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Healthcare relies on quantitative research for evidence-based practice in nursing, for organizational structure, design, and marketing, for public health and value-based purchasing issues, safety, and a practically unlimited array of other uses. Using quantitative research methods generates numerical data: data that can be used to generate statistics, to track patterns reliably using metrics, and to make fairly accurate predictions based on quantitative modeling. The research methods used in quantitative studies are often scrutinized carefully, ensuring consistency, reliability, and validity. Therefore, effective healthcare service delivery and operations depend on quantitative research.
Implications for Knowledge Generation in Healthcare
Both quantitative and qualitative research contributes to knowledge generation in healthcare. The implications of each depend on the ontological and epistemological frameworks used by stakeholders. For example, a positivist framework emphasizes the importance of numerical, quantifiable data for determining the efficacy of treatment interventions or marketing methods used in healthcare. A phenomenological…… [Read More]
Some specific examples of this include the following:
Quantitative methods are used to construct the sample of participants to the drug test or clinical trial
Quantitative methods are used to describe the features of the participants, such as their age, their medical history, the gravity of their conditions, the projections of success of the trial / drug test for the various patient categories and so on Quantitative methods are used to identify the proper dosage of the new drug to be administered and the intervals to which it would be administered in order to maximize its efficiency
Finally, quantitative methods are used to assess the rates of success for the drug test and the medical trial by assessing the patient responses to the administered treatment.
Overall then, quantitative methods do not only support the advancement of modern day medicine, but they are essential to the creation of new drugs and…… [Read More]
The high stakes testing proponents believes that the use of testing will motivate students, their families and teachers to take education more seriously. (Nathan, 2002, p.595) Many opponents on the other hand believe that "teaching to the test" will likely prove disastrous for the schools and curriculums involved and this is especially true if the test is the only gauge of success or if there is any question as to the validity of the test. (Toch, 2005, 26)
Either way, the debate rages on and the situation of quantitative data as the driving force behind school improvement is upon us. This change also requires that administrators and others become statisticians, interpreting and adding to data at every possible turn, in order to seek out as much qualitative information as possible from the quantitative data. This may mean finding and utilizing data systems, secondary to the high stakes yearly (or every…… [Read More]
Mixed-Method Evaluation Techniques
Were I to employ a mixed methods approach to address counterterrorism in Africa, I would integrate both qualitative and quantitative methods in my design. Furthermore, I would do so in a way in which the strengths of one of these methods would certainly augment the other. Specifically, I would design the study so that there was a quantitative analysis of the number of threats that this continent faced regarding terrorism and counterterrorism. Additionally, I would deploy a statistical analysis to provide additional quantitative data. I would buttress these results with a qualitative study that yielded additional knowledge into the nature of those threats. This would involve in-depth details of the means of carrying about these threats, and how they could be counteracted.
As per the guidelines issued in the USAID (2013), I would formulate my study along the lines of beginning with the quantitative analysis. This analysis…… [Read More]
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods in Education esearch
All educational (and other) research falls into two broad methodological categories: qualitative and quantitative (Lincoln & Denzin, 1994; Charles, 1998; Merriam, 1998; Holliday, 2001). "esearch that relies on verbal data is called qualitative research, while research that relies on numerical data is called quantitative research [emphasis original]" (Charles, p. 30). Various opinions exist, depending on one's viewpoint, experience, or preference, about which of the two major approaches to education research, qualitative or quantitative, is better. In my own opinion, neither quantitative research in education nor qualitative research in education is inherently "better" or "worse"; one's research method must spring from the design and content of the project itself. To decide on one research method or another, based on other reasons, seems to me both artificial and possibly harmful to the project. I believe that both of these methods are inherently, equally useful depending…… [Read More]
experimental strategies of inquiry.
Quantitative methods: Surveys vs. experiments
Surveys are primarily used to compile data on a particular phenomenon. Cross-sectional studies attempt to encapsulate a phenomenon that is occurring at a particular point in time while longitudinal studies track a phenomenon for an extended duration of time (Survey methods, 2013, IS School). Regardless, the purpose of surveys is informative. The method is not designed come to a conclusion about why something is taking place and how we should address it. For example, a cross-sectional survey might attempt to discern the patterns of Internet use of low-income students within a particular district. A longitudinal study might track those patterns of Internet use over time. Surveys can be useful to gather data for experiments even though they rarely establish causal relationships themselves.
