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race & arrest rates?
lack arrests vs. white arrests
The higher frequency of black arrests has been taken to a whole new level as Criminal Justice System is deemed predisposed towards minorities. Primary focus is on two questions here:
Is the high frequency of black arrests directly related to unfair and prejudiced organizational practices?
Is the higher frequency of black arrests related to their involvement in crimes? (Walker, et al., 1997)
The most logical justification taken from social organizational theories especially those based on conflict and consensus are all the more interesting and concrete as they suggest diverse judicial results for social order related behavior. In case of conflict and consensus, they have macro level repercussions related to practicality of social control by the judicial system (Cureton).
During the mid-1980, United States of American war against drugs, which implied punitive criminal justice sanctions unlike its earlier drug wars. Supporters of…
Beckett K, Nyrop K, Pfingst L, Bowen M. (2005). Drug use, drug possession arrests, and the question of race: Lessons from Seattle. Social Problems. 52:419-444.
Blumstein, A. (1993). Making rationality relevant: The American society of criminology 1992 presidential address. Criminology, 31, 1-16
Chambliss, W. (1976). Functional and Conflict Theories of Crime: The Heritage of Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx. In Whose Law? What Order?: A Conflict Approach to Criminology. W. Chambliss & Mankoff (Eds.), New York: John Wiley and Sons
Cureton, S. (n.d.). Differential Black/White Arrest Rates: Offending Behavior or Discretionary Justice. U.S.: University of North Carolina.
Arrest ates Against ace
Is there a relationship between race and arrest rates?
Is there a relationship between race and arrests ates?
For over a century, the disproportionate arrests and conviction rates continues to raise controversial debates within the western nations. The prevalence of higher black arrests than the whites has been raising controversial concerns about the question on whether the criminal justice systems have been getting biased towards the minority groups. A considerable attention thereby centers around two indispensable questions: (i) Does the disproportionate number of black arrests arise from their own discretionary informal or formal organizational activities? And (ii) Does the higher prevalence of the black arrests compared to the whites, directly rely on their involvement in serious criminal activities and/or conducts? Currently, several studies on criminal justice focus on the examination of various social explanations pertaining to the disproportionate rates of arrest by race. These studies primarily…
Becker, G.S. (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political
Blumstein, A. (1982). Racial Disproportionality of the United States' prison populations.
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology,73(2) 159-181.
The possibility of racial discrimination in the criminal justice system warrants attention from researchers, in order to encourage evidence-based policy change. Prior research has shown a clear connection between race and rates of arrest, but it is unclear whether the relationship is due to bias in the criminal justice system or bias in public perception of crime, leading to the belief that blacks are more dangerous than whites. This research shows whether there is indeed a relationship between race and arrest rates, and if so, under which circumstances the effect is most pronounced.. The five research hypotheses examine variables including race, type of crime, arrest rates, post-arrest procedures including prosecution and sentencing, mitigating variables like poverty, and political propaganda. It is expected that non-whites are more likely to be arrested for the groups of crimes known as "street crimes," including murder, rape, and drug trafficking, and it is…
Keen, B. & Jacobs, D. (2009). Racial threat, partisan politics, and racial disparities in prison admissions: A panel analysis. Criminology 47(1), 209-238.
Kochel, T.R., Wilson, D.B. & Mastrofski, S.D. (2011). Effect of suspect race on officers' arrest decisions. Criminlogy 49(2), 473-512.
Tapia, M. (2011). Gang membership and race as risk factors for juvenile arrest. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 48(3), p. 364-395.
Walker, S., Spohn, C. & DeLone, M. (2011). The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America. Cengage.
Moreover, many people in my neighborhood are able to have people come into their homes and provide services, such as housecleaning and lawn maintenance. Overwhelmingly, the providers of these resources are Hispanic, and the majority of them are illegal immigrants to the United States. Therefore, the hypocrisy of people is alarming; many people in my community are content to live a more comfortable lifestyle using the labor of illegal immigrants, but do not want to face any financial consequences for having done so, or to help provide any of the social services that these people need if they have come to the United States to work.
