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limitations qualitative quantitative research method ways qualitative quantitative data analysed. Discuss a case study a company a specific sector choice.
The success of the process of conducting research is largely based on the methods used to gather the information and the interpretation of resources available. In order to achieve a high degree of accuracy as well as to guarantee the substantial nature of the research process, the use of special research methods such as the quantitative and qualitative analysis is vital. However, these two methods have both advantages and limitations and, depending on the way in which these methods are used, they can provide various results.
The present paper considers the two methods of analysis as applied to a case study. In the first part, it discusses the two methods from a theoretical point-of-view. Quantitative and qualitative research are rather different in the sense that they provide different perspectives of…… [Read More]
On the other hand, qualitative research is process oriented and usually seeks the methods by which individuals draw certain conclusions about the information under scrutiny. It is more aligned with studies on social systems that have numerous variables and properties. There would be a search for "chain" sequences that lead to events.
Criterion five, Sampling, as previously stated has very different emphasis in either of these methods. In quantitative analysis, the bigger the better is the overall emphasis on sampling size. The more data and the larger the sample, the less the variance and the more accurate the results. This is often the opposite in qualitative research. In this venue the research often has to gather a great deal of information from individual subjects. The time involved for data collection and analysis is much greater and requires more detailed analysis of meaning. Which leads to criterion six, Analysis. Analysis is…… [Read More]
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
While quantitative research uses the scientific method to prove or disprove a hypothesis in a numerical fashion, qualitative research is narrative in scope and studies phenomena from a subjective, open-ended perspective. Quantitative research is deductive and proceeds from the general to the specific and usually involves studying a large population to create a general principle that can be applied to individual cases. Qualitative research studies specific cases and (sometimes) creates a general principle from those cases. Other times qualitative may be so specific and so focused upon unique cases that the research may merely present the data rather than creating a theory.
Examples of qualitative research methodologies include case studies, ethnographies, and phenomenology. Methods of qualitative researchers may include observing subjects; interviewing subjects and then coding their responses; or even participant-observer engagement with the researcher actively involving him or herself in the process of study. Qualitative…… [Read More]
The time-constant covariates influence the latent variable while the time-varying predictor variables influence the independent variable. In estimation of the model the start was with a 'one-class' model with progressive adding of classes and comparison of models through use of the "Bayesian Information criterion (BIC) which compared the "expected cell frequency counts with actual cell frequency counts found in the sample data." (Ibid) Stated is that improvements in model fit "were indicated by a decreasing BIC with each successive model as classes were added and completion of the model estimation was at the point the BIC showed a rise. A descriptive analysis was conducted as well which states that "overall there was a trend toward poorer levels of SRH with each successive data collection wave." (Ibid) Stated is that the unbalanced data was handled by Latent GOLD which estimated models through use of information that was available for "each of…… [Read More]
Quantitative esearch Critique
Vogt, Uhiyarik, & Schroeder (2007) conducted a study that compared Aquacel dressing vs. standard wound care for primary closed vascular surgical wounds. The results of the study found that there was no difference in length of stay in the hospital, complications, patient comfort, or healing time between the two wound care methods. The only difference was that the Aquacel dressing required fewer changes than conventional dressings, but that it increased the cost of care significantly. The following will analyze the methodology of the study and its conclusions in terms of clinical validity.
The design of the study was a randomized-controlled trial comparing standard dressing to Aquacel dressing for vascular surgical wounds. The study design directly reflected the intended purpose of the research, the research questions, the theoretical frame with work, previous literature, and the proposed hypothesis. All patients that participated in the study underwent elective…… [Read More]
measurements that can be ascertained objectively. They employ statistical and mathematical data analysis; gathered through such techniques as polls, questionnaires, surveys or through manipulation of already existing data via computational techniques. Quantitative research specializes on collecting numerical data and applying it across groups in general terms, or explaining a specific phenomenon (University of South California, 2016).
It can be inferred from the use of the term qualitative that this is a research method that centrally focuses on the quality of entities, including meanings and processes that are not examined or measured through experiments. esearchers employing qualitative methods emphasize the social structure and nature of reality. They examine the close relationship between the researcher and what they are studying. The situational differentials that affect research and inquiry are also examined. They place a lot of significance on value-filled inquiry aspect (University of South California, 2016).