An experiment, in contrast, poses a hypothesis that can be proven or disproven. The experimenter understands that many different…… [Read More]
excel spreadsheet to show your work - if I can't see how you got a particular answer you will get a zero.
I will allow you to resubmit this assignment. Please understand that this is the last assignment I will allow you to resubmit. Going forward you will have to take the grade you get.
M2A1: CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY
M2A1: CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY
M2A1: CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY
M2A1: CENTRAL TENDENCY AND VARIABILITY
Instructions: Complete the following questions. Enter answers and explanations in this document. Show calculations in the Excel file, using a separate worksheet (tab) for each question.
The table shows socioeconomic characteristics of parolees who report to one parole officer. Calculate the most appropriate measure of central tendency for each of the variables: Age, Sex, Education, and Offense.
No high…… [Read More]
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…… [Read More]
Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.
With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…… [Read More]
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…… [Read More]
Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).
Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…… [Read More]
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]
Fielding, N. (2010). Mixed Methods esearch. International Journal of Social esearch, 13 (2), 127 -- 138.
In the field of criminal justice and security management, there are a wide variety of techniques used to understand the best approaches for interacting with stakeholders. Fielding (2010) determined that the mixed method approach is the most effective. This is because it is examining different aspects of the problem and conducting a separate study to corroborate key ideas. These insights were used to show the underlying trends inside the U.S. And UK criminal justice systems. As Fielding determined, that both countries are wrestling with similar challenges including: rising criminal / gang related violence, juvenile delinquency and gun related crimes. This is illustrating the challenges impacting the two systems. In the future, these ideas can help to identify the root causes of these problems and the best approach for addressing them. The fact that similarities…… [Read More]
(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment to reduce the odds that a single applicant would alter results if assigned the rigid role of ex-con or clean record applicant.
In the second half of the research study the same set of potential employers was surveyed using a vignette method. The vignette described the scenario of applicants who matched the (tester) applicants. The employers who were screened by asking for the person in charge of hiring at the place of business were then asked to respond to the scenario by answering questions regarding if they would or would not hire or consider hiring the applicant in the vignette. Data was collected utilizing the responses to the survey questions, which avoided direct racial comparisons but simply stated the race of…… [Read More]
Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.
IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.
Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.
This…… [Read More]
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…… [Read More]
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.
Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.
There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…… [Read More]
A number of researchers think that qualitative and quantitative methodologies cannot be pooled because the assumptions fundamental to each tradition are so greatly different. "Other researchers think they can be used in combination only by alternating between methods: qualitative research is appropriate to answer certain kinds of questions in certain conditions and quantitative is right for others. And some researchers think that both qualitative and quantitative methods can be used simultaneously to answer a research question" (Barnes et al., 2005).
There are two sets of challenges that enfold the idea of frame and discourse analysis. The first takes place in the areas of data collection, analysis, and final presentation results. The challenge surrounds definitions and conceptualizations. Ideational concepts are intrinsically inaccurate and distinctions between frames, ideologies and discourses are often indistinct. Discourse and frames are connected and sometimes overlap. Cultural discourses can comprise frames. Ideologies frequently do the same things…… [Read More]
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…… [Read More]
In other words, one has the advantage of providing for both an objective and more interpretive and subjective approach to the research.
However, one must also take into account that both methods have certain disadvantages that must be taken cognizance of in choosing to combine these two methodological strategies in any specific research. This means that in effect the advantage of combining these two methods is dependent on the type of research that is intended and required. One would not for instance apply a mixed or combined approach to a study of patient's views and feelings, as this would be more suitable to a qualitative methodology. In other words, the central disadvantage in using a combined method lies in the possibly that such as approach would not be appropriate to the type of research being conducted. In essence this means that a combined methodology is not always the best research…… [Read More]
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]
social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).
In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…… [Read More]
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…… [Read More]
Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again
Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.
Qualitative to Quantitative
A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the research will eventually lead to the development of both an understanding and a means through which an individual can improve his or her business sense. Though some papers have been published on this topic, there has not been enough research in this respect.
Some preliminary questions will address;.
Is the brain programmed for business success in all individuals?