As far as I am aware, no manuals for any workplace in my community mention any race, specifically. To do so would invite charges of overt discrimination, even though doing so might actually help prevent certain types of discrimination. For example, an Indian friend…
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
ace and Community
The community in which I have lived for the past several years of my life is Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a relatively agricultural community that combines some major metropolitan features with a distinctive suburban flair. Traditionally, this community has not been noted for its racial diversity, as the vast majority of its residents are Caucasian. According to the United States Census Bureau's information as of 2009, 87.9% of all Sioux Falls residents were Caucasian, while the next highest population group, the population of American Indian and Alaskan Native persons, merely constitutes 8.5% of the city's residents (State and County, 2009). The percentages of populations are comparatively non-existent following the aforementioned group, as 2.9% of the city's inhabitants are Hispanic or Latino in origin, 1.2% of people reported their ethnicity as being Black, .9% of residents are Asian and .1% of the city's inhabitants are native…
State and County Quick Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved May 15, 2011) from U.S. Census Bureau website, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/46/4659020.html.
Diversity Data.org. (2010). Retrieved May 15, 2011 from Harvard, School of Public Health website, diversitydata.sph.harvard.edu/Data/Profiles/Show.aspx?loc=1296
Lift SD Families and Children Out of Poverty. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.sdvoicesforchildren.org/images/pdf/NewsletterFall09.pdf
Leonardson, G.R. & Loudenburg, R. (2005, June 24). Assessment of Disproportionate Minority Contact in South Dakota. Retrieved from http://doc.sd.gov/about/grants/documents/FullDMCReportFinal.pdf
An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high…
Crime has continued to capture the attention of Americans although there has been a decrease in the number of crimes over the past decade. Much attention has been paid to the propitious drop in the nation's crime rates, and more specifically, the murder rate. An increased rate of incarceration is considered one of the key factors behind this drop, although a number of notable criminologists disagree. Incarceration is one of the major consequences for youth and young adults arrested for committing violent crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.(Delgado, 2001, p. 3) This decrease however has not appeased society nor has it abated one's fears of crime and its circumstances. Researchers continue to report that crimes are however densely populated in urban communities; and usually consist of black on black crimes. On the other hand, it is imperative that one accept that urban areas are not the only locations where crimes are committed. In fact, there are various types of crimes that continue to occur. The types of crimes in question are those considered white-collar crimes. (Markowitz & Jones-Brown, 2000, p. 3) White-collar criminals have been described as middle-aged men of high social status, they often live in wealthy neighborhoods, and are respected by the community. The researcher further states that those that are interested in studying white-collar crime seldom do not study these individuals nor were policy makers and other officials interested. The writing also reports on a researcher that believed that the definitions behind crime are incorrect and misleading; Weisburd also states that the criminal behaviors of those in the lower classes have been negated in previous research. (Weisburd, Waring & Chayet, 2001) in the United States, little controversy exists regarding race-based crime statistics reports Knepper (2000).
However, there is information on each category of race, gender, and white-collar crime; on the other hand, there is a minute amount that offers insight into what individuals feel about various races and genders regarding white-collar crime. There is information that displays whom is most likely to commit a white-collar crime, and where most crimes are committed, however very little insight is given into how people (men and women regardless of race) feel about white-collar crimes. This is important in order to express another aspect of white-collar crime and its effect on the individual and possibly the individual's surroundings. Then variations will be clearer and more defined, until then things remain obscure.
The types of offenses committed by gender are notable for their similarities and their differences. Both are more heavily involved in minor property offenses than in serious crimes like robbery or murder. However, "Women offend at much lesser rates than men for all crime categories except prostitution. This gender gap in crime is greatest for serious crime and least for mild forms of
It is difficult to argue that the death penalty is being applied evenly and fairly as required by the Supreme Court's Furman v. Georgia decision. In fact, it could be argued, with statistics like these, that the application of the death penalty is being influenced by racial factors.
If the race of the victim is a factor in deciding whether or not the defendant receives the death penalty, then the race of the defendant is even more of a factor. For decades, critics of the justice system have asserted race to be a factor in crime and prosecutions in the United States, and it was ultimately the arbitrary imposition of the death penalty on African-Americans in Georgia that led to the Supreme Court's banning it in 1971. Black defendants are still overwhelming prosecuted more often than white defendants, but it is not only death penalty cases where this is the…
"ACLU: Race and the Death Penalty." (2003). The American Civil Liberties Union.
Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/capital-punishment/race-and-death-penalty
Banner, Stuart, the Death Penalty: An American History. (2002) United States: Harvard
noticeable gap when it comes to criminal-justice statistics, specifically police and their use of lethal force. Although statistics exist for several things like arson and homicides, there are no official and reliable tabulation of law enforcement-caused civilian deaths. The Washington Post mentioned in one of their articles, that almost 400 police killings occurred in one year. While this is at least an estimated figure versus unknown, James Comey, an FBI Director confessed he did not know how many of these killing occur every day, every month, or every year. There are just no efforts to collect such data.
