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limitations qualitative quantitative research method ways qualitative quantitative data analysed. Discuss a case study a company a specific sector choice.
The success of the process of conducting research is largely based on the methods used to gather the information and the interpretation of resources available. In order to achieve a high degree of accuracy as well as to guarantee the substantial nature of the research process, the use of special research methods such as the quantitative and qualitative analysis is vital. However, these two methods have both advantages and limitations and, depending on the way in which these methods are used, they can provide various results.
The present paper considers the two methods of analysis as applied to a case study. In the first part, it discusses the two methods from a theoretical point-of-view. Quantitative and qualitative research are rather different in the sense that they provide different perspectives of…
CIA World FActobook. (2012) Somalia. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html
Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (1992) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1992. http://0-www.cdc.gov.mill1.sjlibrary.org/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00018099.htm
Distance-based learning in global health for Africa. (n.d.) Somalia. Demography. http://tall.conted.ox.ac.uk/globalhealthprogramme/report/somalia.pdf
On the other hand, qualitative research is process oriented and usually seeks the methods by which individuals draw certain conclusions about the information under scrutiny. It is more aligned with studies on social systems that have numerous variables and properties. There would be a search for "chain" sequences that lead to events.
Criterion five, Sampling, as previously stated has very different emphasis in either of these methods. In quantitative analysis, the bigger the better is the overall emphasis on sampling size. The more data and the larger the sample, the less the variance and the more accurate the results. This is often the opposite in qualitative research. In this venue the research often has to gather a great deal of information from individual subjects. The time involved for data collection and analysis is much greater and requires more detailed analysis of meaning. Which leads to criterion six, Analysis. Analysis is…
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
While quantitative research uses the scientific method to prove or disprove a hypothesis in a numerical fashion, qualitative research is narrative in scope and studies phenomena from a subjective, open-ended perspective. Quantitative research is deductive and proceeds from the general to the specific and usually involves studying a large population to create a general principle that can be applied to individual cases. Qualitative research studies specific cases and (sometimes) creates a general principle from those cases. Other times qualitative may be so specific and so focused upon unique cases that the research may merely present the data rather than creating a theory.
Examples of qualitative research methodologies include case studies, ethnographies, and phenomenology. Methods of qualitative researchers may include observing subjects; interviewing subjects and then coding their responses; or even participant-observer engagement with the researcher actively involving him or herself in the process of study. Qualitative…
Vine, R. (2009). Research paradigms: positivism, interpretivism, critical approach and poststructuralism. Retrieved from:
The time-constant covariates influence the latent variable while the time-varying predictor variables influence the independent variable. In estimation of the model the start was with a 'one-class' model with progressive adding of classes and comparison of models through use of the "Bayesian Information criterion (BIC) which compared the "expected cell frequency counts with actual cell frequency counts found in the sample data." (Ibid) Stated is that improvements in model fit "were indicated by a decreasing BIC with each successive model as classes were added and completion of the model estimation was at the point the BIC showed a rise. A descriptive analysis was conducted as well which states that "overall there was a trend toward poorer levels of SRH with each successive data collection wave." (Ibid) Stated is that the unbalanced data was handled by Latent GOLD which estimated models through use of information that was available for "each of…
Strengths in this study are that use of existing data saves time, costs and resources and the ability to "study larger, more representative samples and include more variables; and opportunities to examine data from a different theoretical perspective" as well as making provisions of support for primary studies in the future. (Moriarity, et al. 1999 as cited by Finnegan, Marion & Cox, 2004) Limitations of the study are stated to be are the measurement error and endogeneity. There was limited scope in measuring some of the variables of the study due to the "availability of appropriate indicators" (Ibid) Furthermore endogeneity is stated confound relationships between the time-varying predictor variables and SRH.
Nursing: Review of Quantitative Research
Quantitative esearch Critique
Vogt, Uhiyarik, & Schroeder (2007) conducted a study that compared Aquacel dressing vs. standard wound care for primary closed vascular surgical wounds. The results of the study found that there was no difference in length of stay in the hospital, complications, patient comfort, or healing time between the two wound care methods. The only difference was that the Aquacel dressing required fewer changes than conventional dressings, but that it increased the cost of care significantly. The following will analyze the methodology of the study and its conclusions in terms of clinical validity.