Examples of Quantitative and…… [Read More]
scientific studies involve the use of quantitative research designs whose experiments are sometimes described as true science. In this case, the research designs employ the use of conventional mathematical and statistical procedures for measurement of conclusive results. Experimental designs used in quantitative research methods involves examining various aspects that are important in a study including F-ratio, analysis of variance, significant effects, and determining probabilistic equivalence. Generally, experimental designs in quantitative research utilize a standard format in order to generate a hypothesis that can be proved or rejected.
What is an F-ratio?
An F-ratio is a beneficial test statistic that is most commonly associated with ANOVA analysis. In this case, the F-ratio is utilized to test the hypothesis whose effects are regarded as real i.e. they are significantly different from each another. In an ANOVA analysis, the sampling distribution of the F-ratio must be discussed prior to presentation of the details…… [Read More]
Field study research, including marketing focus groups and one-on-one questionnaires, beta-testing of a product by real consumers, and other qualitative endeavors, shows the real, lived experience of individuals, and how they will relate to the product and make a place for it in their lives. Marketing is about process -- the process of selling a product, not an end product, given that marketing must be responsive the environment and to the whims and psychology of consumers. The inductive nature of qualitative research allows for that type of flexibility. Reality is not objective: reality is socially constructed, subjective, and dependent upon individual whims. Understanding subconscious, subjective whims rather than attempting to replicate what consumers have used in the past enable marketing revolutions occur. Quantitative data may reflect reality, but qualitative data, by studying human life, can provide better clues about what people secretly desire, and what they will aspire to in…… [Read More]
combining qualitative and quantitative research methods can be beneficial in nursing and health science. Notably, the usefulness of mixed research methods in nursing is due to the complexity of the phenomena studied in nursing and health science. One of the major aspects of both qualitative and quantitative research methods is that they are usually associated with inductive and deductive approaches respectively (Casebeer & Verhoef, 2002). esearchers who use both methods tend to operate with a different series of assumptions regarding the world and learning methods about it.
Since qualitative and quantitative methods have varying approaches when conducting a nursing study, none of them is effective when used alone. However, the use of mixed research methods has several advantages and disadvantages that determine their strengths and weaknesses in nursing study. Combined methods of research has several advantages including offering narrative to add meaning to numbers and also use numbers to provide…… [Read More]
nursing research: Discussion questions
uantitative research includes descriptive, correlative, quasi-experimentational, and experimentational research (Burns 2010: 21). Descriptive research describes a phenomenon, purely and simply. Correlative research attempts to determine if there is a correlation between two types of phenomenon (such as a correlation between participation in athletic sports and overweight adolescents' decrease in BMI). uasi-experimental research may have a 'control group' in the real world (such as overweight adolescents who do not participate in sports) while experimental research actively isolates extraneous variables that could affect the result in a controlled setting. Problem-solving involves setting goals and identifying solutions while the nursing process involves planning for those interventions. The research process uses clinical studies and literature reviews to identify and prescribe specific phenomenon in a more general fashion (Burns 2010: 41)
2. Phenomenology involves a description of a particular phenomenon. Grounded theory is theory which has its roots in a specific…… [Read More]
"And usually, those extra earnings are more than pocket change" (U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). A study conducted by the United States Department of Labor in 2005 revealed that the differences in weekly earnings registered by the individuals without a high school diploma and individuals possessing doctoral studies can total up to $1,012. Also, the differences are easily noticeable between consecutive levels. For instance, an individual who has finished high school but did not go to college will make about $583 per week, whereas the individual who has dropped out of college will only make $409 per week. The actual statistics are revealed in the chart below:
Source: Education and Income: More Learning is Key to Higher Earnings, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
As the trend becomes more and more obvious, the young population decides in favour of education, in the detriment of dropping out of school…… [Read More]
Developing a Quantitative esearch Plan
Human trafficking: A grounded theory approach
According to the ICE, human trafficking is one of the darkest and most heinous crimes the agency investigates. Human beings are 'smuggled' into the country and forced to operate under conditions similar to that of modern-day slavery. The sex industry, domestic workers, and so-called 'sweatshops' are all common sites of human trafficking. "Trafficking in persons is defined as: sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery" (Human trafficking, 2013, ICE).