If one can remember most effectively images and associations, why do so many people use standard outlining techniques?
How can one use one's whole brain to make dreams come true?
How can on improve the brain in order to maximize one's abilities?
What are the ways to increase the power of our memory, focus and creativity?
With regards to research methods, mostly qualitative research methods will be employed during the research, such as the analysis of an interview, for instance, but the addition of quantitative methods will also be employed,…… [Read More]
However, none was found that centered on small hotels in China. This research add to the existing body of research by providing an assessment of the balanced scorecard method in this special business setting. The information obtained by this study will help to make small hotels in China more competitive and able to compete well into the future.
This research will play an important role in the development of the small hotel business in China in several important ways. It will help them to see what areas of their business need improvement, it will help them to pinpoint specific problems within their organization. It will help to bring weakness from obscurity into the forefront where solutions can be found. It will also show them their strengths and the area that could be developed for even greater prosperity in the future. This research will help small hotels to develop long-term vision…… [Read More]
Phenomenological psychology focuses on the subjective experiences of individuals. The “founder” of phenomenology, Edmund Husserl presented a cohesive methodology and philosophical framework that laid the foundation for phenomenological psychology. One of the greatest challenges of phenomenological psychology is differentiating between the unique subjective experiences and perceptions of individuals and the need to discern an objective, shared reality. Phenomenological psychology is almost easier to define by what it is not: it is not about using the scientific method to study human behavior, and it is not about studying personality or psychoses. Rather, phenomenological psychology is about understanding the nature of reality itself, through an evaluation of both individual and collective human psychological experience. Husserl set forth principles for ontology in psychology as well as epistemology, which can be especially useful when studying the divergent experiences of those with psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, whose sense of reality is radically different…… [Read More]
This course fulfills its promise to help students understand research methods in education and educational administration specifically. Concepts of research have been covered clearly, to allow students better insight into how they might construct their own research from the proposal stage through the analysis and interpretation of results. Through encounters with original research like the Porter, Polikoff, Goldring, et al. (2010) study, students in this course also become more familiar with how researchers develop and implement assessments to evaluate the efficacy of different school leadership models.
Moreover, this course empowers students to adopt a professional mindset to evaluate the research of others, consider gaps in the literature, and contribute to the growing body of evidence on educational administration. The course has also covered theoretical orientations in educational research, encouraging students to consider their own points of view and the directions their research and their careers will take them. Ultimately, students…… [Read More]
Validity, in essence, has got to do with the extent to which a given research study measures the accuracy of a specific concept – effectively meaning that a study can be said to have passed the validity test if it accurately mirrors that which the researchers set about to investigate. In quantitative research, as Polit and Beck (2012) point out, “researchers strive to design studies that are strong with respect to all four types of study validity” (p. 303). As the authors further point out, while an attempt to enhance one kind of validity may benefit another form of validity, efforts to ensure one kind of validity sometimes end up interfering with the achievement of other validity types. The four kinds of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and…… [Read More]
protection human participants, data collection, data analysis, problem statement, interpretation findings. Each study analysis 750-1,000 words submitted document.
CITICAL APPAISAL: QUANTITATIVE STUDY
Protection of Human Participants
• Identify the benefits and risks of participation addressed by the authors. Were there benefits or risks the authors do not identify?
The subjects of the quantitative study were children who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, "an intensive therapy used to improve survivorship and cure various oncologic diseases. However, this therapy is associated with high mortality rates and numerous negative side-effects" (Chamorro-Vina 2012: 1). The participants had already elected to go through the procedure before the study began.
• Was informed consent obtained from the subjects or participants?
Consent was obtained from the legal guardians; the children were not cognitively impaired and the children had to give their verbal agreement to participate (Chamorro-Vina 2012: 4).
• Did it seem that the subjects participated…… [Read More]
infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.
DO NOT LEAVE ANY SECTION BLANK.
Do not provide a "Yes" or "no" answer without an EXPLANATION. YOU MUST JUSTIFY ALL YOUR RESPONSES
ALL responses must be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. Do NOT use quotes.
Full and Complete Reference for the Article: Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from http://searchproquest.com/docview/1325739253?accountid-35812
You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.