The design of the study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing standard dressing to Aquacel dressing for vascular surgical wounds. The study design directly reflected the intended purpose of the research, the research questions, the theoretical frame with work, previous literature, and the proposed hypothesis. All patients that participated in the study underwent elective…
Vogt, K., Uhlyarik, M, & Scroeder, T. (2007). Moist wound healing compared with standard care treatment of primary closed vascular surgical wounds: A prospective randomized controlled study. Wound Rep Reg 15: 624 -- 627
measurements that can be ascertained objectively. They employ statistical and mathematical data analysis; gathered through such techniques as polls, questionnaires, surveys or through manipulation of already existing data via computational techniques. Quantitative research specializes on collecting numerical data and applying it across groups in general terms, or explaining a specific phenomenon (University of South California, 2016).
It can be inferred from the use of the term qualitative that this is a research method that centrally focuses on the quality of entities, including meanings and processes that are not examined or measured through experiments. esearchers employing qualitative methods emphasize the social structure and nature of reality. They examine the close relationship between the researcher and what they are studying. The situational differentials that affect research and inquiry are also examined. They place a lot of significance on value-filled inquiry aspect (University of South California, 2016).
Examples of Quantitative and…
Brewster, W. Z., & Rusche, N. S. (2012). Quantitative Evidence of the Continuing Significance of Race: Tableside Racism in Full-Service Restaurants. Journal of Black Studies, Vol 43, No. 4, 359 -- 384. Retrieved from Sage Journals: http://jbs.sagepub.com/content/43/4/359.full.pdf+html
Meer, N., & Nayak, A. (2015). Race Ends Where? Race, Racism and Contemporary Sociology. Sociology, Vol 49, No. 6, NP3 -- NP20. Retrieved from Sage Journals: http://soc.sagepub.com/content/49/6/NP3.full.pdf+html
University of South California. (2016, October 28). Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. Retrieved October 28, 2016, from University of South California: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/quantitative/qualitative
scientific studies involve the use of quantitative research designs whose experiments are sometimes described as true science. In this case, the research designs employ the use of conventional mathematical and statistical procedures for measurement of conclusive results. Experimental designs used in quantitative research methods involves examining various aspects that are important in a study including F-ratio, analysis of variance, significant effects, and determining probabilistic equivalence. Generally, experimental designs in quantitative research utilize a standard format in order to generate a hypothesis that can be proved or rejected.
What is an F-ratio?
An F-ratio is a beneficial test statistic that is most commonly associated with ANOVA analysis. In this case, the F-ratio is utilized to test the hypothesis whose effects are regarded as real i.e. they are significantly different from each another. In an ANOVA analysis, the sampling distribution of the F-ratio must be discussed prior to presentation of the details…
"Analysis of Variance." (n.d.). Chapter 8. Retrieved November 30, 2015, from http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/ect/app/vito.Archived071807/media/CHAP8.ppt
Gabrenya, W.K. (2003). Analysis of Variance: General Concepts. Retrieved from Florida Institute of Technology website: http://my.fit.edu/~gabrenya/IntroMethods/eBook/anova.pdf
William, R. (n.d.). Multiple/Post Hoc Group Comparisons in ANOVA. Retrieved from University of Notre Dame website: https://www3.nd.edu/~rwilliam/stats1/x53.pdf
"Variance and the Design of Experiments." (2007). Psychology. Retrieved from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill website: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007spring/psyc/530/001/variance.html
Field study research, including marketing focus groups and one-on-one questionnaires, beta-testing of a product by real consumers, and other qualitative endeavors, shows the real, lived experience of individuals, and how they will relate to the product and make a place for it in their lives. Marketing is about process -- the process of selling a product, not an end product, given that marketing must be responsive the environment and to the whims and psychology of consumers. The inductive nature of qualitative research allows for that type of flexibility. Reality is not objective: reality is socially constructed, subjective, and dependent upon individual whims. Understanding subconscious, subjective whims rather than attempting to replicate what consumers have used in the past enable marketing revolutions occur. Quantitative data may reflect reality, but qualitative data, by studying human life, can provide better clues about what people secretly desire, and what they will aspire to in…
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. Designing qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1980.
Excerpt available October 17, 2009 at http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/research/Qualitative/qualquan.htm
Mead, Margaret. Coming of Age in Samoa. New York: Harper Perennial, 1971.
Neill, James. (2006, July 5). Qualitative Analysis of Professional Literature. Class 6: Qualitative
combining qualitative and quantitative research methods can be beneficial in nursing and health science. Notably, the usefulness of mixed research methods in nursing is due to the complexity of the phenomena studied in nursing and health science. One of the major aspects of both qualitative and quantitative research methods is that they are usually associated with inductive and deductive approaches respectively (Casebeer & Verhoef, 2002). esearchers who use both methods tend to operate with a different series of assumptions regarding the world and learning methods about it.
