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This is to the extent whereby the theorists have begun to look at lesbianism as a provisional identity in that it takes into account the racial, class and ethnical differences and these are what the queer theory has failed to do so far Epstein, 1994: 197()
Some scholars have argued that the development of the queer theory means that lesbianism is not going to disappear anytime in the recent future. The queer theory also threatens to offset the advances which were made by feminism by failing to recognize the impact of the lesbian-feminism theory in shaping the contemporary understanding of sexuality and gender Hollinger, 1999: 28()
It has also been argued that the word queer only refers to a white male individual who is gay. This makes it more difficult to comprehend and advocate for the queer theory. On the contrary, lesbian-feminism seeks to completely dismantle the idea of heterosexuality…… [Read More]
Queer Theory and Oscar Wilde
Analysis of "Queer Theory" by Annamarie Jagose in relation to Dorian Gray's character in "The picture of Dorian Gray" by Oscar Wilde
In her discussion of "Queer theory," author Annamarie Jagose provides a distinction between the concepts 'queer' and the dichotomous relationship between 'lesbian' and 'gay.' Jagose argued in her discussion of this theory that queer was a concept that had politically evolved through the years in relation to the proliferation of gay and lesbian studies.
What makes the queer concept vital to the study of gays and lesbians, as well as issues of homosexuality and heterosexuality is that it provides a 'gray area' in which no distinctions between male and female and gay and lesbian are found. Queer appeals to the 20th century philosophers and social scientists simply because it offers an avenue through which gender and sex can be discussed without the political…… [Read More]
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…… [Read More]
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…… [Read More]
Same sex marriage has been a topic of much debate in recent years. Many believe that same sex marriage should not be allowed, while others assert that homosexuals should have the right to be legally married. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the historical context, political impact, sociological impact and the psychological and philosophical perspectives of this issue.
Gay Marriage in a historical context
According to Coolidge et al. (2003) marriage provides a legal gateway to many protections and benefits in American society. In fact many of these protections and benefits do not exist outside of becoming legally married (Mcwhirter 2004). These include access to health care and medical decision making for your partner and your children; parenting and immigration rights; inheritance, taxation, Social Security, and other government benefits (Mcwhirter 2004). It is because of these protections and benefits that same sex marriage has become such…… [Read More]
Of this group. 50% were male, 50% were female, 38% were White, 35% were Black, and 16% were Hispanic. Adoption statistics are difficult to find because reporting is not as complete as it should be. The government spent $2.6 billion dollars to conduct the 1990 Census, but still it under-represented minorities and categorized children as "natural or by adoption" without differentiating, while special laws were implemented to "protect" and separate adoption affected families. In 1995, a "continuous" census (instead of every ten years) was proposed but has not been implemented. Even the government cannot rely on its most often cited broad official "guesstimate" of "5 to 10 million adoptees in the U.S." Private agency or independent adoptions account for more than 80% of adoptions in a state like California, but these are difficult to track, particularly when they cross state and country borders. In addition, no one knows how many…… [Read More]
It delved into the historical record of integration of blacks into the military, public opinions and health risks and unit disruption. It also incorporated the findings of scientific literature on group cohesion, sexuality and relevant health and legal issues and their implementation. Only one policy would fulfill the President's directive. It would consider sexual orientation as not inherent in determining who may serve in the military. It would set a standard of professional conduct for all personnel in the pursuit of good order and discipline. And it would be enforced in every level of the chain of command so as to maintain effective unit performance (Rostker et al.).
Policy for Ending Discrimination
This policy binds all service members to the same standard of professional behavior (Rostker et al., 2000). It draws upon actual conduct, not behavior from presumed sexual orientation. It elicits tolerance and restraint for the good of the…… [Read More]
True freedom does exist, but Black America has not yet found it.
From Redistribution to Recognition?
