, Issue 2761, pp. 9-10

Frels, R.K. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J.; (2013) Administering quantitative instruments with qualitative interviews: A mixed research approach, Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 91, Issue 2, pp. 184 -- 194

Macdonald, R.; Back, W.E.; Johnson, P.W.; (2011) Retrospective analysis to identify trends in forensic research, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, Vol. 26, Issue 5, pp. 550 -- 557

Zickmund, S.L.; Yang, S.; Mulvey, E.P.; Bost, J.E.; Shinkaus, L.A.; LaBrecque, D.R.; (2013) Predicting cancer mortality: Developing a new cancer care variable using mixed methods and quasi-statistical approach, Health Services Research, Vol. 48, Issue 6, pp. 2208 -- 2223

Quantitative Quality Management Techniques
Words: 1792 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41306725
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Quality Management Tech.

The nature of business is that of uncertainty. In many instances businesses must forecast or project many unknown factors affecting their underlying business operations. The impact of globalization has created an even more uncertain period in which business must now operate in. Aspects that pertain to one geographic region, due primarily to globalization, now create systemic effects in other regions. As such, management, through the use of data must be able to properly ascertain or predict these occurrences to better insulate their businesses. As seen by the recent financial crisis in 2008, quantitative techniques are vitally important in helping to prevent unwarranted bankruptcy or financial lose. In particular, quantitative quality management techniques can help diminish or abate many of the negative influences embedded within the business environment. Techniques such as linear programming, control charts, and fishbone diagrams all help management make better informed decisions (Dmitris, 2001). These…

References:

1) Alexander Schrijver, Theory of Linear and Integer Programming. John Wiley & sons, 1998, ISBN 0-471-98232-6

2) Bernd Gartner, Ji-i Matousek (2006). Understanding and Using Linear Programming, Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-30697-8

3) Deming, W.E. (1975). "On probability as a basis for action." The American Statistician 29 (4): 146 -- 152.

4) Dmitris Alevras and Manfred W. Padberg, Linear Optimization and Extensions: Problems and Solutions, Universitext, Springer-Verlag, 2001

Quantitative Proposal on Three Strike California Law
Words: 3610 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 1510424
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Three Strikes

High crime rates are a societal problem that has changed the manner in which society functions. ecognizing the adverse effects that crime has on communities the state of California has implemented a three strikes law designed to deter crime particularly as it pertains to repeat offenders. The propose research will examine the effectiveness of California's three strike law as it pertains to deterring recidivism. Statistical data concerning crime rates and rates of recidivism following the enactment of the law will be analyzed and compared to the same statistic prior to the passage of the law. The results will examine the extent to which the deterrence effect has been effective as it pertains to the three strikes law.

Background

Crime is a major social problem throughout the country. More specifically criminals who are repeat offenders make up a substantial number of the individuals that commit crime. With this understood…

References

Chen, Elsa Y (2008) .Impacts of "Three Strikes and You're Out" on Crime Trends in California and Throughout the United States. Journal of contemporary criminal justice. 24(4), 345

Goodno, N.H. (2007) Career Criminals Targeted: The Verdict is in, California's Three Strikes Law Proves Effective. Golden Gate University law review. 37(2), 461

Refine or alter search

Helland E., Tabarrok, A. (2007) Does Three Strikes Deter? A Non-Parametric Estimation. Journal of Human Resources, 42 (2) p309-330

Quantitative Study Review Learning Styles of Graduate Level Nursing Students
Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23218618
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Quantitative Study Review
Abstract
This paper provides a review of a quantitative study and determines the purpose, sample, method, findings and credibility of the study. It also examines the interventions and whether there was any clinical significance to the findings. By examining the significance and credibility of the study it shows its value in nursing research.
The purpose of the study by Gonzales et al. (2017) was to describe graduate entry nursing students' learning styles. The research question was: “What are the predominant learning styles of graduate entry nursing students?” (Gonzales et al., 2017, p. 56). The study did not make any hypothesis prior to conducting the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) survey.
The sample for the study was obtained by recruiting 202 graduate entry nursing student volunteers at a southwestern university. This was essentially a convenience sample. No inclusion or exclusion criteria were discussed in the study, but in…