Since qualitative and quantitative methods have varying approaches when conducting a nursing study, none of them is effective when used alone. However, the use of mixed research methods has several advantages and disadvantages that determine their strengths and weaknesses in nursing study. Combined methods of research has several advantages including offering narrative to add meaning to numbers and also use numbers to provide…
Ayello, E.A. & Baranoski, S. (2005, May). Examining the Problem of Pressure Ulcers. Advances in Skin & Wound Care: The Journal for Prevention and Healing, 18(4), 192-194.
Casebeer, A.L. & Verhoef, M.J. (2002, October 29). Combining Qualitative and Quantitative
Research Methods: Considering the Possibilities for Enhancing the Study of Chronic Diseases. Chronic Diseases in Canada, 18(3). Retrieved from http://web.pdx.edu/~stipakb/download/PA555/Qual-Quan3.htm
Connelly, L.M. (2009, February). Mixed Methods Studies. MEDSURG Nursing, 18(1), 31-32.
nursing research: Discussion questions
uantitative research includes descriptive, correlative, quasi-experimentational, and experimentational research (Burns 2010: 21). Descriptive research describes a phenomenon, purely and simply. Correlative research attempts to determine if there is a correlation between two types of phenomenon (such as a correlation between participation in athletic sports and overweight adolescents' decrease in BMI). uasi-experimental research may have a 'control group' in the real world (such as overweight adolescents who do not participate in sports) while experimental research actively isolates extraneous variables that could affect the result in a controlled setting. Problem-solving involves setting goals and identifying solutions while the nursing process involves planning for those interventions. The research process uses clinical studies and literature reviews to identify and prescribe specific phenomenon in a more general fashion (Burns 2010: 41)
2. Phenomenology involves a description of a particular phenomenon. Grounded theory is theory which has its roots in a specific…
Q3. Scientific misconduct can include falsification, in which the authors of the data deliberately distort or inaccurately report the results, usually for self-interested purposes (such as to get a particular drug approved by overstating its benefits). The construction of the experiment may be manipulated to produce a specific result, such as skewing the membership of the experimental group. Fabricating involves making up data to support a specific conclusion to bolster one's reputation or achieve a specific financial end. With plagiarism, the researchers use the data of others without giving credit, and thus profit in terms of their reputation or financially from the benefits of publishing the experiment's results. The human rights of subjects must always be protected in research -- and that includes not publishing data that could result in harm to individuals, who are treated in a particular manner, based upon inaccurate data.
Q4. A simple hypothesis states the relationship between two variables. A complex hypothesis states the relationship between three or more variables. A nondirectional hypothesis states that a relationship exists between two variables. A directional hypothesis predicts the relationship between the two variables (Burns 2010: 172-173). An associative hypothesis describes phenomenon that occur together, while causal hypothesis describes one phenomenon that causes another (Burns 2010: 168). A null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between two variables (and usually the researcher wants to disprove the null hypothesis). The research hypothesis states that there is a relationship between the two variables, which the researcher is usually trying to prove.
Q5. Quantitative research attempts to accumulate numerical data about a specific phenomenon. A quantitative literature review attempts to accumulate data from a vast array of different quantitative studies, to either describe or find out specific tendencies in the types of hypotheses tested regarding the phenomenon. Of course, it is rare that all studies will reach the same conclusion, so the researchers will evaluate the quality of the studies (for example, if a study produces an anomalous result, the author of the review will likely try to determine why this is the case, such as if there was too small a sampling size). The literature review may reach a conclusion about the phenomenon, based upon statistically analyzing the data. A qualitative research study merely assesses the variety of informational studies on a particular phenomenon to paint a clearer picture of the research that has been conducted to date on the subject.