What is the problem the study was conducted to address? (1)
Response: The problem this study was conducted to address was self-advocacy in clinical research as well as practice. Despite self-advocacy being cited as a trait desirable among…… [Read More]
mixed research approach would work best. It could be argued that such an approach is usually the best methodology to use, because the mixed research approach allows for speculation and analyzing using more than just the numbers. One recent study determined that the "the combining or mixing of qualitative and quantitative methodologies is not a new or unique phenomenon" (Frels, Onwuegbuzie, 2012, p. 184). The same study found that researchers "routinely collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data as a necessary part of their profession" (p. 184).
The mixed research methodology is often used in other areas of study in a most effective manner. For example, a recent study states "addition to an adequate sample size for statistical analysis of outcomes, the validation of prognostic factors using a mixed methods approach also obviously requires a longitudinal design to reach the relevant endpoints, such as completion of treatment, hospital discharge, or…… [Read More]
Quality Management Tech.
The nature of business is that of uncertainty. In many instances businesses must forecast or project many unknown factors affecting their underlying business operations. The impact of globalization has created an even more uncertain period in which business must now operate in. Aspects that pertain to one geographic region, due primarily to globalization, now create systemic effects in other regions. As such, management, through the use of data must be able to properly ascertain or predict these occurrences to better insulate their businesses. As seen by the recent financial crisis in 2008, quantitative techniques are vitally important in helping to prevent unwarranted bankruptcy or financial lose. In particular, quantitative quality management techniques can help diminish or abate many of the negative influences embedded within the business environment. Techniques such as linear programming, control charts, and fishbone diagrams all help management make better informed decisions (Dmitris, 2001). These…… [Read More]
High crime rates are a societal problem that has changed the manner in which society functions. ecognizing the adverse effects that crime has on communities the state of California has implemented a three strikes law designed to deter crime particularly as it pertains to repeat offenders. The propose research will examine the effectiveness of California's three strike law as it pertains to deterring recidivism. Statistical data concerning crime rates and rates of recidivism following the enactment of the law will be analyzed and compared to the same statistic prior to the passage of the law. The results will examine the extent to which the deterrence effect has been effective as it pertains to the three strikes law.
Crime is a major social problem throughout the country. More specifically criminals who are repeat offenders make up a substantial number of the individuals that commit crime. With this understood…… [Read More]
This essayconsists of two parts. Part A is an analysis of quantitative data and Part B is an analysis of qualitative data. We will give you the data in both cases. Each part should consist of data analysis, commentary and interpretation. You should write well-structured report of between 750 and 1000 words for each part plus any diagrams and charts you produce and a list of references.
The report carries out the data analysis of employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employees data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the…… [Read More]
family counseling requires a broad and diverse set of tools and techniques. Those tools and techniques should be adaptable to suit the needs of each family, individuals within that family, and also the contextual or environmental variables that impact families. Using a wide range of exercises and interventions, therapists can provide effective and evidence-based practice, as well as offer ongoing assessments and maintenance.
Techniques and exercises that may be particularly useful for families and couples include the oyal Flush exercise for families with young children, the family-based school interventions for children with behavioral or academic performance problems, and the "altering the abyss" exercise for couples. Each of these exercises is rooted in fundamental family practice theory, and each can also yield measurable outcomes that improve the efficacy of the treatment.
The "royal flush" technique is named as such because it uses picture cards, similar to those used in…… [Read More]
Primary… [Read More]
Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.
Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.
Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.
Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.
Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…… [Read More]
Mixed Methods Research
Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…… [Read More]
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]
I vs. MI Valuation Methods
The process of capital budgeting in corporations involves selecting projects that add value to the organization. Capital budgeting can involve nearly everything like buying a new truck, replacing old machinery, and acquiring some land. In most cases, businesses, especially corporations, are required to conduct these projects in order to improve profitability and enhance the wealth of shareholders. The process of undertaking a capital budgeting decision requires the company to first determine whether the project will be profitable. The determination of the profitability of a project is accomplished through the use of several valuation methods like the Internal ate of eturn, Net Value Present, and Modified Internal ate of eturn. These approaches usually produce different results though the ideal capital budgeting solution should result in the indication of the same decision by the three metrics. Organizations tend to place more emphasis on one valuation method than…… [Read More]
led by Venkatesan Prem conducted a research on nurses' knowledge regarding palliative care. This research was influenced by the fact that inadequate knowledge of a palliative care among these professionals is well-documented across various studies on palliative care. The lack of sufficient knowledge by nurses and other health care professionals regarding this health issue is considered as one of the major hindrances in providing high-quality palliative care services. This cross-sectional quantitative research provides important information that may be used in nursing practice through effective measures of enhancing the knowledge of these professionals in providing palliative care.