References
AbuAssi, N. E., & Alkorashy, H. A. E. (2016). Relationship between learning style and readiness for self-directed learning among nursing students at king Saud university, Saudi Arabia. International journal of advanced nursing studies, 5(2), 109-116.
Brannan, J. D., White, A., & Long, J. (2016). Learning styles: Impact on knowledge and confidence in nursing students in simulation and classroom. International journal of nursing education scholarship, 13(1), 63-73.
Gonzales, L. K., Glaser, D., Howland, L., Clark, M. J., Hutchins, S., Macauley, K., ... & Ward, J. (2017). Assessing learning styles of graduate entry nursing students as a classroom research activity: a quantitative research study. Nurse education today, 48, 55-61.
McKenna, L., Copnell, B., Butler, A. E., & Lau, R. (2018). Learning style preferences of Australian accelerated postgraduate pre-registration nursing students: A cross-sectional survey. Nurse education in practice, 28, 280-284.
Vizeshfar, F., & Torabizadeh, C. (2018). The effect of teaching based on dominant learning style on nursing students' academic achievement. Nurse education in practice, 28, 103-108.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data Analysis Essay
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Introduction:
This essayconsists of two parts. Part A is an analysis of quantitative data and Part B is an analysis of qualitative data. We will give you the data in both cases. Each part should consist of data analysis, commentary and interpretation. You should write well-structured report of between 750 and 1000 words for each part plus any diagrams and charts you produce and a list of references.
Part A
The report carries out the data analysis of employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employees data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the…

Methods for Couples and Family Therapy
Words: 2219 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51024945
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family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.

Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.

oyal Flush

The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…

References

American Psychological Association (2015). Managing stress for a healthy family. Retrieved online: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/managing-stress.aspx

Brimhall, A.S. & Gardner, B.C. (n.d.). Altering the abyss.

Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online:  http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/32947_Chapter1.pdf 

Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist 40(3): 266-275.

Methods of Obtaining Data for a Classroom Study
Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64275481
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Primary

References

Baxter, P., Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among

Five Approaches. CA: SAGE.

Merriam, S. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mixed Methods Primary and Secondary
Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31406654
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Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.

eferences

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.

Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.

Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…

References

Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.

Qualitative Quantitative and Mixed Methods Research
Words: 1384 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35700406
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Mixed Methods Research

Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…

Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research
Words: 4846 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 87946505
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Experimental esearch Methods in Business

Experimental esearch Methods

The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.

Introduction

The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…

References

Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.

Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899

IRR vs Mirr Valuation Methods the Process
Words: 2613 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60688853
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I vs. MI Valuation Methods

The process of capital budgeting in corporations involves selecting projects that add value to the organization. Capital budgeting can involve nearly everything like buying a new truck, replacing old machinery, and acquiring some land. In most cases, businesses, especially corporations, are required to conduct these projects in order to improve profitability and enhance the wealth of shareholders. The process of undertaking a capital budgeting decision requires the company to first determine whether the project will be profitable. The determination of the profitability of a project is accomplished through the use of several valuation methods like the Internal ate of eturn, Net Value Present, and Modified Internal ate of eturn. These approaches usually produce different results though the ideal capital budgeting solution should result in the indication of the same decision by the three metrics. Organizations tend to place more emphasis on one valuation method than…

References:

Abraham, A. (n.d.). Modified Internal Rate of Return MIRR. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from http://finance.thinkanddone.com/mirr.html

"Financial Valuation Concepts -- The Internal Rate of Return (IRR)." (n.d.). Financial Modeling

Guide. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from  http://www.financialmodelingguide.com/valuation-concepts/financial-valuation-concepts-the-internal-rate-of-return-irr/ 

Pinkasovitch, A. (2011, July 8). An Introduction to Corporate Valuation Methods. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from  http://www.investopedia.com/articles/financial-theory/11/corporate-project-valuation-methods.asp#axzz1zDx96PU0

Categorized Into Two Either Quantitative or Qualitative
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categorized into two; either quantitative or qualitative research study. These two research methods are both used for data collection. However, even though they serve the same purpose they have their own differences. The paper will look at two different articles one being an example of qualitative research study and the other a quantitative research study.