Most victims of trafficking are young and…… [Read More]
Measurements and Instruments for a Quantitative esearch Plan
The topic for this paper is: To what extent do African-American men who live in an urban setting and exhibit aggressive behavior due to early development factors associated with depression receive a diagnosis at local medical facilities of conduct disorder as opposed to depression? In this paper, we will discuss the method most appropriate to cover this topic and provide support for its choice.
The levels of measurement that will be important for your study and why
Scientific way of measuring is important to quantitative study. Simply because quantitative information is numeric, the gathering as well as evaluation of information coming from representative samples is much more generally utilized. In the basic form, the more reflective the sampling is, the more liable it is that the quantitative evaluation will precisely as well as accurately mirror an image of the influence of the…… [Read More]
Buprenorphine Induction in Primary Care
Abstract of the study provides a clear overview of the study. It introduces the uses of the buprenorphine in the primary care settings and the study grouped in the case. It provides the methodology used to study and analyze the topic. For example, it uses different methods of collecting data such as assessment, follow-ups, urine toxicology testing, and measurement of the primary outcomes associated with opioid withdrawal. The study fails to include the population size in the methodology section. It does not provide the inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the study relating to the delimitations of the study. Besides, the study does not provide the age limit of the participants in the abstract section. This information is essential as it provides objective information about the study. The study provides concise information on the study findings. This is useful in predicting the results of the…… [Read More]
Like qualitative eseaches, quantitative eseaches also have a numbe of appoaches available to them today. The selection of the eseach appoach will depend on what type of infomation is being sought, what type of infomation is available, and the goals of the eseache. One eseach methodology that is gaining inceasing populaity is conjoint analysis, a quantitative methodology that is discussed futhe below, followed by a summay of the eseach and impotant findings in the conclusion.
Desciption of Conjoint Analysis and Examples of Business Applications
Conjoint analysis is a quantitative methodology that measues the peceived values of vaious possible poduct designs (Calantone & Di Benedetto, 1990). Respondents paticipating in conjoint analyses view seveal vaiations in poduct concepts and then assign anks with espect to thei individual pefeences (Calantone & Di Benedetto, 1990). The analysis of these esponses can be used to identify the espective utility that is associated with…… [Read More]
Validity, in essence, has got to do with the extent to which a given research study measures the accuracy of a specific concept – effectively meaning that a study can be said to have passed the validity test if it accurately mirrors that which the researchers set about to investigate. In quantitative research, as Polit and Beck (2012) point out, “researchers strive to design studies that are strong with respect to all four types of study validity” (p. 303). As the authors further point out, while an attempt to enhance one kind of validity may benefit another form of validity, efforts to ensure one kind of validity sometimes end up interfering with the achievement of other validity types. The four kinds of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and…… [Read More]
infer an answer to a particular section, then you must so state and JUSTIFY your statement.
DO NOT LEAVE ANY SECTION BLANK.
Do not provide a "Yes" or "no" answer without an EXPLANATION. YOU MUST JUSTIFY ALL YOUR RESPONSES
ALL responses must be written in YOUR OWN WORDS. Do NOT use quotes.
Full and Complete Reference for the Article: Hagan, Teresa L, BSN, RN., B.A., & Donovan, Heidi M, Phd., R.N. (2013). Ovarian cancer survivor's experiences of self-advocacy: A focus group study. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(2), 140-7. Retrieved from http://searchproquest.com/docview/1325739253?accountid-35812
You must submit the full article in PDF form. Critiques submitted without the PDF will not be accepted.
What is the problem the study was conducted to address? (1)
Response: The problem this study was conducted to address was self-advocacy in clinical research as well as practice. Despite self-advocacy being cited as a trait desirable among…… [Read More]
Additionally, participating teachers will be drawn from public schools in the same state to mitigate the possibility that geographic factors will intervene to too great a degree. That said, consideration will be made to distinguish the specific school districts, socioeconomic conditions and racial factors present in different schools. Without making any preemptive deductions, these preliminary details may be used to help yield evidence of connections which might be used for future study.