In this article by Nancy Fraser, the problem of social inequities is discussed in terms of the definitions that lead to potential solutions. Ms. Fraser spends a considerable amount of time examining the mechanics of race, gender, and sexuality. Rather than see society socialistically in terms of economics, the author singles out these purely cultural constructs as things to be deconstructed in order to achieve fair redistribution and recognition. These categories are identities that are formed primarily through the workings of Eurocentric attitudes, beliefs that themselves must be eliminated by concerted efforts at decentering and also revaluing other groups and sets of beliefs. Two primary approaches present themselves - one affirmative, the other transformative. According to the affirmative, programs are aimed at actively moving wealth to underprivileged groups, while those groups simultaneously preserve their…… [Read More]
Moral realism and the sceptical arguments from Disagreement and Queerness." The discussion which rink starts regards moral realism. He argues that J.L. Mackie who suggested that there are arguments which demonstrate that the concept of moral objectivism is intrinsically flawed. The arguments through which Mackie attempts to demonstrate this derive from disagreement and queerness. The present paper shows how rink demonstrates that the categories which Mackie uses in order to support his thesis fail to achieve this goal.
rink starts by explaining what moral realism is. He states that it represents a particular case of global realism. ut what are we dealing with when dealing with the latter one? We are dealing with a belief according to which there are some facts the moral dimension of which does not depend in any way of our beliefs regarding them. In other words there are things which are moral, regardless of our…… [Read More]
But in instances where the TV does not provide good moral and role models for the teenagers then it is just to say that the TV programs are the major contributing factor towards homophobic tendencies among the society members. The lack of positive role modeling is also being viewed on the side of lesbians, gays and bisexual youth Kielwasser AP and olf MA ( 378)
. Most gays and lesbians in the society are brought up in a straight community with few gays and lesbians role models; thus they are specifically vulnerable to the portrayals of gay people in the mass media (Ryan & Futterman, 124).
The mainstream media has treated the sexual minorities as if they are not part of the human race, as if they do not exist. In addition, it was observed that the gay people of whichever age are rarely portrayed, and mostly the little portrayal…… [Read More]
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…… [Read More]
ame sex marriages' has been a ubiquitous argument for critics, activists, and political commentators for quite some time now. While some critics choose to reflect on the religious and ethical stance of gay and lesbian marriages, Andrew Sullivan chooses to explore the political reasoning behind the prohibition of same sex marriages. The excerpt chosen for critiquing belongs to Sullivan's book Virtually Normal: An Argument about Homosexuality (1995), which highlights the author's personal opinion about gay's and lesbian's right to marriage, political opinions on same sex marriages, and the differences between liberal and conservative party's modes of thoughts and actions regarding same sex marriages.
Introduction of the Author
Andrew Sullivan, himself being of homosexual orientation and married, with HIV positive status, is a devout catholic and a 'conservative' political commentator. Andrew Michael Sullivan rapidly rose to popularity in the first half of the 21st century based on few of…… [Read More]
Homosexual marriage does not pose a threat to me or my manhood therefore I am for it." Although I am heterosexual, I know what it means to long for union with another human being. I will choose a woman for my partner, but if another man desires to choose one of his own sex, there is no harm for me in his choice. In fact, since we are both part of humanity, his legal union, as does mine, brings positive reinforcement to the institution of marriage.
As early as 400 BC Plato in his Symposium discussed the mystery of sexual desire, concluding that humans are always searching for their other half, having been cut in two as punishment by Zeus. The whole humans that existed before this action, according to Aristophanes, Plato's debating companion, all had two heads, four legs and four arms. They were of three types: some with…… [Read More]
This also becomes clear if we consider other mammals and sexual behavior and orientation in the natural world.
On the other and I do not discount entirely the social and social learning theories about being gay. It would be incorrect to argue rigidly against the view that society, culture and social learning play a significant role in being gay. However, what is also very clear from this research is that being gay is predominantly and in the first instance biologically determined.