Qualitative research study

The first article is on perceptions of an older patient on the role of family doctor in health promotion. This article is an example of a qualitative research study. There are various reasons why this article is a typical example of a qualitative research study. First, qualitative research looks at how and why when it comes to the process of making decisions but not just when, what, and where. For this reason only small samples that are more focused are used as opposed to larger samples. In this particular example the sample…

References

Mardnowicz, L., Pawlikowska, T, .Windak, A., & Chlabicz, S. (2013).The perceptions of an older patient on the role of family doctor in health promotion: a qualitative case study

Cork, Bonnie & Callen. (2010).British Journal of Community Nursing. Body mass index knowledge of older adults and motivation to change. Vol 16. 3.

Inductive Manner or a Deductive Manner Quantitative
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10943186
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inductive manner or a deductive manner. Quantitative research is deductive and is conducted according to a hypothesis that has been generated from a review of the literature in the field of study. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is an inductive process that does not use a hypothesis to guide the inquiry. Making a choice between the two research methods is largely determined by the research questions that have been generated by the researcher and by data collection feasibility constraints. Put simply, quantitative research emphasizes theory testing, while qualitative research takes a theory building approach.

Quantitative research methods. A hypothesis is a tentative assumption about a relationship between two or more variables. It is stated as a question that the research is designed to answer. Quantitative research is constructed on the basis of two hypothesis statements in order to use statistical processes to determine relationships among variables. A null hypothesis,…

References

Shuttleworth, M. (2011). Quantitative research design. Experiment-Resources. Retrieved  http://www.experiment-resources.com/quantitative-research-design.html 

Trochum, W.M.K. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Research Methods Knowledge Base, Social Research Methods. Retrieved  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php

Stroke Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 13211034
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It was also found that higher levels of education were associated with a greater sense of well being across the dimensions.

Using the prior quantitative information as a guideline, Clarke proceeds to the qualitative section of her research with the attempt to shed more light on aspects of the stroke experienced wither not researched in the prior study or that were left with ambiguous explanation. While admitting that it would have been ideal to use the participants from the original CSHA, it was not possible. So she found a group of eight stroke survivors who were culled from a group of 250,000 individual patients from the Sunnybrook, and Women's College Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada. Of these eight, five had more sever impairments due to hemiparesis or hemiplegia, the remaining three were higher functioning, this gave the study a broader base to compare. The subjects were also recruited with…

References

Clarke, Philippa. (2003) "Towards a greater understanding of the experience of stroke: Integrating quantitative and qualitative methods" Journal of Aging Studies 17 pp. 171 -- 187

Picky Nursing 518 Quantitative Critique
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4537057
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(1)

7

Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables

What are the extraneous variables in this study? (1)

In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables? (1)

2

Study Instruments/Tools

Identify the type of each measurement strategy (i.e. Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview). (1)

Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by each measurement strategy. (1)

Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. (1)

Report the reliability of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)

Report the validity of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)

5

Data Collection Methods

If appropriate, identify the intervention protocol. (2)

Detail how the data were collected. (2)

In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study? (2)

In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect…

Value of Qualitative vs Quantitative
Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97847056
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esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.

A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…

References

Connor, Ulla. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing.