The Likert Scale model of survey will be distributed through the email listserv at participating schools, requesting respondents to rate on a scale of 1 to 5 to what extent they agree or disagree with statements provided in the survey. These statements will primarily concern the presence or absence of sufficient outdoor recreational opportunities and the connection between said opportunities and academic performance.
This would be considered a true experimental quantitative study, where a control and experimental group…… [Read More]
Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…… [Read More]
Nurses' Work Schedule Characteristics, Nurse Staffing, and Patient Mortality" (Trinkoff, et al. 2011 p 1). The authors argue that lower nursing staff level can lead to poor patients' outcome and poor care, however, higher nursing skills mix can assist in recording lower mortality rates. In overall, increase in a number of nursing staff is associated with improving patient outcome. The authors use the quantitative technique to collect data from 633 nurses working in different 71 acute non-federal hospitals in Illinois and North Carolina. The study also uses a generalized estimating equation to examine the hypothesis. The research examines whether the authors explicitly states the research questions or hypothesis.
Hypotheses or esearch Questions
Analysis of the research reveals that the authors do not explicitly state the research questions, and the absence of the research questions is not justified because one of the main features of quality quantitative research is to state…… [Read More]
Measurement and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan: Human Trafficking
For a study into human trafficking and how many people end up being trafficked every year, quantitative measurement is necessary. Qualitative methods could be used, but they would be better suited toward providing insight into the feelings of those who were trafficked, as opposed to the prevalence of the trafficking problem itself (Creswell, 2003; Given, 2008). Since there are several options and ways this issue can be measured, it is important to decide not only what type of measuring instrument will be used but the level of measurement that is really important for the study (Bales, 2004).
Human trafficking can be very difficult to measure, based on the secretive nature of much of it and the unwillingness of traffickers (and many victims) to talk about the issue (Bales, 2004; Berger, 2012). However, that does not mean there is no way…… [Read More]
experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. The experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.
Practical considerations usually limit the amount of control we have in structuring experiments, for instance we cannot always hope to randomize; we sometimes (more usually) often have to make do with the sample of participants given. This is when quasi-experimentation is employed.
This particular study is a quasi-experiment
Levels of measurement of the variables
There were two levels / conditions: (1) inquiry-based science curriculum and (ii) an inquiry-based science curriculum and reading strategy instruction
Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results
Three types of relevant psychological instruments were used to measure science…… [Read More]
T-tests in Quantitative Doctoral Business Research
Quantitative research is one of the methodologies that is commonly used in doctoral business research. The use of this approach is attributable to the availability of more data that requires analysis to help generate competitive advantage in the business field. The use of quantitative research entails conducting statistical analysis, which involves the use of different methods such as t-tests and ANOVA. T-test is used in hypothesis testing in quantitative studies to determine whether variations between the averages of two groups is unlikely to have emerged because of a random chance in selection of a sample. In essence, t-tests help to compare whether two groups have varying average values. In light of the role and significance of the assumptions underlying each parametric test, this paper provides a comparison of one-sample, paired-samples, and independent-sample t-tests within the context of quantitative doctoral business research. The comparison is…… [Read More]
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…… [Read More]
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More]
International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security
The study will be based on the question that "What is the impact of the International Ship and Port Security (ISPS) Code on Maritime Security." Answers will be sought to have this question addressed adequately.
The study feels that the ISPS Code has some impacts upon the Maritime Security in the world. Thus, the study seeks to uncover the various impacts that are realized by the Maritime Security as offered by the ISPS.
The influence and functionality of the existing ISPS Code run globally. Its effects, as part of its usefulness and importance, are felt by the Maritime Security among other agents of security in the world. Thus, the study will uncover the impacts caused by the ISPS Code on the Maritime Security in various parts of the world. The study will seek further knowledge from different materials; research…… [Read More]
Mixed methods research design is popular in many research settings because it offers a set of advantages as well as a flexibility that cannot be matched by other available methods. This method combines some of the features from both quantitative and qualitative research methods to create unique methods that can integrate many theoretical or conceptual frameworks. This analysis will use a case study form of a mixed methods approach from studies that were performed in different academic fields to illustrate this form of research. The case study approach is popular in various environments due to the fact that it has more flexibility to explore and explain complex social phenomenon that are difficult to account for in strict quantitative approaches. Furthermore, it also allows room for the social constructivist approach that allows participants some freedom to add information that is relevant to their particular perspective to be added to the data.…… [Read More]
Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.