In the final analysis, while one can continue to discuss for and against arguments in this debate, for me it is just as important to listen to what gay people say about their feelings and situations. As mentioned in the introduction, many gay people state categorically that they 'have always felt different' and that their sexual preferences are internal and innate rather then learned. These are views that I…… [Read More]
The subject of this interview is a twenty-nine-year-old homosexual male of African-American descent, originally from Miami, Florida. He has been employed as a Certified Personal Fitness Trainer since his 1997 graduation from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he majored in Kinesthesiology and Movement Science
and minored in Broadcast Communications.
The subject seemed ideal for this interview because he is openly homosexual himself, but acutely irritated by the common homosexual "affect" that he characterizes as a learned or emulated set of effeminate mannerisms and speech patterns that many people have come to associate with (or even expect from) male homosexuals. The subject has repeatedly expressed his disgust with homosexuals whom he describes as "flames" or even "faggots," because as a comfortably assimilated homosexual male, he believes that he (and all homosexual males) suffer from stereotyping and the homophobia that he believes it inspires. Specifically, the subject…… [Read More]
Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals
Sexuality of Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals
It is extremely difficult to define human sexuality. The first hurdle is determining a person's gender. In addition to male and female, there are people who do not fit neatly into either category, whether because of chromosomal or biological differences. The second hurdle is to define someone's sexual orientation, which refers primarily to sexual attraction, but is mistakenly used to define behavior. The problem with such a limited point-of-view is that sexual behavior does not necessarily follow from sexual attraction.
One of the most limiting views of human sexuality is the idea that sexuality is rigid and that people cannot be attracted to one sex and also be attracted to members of the other sex. To those that hold this view, there are two forms of human sexuality: homosexuality and heterosexuality. Others hold a different view of human sexuality and view…… [Read More]
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…… [Read More]
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…… [Read More]
George's marriage to Ella is his second one; his first wife was from an arranged marriage in Pakistan that left him unhappy. Yet he was able to incorporate aspects of development theory within his own life to find a new wife who he is (mostly) pleased with in a Western environment, and even owns a successful fish and chips restaurant. In his romantic life and in his economic life, George is able to evince some of the best qualities of development theory and modernization by taking his best assets and (literally) marrying them with those from a Western society to update and contemporize his life and his source of income.
However, what George does not take account of is the fact that he must allow the same degree of leniency from his religion and tradition that he permitted himself in marrying Ella to his children. In this sense, East is…… [Read More]
Gay Marriage be permitted in the United States
Over the last several years, the issue of gay marriage has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been a shift in social attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality within society. As, more people are supporting the idea that these individuals are entitled to the same constitutional protections as the rest of the general public. At the heart of this debate, is the controversy surrounding gay marriage. Where, both sides have made compelling arguments that are in support and against making this practice legal. For many individuals, the issue has become clouded with heated emotions that are not based on logic. Instead, the two sides are busy saying how bad the situation will be if the opposition is to prevail. These kinds of scare tactics have caused many middle of the road Christians, to…… [Read More]
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]
Syndemics of Adolescent Health
There are several social theories that attempt to explain health risks for defined demographics, such as adolescents. Socioeconomic theory suggests a lower status for an individual increases the risk of morbidity and mortality (Ward, Meyer, Verity, Gill, and Luong, 2011). In contrast to a focus on the individual, social quality theory suggests that social inclusion and empowerment lowers health risks. Syndemic theory, on the other hand, proposes that the morbidity and mortality of a defined demographic is determined by both social and economic factors (reviewed by Bruce, Harper, and AMTNHAI). To assess the value of socioeconomic and social factors in determining the health of adolescents, a study examining syndemic factors in adolescent gay males will be analyzed.