"And usually, those extra earnings are more than pocket change" (U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). A study conducted by the United States Department of Labor in 2005 revealed that the differences in weekly earnings registered by the individuals without a high school diploma and individuals possessing doctoral studies can total up to $1,012. Also, the differences are easily noticeable between consecutive levels. For instance, an individual who has finished high school but did not go to college will make about $583 per week, whereas the individual who has dropped out of college will only make $409 per week. The actual statistics are revealed in the chart below:
Source: Education and Income: More Learning is Key to Higher Earnings, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
As the trend becomes more and more obvious, the young population decides in favour of education, in the detriment of dropping out of school…
Hoyt, S., Education and Wealth, Economy, http://www.economy.comlast accessed on June 10, 2008
Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, 2005, http://pubdb3.census.gov/macro/032005/hhinc/new02_001.html. Ast accessed on June 10, 2008
Economic Statistics Briefing Room - Income, Official Website of the White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/fsbr/income.html , last accessed on June 10, 2008
Education and Income: More Learning is Key to Higher Earnings, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006, Retrieved at http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2006/fall/oochart.pdfon June 10, 2008
Developing a Quantitative esearch Plan
Human trafficking: A grounded theory approach
According to the ICE, human trafficking is one of the darkest and most heinous crimes the agency investigates. Human beings are 'smuggled' into the country and forced to operate under conditions similar to that of modern-day slavery. The sex industry, domestic workers, and so-called 'sweatshops' are all common sites of human trafficking. "Trafficking in persons is defined as: sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery" (Human trafficking, 2013, ICE).
Most victims of trafficking are young and…
Calman, L. What is grounded theory? Manchester University. Retrieved from:
Human trafficking. (2013). DOJ. Retrieved from:
Measurements and Instruments for a Quantitative esearch Plan
The topic for this paper is: To what extent do African-American men who live in an urban setting and exhibit aggressive behavior due to early development factors associated with depression receive a diagnosis at local medical facilities of conduct disorder as opposed to depression? In this paper, we will discuss the method most appropriate to cover this topic and provide support for its choice.
The levels of measurement that will be important for your study and why
Scientific way of measuring is important to quantitative study. Simply because quantitative information is numeric, the gathering as well as evaluation of information coming from representative samples is much more generally utilized. In the basic form, the more reflective the sampling is, the more liable it is that the quantitative evaluation will precisely as well as accurately mirror an image of the influence of the…
ACAPS. (2012). Qualitative and Quantitative Research Techniques for Humanitarian Needs Assessment -- An Introductory Brief. ACAPS, Better Assessments -- Better Aid
Bouma, G.D. (2004). The research process. 5th ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Bryman, A. (2004) Social Research Methods (2nd edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Center for Global Development. (2006) 'When will we ever learn? Improving lives through impact evaluation.' Report of the Evaluation Gap Working Group. Washington, D.C.
Buprenorphine Induction in Primary Care
Abstract of the study provides a clear overview of the study. It introduces the uses of the buprenorphine in the primary care settings and the study grouped in the case. It provides the methodology used to study and analyze the topic. For example, it uses different methods of collecting data such as assessment, follow-ups, urine toxicology testing, and measurement of the primary outcomes associated with opioid withdrawal. The study fails to include the population size in the methodology section. It does not provide the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the study relating to the delimitations of the study. Besides, the study does not provide the age limit of the participants in the abstract section. This information is essential as it provides objective information about the study. The study provides concise information on the study findings. This is useful in predicting the results of the…
Lee, J.D., Grossman, E., DiRocco, D., & Gourevitch, M.N. (2009). Home
Buprenorphine/Naloxone Induction in Primary Care. Journal of General Internal
Medicine, 24(2), 226 -- 232
Like qualitative eseaches, quantitative eseaches also have a numbe of appoaches available to them today. The selection of the eseach appoach will depend on what type of infomation is being sought, what type of infomation is available, and the goals of the eseache. One eseach methodology that is gaining inceasing populaity is conjoint analysis, a quantitative methodology that is discussed futhe below, followed by a summay of the eseach and impotant findings in the conclusion.
Desciption of Conjoint Analysis and Examples of Business Applications
Conjoint analysis is a quantitative methodology that measues the peceived values of vaious possible poduct designs (Calantone & Di Benedetto, 1990). Respondents paticipating in conjoint analyses view seveal vaiations in poduct concepts and then assign anks with espect to thei individual pefeences (Calantone & Di Benedetto, 1990). The analysis of these esponses can be used to identify the espective utility that is associated with…
references: Theory and practice of the contingent valuation method in the U.S., EU, and developing countries. New York:
Bowling, A. & Ebrahim, S. (2005). Handbook of health research methods: Investigation, measurement and analysis. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.
Calantone, R.J. & Benedetto, C.A. (1990). Successful industrial product innovation: An integrative literature review. New York: Greenwood Press.
Mora, M. (2011). Conjoint analysis and realism in price research. Relevant Insights. Retrieved from http://relevantinsights.com/conjoint-analysis .