The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.
Statement of Purpose
For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.
In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…… [Read More]
Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…… [Read More]
Sustainability in Pharmaceutical Pricing
How Can Pharmaceutical Public-Private Partnerships Help to Achieve the Dissemination of affordable medicines - The Case of Anti Malaria Drugs in Nigeria?
Many individuals from developing countries who could benefit from pharmaceuticals products do not receive them due to high costs. Antiretroviral therapy's failure in reaching more than scant numbers of individuals in developing nations, suffering from AIDS, has drawn extensive publicity. However, even far cheaper medications that can be delivered easily aren't reaching numerous individuals who require them. Over a fourth of children all over the world and more than half of the children in a few nations do not receive vaccines, which come under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Expanded Program on Immunization. Even though these vaccines only cost a family under a dollar a dose, they still cannot afford the medicine. The lack of access to beneficial pharmaceutical products and the…… [Read More]
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…… [Read More]
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…… [Read More]
Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…… [Read More]
Sand-Jecklin, K., & Herman, J. (2014). A Quantitative Assessment of Patient and Nurse Outcomes of Bedside Nursing eport Implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(19-20), 2854-2863.
This particular research piece is quantitative in nature. The basic analysis element in a study of this kind as Keele (2011) points out is statistical analyses and numbers. This is more so the case given that it generates data that could be transmuted into operational statistics, as it seeks to quantify the problem i.e. "quantify quantitative outcomes of a practice change to a blended form of bedside nursing report." It is clear that the authors in this case seek to quantify behaviors and opinions in an attempt to come up with results from a sample population that is significant. I selected this topic due to its relevance to clinical practice. This is particularly the case given that there are very few published studies that have…… [Read More]
health care centers (PHCC) in Stockholm County, 40 of them were randomly selected using an old-fashioned, non-probability method of basically drawing names from a hat. The author notes, "every PHCC was given a unique number that was written on a paper card and placed in a pot. For transparency, two colleagues independently drew 20 paper cards each, a total of 40." Of these 40, one declined to participate. Therefore, 39 PHCCs were selected, and one nurse from each PHCC served as contact person. The sample size is adequate and actually fairly large for the study. Although unconventional, bias was not introduced by using this method of sample selection, and the sample can be considered representative of the population given the randomness of the PHCC selection procedure. Eligibility criteria are also clearly identified, as the contact person nurse needed to comply with the study design, namely to distribute anonymous questionnaires to…… [Read More]
role of research problem in choosing an appropriate methodology. It also presents the research questions, methodology, and design that can be used by the researcher to analyze the research problem and proceed with his research study. The third section of the paper identifies two major qualities of team leaders that contribute to successful leadership and explains strategies that organization leaders can implement to develop these two qualities in their team leaders in order to achieve maximum performance. The paper also explains some advantages and disadvantages of these leadership skills or qualities.