A Case Study in Syndemic Theory
A recent study investigated the syndemic of tobacco use in adolescent and young adult homosexual men in New York City (Storholm, Halkitis,…… [Read More]
Diversity Issues for Lesbian, Homosexual and isexual People
The 21st Century has brought us new and greater understanding of issues surrounding diversity as it pertains to lesbian and bisexual issues. In the past it was assumed that homosexuality represented a deviant manifestation of some form of mental illness. It was not until the late 1950s (Hooker, 1957) that this idea began to be questioned as an absolute and the lifestyle brought into closer study. It is to be the purpose of this paper to review issues surrounding the homosexual, lesbian and bisexual lifestyle, to identify the general nature of the lifestyle as it exists today and to examine the state of diversity issues as they pertain to this group.
As previously mentioned, for many years homosexuality and lesbianism, as well as bisexuality were classified as mental illness. Evelyn Hooker (1957) was one of the first to do in depth…… [Read More]
Mill, Kant, Religion, And Gay Marriage
In theory, freedom and liberty for all appears to be an excellent concept, one which nearly everyone would embrace. However, the practice of this ideology is not always as halcyon as its theoretical mandate. Quite frequently, it is possible for there to be conflicts of interests presented due to the notion that everyone feels entitled to pursue that which he or she wishes. There are numerous examples of this intrinsic conflict of what essentially is a question of free will. One of the most salient of these examples can be illustrated in the issue of the rights of gays to pursue lawful marriage. On the one hand, various members of the gay and lesbian community believe that they should be legally permitted to engage in same sex marriages under their rights of freedom and the pursuance of their own respective happiness.
The conflict, of…… [Read More]
victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.
Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.
Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…… [Read More]
Sexuality and Stigma in Cinema: Gay and Transgender Representation
According to the sociological theorist Erving Goffman, to bear a 'stigma' is to viewed by society as abnormal. "Stigmatized people are those that do not have full social acceptance and are constantly striving to adjust their social identities: physically deformed people, mental patients, drug addicts, prostitutes, etc." (Crossman 1). Until relatively recently, people in estern society who possessed same-sex desire were stigmatized as 'homosexuals' and deemed to be deviant. The films Maurice and the Naked Civil Servant show two different responses to stigmatization: in Maurice, the hero appears to do all he can to avoid living under such a stigmatized status while in Naked Civil Servant, the hero Quentin Crisp quite blatantly and proudly uses his stigmatized identity as a badge of honor. However, both men ultimately strive to reconfigure society's stigmatized attitude into something more positive and it may be…… [Read More]
& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.
Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…… [Read More]
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…… [Read More]
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]
family by applying theories, concepts and knowledge. Through the study of the theories and concepts, the study will look at how families communicate, behave, operate and will also highlight common problems facing the family and especially tackling the health issue and how social systems affect provision of health care, and will illuminate this through an in-depth study of how it applies or affect the family unit. The study will discuss diversity issues in relation to the social system.
Family life is being scrutinized, and a new definition of a family is emerging every day, but in simple terms a family is a group consisting of parents and children living together in a household, caring and supporting each other. According to Merriam-ebster Dictionary; a family is a fundamental social group in society typically consisting of one or two parents and their children.
The family is the natural and fundamental group unit…… [Read More]
According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).
Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…… [Read More]
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]
Essed notes the profound perceived threat to power experienced by those in the majority feel when even small encroachments are made by other groups into the dominant fabric of society, and how tacit racism against minorities is often allowed even by those who might not consider themselves prejudiced on an interactional and personal level (184). In short, the institutional racism of society inevitably affects interpersonal relations, even amongst people who do not harbor what we might think of as hatred in their hearts. Racism for Essed is an ideological social construct, a powerful social and philosophical method of enforcement that affects how 'people' see the world, and also the mechanisms of the justice system (185). Racist images and practices become an invisible and accepted part of daily life, and are unquestioned, thus it is not enough to simply change one's individual mind (190). Her essay, though it seems overly focused…… [Read More]
QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.
At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have…… [Read More]
Democracy and Economic Inequality in America
The fundamental aim of democracy in political governance is to ensure elected officials represent the interests of their constituents in the legislature. This means that the votes taken by members of Congress should reflect the policy preferences of their constituents. In reality, however, there is often disconnect between what legislators vote for and what their constituents prefer. In his book Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age, Bartels argues that the increasing economic inequality in the US is evidence that legislators do not in reality represent the interests of their interests -- they represent the interests of more powerful groups or entities as opposed to the average citizen. With reference to matters of economic inequality, this paper discuses the discrepancy between the choices of legislators and the policy preferences of their constituents.