Statistics such as these are important. Statistics play an important role in focusing the attention of politicians, defining the public debate, as well as driving the allocation of resources. The work of public officials is often assessed by how these statistics decrease or increase based on the efforts of such public officials.…
The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined…
Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. (2001). The impact of race on policing and arrests. Journal of Law and Economics, 44, 367-394. Retrieved from http://pricetheory.uchicago.edu/levitt/Papers/LevittDonohueTheImpactOfRace2001.pdf
Fite, P.J., Wynn, P., & Pardini, D.A. (2009). Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between
Black and White male juveniles. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(5), 916. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981137/ >.
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Community esponse to ace and Criminal Justice
The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), in Decatur, GA was chosen for this assignment. The department is responsible for serving the state's youth offenders up until the age of twenty-one. The organization's mission as stated on their web page is: "Our Mission is to protect and serve the citizens of Georgia by holding young offenders accountable for their actions through the delivery of services and sanctions in appropriate settings and by supporting youth in their communities to become productive and law-abiding citizens" (http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml). Cathy Dravis, the Juvenile Program Manager was interviewed. Below is a summary.
When asked how they view the issue of the disproportionate amount of African-American males arrested for drug distribution vs. Caucasian and Hispanic males, the response was that the person's environment that they grew up in plays a large role in shaping their adult lives. Many…
DJJ - About Us. (n.d.). DJJ Internet Home. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml
Grunwald, H., Lockwood, B., Harris, P., & Mennis, J. (2010). Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39(9), 1067-1079. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9518-5
Ryberg, J. (2011). Racial profiling and criminal justice. Journal Of Ethics, 15(1/2), 79-88. doi:10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3
Western, B. (2010).Decriminalizing poverty. Nation, 291(26), 12-14.
incarceration in the United States exhibits extreme racial disparity. There are significantly more African-Americans in the prison system than there are in the general population in fact, almost 50% of those incarcerated at any given time are black men and yet the U.S. population is comprised of only 12% African-Americans. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Cole and Clear give three main explanations for this disparity, differential criminality among minorities, racist criminal justice system and lastly a racist general population. (Clear & Cole 2002, Chapter 19) Within all three of these arguments there is some limited validity, yet it is also clear that there is still problem in need of serious address. acial disparity within prison and corrections in general is the most serious issue facing the corrections industry today.
The effects of racial disparity in incarceration reach much farther than the effects inside the social and economic structure of…
Clear, T. & Cole, G. (2002) American Corrections: Sixth Edition, New York, NY:
Coker, D. (2003). Foreword: Addressing the Real World of Racial Injustice in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 93(4), 827+. Retrieved November 14, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Knepper, P. (2000). Chapter 2 the Alchemy of Race and Crime Research. In The System in Black and White: Exploring the Connections between Race, Crime, and Justice, Markowitz, M.W. & Jones-Brown, D.D. (Eds.) (pp. 15-27). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
There is a great level of disparity and disproportionality in today's criminal justice system and as noted in this work in writing, this is likely the greatest challenge facing professionals in the contemporary criminal justice system and in the criminal justice system in the near future. It is critically important that this disparity and disproportionality be addressed due to the negative and adverse impacts that result from an overzealous imprisonment of individuals from minority racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
Harrison, Paige M. And eck, Allen J. (2006). Prisoners in 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice in: Garland, rett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the lumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf
Spohn, Cassia C. (2000). Thirty…
Harrison, Paige M. And Beck, Allen J. (2006). Prisoners in 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice in: Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at: http://www.cjcj.org/files/racial_disproportionality.pdf
Spohn, Cassia C. (2000). Thirty Years of Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a Racially Neutral Sentencing Process. In Garland, Brett E., Spohn, Cassia, and Wodahl, Eric J. (2008). Racial Disproportionality in the American Prison Population: Using the Blumstein Method to address the Critical Race and Justice Issue of the 21st Century. Justice Policy Journal. Vol.5, No.2, Fall 2008. Online available at:
Of the new consults 23 were transferred to ICU and 43 remained on the wards. The transfer of these patients was greatly facilitated and the inpatient ward staff was greatly satisfied with the interaction with the Outreach Team. edside education, expert resources and better patient-family communication were the most valued features of the team when the in-patient ward staff was surveyed. We noted a tremendous increase in the accessibility of the ICU to the hospital population. We did not, however, notice a decrease in the number of cardiac arrests in the hospital." (Simone, et al., 2007)
It was reported in the work entitled: "Pilot Project at TGH Shows that Critical Care Response Teams Can Significantly Reduce Cardiac and Respiratory Arrests and Hospital Deaths" in 2007 that data gathered between May 2005 and May 2006 "on the impact of the critical care response teams on 342 patients in Toronto General Hospital,…
Smith GB, Poplett N. (2004) Impact of attending a 1-day multi-professional course (ALERT) on the knowledge of acute care in trainee doctors. Resuscitation 2004; 61: 117-122.