Summary of the Study:
One of the major obstacles to the provision of high-quality and effective palliative care in the recent past is inadequate knowledge by nurses and other health care practitioners. There are various reasons attributed to the lack of adequate knowledge on the issue such as deficiencies in nursing education, lack of…… [Read More]
categorized into two; either quantitative or qualitative research study. These two research methods are both used for data collection. However, even though they serve the same purpose they have their own differences. The paper will look at two different articles one being an example of qualitative research study and the other a quantitative research study.
Qualitative research study
The first article is on perceptions of an older patient on the role of family doctor in health promotion. This article is an example of a qualitative research study. There are various reasons why this article is a typical example of a qualitative research study. First, qualitative research looks at how and why when it comes to the process of making decisions but not just when, what, and where. For this reason only small samples that are more focused are used as opposed to larger samples. In this particular example the sample…… [Read More]
inductive manner or a deductive manner. Quantitative research is deductive and is conducted according to a hypothesis that has been generated from a review of the literature in the field of study. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is an inductive process that does not use a hypothesis to guide the inquiry. Making a choice between the two research methods is largely determined by the research questions that have been generated by the researcher and by data collection feasibility constraints. Put simply, quantitative research emphasizes theory testing, while qualitative research takes a theory building approach.
Quantitative research methods. A hypothesis is a tentative assumption about a relationship between two or more variables. It is stated as a question that the research is designed to answer. Quantitative research is constructed on the basis of two hypothesis statements in order to use statistical processes to determine relationships among variables. A null hypothesis,…… [Read More]
It was also found that higher levels of education were associated with a greater sense of well being across the dimensions.
Using the prior quantitative information as a guideline, Clarke proceeds to the qualitative section of her research with the attempt to shed more light on aspects of the stroke experienced wither not researched in the prior study or that were left with ambiguous explanation. While admitting that it would have been ideal to use the participants from the original CSHA, it was not possible. So she found a group of eight stroke survivors who were culled from a group of 250,000 individual patients from the Sunnybrook, and Women's College Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada. Of these eight, five had more sever impairments due to hemiparesis or hemiplegia, the remaining three were higher functioning, this gave the study a broader base to compare. The subjects were also recruited with…… [Read More]
Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables
What are the extraneous variables in this study? (1)
In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables? (1)
Identify the type of each measurement strategy (i.e. Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview). (1)
Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by each measurement strategy. (1)
Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. (1)
Report the reliability of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)
Report the validity of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)
Data Collection Methods
If appropriate, identify the intervention protocol. (2)
Detail how the data were collected. (2)
In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study? (2)
In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect…… [Read More]
esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.
A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…… [Read More]
The Financial Year/Accounting Period Concept
Application of Literature eview into practice for IKEA's 3-year (2009-2010-2011) financial reports
What is missing and ok in the reports? The good and bad points of eports based on Literature eview.
103-year comparative ratio analysis and their interpretations
Literature eview of "Strategic Management Accounting Concept" and its application to facilitate the IKEA's ambitions for the future.
The concept of financial reporting is important to each and every organization. The information contained in financial reports is important since it helps in the reduction of financial risks while also acting as a tool for corporate governance (Kothari,2000; Berndt,2007).Financial report must have a series of desirable characteristics. In this paper, we use IKEA's financial reports in evaluating the desirable characteristics of financial reports. Also discussed is the possible effects of using the concepts of strategic management accounting and its methods in the promotion and facilitation…… [Read More]
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…… [Read More]
Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.
The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.
This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…… [Read More]
oles of Theory in Qualitative esearch & Application
Write a two page Journal entry on how well you are understanding the roles of theory in qualitative research and how this applies to your Final Project and to your Dissertation.
Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness (which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches). When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…… [Read More]
experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. The experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.