Who actually governs in the American political system remains…… [Read More]
channels are focused on the heated debate about homosexual marriages. Statutes are passed to allow it, thousands run to get it done before new statutes are put into place to remove the ability. At the center of the human rights tug-of-war, are the homosexuals of America. Many years ago, homosexuals were shunned by society. Their sexual orientation was deemed lewd and illegal and those who were homosexual were encouraged to remain firmly in the closet. For the past few decades, movement has been underway to dissolve the archaic attitudes and replace them with acceptance and tolerance. While this last challenge is faced, the fact remains that homosexuals are still experiencing discrimination and hate crimes. This paper will present an interview styled case study about the life of a homosexual. It will explore the biological, psychological and social aspects of being homosexual from the view point of one homosexual male. The…… [Read More]
Cultivation Effects Analysis
As Gerber asserts, cultivation theory helps explain the effects that violent television has on viewers. e can also find that sexuality on radio, television, and magazines has cultivation effects on society. Sex and violence is, after all, the one-two combo that dominates prime-time television. Therefore, if the latter can be shown to have cultivation effects on the viewing public, it stands to reason that the former will too. Common sense tells us as much after a mere cursory glance at our surroundings. The flood of sexuality in advertising, musical beats and lyrics, and on screen and in the printed media surely have an effect on the way societal attitudes interpret sex. In fact, plenty of evidence exists to support the notion that views toward homosexuality, for example, are changing in radical ways. In the decade that has passed since prime-time television began representing homosexual characters…… [Read More]
However, how can one marry someone who they don't love? Isn't it wrong to keep two consenting adults from uniting under the act of marriage? It is almost as if the government obliges gay people to marry people that they are not attracted to in order to receive the legal marital benefits. This is, in fact, wrong, as it virtually means that the marriage institution would become perverted by people who would only marry because of interest.
According to Franke (2006), "the U.S. Supreme Court found laws that criminalized same-sex sex unconstitutional in Lawrence v. Texas." Gay people have found a precedent in the case, as they consider that the Supreme Court case Brown vs. The Board of Education is very similar to the one presently under discussion. The 1954 case involved the establishment of separate public schools for white and for black children, arguing that these institutions had been,…… [Read More]
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…… [Read More]
Plato: Life, Philosophies, And Influence
Time Period Plato Lived in.
Plato was born in 428 BC and grew up in a time of major political change in Ancient Greece. The Peloponnesian ar began a few years after he was born and continued until he was twenty. Plato would have been liable to serve in the military after 407 BC and it is thought that he probably served in the final years of the war (Luce 94).
During the final years of the war, open disloyalty to democracy grew. This led to a period where the group known as the Thirty Tyrants ruled Athens. This group included two of Plato's relatives, Critias and Charmides. hile Plato was tied to the group through family, it is believed that he was against their beliefs and actions. These actions included confiscating goods from wealthy citizens and putting many individuals to death (Irwin 85). At…… [Read More]
Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand"
There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as a creation of nature, a work of breathtaking art, scientific breakthroughs that benefit human kind, and acts of bravery are, without doubt, worthy of the admiration and the sentiment that they inspire. Unfortunately, however, human beings also fruitlessly admire a great many more things that are illusory in nature and, therefore, not really worthy of respect. Take, for instance, the human desire to be good looking, rich, successful and powerful. These qualities seem desirable purely because people who possess these attributes appear to be better off in life. But, are they really? Or, do these qualities give rise to admiration only because we don't really understand what being beautiful, wealthy, successful or powerful entails?