Orme, B. (2009). Which conjoint analysis method should I use? Sawtooth Software Research
Validity, in essence, has got to do with the extent to which a given research study measures the accuracy of a specific concept – effectively meaning that a study can be said to have passed the validity test if it accurately mirrors that which the researchers set about to investigate. In quantitative research, as Polit and Beck (2012) point out, “researchers strive to design studies that are strong with respect to all four types of study validity” (p. 303). As the authors further point out, while an attempt to enhance one kind of validity may benefit another form of validity, efforts to ensure one kind of validity sometimes end up interfering with the achievement of other validity types. The four kinds of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and…
infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.
DO NOT LEAVE ANY SECTION BLANK.
Do not provide a "Yes" or "no" answer without an EXPLANATION. YOU MUST JUSTIFY ALL YOUR RESPONSES
ALL responses must be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. Do NOT use quotes.
Full and Complete Reference for the Article: Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from http://searchproquest.com/docview/1325739253?accountid-35812
You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.
What is the problem the study was conducted to address? (1)
Response: The problem this study was conducted to address was self-advocacy in clinical research as well as practice. Despite self-advocacy being cited as a trait desirable among…
Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.
The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.
This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…
Brown, P.; Sutterby, J.A. & Thornton, C.D. (2002). Dramatic play in outdoor play environments. Parent Teacher Organization Today.
Burberry, J. & Learoyd, B. (2005). Leeds Childhood Obesity Prevention and Weight Management Strategy. Leeds Children & Young People. Online at .
Montessori, M. (1986). The Discovery of the Child. 4th. New York: Ballantine Books.
Office of Communications (Ofcom). (2004). Children's food choices, parents' understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Office of Communications. Online at http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/ .
Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…
Nurses' Work Schedule Characteristics, Nurse Staffing, and Patient Mortality" (Trinkoff, et al. 2011 p 1). The authors argue that lower nursing staff level can lead to poor patients' outcome and poor care, however, higher nursing skills mix can assist in recording lower mortality rates. In overall, increase in a number of nursing staff is associated with improving patient outcome. The authors use the quantitative technique to collect data from 633 nurses working in different 71 acute non-federal hospitals in Illinois and North Carolina. The study also uses a generalized estimating equation to examine the hypothesis. The research examines whether the authors explicitly states the research questions or hypothesis.
Hypotheses or esearch Questions
Analysis of the research reveals that the authors do not explicitly state the research questions, and the absence of the research questions is not justified because one of the main features of quality quantitative research is to state…
Trinkoff, A. M., Johantgen, M., Storr, C. L., Gurses, A. P., Liang, Y., & Han, K. (2011). Nurses' work schedule characteristics, nurse staffing, and patient mortality. Nursing research, 60(1), 1-8.
Measurement and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan: Human Trafficking
For a study into human trafficking and how many people end up being trafficked every year, quantitative measurement is necessary. Qualitative methods could be used, but they would be better suited toward providing insight into the feelings of those who were trafficked, as opposed to the prevalence of the trafficking problem itself (Creswell, 2003; Given, 2008). Since there are several options and ways this issue can be measured, it is important to decide not only what type of measuring instrument will be used but the level of measurement that is really important for the study (Bales, 2004).
Human trafficking can be very difficult to measure, based on the secretive nature of much of it and the unwillingness of traffickers (and many victims) to talk about the issue (Bales, 2004; Berger, 2012). However, that does not mean there is no way…
Any measurement instrument has limitations, however, and this is true of the SPSS software. The main issue is that there is no room for interpretation. Only objectivity can be provided. This is a good thing in many cases, but for a study that addresses something as sensitive as human trafficking there may be more questions than answers with this method. The why's and how's of the issue are not explored, and the computer program will only provide mathematical data that does not lend itself to any information about the experience itself. That can be what the researcher is looking for from a quantitative standpoint, but delving deeper into the issue is not something SPSS will be able to be used for. That could leave the study falling a bit flat.
The Scale Used
For this study, a Likert scale will be used. This kind of scale is based on the "agree or disagree" method of asking questions (Trochim, 2006). Often, there are five separate
experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. The experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.
Practical considerations usually limit the amount of control we have in structuring experiments, for instance we cannot always hope to randomize; we sometimes (more usually) often have to make do with the sample of participants given. This is when quasi-experimentation is employed.
This particular study is a quasi-experiment
Levels of measurement of the variables
There were two levels / conditions: (1) inquiry-based science curriculum and (ii) an inquiry-based science curriculum and reading strategy instruction
Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results
Three types of relevant psychological instruments were used to measure science…
Fang, Y. & Wei, Z. (2010) Improving Middle School Students'Science Literacy Through Reading Infusion The Journal of Educational Research, 103:262 -- 273,
Hough David L. & Schmitt Vicki L. (2011) An ex post facto examination of relationships among the developmental designs professional development model
Middle Grades Research Journal, 6(3), 163 -- 175
T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…
Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.
Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.
Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…
Mayo, J. (2002). Case-based Instruction: A Technique for Increasing Conceptual Application in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 65-74.
O'Connor, B., & Cordova, R. (2010). Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time While Attending Graduate School Part-Time. Journal of Education for Business, 359-368.
van der Voot, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). ''Managing'' Corporate Community Involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 311-329.
Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.
The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.
Statement of Purpose
For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.
In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…
Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).
Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.
Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…
Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing
How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?
Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…
AUSPA 2012, Policy & Advocacy, Western Australian Council of Social Service Inc., viewed 10 June 2017,
Buckley, J & Seamus, T 2005, International Pricing and Distribution of Therapeutic Pharmaceuticals: An Ethical Minefield. Business Ethics, pp.127-141.
Hussein, A 2015, The Use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research: Can Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Be Combined? Journal of Comparative Social Work, vol. 4., no.1.
Lampard, R & Pole, C 2015. Practical social investigation: qualitative and quantitative methods in social research. Routledge: Abingdon, UK.
Quantitative Study Review
This paper provides a review of a quantitative study and determines the purpose, sample, method, findings and credibility of the study. It also examines the interventions and whether there was any clinical significance to the findings. By examining the significance and credibility of the study it shows its value in nursing research.
The purpose of the study by Gonzales et al. (2017) was to describe graduate entry nursing students' learning styles. The research question was: “What are the predominant learning styles of graduate entry nursing students?” (Gonzales et al., 2017, p. 56). The study did not make any hypothesis prior to conducting the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) survey.
The sample for the study was obtained by recruiting 202 graduate entry nursing student volunteers at a southwestern university. This was essentially a convenience sample. No inclusion or exclusion criteria were discussed in the study, but in…
AbuAssi, N. E., & Alkorashy, H. A. E. (2016). Relationship between learning style and readiness for self-directed learning among nursing students at king Saud university, Saudi Arabia. International journal of advanced nursing studies, 5(2), 109-116.
Brannan, J. D., White, A., & Long, J. (2016). Learning styles: Impact on knowledge and confidence in nursing students in simulation and classroom. International journal of nursing education scholarship, 13(1), 63-73.
Gonzales, L. K., Glaser, D., Howland, L., Clark, M. J., Hutchins, S., Macauley, K., ... & Ward, J. (2017). Assessing learning styles of graduate entry nursing students as a classroom research activity: a quantitative research study. Nurse education today, 48, 55-61.
McKenna, L., Copnell, B., Butler, A. E., & Lau, R. (2018). Learning style preferences of Australian accelerated postgraduate pre-registration nursing students: A cross-sectional survey. Nurse education in practice, 28, 280-284.
Vizeshfar, F., & Torabizadeh, C. (2018). The effect of teaching based on dominant learning style on nursing students' academic achievement. Nurse education in practice, 28, 103-108.
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm
Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website: http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from https://explorable.com/different-research-methods
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…
Sand-Jecklin, K., & Herman, J. (2014). A Quantitative Assessment of Patient and Nurse Outcomes of Bedside Nursing eport Implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19-20), 2854-2863.