Smith, Gary B. And Nolan, Jerry (2002) Medical Emergency Teams and Cardiac Arrests in Hospital: Results May Have Been Due to Education of Ward Staff. BMJ 2002 May 18; 324(7347): 1215.
White RJ, Garrioch MA.(2002) Time to train all doctors to look after seriously ill patients -- CCRiSP and IMPACT. Scot Med J. 2002; 47: 127.
Simone, Carmine, et al. (2007) the Introduction of a Critical Care Rapid Response Team in a Canadian Community Hospital. Critical Care: ICU Organization. 22 Oct. 2007. Online available at: http://meeting.chestpubs.org/cgi/reprint/132/4/445.pdf
ising U.S. Crime ate
Crime in the United States
Crime in the United States took a sharp uptick starting in the middle of the 20th century but has actually leveled off since then, at least for the most part. However, even with the moderation in crime, especially in larger cities that have traditionally been problematic, crime in some cities is still alarmingly high and there are some cultural and social trends that are becoming more and more prevalent and, by extension, more commonly talked about as well. This essay will explore a couple of the more notorious examples of this in motion.
One study conducted for this research noted that predicting the crime rate at any given point in time can be exceedingly maddening to predict because of how a single happenstance or course of events can have a massive effect on the overall rates. The study uses…
Burdett, K., Lagos, R., & Wright, R. (2003). Crime, Inequality, and Unemployment.
American Economic Review, 93(5), 1764-1777.
Carrington, K. (2006). Does Feminism Spoil Girls? Explanations for Official Rises in Female Delinquency. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Criminology
(Australian Academic Press), 39(1), 34-53.
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…
Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529
Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…
American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University
Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
ace, Class and Gender and Correctional Settings
Today, the United States incarcerates more than 25% of low-income young black males, so it is reasonable to suggest that there is an inextricable relationship between race, socioeconomic class and gender and the institutional correctional community. It is also reasonable to suggest that this relationship has a corresponding impact on clients, staff and the administration of correctional institutions. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify the role of race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community and the impact of these variables on clients, staff, and administration. Finally, an analysis concerning the impact of race, class, and gender on current correctional institutions is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the relationship between race, class and gender within the institutional correctional community in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Assigning inmates to prison. (2014). North Carolina Department of Public Safety. Retrieved from http://www.doc.state.nc.us/dop/custody.htm .
Camp, S.D. & Steiger, T.L. Gender and racial differences in perceptions of career opportunities and the work environment in a traditionally white, male occupation:
Correctional workers in the Federal Bureau of Prisons. In N.A. Jackson (ed.).
Contemporary issues in criminal justice: Shaping tomorrow's system, pp. 258-277,
representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…
Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.
Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.
Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.
Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, evidence-based policing became more commonplace, partly as a means to reduce corruption, but also as a means to make crime fighting more effective. Instruments used to measure crime at the federal level include those that fall under the rubric of the Department of Justice, such as Uniform Crime eporting and National Crime Victimization Service. The FBI also operates legal attache offices, the Combined DNA Index System, and other tools used to measure and empirically track crime (Schmalleger, 2015, p. 147). Likewise, the Department of Justice maintains several major crime reporting programs including the National Incident-Based eporting System. These reporting programs serve several core functions. They boost the effectiveness of criminal justice policy, they ensure policing and other aspects of criminal justice are evidence-based, and they inform the judicious allocation of resources throughout the criminal justice system. As Schmalleger (2015) points…
"Myth v. Reality: Crime has been Steadily Increasing." [CJi Interactive video].
Schmalleger, F. (2015). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Silver, S. (2014). CJ in the U.S.A.: An Introduction to Criminal Justice. San Diego, CA: Curriculum Technology.
criminal justice and American culture. Specifically it will discuss jail time served by Blacks, Hispanics and whites, and the lawyers who prosecute them. The statistics indicate that African-American men, especially between the ages of 25 to 29, are incarcerated at a higher rate than either Hispanics or whites. There are several factors that are associated with these statistics, including where these young men grow up, their income, and their education, among others. There is also the issue of racial profiling. This paper will look at these statistics and attempt to answer the question of why these young men serve more jail time than other American men do.