Cambridge University Press. ERIC Database. Retrieved:  http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401754&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED401754 

Lund, Thorleif. The qualitative -- quantitative distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal

of Educational Research, 49 (2): 115 -- 132

Relevance Materiality Quantitative the Financial Year Accounting Period
Words: 3440 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75799930
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elevance

Materiality

Quantitative

The Financial Year/Accounting Period Concept

Application of Literature eview into practice for IKEA's 3-year (2009-2010-2011) financial reports

What is missing and ok in the reports? The good and bad points of eports based on Literature eview.

103-year comparative ratio analysis and their interpretations

Literature eview of "Strategic Management Accounting Concept" and its application to facilitate the IKEA's ambitions for the future.

The concept of financial reporting is important to each and every organization. The information contained in financial reports is important since it helps in the reduction of financial risks while also acting as a tool for corporate governance (Kothari,2000; Berndt,2007).Financial report must have a series of desirable characteristics. In this paper, we use IKEA's financial reports in evaluating the desirable characteristics of financial reports. Also discussed is the possible effects of using the concepts of strategic management accounting and its methods in the promotion and facilitation…

References

Beuselinck, C. & Manigart, S. (2007). Financial Reporting Quality in Private Equity Backed Companies: The Impact of Ownership Concentration. Small Business Economics, 29, 261-274.

Dabor, EL., Adeyemi, SB (2009).Corporate Governance and the credibility of financial statements in Nigeria. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. Vol 4, (1)

Datamonitor (2012). Ikea Group.  http://www.datamonitor.com/store/Product/ikea_group?productid=6878C795-4BCB-4C85-A319-6F33C508FD80 

Dechow, P.M., Sloan, R.G. & Sweeney, A.P. (1996). Causes and consequences of earnings manipulation: An analysis of firms subject to enforcement actions by the SEC. Contemporary Accounting Research, 13(1), 1-36.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Quantitative
Words: 1934 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94683735
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Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).

Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses

The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:

1. The sample will not be random,

2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,

3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,

4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,

5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,

6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)

major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…

References

Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446

Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237

Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388

Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577

Recreation Proposed Quantitative Research Outdoor
Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 2636582
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Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.

The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.

This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…

References

Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.

Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .

Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.

Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at  http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/ .

Justification for Mixed Methods Research
Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38490605
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oles of Theory in Qualitative esearch & Application

Qualitative esearch

Write a two page Journal entry on how well you are understanding the roles of theory in qualitative research and how this applies to your Final Project and to your Dissertation.

Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness (which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches). When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…

References

Dwyer, S. And Buckle, J. (2009). The space between: On being an insider-outsider in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(1), 54-63. Retreived  https://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/IJQM/article/viewFile/2981/5198 

Glaser, B. G and Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.

Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Research Methods Knowledge Base. {Web.] Independence, KY: Cengage Publishing Retreived  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.htm 

Xu, M.A. And Gail Blair Storr, G.B. (2012). Learning the concept of researcher as instrument in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 17(42), 1-18. Retreived  http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR17/storr.pdf

Experimental Method Otherwise Known as Quantitative Research
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 16390965
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experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. The experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.

Practical considerations usually limit the amount of control we have in structuring experiments, for instance we cannot always hope to randomize; we sometimes (more usually) often have to make do with the sample of participants given. This is when quasi-experimentation is employed.

This particular study is a quasi-experiment

Levels of measurement of the variables

There were two levels / conditions: (1) inquiry-based science curriculum and (ii) an inquiry-based science curriculum and reading strategy instruction

Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results

Three types of relevant psychological instruments were used to measure science…

References

Fang, Y. & Wei, Z. (2010) Improving Middle School Students'Science Literacy Through Reading Infusion The Journal of Educational Research, 103:262 -- 273,

Hough David L. & Schmitt Vicki L. (2011) An ex post facto examination of relationships among the developmental designs professional development model