Perhaps, it is precisely the recognition that…… [Read More]
They accuse Coyne of giving modern intellectuals "permission to remain biologically illiterate, through assuring them there is nothing useful or important that they could learn that would help them address the intellectual problems they face." (Tooby and Cosmides).
ithout undertaking an independent investigation of the evidence used to support each author's work, it is impossible to determine who makes the most valid arguments. However, if the facts listed argued by Tooby and Cosmides are true, then they do much to bolster the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer. In fact, the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer are very sound from a logical point-of-view, even if it is ultimately impossible to prove or disprove their hypothesis. That at least one species of animal has evolved a special organ specifically to accomplish rape clearly establishes that rape can be an evolutionary function and can be related to genetic evolutionary success. Furthermore,…… [Read More]
Take for example, Foucault's 'Omnus at singulatim', in which the thinker shows his reader how the Christian practice of 'pastoral power' paves the way for certain modern practices that in actuality govern almost all the aspects of a living population anywhere in the world. Foucault also stressed on his belief that religion, in a positive way, possessed the capacity to contest against the nascent forms of control instituted during the modern period of man, like for example, Protestant eformation, which tried its best to resist the onslaught of emerging forms, and therefore, became representative of a set of emerging disciplinary discourses and practices. As far as Foucault was concerned, religion presented difficulties for autonomous self fashioning, but at the same time, religion was not a dangerous precursor to modern forms of governments.
To conclude, it must be said that Michael Foucault's theories are as relevant today as they were…… [Read More]
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…… [Read More]
film Sarah and James by Nikowa Namate offers an opportunity to reflect on the deeper themes in light of several film theories including Freudian theory, Queer theory, and an understanding of realism, naturalism, and kitchen sink drama. This essay will offer a nuanced and thorough analysis of my role in the filmmaking experience. In Sarah and James, I played the role of James, one of the title characters. As the title of the film suggests, though, James is not the only protagonist. The interplay between James and his sister Sarah is the foundation of the film, which addresses the way mental illness impacts intimate relationships. Moreover, I was in charge of lighting during the production of Sarah and James and will discuss elements related to lighting during the production of the film. This essay will hinge on the application of realism, naturalism, Freudian theory, and queer theory to my experience…… [Read More]
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…… [Read More]
Why should Christian theology be contextual? Explore this by referring to four important issues such as culture, liberation theology, feminist theology, and queer theology.
Christian theology should be contextual because religious expression is dependent on culture. Historical and cultural context have continually impacted the development of Christian theology. Biblical allegories and the gospels are contextual in that they refer to the life and times of Christ, with additional references to Hebraic culture and values. Paul's subsequent neoplatonic stamp on Christianity likewise must be appreciated within its cultural and historical context. The artifice of papal doctrine is in the preposterous assumption that Christian theology is somehow absolute. In fact, theology shifts according to the semiotics of culture and the language used to cloak the Christian vision in terms understandable to the audience.
Christian theology has essential, core elements, which do not lend themselves to contextualization. For example, fundamental issues like…… [Read More]
" (p. 78)
This leads us to the very question that the achowskis struggle with in their work, casting figures such as Neo and Trinity, or Violet and Corky, into a struggle for individualism against a culture defined by demands for uniformity and male-driven values of violence and domination. here Bound relies on highly grounded visual effects to express this idea, the Matrix explores the very same themes using innovative and ground-breaking special effects. It is in this way that in the Matrix, as we become more aware of the fake things that once were presented as reality, that ripples begin to appear on the screen. hen Neo-is 'located' in the Matrix, the scene begins with his being absorbed into a mirror. The mirror ripples unnaturally and in a way that jars with the physical rules of the real world. This is a visual effect that is repeated throughout the…… [Read More]
Following on the heels of Michel Foucault, Butler situates the dichotomous conceptualization of gender as a product of discourse, just as Foucault (1990) realized that homo- and heterosexuality were both discursive products. The maintenance of coherent norms in the realm of gender through cultural discourse is intertwined with the positing of heterosexuality as the norm. This is why, for example, when a young boy "dresses up" as a girl and/or plays with dolls, his parents frequently express concern that this is a sign of burgeoning homosexuality and punish the child.