In most areas of violent and non-violent crime, African-American men are more represented in American prisons than any other race. Some people may feel African-Americans are more prone to crime and violence, but many studies point to several other factors in criminal activity.…
Editors. (2009). Demographic characteristics of persons convicted of felonies in State courts, by offense, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04201tab.htm .
Editors. (2009). Homicide trends in the United States. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/race.htm .
Editors. (2009). Mean length of felony sentences imposed in State courts, by offense and race of felons, 2004. Retrieved 21 May 2009 from the Bureau of Justice Statistics Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/html/scscf04/tables/scs04207tab.htm .
Goldman, D.S. (2004). The modern-day literacy test?: Felon disenfranchisement and race discrimination. Stanford Law Review, 57(2), 611+.
American Drug Policy: Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.
Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
The three necessities of life, food, shelter, and clothing, will always remain fundamental for all world citizens. Food sources will shift scope from the factory farm model in place today to smaller-scale organic farms. Smaller in scale but larger in number, farms will also rely less on long-distance transportation for delivery of goods, which will reduce stress on the environment. Housing will also evolve into a more ecologically-conscious industry with emphases on sustainable building materials and efficient heating, cooling, and lighting systems. Finally, all industries including clothing will be regulated not necessarily by corrupt governments but by local watchdog organizations to ensure living wages, healthy working conditions, and quality goods and services.
Community Development." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal eserve Board. etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community…
Community Development." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal Reserve Board. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD). U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
57. The Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault (Lawrence . Sherman and Richard A. Berk)
Types of data/methods: Sherman and Berk found that arresting batterers reduced by half the rate of subsequent offenses against the same victim within a 6-month followup period. However, in follow-up studies, sometimes offenders assigned to the arrest group had higher levels of (recidivism) while others showed a reduction in repeat cases.
Advantages/Disadvantages: Although the repeat nature of the offenses in a series of trials shows thoroughness, the inconsistent findings about whether mandatory arrest reduces domestic violence suggests more information about the different cases might be necessary to show if arrest helps in some cases but not in others.
Summarize the overall prevalence and incidence of the crime problem in the 1960s as portrayed by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (pg.361) and by the National Commission on…
Crime Statistics." (2006) Bureau of Justice. Retrieved 11 Jun 2006 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict.htm
Jacoby, Joseph E. (2004) Classics of Criminology. New York: Waveland Press.
humans unique is the combination of attitudes and opinions that make up perspective. Development of perspective determines how an individual lives, learns, and what decisions the individual makes. The attitude of a person has behavioral, affective, and cognitive components. Furthermore, it can exist in two different ways. The first is explicit attitudes. These attitudes manifest at a conscious level. They are intentionally formed and easy to identify (Wittenbrink & Schwarz, 2007). Implicit attitudes occur in an unconscious level, are not easy to identify, and are involuntarily formed. A brief example of this is a person meeting someone new.
The new person is wearing the shirt of the other person's favorite team. His name is Stu. Stu already likes the new person because he likes that team and they have something big, in common. Stu goes out a second night and has a bad interaction with a stranger. He doesn't know…
Dragiewicz, M. (2012). Gender bias in the courts: Implications for battered mothers and their children.Family And Intimate Partner Violence Quarterly, 5(1), 13-35. Retrieved from http://www.safetylit.org/citations/index.php?fuseaction=citations.viewdetails&citationIds%5B%5D=citjournalarticle_426721_38
Rehavi, M. & Starr, S. (2012). Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Charging and Its Sentencing Consequences. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1985377
Ross, D. & Dove, T. (2014). Bias in the Box: For capital juries across America, race still plays a role in who gets to serve. Virginia Quarterly Review, 90(4), 178-201.
Wittenbrink, B. & Schwarz, N. (2007). Implicit measures of attitudes. New York: Guilford Press.
war on drugs has been an unmitigated disaster that has fallen short of its intended objectives, and done nothing but blotted up taxpayers' money, opened up avenues for organized crime, and filled up the prison systems with mere drug users and possessors as the real traffickers and drug lords get enriched. Four decades since the launch of the war on drugs, violent crime caused by the drug trade continues to be a serious social concern. Four administrations have personally waged a war on drugs, characterized mainly through the criminalization of drugs and other harmful substances; yet these efforts have done little to decrease the availability and use of drugs in America. The country still tops the world in illegal drug use. A recent report by CNN, for instance, showed that approximately 500, 000 persons were in prison for drug-related crimes in 2012, compared to only 40,000 in 1989 (Branson, 2012).…
ACLU. (2015). Against Drug Prohibition. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Retrieved August 6, 2015 from https://www.aclu.org/against-drug-prohibition
Branson, R. (2012). War on Drugs -- A Trillion Dollar Failure. CNN. Retrieved August 6, 2015 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/06/opinion/branson-end-war-on-drugs/
California NORML. (2015).Guide to California's Marijuana Law. California NORML. Retrieved August 6, 2015 from http://www.canorml.org/camjlaws.html
Dillon, Z. (2012). Symposium on Overcriminalization. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(3), 525-527.