Vietnam -- The Economy, Marketing Landscape, and Brand Perception of Consumers
Economic System and Macro-Economic Environment of Vietnam and its esponse to Globalization:
After the recent financial crisis hit the world markets, Vietnamese economy revived itself and became a market-oriented economy (Vietnam Centre for Economic and Policy esearch, 2010). All its manufacturing, industrial, and trade sectors have seen tremendous…… [Read More]
This is yet another reason we cannot assume that data is 'objective' because it is quantitative in nature. For example, when constructing an experiment "an extreme groups design (e.g., assigning participants to high or low conditions) maximizes the variances of the components of the product term, it also results in much more power with respect to the interaction effect than would the corresponding observational design" (Cortina 2002: 343). Conversely, doing an experiment 'in the field' is likely to yield a less statistically-significant impact because of the inability to control the extremity of the variables. A recent study of the statistical power of research in the social sciences revealed that only 40% of all MIS studies had adequate statistical power to ensure that the probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected correctly at all times (Baroudi & Orlikowski 1989: 87). Significance criteria, sample estimate, and effect size, can all influence…… [Read More]
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…… [Read More]
Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables
What are the extraneous variables in this study? (1)
In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables? (1)
Identify the type of each measurement strategy (i.e. Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview). (1)
Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by each measurement strategy. (1)
Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. (1)
Report the reliability of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)
Report the validity of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)
Data Collection Methods
If appropriate, identify the intervention protocol. (2)
Detail how the data were collected. (2)
In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study? (2)
In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect…… [Read More]
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…… [Read More]
Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies
Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research
Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…… [Read More]
inductive manner or a deductive manner. Quantitative research is deductive and is conducted according to a hypothesis that has been generated from a review of the literature in the field of study. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is an inductive process that does not use a hypothesis to guide the inquiry. Making a choice between the two research methods is largely determined by the research questions that have been generated by the researcher and by data collection feasibility constraints. Put simply, quantitative research emphasizes theory testing, while qualitative research takes a theory building approach.
Quantitative research methods. A hypothesis is a tentative assumption about a relationship between two or more variables. It is stated as a question that the research is designed to answer. Quantitative research is constructed on the basis of two hypothesis statements in order to use statistical processes to determine relationships among variables. A null hypothesis,…… [Read More]
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…… [Read More]
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…… [Read More]
led by Venkatesan Prem conducted a research on nurses' knowledge regarding palliative care. This research was influenced by the fact that inadequate knowledge of a palliative care among these professionals is well-documented across various studies on palliative care. The lack of sufficient knowledge by nurses and other health care professionals regarding this health issue is considered as one of the major hindrances in providing high-quality palliative care services. This cross-sectional quantitative research provides important information that may be used in nursing practice through effective measures of enhancing the knowledge of these professionals in providing palliative care.
Summary of the Study:
One of the major obstacles to the provision of high-quality and effective palliative care in the recent past is inadequate knowledge by nurses and other health care practitioners. There are various reasons attributed to the lack of adequate knowledge on the issue such as deficiencies in nursing education, lack of…… [Read More]
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…… [Read More]
goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.
Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…… [Read More]
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]
Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.
Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…… [Read More]
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…… [Read More]
Mixed Methods Research
Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…… [Read More]
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.
Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.
There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…… [Read More]
Designing effective research for the purpose of studying administrative or policy issues can be a difficult task. An effective research design elicits the information and data necessary for the researcher to conclude certain results and findings that are both valid and reliable. Theoretically a research design will provide the researcher with efficient tools and a methodology that will be efficient and effective. However, theories are not always practical when it comes to administrative, policy or social concerns.
One expert recently wrote "it is important to know that one model may not meet the needs of every locality" (Cimino, 2008, p. 19) and this is true regarding whether to use qualitative, quantitative or mixed research as well. The vast majority of time administrative problems arise because people view events with such diversity. esearch that attempts to quantify qualitative findings is oftentimes much more difficult than theory would imagine.
There are some…… [Read More]
Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology
Envisioned research Methodology and Design
Descriptive Research Methods
Research Designs Considered
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
Research Validity and Reliability
Strengths and weaknesses
Method of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs
The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…… [Read More]
esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.
A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…… [Read More]
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…… [Read More]
Also as noted before, not everyone is willing and able to volunteer the most relevant information and this is where an adept mental health professional (in the case of a mental health intake situation) or a researcher (in research of the same) comes into play and is very important (Nakash & Alegria, 2013).
The line of thought espoused in the QH article is echoed when assessing the California State University at Long Beach website section regarding qualitative research. They, much like the author of this response would suggest, advocate the importance and necessity of qualitative research but at the same time caution about using it correctly and in a way that yields proper and verifiable results. Simple conjecture and blind assumptions are not part of any good research, qualitative or quantitative, and that slippery slope that exists is much more pervasive and prone to come to pass when…… [Read More]
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…… [Read More]
Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again
Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.
Qualitative to Quantitative
A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…… [Read More]