Middle Grades Research Journal, 6(3), 163 -- 175

Quasi-Experimental Quantitative Pilot Study Into
Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40805814
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As a result, only one-third of the participants actually fulfilled their role during the course of the year (Melin & Lenner, 2009). Typically, parents failed to appear at previously arranged joint meetings with the nurses and their children; likewise, two-thirds of the subjects failed to complete all of the elements of the program as expected. Second, the fact that the subjects grew and developed physiologically during the period of the study complicated reliance on BMI as a measure of outcomes. Third, the prospect of stigmatization associated with participation proved to be a barrier to full participation. In that regard, most of the student subjects reported negative responses on the part of classmates and peers (Melin & Lenner, 2009).

esults, elevance, and Implications

Overall, those subjects who adhered to the entire program did exhibit positive results by reducing their BMI after factoring in their normal physiological growth (Melin & Lenner, 2009).…

Reference

Anna Melin and Ragnhild Arvidsson Lenner. "Prevention of further weight gain in overweight school children, a pilot study." Scandinavian Journal of Caring

Sciences, Vol. 23; (2009): 498 -- 505.

Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis
Words: 1832 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78985915
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.....employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employee's data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the organization where the mean age of all the entire workforce is 39.19 years. However, workers between 18 and 29 years of age consist of 30.4% of the workforce. However, workers between age of 30 and 40 consist of 23.2% of employees within the organization. Employees between 41 and 50 years of age consist of 23.2% of the workforce while employees between 51 and 63 of age consist of 21.7%.

The findings also reveal the proportion of the employees belonging…

Semi-Structured Interviewing Method Developed by
Words: 1802 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5780820
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Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & acon.

In this popular text, the author provides a comprehensive overview of both qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies, including techniques to improve the reliability and validity of social research approaches that involve questionnaire and interviews.

Statz, S.E. (2006). Finding the winning combination: How blending organ procurement systems used internationally can reduce the organ shortage. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(5), 1677-1678.

Author presents a useful background and overview of organ donation practices used in the West with those used in Iran and Pakistan and provides a pragmatic analysis of how paid organ donations may represent a viable alternative to current Western practices if certain ethical issues are taken into account and steps taken to ensure that donors are not coerced by family members or others whose economic motivations and incentives outweigh the…

Bibliography

Brown, J.B., Karley, M.L., Boudville, N., Bullas, N., Garg, A.M. & Muirhead, N. (2008). The experience of living kidney donors. Health and Social Work, 33(2), 93-94.

This recent study of kidney donations in provided the general framework for the proposed study as well as the initial semi-structured interview questions that would be used to identify additional themes, common metaphors and key words in subsequent interviews. The interview guide at Appendix A will be used to probe further in follow-up questioning.

Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

In this popular text, the author provides a comprehensive overview of both qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies, including techniques to improve the reliability and validity of social research approaches that involve questionnaire and interviews.

Experimental Method Design Project
Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46919650
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Experimental Method Design Project

Impact of different types of support systems on postpartum depression in women

he research question under study is the degree to which support structures can affect the severity of the symptoms of postpartum depression. Other questions that may be considered include whether certain support structures are more valuable than others, such as the father of the child vs. family members and friends, or formal, professional supportive structures such as through a hospital or school.

Selection

he first difficulty of studying women with postpartum depression is finding women who can be the object of study. Not all women suffer from postpartum depression, so a generalized study of pregnant women is not sufficient. he most appropriate methodology would be to study women currently identified as suffering from postpartum depression. Subjects could be contacted through physicians and also through soliciting volunteers through advertisements on parenting-themed websites. hey could also…

The women in the study will be subjected to a 'follow up' series of interviews within six months, after the initial series of interviews. This will allow the research to be contextualized in terms of the women's recovery or trajectory of the illness, to assess the impact of support after identification and treatment in the long-term.

Reference

Borgatti, Steve. (n.d). Introduction to grounded research. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at  http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm

Leadership and Research Methods
Words: 1155 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50098989
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Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr.