This essay discusses how the criminal justice system is an important part of the government, allowing for the prosecution, imprisonment, and rehabilitation of criminals. Apart from the court system and police, the criminal justice system has other components like criminal justice agencies that provide additional information for researchers to form studies and articles to help improve the criminal justice system as a whole. This Criminal Justice Essay will help students looking to understand what the system is and what components make up the system. By exploring the core of the criminal justice system, one can understand law and how the government carries out enforcement of the law within the country.
What is at the Core of the Criminal Justice System in the United States?
The Effects of the Criminal Justice System on Crime
Does the Criminal Justice System Need Change?
Selected Title: The Role of The American Criminal Justice…
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
The knowledge of the evolution and starting point of the field of Victimology is of utmost worth. Three different ancient epochs describing the Victims' position inside methods of justice were reviewed by some foremost Researchers including Moriarty and Jerin. The Epochs are the Golden Age, the Reemergence of the Victim and the Dark Age. There is a proposition that the Golden Age has been before the time when laws were documented and governments founded and when ethnic law was in power. In most of the ethnic law, victims' position in defining the penalty for the criminal dealings that another person executed on them or their belonging is direct. This time is reckoned to be when the only judgment for unlawful events is individual justice. This means that the victims request payback or return for their damages right from their offenders. The Evolution of the Dark Ages of victimology was solely…
Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System
Statistics regarding male and female criminality
Types of cases involving women and men
Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities
Feminists say women should get less jail time
Number of women vs. men arrested
omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time
Death penalty cases
10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women
Leniency of juries on women defendants
Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries
Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children
omen are always given less punishment than men in this area
Reaction of judges towards female defendants
a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators
Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators
In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…
Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568
Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice
Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.
Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.
Policing Strategies in the U.S.
Directive police patrols predict crimes that might occur by offering locations that are at a great risk of crimes during each patrol, shift day and night. This policing strategy has various advantages. Putting police officers in the ? by 500? prediction "boxes" creates a suppression and deterrence impact, thus prevents crime from happening. In turn, all these reduce arrests. We have seen cases where criminals were interjected and stopped from doing crimes or exiting a scene when a crime is committed. Reduced criminal arrests mean a decreased city costs regarding jails, departments, and courts. This frees up resources for throughout to concentrate on community problems and dwell deeper into solving issues rather than on increasing prison population.
Directed patrols try to understand criminal activities in a specified location or hot spot. A hot spot is defined as an area that holds a higher…
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…
Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.
Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
causes of violence, John Monahan details the limited knowledge and research that currently exists. He argues that, although biological, sociological, and psychological factors contribute individually to causing violence, the root of the problem lies in a combination of all three. In attempting to develop a multi-causal explanation, Monahan points to the influence and role of the family.
Although many theories have emphasized the importance of biological factors, such as hormones, chemical imbalances, brain injury, and genetics, in the causation of violence, the present level of scientific research has failed to identify any definite links. However, this same research has also failed to categorically disprove biological factors as a potential cause, thus supporting Monahan's call for an increase in the funding of study and research in this area.
The most commonly cited causes of violence are the many, and varied sociological factors. Although social science has been able to build an…
Monahan, J. (1994). The Causes of Violence. In Eskridge, C. Criminal Justice: Concepts and Issues (pp. 63-67). Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Co.
Social control can be maintained through proper guidelines and laws. If there will come a time that the multicultural society of Australia may be in need of change, there is always a room for social construction and re-construction as this is always part of the country's initiatives to develop and grow as a country for the people and by the people.
It appears that the Australian government is currently having an exaggerated moral panic over its asylum seekers. Based on a number of reports, this moral panic is just used as part of the propaganda of the new government to get the attention of the people. In fact, neither deviance nor lowering social control is not a problem and should not be considered as one.
Australia has been known for its humanitarian programs for asylum seekers from the very beginning. It was once the refuge of migrants wanting to…
Australian National Audit Office. (2001). Management Framework for Preventing Unlawful Entry into Australian Territory. Report No. 57.