This particular research piece is quantitative in nature. The basic analysis element in a study of this kind as Keele (2011) points out is statistical analyses and numbers. This is more so the case given that it generates data that could be transmuted into operational statistics, as it seeks to quantify the problem i.e. "quantify quantitative outcomes of a practice change to a blended form of bedside nursing report." It is clear that the authors in this case seek to quantify behaviors and opinions in an attempt to come up with results from a sample population that is significant. I selected this topic due to its relevance to clinical practice. This is particularly the case given that there are very few published studies that have…
Elsevier (2017). Guide for Authors: Author Information Pack. Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/journals/collegian/1322-7696/guide-for-authors
Keele, R. (2011). Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice. Sudbury, MA: John & Bartlett Learning
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2017). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Shamoo, A.E. & Resnic, D.B. (2009). Responsible Conduct of Research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
health care centers (PHCC) in Stockholm County, 40 of them were randomly selected using an old-fashioned, non-probability method of basically drawing names from a hat. The author notes, "every PHCC was given a unique number that was written on a paper card and placed in a pot. For transparency, two colleagues independently drew 20 paper cards each, a total of 40." Of these 40, one declined to participate. Therefore, 39 PHCCs were selected, and one nurse from each PHCC served as contact person. The sample size is adequate and actually fairly large for the study. Although unconventional, bias was not introduced by using this method of sample selection, and the sample can be considered representative of the population given the randomness of the PHCC selection procedure. Eligibility criteria are also clearly identified, as the contact person nurse needed to comply with the study design, namely to distribute anonymous questionnaires to…
Sundborg, E.M., Saleh-Stattin, N., Wandell, P. & Tornkvist, L. (2012). Nurses' preparedness to care for women exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: a quantitative study in primary health care. BMC Nursing 11(1). Retrieved online: http://bmcnurs.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6955-11-1
This is yet another reason we cannot assume that data is 'objective' because it is quantitative in nature. For example, when constructing an experiment "an extreme groups design (e.g., assigning participants to high or low conditions) maximizes the variances of the components of the product term, it also results in much more power with respect to the interaction effect than would the corresponding observational design" (Cortina 2002: 343). Conversely, doing an experiment 'in the field' is likely to yield a less statistically-significant impact because of the inability to control the extremity of the variables. A recent study of the statistical power of research in the social sciences revealed that only 40% of all MIS studies had adequate statistical power to ensure that the probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected correctly at all times (Baroudi & Orlikowski 1989: 87). Significance criteria, sample estimate, and effect size, can all influence…
Baroudi, J. & Orlikowski, W. (1989). The problem of statistical power in MIS Research.
MIS Quarterly, 13 (1): 87-106
Cortina, J.M. (2002). Big things have small beginnings: An assortment of 'minor'
methodological misunderstandings. Journal of Management, 28(3), 339-362.
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables
What are the extraneous variables in this study? (1)
In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables? (1)
Identify the type of each measurement strategy (i.e. Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview). (1)
Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by each measurement strategy. (1)
Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. (1)
Report the reliability of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)
Report the validity of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)
Data Collection Methods
If appropriate, identify the intervention protocol. (2)
Detail how the data were collected. (2)
In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study? (2)
In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect…
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf
Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
Lancet, 359, 145-149.
Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…
Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:
The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:
inductive manner or a deductive manner. Quantitative research is deductive and is conducted according to a hypothesis that has been generated from a review of the literature in the field of study. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is an inductive process that does not use a hypothesis to guide the inquiry. Making a choice between the two research methods is largely determined by the research questions that have been generated by the researcher and by data collection feasibility constraints. Put simply, quantitative research emphasizes theory testing, while qualitative research takes a theory building approach.
Quantitative research methods. A hypothesis is a tentative assumption about a relationship between two or more variables. It is stated as a question that the research is designed to answer. Quantitative research is constructed on the basis of two hypothesis statements in order to use statistical processes to determine relationships among variables. A null hypothesis,…
Shuttleworth, M. (2011). Quantitative research design. Experiment-Resources. Retrieved http://www.experiment-resources.com/quantitative-research-design.html
Trochum, W.M.K. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Research Methods Knowledge Base, Social Research Methods. Retrieved http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php
The potential study that would be conducted for collecting numerical data is finding the connection between healthy aging and having a marital partner (spouse) among older adults. It is the selected and proposed quantitative research topic for this paper to apply quantitative methods for the research. It would be primary quantitative research for which the data would be collected first-hand, rather than relying on the already available data.
The proposed research problem in the proposed research study is whether there is a connection between having a marital partner and spouse for healthy aging. It would be investigated whether there is a relationship between the existence of social relationships for male and female older adults to age healthily. Age comes with several diseases: hypertension, heart diseases, cardiovascular and chronic diseases, and mental diseases like Alzheimer's, depression or dementia, etc. Therefore, it is suggested that old age people should have…
Gutierrez-Vega, M., Villar, O.A.E., Carrillo-Saucedo, I.C. & Montanez-Alvarado, P. (2018). The possible protective effect of marital status in quality of life among elders in a U.S. Mexico border city. Community Mental Health Journal, 54, 480-484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-017-0166-z
Lee, S., Lee, J. & Choi, I. (2020). Life satisfaction in later life: The interplay of marital condition and income among elderly Koreans. Sustainability, 12(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083483
Robards, J., Evandrou, M., Falkingham, J. & Vlanchantoni, A. (2012). Marital status, health, and mortality. Maturitas, 73(4), 295-299. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.08.007
Schone, B.S. & Weinick, R.M. (1998). Health-related behaviors and the benefits of marriage for elderly persons. The Gerontologist, 38(5), 618-627.
Wong, J.S. & Waite, L.J. (2016). Marriage, social networks, and health at older ages. Journal of Population Ageing, 8(1-2), 7-25. DOI: 10.1007/s12062-014-9110-y
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…
Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:
The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…
Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Sagor, R (2003). How to conduct collaborative action research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.
Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…
Blakstad, O. (n.d.). Research designs. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/research-designs
De Vaus, D.A. Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE, 2001; Trochim, William M.K. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006.
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Case study research design. Retrieved online: https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…
Borlaug, S. (2007). Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide.
Cambridge University Press.UK.
Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R. (2010). Data Collection Primary vs. Secondary. Utrecht University. The Nethertland.
Morrell, K. (2010). Quantitative Data Basic Introduction. USA.
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…
Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.
Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.
There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…
Bartholomew, L.M., & Horowitz, K. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology .
Monk, A.N. (1993). Mixing oil and water? Ethnography vs. experimental psychology in the study of computer-mediated communication. INTERCHI'93, 3-6.
Rusbult, C.E. (1980). Commitment and satisfaction in romantic associations: A test of the investment model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 16,, 172-186.
Rusbult, C.E. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1230-1242.
Designing effective research for the purpose of studying administrative or policy issues can be a difficult task. An effective research design elicits the information and data necessary for the researcher to conclude certain results and findings that are both valid and reliable. Theoretically a research design will provide the researcher with efficient tools and a methodology that will be efficient and effective. However, theories are not always practical when it comes to administrative, policy or social concerns.
One expert recently wrote "it is important to know that one model may not meet the needs of every locality" (Cimino, 2008, p. 19) and this is true regarding whether to use qualitative, quantitative or mixed research as well. The vast majority of time administrative problems arise because people view events with such diversity. esearch that attempts to quantify qualitative findings is oftentimes much more difficult than theory would imagine.
There are some…
Cimino, C. (2008). Diocesan and local leaders use new models to enable schools to survive and thrive, Momentum (Washington, D.C.), Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 18 -- 22
Zha, S.; Kelly, P.; Park, M.K.; Fitzgerald, G.; (2006) An investigation of communicative competence of ESL students using electronic discussion boards, Journal of Resource Technology Education, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 349 -- 367
Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology
Envisioned research Methodology and Design
Descriptive Research Methods
Research Designs Considered
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
Research Validity and Reliability
Strengths and weaknesses
Method of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs
The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.
Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.
A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…
Connor, Ulla. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing.
Cambridge University Press. ERIC Database. Retrieved: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED401754&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED401754
Lund, Thorleif. The qualitative -- quantitative distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal
of Educational Research, 49 (2): 115 -- 132
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Also as noted before, not everyone is willing and able to volunteer the most relevant information and this is where an adept mental health professional (in the case of a mental health intake situation) or a researcher (in research of the same) comes into play and is very important (Nakash & Alegria, 2013).
The line of thought espoused in the QH article is echoed when assessing the California State University at Long Beach website section regarding qualitative research. They, much like the author of this response would suggest, advocate the importance and necessity of qualitative research but at the same time caution about using it correctly and in a way that yields proper and verifiable results. Simple conjecture and blind assumptions are not part of any good research, qualitative or quantitative, and that slippery slope that exists is much more pervasive and prone to come to pass when…
CSULB. (2013, April 15). Qualitative Research. Cal State University @ Long Beach. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from www.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm
Nakash, O., & Alegria, M. (2013). Examination of the Role of Implicit Clinical Judgments during the Mental Health Intake. Qualitative Health Research, 23(5), 645-654.
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again
Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.
Qualitative to Quantitative
A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…
Black, K. & Fauske, J. (2008). Measuring case managers' advance care planning practice: Translating focus group findings to survey development. Care Management Journals, 9(4), 166-76.
Ullman, S.E. (2005). Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: A personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methodologies. Violence Against Women, 11(9), 1113-39.
represented by different methodologies, describing the purpose of every methodology and providing an example of a research problem for every methodology. The ideas that will be discussed in this paper include exemplifying what encompasses a research problem and also making comparisons and contrasts between qualitative research and quantitative research with respect to their strengths and weaknesses.
To enable the researcher manipulate one variable while measuring other variables and therefore making it possible to examine cause and effect of research problems
To measure the relationship or correlation that exists between two variables
To question and interrogate a massive group of people regarding their philosophies and standpoints on a certain phenomenon
To develop a theory or theoretical model where none exists in the literature in relation to the sample
To describe and interpret…
Bryman, A. (2007). The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role?" International Journal of Social Research Methodology 10: 5-20.
Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.
e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);
(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:
(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.
Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:
(1) Laboratory experiments;
(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund states that analysis identifies…