Butler would interpret the child's act as a "performance" and the parents' intervention as a means of correcting that performance in order to condition the child towards "acting the right way" - that is, enacting the role of maleness as it is rigidly codified by the heterosexual norms upon which our society is based:
The notion that there might…… [Read More]
Dr. Gregory House MD. Fox TV series House. I Gender Theory theme Masculinity Gregory House MD theme. Disregard option A. Option B. I figure I paper display. Our papers ran program Turn .
Gender is often referred to as any socially assigned roles given to a certain gender be it a male or a female. This gender is normally expected to act in a way familiar to the expectation of the society or the people around him or her Butler, 1990.
Gender roles and responsibilities is usually different both in females and males and the roles can be assigned at any setting such as a workplace, community, in the churches and in a family unit among other. But the main difference arises among the various cultures existing because of their beliefs and customs present among them. Gender complements both the physiological and the biological differences existing between the female and…… [Read More]
This may allow room for evaluation of the gender role conflicts which must naturally enter into this conversation. Where so many validate gender roles according to sexuality, this discussion of lesbian and feminist identity yields something of a less certain correlation. Rather, by an inclination to overcome the limitations imposed upon the female identity, there are distinctive characteristics which have been adopted by some within the lesbian community distinguishing these as apolitical-social lesbians. Driven by personal identification, and therefore required to pursue a social agenda which contrasts with mainstream conventions, apolitical-social lesbians may or may not be distinguishable by observable gender-role characteristics. However, in cases where such distinctions can be drawn due simply to a subversion of assumed gender rolls, the "butch" lesbian can be identified by a presentation of historically accepted male characteristics of identity. As outliers to the standards for gender-orientation normalcy, such lesbians are easily targeted for…… [Read More]
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]
And while it may seem silly upon first reading or seeing the play, it is clear that a Midsummer Night's Dream also has quite serious ideas. Scholars have noted that the play includes a cultural critique of the Elizabethan era in which it is set (Lamb 93-124). Other critics have noted that the play may contain quite subversive ideas regarding the fluid nature of sexual identity (Green 369-370). Whatever way you choose to interpret a Midsummer Night's Dream, the play's goofy characters, outrageous situations, and rich language have ensured the play's status as a classic work of English literature.
Casey, Charles. "Was Shakespeare Gay? Sonnet 20 and the Politics of Pedagogy."
College Literature, Fall 1998. 29 November 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3709/is_199810/ai_n8827074.
Gibson, H.N. The Shakespeare Claimants: A Critical Survey of the Four Principal
Theories Concerning the Authorship of the Shakespearean Plays. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Green, Douglas E. "Preposterous Pleasures: Queer…… [Read More]
Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology
Cyberfeminism, Gender and Technology
Feminist movement found on the internet is known as Cyberfeminism. In recent times, the term has gained controversial status. Cyberfeminism, a fundamental issue from the feminist perspective, is mostly ignored by researchers and academics. It concentrates on empowerment of women through the cyberspace. Furthermore, it deals with female enlightenment and concentrates on creating awareness on how the digital technologies can influence the rights and social status of women. The digital technologies act as a medium of re-embodying the issue of racism and gender. Internet is the new medium used to erase the identity of women; that is; women are the erased race. However, the internet has played a significant role in promoting Cyberfeminism by pointing out that several feminist studies and internet activities are done by the online media. It cannot be denied that technology plays an important role in promoting…… [Read More]
Bending gender, ending gender…" is extremely well written and astutely organized. Callahan's article functions as a critique of Burdge's article of the same name. Callahan structures her article in a straight forward fashion -- she begins by stating Burdge's purpose in writing the article, provides essential background information and clarifies a few terms, then denotes the article's strengths and weaknesses. To Callahan's credit, she largely refrains from issuing opinions and buttresses her viewpoint with a ready supply of quotations from Burdge's work. As such, the reader is able to ascribe a degree of validity and reliability to Callahan's article, which definitely makes it one worth reading.