This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of leadership and follower attributes on follower self-leadership.  The abstract provides a clear summary of the study in terms of its purpose, research methodology, findings, implications and limitations of the study, practical implications, and originality/value of the study.  As shown in the abstract, the purpose of the study was to assess the effect of leadership and follower attributes and follower self-leadership.  The researchers found that the impact of leadership on follower self-leadership was dependent on follower need for autonomy.

As part of conducting the study, these researchers introduce several concept beginning with the idea that, “Not everyone wants to be empowered!”  The statement basically highlights the two major differences in people’s response to self-leadership opportunities i.e. some people…

Mixed Methods Mcneil Linda Mcspadden
Words: 560 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 3527426
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Thus, it is implied, it was in the best interests of the school districts to 'shed' such unwanted students.

Purpose of study

The purpose of the study was to build upon existing research upon the effects of introducing high-stakes testing into a state on the students themselves.

Method for collecting data

271,000 students were studied 1995-2002 in the state of Texas, to examine the effects of the first wave of high-stakes testing upon retention rates. School district performance ratings and student performance were both compared. Qualitative analysis was also collected, including interviews with students who had dropped out of school.

Results, conclusions and recommendations

It was found from these interviews that, to meet the demands of the accountability system, students were often required to repeat ninth grade, to ensure they would be prepared for the exam, even if they had passed their courses. To meet attendance mandates, students with as…

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Differences
Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80375544
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Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…

Mixed Methods Research Simply Taking Half a
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31842567
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mixed methods research simply taking half a quantitative plan and half of a qualitative plan and putting them together?" And an articulation of the challenges to using a mixed methods strategy of inquiry.

To what extent is mixed methods research simply taking half a quantitative plan and half of a qualitative plan and putting them together?

Mixed methods approaches blend aspects of both quantitative and qualitative research designs in their construction. For example, a study of the responses of incarcerated juveniles to a new program designed to reintegrate the adolescents back into society might use quantitative data regarding the recidivism rates of the participating vs. non-participating teens but would also contextualize the data with qualitative interviews with the teens themselves. A mixed methods approach would be justified given the need to determine the efficacy of the program in an objective fashion, particularly to justify its continued funding. However, to better…

It should be noted that some researchers consider these two methods of qualitative and quantitative state of inquiry to be fundamentally polarized: "purists posit that quantitative and qualitative methods stem from different ontologic, epistemologic and axiologic assumptions about the nature of research" (Onwuegbuzie & Leech 2005: 376). Others state that in the social sciences, there is no such thing as pure 'knowledge' distilled from subjective experience and thus the two approaches are fundamentally more similar than they seem. The existence of mixed methods approaches suggests that the two methods are fundamentally different yet both offer equally valid and useful perspectives.

In theory, a mixed methods approach should unite the best of both worlds, when it comes to research -- but it can also contain the weaknesses of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in each separate component of the research. Statistical data derived from the quantitative component of the research must be rigorously analyzed according to valid standards; qualitative data must be gathered in a meaningful fashion from the selected population and the identities and feelings of participants must be handled according to accepted ethical guidelines. There is also a final concern regarding both methodologies, which is the process of triangulation: "it's important when you do a mixed methodology that you bring those three pieces of data together" (Wilson n.d.). The quantitative data may actually contradict the qualitative data accumulated for the research, particularly if the quantitative data was derived from a much larger sampling of participants than the qualitative interviews and case study component. Mixed methods researchers must strive to present their findings in a meaningful fashion -- even if the two components of the research do not necessarily support the same conclusions, this must be highlighted in a manner to illuminate the topic.

Given the criticism that overly data-driven research in the social sciences can ignore the important 'human' and idiosyncratic nature of lived experience, mixed methods inquiries are particularly useful in studies of human beings and their personal experiences. Mixed methods approaches are growing more popular because they can introduce a level of scientific rigor and scope that a small qualitative ethnography or case study might lack, but still allow for subjective input from both researchers and participants. Moreover, given that it is increasingly acknowledged that even quantitative research is subjective to some degree, mixed