Canberra: Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs. (2001). Refugee and humanitarian issues: Australia's response.
Jewkes, Y and Letherby G. (2002). Criminology: A Reader. SAGE Publications Ltd.McMaster, Don (2002). "Asylum Seekers: Australia's Response to Refugees." Melbourne; Melbourne University Press, pp 60
Picketing, Sharon. (2001). "Common Sense and Original Deviancy: News Discourses and Asylum Seekers in Australia," Journal of Refugee Studies, 14(2): 169-86.
Mobile Crisis Program:
Effectiveness, Efficiency and Consumer Satisfaction, Questions
What are the goals of the Mobile Crisis Program?
The mobile crisis program of DeKalb County, Georgia is a component of the DeKalb Community Service Board, a comprehensive mental health service agency aimed at treating and reducing the threat of lash-outs from mentally ill persons throughout the county. The goals of the program are to provide community-based psychiatric services to stabilize persons experiencing psychiatric emergencies in the least restrictive environment, to decrease arrests of mentally ill people in crisis, and to reduce police officers' time handling psychiatric emergency situations throughout the county, thus freeing them to return to their regular duty serving and protecting their respective communities.
In allowing for this type of program within its communities, DeKalb county's overarching goal of achieving stability within its borders has the ability to come to fruition. Additionally, as the mobile crisis program's goal…
race and racial inequality are structured in the United States of America. It explains the concepts of oppression and privilege, describing ways in which various social institutions (educational system, the media, the economy, politics and the state, criminal justice system, etc.) intersect to construct categories of difference in society. It concludes with a policy suggestions that would help to decrease racial and ethnic inequality in U.S. society.
Institutional Structures and acial Inequality
The manifestation of racism in social institutions are major impediment in the struggle against rampant prejudice in the country. Specific example is shown by Simon (2008), in the television drama series, The Wire created and written by a former police reporter. The series depicts institutional dysfunction in the police department, City Hall, the public school system. It reveals how the characters are betrayed by the same institutions that are important to them in provision of education, protection and…
Catholic Charities USA. (2008). Poverty and Racism: Overlapping Threats to the Common Good. Alexandria: Larry Snyder.
Kuznia, R. (2009, April 8). Racism in Schools: Unintentional But No Less Damaging. Retrieved from www.miller-mccune.com: http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/racism-in-schools-unintentional-3821/
Mauer, M. (2010 ). Statement of Marc Mauer Executive Director The Sentencing Project . Prepared for the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Washington DC.
Quigley, B. (2010, July 26). Rampant Racism in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from www.counterpunch.org: http://www.counterpunch.org/2010/07/26/rampant-racism-in-the-criminal-justice-system/
Ethnicity in Stafford, Virginia
Living in the commonwealth of Virginia in the year 2012 is a mostly enjoyable existence for myself and the fellow members of my community. Stafford, Virginia is a relatively small place. e have about 100,000 people living here. This is a community steeped in heritage. One of the landmarks of our community is the boyhood farm of First President of the United States, George ashington. Ferry Farm is the central tourist attraction in Stafford and many of our local events center around our Founding Father. During the Civil ar, President Abraham Lincoln visited Chatham, a private home in the region. The land was used as a station for the Union army during that war. America's history is part of our daily lives. This is evidenced by the fact that the phrase "here history meets the promise of tomorrow" is emblazoned on the town's website (Stafford 2012).…
Callandar, Alane (2008). "Race Remains Complex Issue in South." The Stafford County Sun.
Cohan, Stacey (2010). "Autistic Teen Jailed for Officer Assault." Fox DC: Washington, D.C.
Freehling, Bill (2011). "Stafford Moving on Up on U.S. Wealth List." The Free Lance Star.
The cases only took approximately four to five minutes implying to an unseen assembly line of justice. The study also brought to light the fact that minority cases from outside New York were listened to by an all white jury (Ingram, 2009).
The other part of the criminal justice system that witnessed high levels of racial prejudice is the correctional departments. Discrimination has been witnessed in the way prisoners of colour have been treated. Black inmates are less likely to get early release date compared to the white prisoners as they find it hard to find acceptable addresses that is crime and drug free. Whites have several options of where to stay compared to blacks thus a black prisoner is forced to stay longer in prison waiting for final release date. Convicts from minority groups have stiffer penalties for having conflicts with white convicts than with fellow blacks. This is…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal justice ethics: theory and practice. london: SAGE.