One of the really useful points about Callahan's article is the fact that it was unequivocally written for a scholarly audience. She makes clear points, her logic and arguments are cogent, and the paper is fairly cohesive. There is also a fair amount of…… [Read More]
Yellow Wallpaper,' the nameless narrator is compelled by those that surround her to spend time in a colonial mansion in order to rest and get well. The opposite happens; we see her descend into madness in a way that is vaguely reminiscent of the main character in 'The Shining.' We are given the sense of a controlled environment, in which a narrator is placed by male figures representing authority and familiarity (doctors: her husband and brother) in a situation where she is condemned to stare at a wall. The response of her subconscious is embodied in the changes she perceives in the character of the wall.
She sees a yellow female woman trying to break free of the wall, which we interpret to represent the constrained parameters of her activity. She is a complete subordinate, dominated by men who possess professional accolades. Her attitudes mirror those we see in Ibsen…… [Read More]
Freeview Company / e-Launch of Freeview
Analysis of Interpersonal Skills
With over 19 million subscribers Freeview is the most subscribed or popular digital television service in the United Kingdom. ecently they launched Freeview Play enabling their subscribers even more control and choice. Freeview Play has a catch up TV feature, too. The greatest selling point for Freeview is the fact that it free. Subscribers do not have to pay anything to subscribe to its channels. The company was launched in the year 2002 by DTV Services Limited, a firm that is jointly owned by Arqiva, BBC, ITV, Channel 4 and Sky. When the company was launched in 2002 it had just twenty five channels but now it has grown to include over sixty free-to-view channels and twelve high definition (HD) channels (Freeview, 2015).
Summary of Case Study
In the last few years, there has…… [Read More]
S. citizens. This is a popular argument offered by the same sex marriage movement and it is one that is compelling.
For many years homosexuality was considered illegal behavior in most jurisdictions in the United States but most such statutes have been abolished and so gays and lesbians are now full citizens who have the right to expect full rights of citizenship. This means that whatever one's ethical or moral standards might be does not mean that such standards must be expressed in the laws. Many Americans object morally and ethically to the display of pornography; the publishing of songs with colorful lyrics; and, suggestive books and magazines but each of these examples is protected by the First Amendment and the rights of gays and lesbians to marry should enjoy the same protection.
The proponents of virtue ethics are not alone in their support of same sex marriage. Followers of…… [Read More]
The viewpoints offered, the statistics presented, and the arguments suggested cover the full spectrum of possible approaches on this issue and, not unexpectedly, some of the articles do a better job of not only presenting the issues but also in remaining even handed in presenting their information. The articles that were cited herein, except for the New York Times' article, were chosen for a limited purpose and not for the overall perspective that they offered. Nevertheless, all the articles did a remarkable job of attempting to present both sides of not only the overall issue but also the limited issue that the article addressed. In light of the emotional nature of the subject, writing an article in such a detached, professional manner is not always easy.
The DADT policy is some sense a microcosm of the change that is undergoing in our society relative to alternative life styles and how…… [Read More]
Furthermore, forcing gay men and women to lie about their sexual orientation essentially forces them to engage in dishonest behavior, which is conduct far more 'unbecoming' to an officer than being openly gay, critics allege.
Even the Pentagon's own "exhaustive nine-month study" concluded that repeal would only bring about "some limited and isolated disruption to unit cohesion and retention, which could be mitigated by effective leadership" (Bumiller 2010). The theme of leadership is a critical one. The U.S. military and Congress must lead the nation in dispelling prejudice against gays and lesbians. By hanging back, despite the fact that the majority of servicemen and the public desire repeal, the military communicates to gay men and women that their service is not as valued as the sacrifice of straight people. It also validates prejudice and seems hypocritical: the policy suggests that being gay is something shameful, and should be kept in…… [Read More]