Practical considerations usually limit the amount of control we have in structuring experiments, for instance we cannot always hope to randomize; we sometimes (more usually) often have to make do with the sample of participants given. This is when quasi-experimentation is employed.
This particular study is a quasi-experiment
Levels of measurement of the variables
There were two levels / conditions: (1) inquiry-based science curriculum and (ii) an inquiry-based science curriculum and reading strategy instruction
Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results
Three types of relevant psychological instruments were used to measure science…… [Read More]
As a result, only one-third of the participants actually fulfilled their role during the course of the year (Melin & Lenner, 2009). Typically, parents failed to appear at previously arranged joint meetings with the nurses and their children; likewise, two-thirds of the subjects failed to complete all of the elements of the program as expected. Second, the fact that the subjects grew and developed physiologically during the period of the study complicated reliance on BMI as a measure of outcomes. Third, the prospect of stigmatization associated with participation proved to be a barrier to full participation. In that regard, most of the student subjects reported negative responses on the part of classmates and peers (Melin & Lenner, 2009).
esults, elevance, and Implications
Overall, those subjects who adhered to the entire program did exhibit positive results by reducing their BMI after factoring in their normal physiological growth (Melin & Lenner, 2009).…… [Read More]
.....employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employee's data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the organization where the mean age of all the entire workforce is 39.19 years. However, workers between 18 and 29 years of age consist of 30.4% of the workforce. However, workers between age of 30 and 40 consist of 23.2% of employees within the organization. Employees between 41 and 50 years of age consist of 23.2% of the workforce while employees between 51 and 63 of age consist of 21.7%.
The findings also reveal the proportion of the employees belonging…… [Read More]
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & acon.
In this popular text, the author provides a comprehensive overview of both qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies, including techniques to improve the reliability and validity of social research approaches that involve questionnaire and interviews.
Statz, S.E. (2006). Finding the winning combination: How blending organ procurement systems used internationally can reduce the organ shortage. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(5), 1677-1678.
Author presents a useful background and overview of organ donation practices used in the West with those used in Iran and Pakistan and provides a pragmatic analysis of how paid organ donations may represent a viable alternative to current Western practices if certain ethical issues are taken into account and steps taken to ensure that donors are not coerced by family members or others whose economic motivations and incentives outweigh the…… [Read More]
Experimental Method Design Project
Impact of different types of support systems on postpartum depression in women
he research question under study is the degree to which support structures can affect the severity of the symptoms of postpartum depression. Other questions that may be considered include whether certain support structures are more valuable than others, such as the father of the child vs. family members and friends, or formal, professional supportive structures such as through a hospital or school.
he first difficulty of studying women with postpartum depression is finding women who can be the object of study. Not all women suffer from postpartum depression, so a generalized study of pregnant women is not sufficient. he most appropriate methodology would be to study women currently identified as suffering from postpartum depression. Subjects could be contacted through physicians and also through soliciting volunteers through advertisements on parenting-themed websites. hey could also…… [Read More]
Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr.
This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of leadership and follower attributes on follower self-leadership. The abstract provides a clear summary of the study in terms of its purpose, research methodology, findings, implications and limitations of the study, practical implications, and originality/value of the study. As shown in the abstract, the purpose of the study was to assess the effect of leadership and follower attributes and follower self-leadership. The researchers found that the impact of leadership on follower self-leadership was dependent on follower need for autonomy.
As part of conducting the study, these researchers introduce several concept beginning with the idea that, “Not everyone wants to be empowered!” The statement basically highlights the two major differences in people’s response to self-leadership opportunities i.e. some people…… [Read More]
Thus, it is implied, it was in the best interests of the school districts to 'shed' such unwanted students.
Purpose of study
The purpose of the study was to build upon existing research upon the effects of introducing high-stakes testing into a state on the students themselves.
Method for collecting data
271,000 students were studied 1995-2002 in the state of Texas, to examine the effects of the first wave of high-stakes testing upon retention rates. School district performance ratings and student performance were both compared. Qualitative analysis was also collected, including interviews with students who had dropped out of school.
Results, conclusions and recommendations
It was found from these interviews that, to meet the demands of the accountability system, students were often required to repeat ninth grade, to ensure they would be prepared for the exam, even if they had passed their courses. To meet attendance mandates, students with as…… [Read More]
Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…… [Read More]