Ingram, D. (2009). Law: key concepts in philosophy. New York City: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Prison Activist Resource Center (2002). No date. Racism Fact Sheets: "African-Americans and the Criminal Injustice System." See
Schmid, T (2008).Definition of Racism. Journal of Applied Philosophy
While America prides itself in declaring it is a free nation where people with different skin colours live in harmony and where democracy is victorious, providing people with the same rights and benefits, the sour truth is that the same America is strongly prejudiced against non-white people.
Not only are they feared or believed to be inferior, but the whites express their superiority through measures which have real deep impact upon the lives of the others. Such is the case of the characters in the novel written in 1982, such is the case with the author of the "lack men and public spaces" essay and such is the case with yesterday's adventure involving Harvard professor Gates.
The characters in "The color purple" communicate their pessimist views regarding the evolution of the Americans society in which the very development of black people is biased. The author suggests that while black people…
"Race and ethnicity: life in the melting pot (1878-1899). American Eras, Volume 8: Development of the Industrial United States, 1878-1899. Retrieved May 13, 2010 from http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.library.ccbcmd.edu/servlet/HistRC/hits?docNum=BT2301500421&tab=1&locID=balt47855&origSearch=true&hdb=ALL&t=KW&s=sS&r=d&secondary=true&o=&sortOrder=&n=10&origSubj=Prejudice&l=dR&sgPhrase=true&seg=0&c=1&tabMap=119&bucket=gal&SU=Prejudice
"Racism as a factor in slavery." History in dispute Retrieved May 13, 2010 from http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.library.ccbcmd.edu/servlet/HistRC/hits?docNum=BT2306200496&tab=1&locID=balt47855&origSearch=false&hdb=ALL&t=RK&s=1&r=d&items=0&secondary=true&o=&sortOrder=&n=10&l=dR&sgPhrase=true&c=1&tabMap=119&bucket=gal&SU=racism
Staples, B. Black men and public spaces. Retrieved May 13, 2010 from http://lhsap11.wikispaces.com/file/view/Black+Men+and+Public+Spaces,+Brent+Staples.pdf
Walker, Al. The color purple. Harcourt. 2003
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…
American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer
Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
acial profiling is one of the most pressing civil right issues of our time. It extends beyond directs victims to negatively affect all persons of color of all generations and income levels. It undermines the legitimacy of the criminal justice system, and hinders effective policing in the communities that need it the most. A esource Guide on acial Profiling Data Collection System defines racial profiling as any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity. In the context of traffic stops by police officers, racial profiling should be defined broadly as encompassing officer's use of race or ethnicity as a factor in deciding to stop, question, search or arrest someone. acial profiling has been monitored in a…
Brenner, S.J., Schencke, L. (2002). Local officials seek to resolve racial profiling.
Retrieved February 10, 2005, from The Daily Illini
Web site: http://illinimedia.com/di/feb02/feb28/news/stories/news_story01.shtml
Gewertz, K. (2005). Schauer: Profiling can be a useful investigative tool. Retrieved February 10, 2005, from the President and Fellows of Harvard College
Brazilian Ethnic Issues
The racial / ethnic composition of Brazilians is quite different from the racial / ethnic make up of people in the United States, and unique in the world in many respects. How is the government dealing with ethnic and racial relations within their very large and culturally diverse country? This paper will review the literature on the dynamics (and history) of this multi-ethnic, multi-racial South American nation. And in addition some aspects of ethnicity and racial data in Brazil will be compared and contrasted with those data in the United States.
Racism is Learned, Justified, and Reinforced
According to author Benjamin P. Bowser, racism is "…a historic and cultural belief (in one race's inferiority and in another's superiority) that has been used by national elites" in order to continue a kind of "social stratification" that leans in their favor (Bowser, 1995, p. 285). Racism has been "very…
Bowser, Benjamin P. (1995). Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective. Thousand Oaks,
CA: SAGE Publications.
Daniel, G. Reginald. (2010). Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States:
Converging Paths? University Park, PA: Penn State Press.
The strongest case in the criminal law annals for race-based affirmative action occurs in "drug possession offenses," Heffernan writes. The drug busts show "compelling evidence of discrimination against blacks," the author insists; moreover, he claims that many law enforcement personnel have admitted that they practice "a kind of affirmative action: they admit that they selectively enforce anti-drug laws in the black community." The justification for busting black people in the inner city is that "heightened enforcement is good for the community," and further, the reason so many African-American men are caught dealing drugs is that is much easier for police to find crimes among poor people -- this assumes that many blacks in inner cities are low income -- because poor people "are more likely to commit those crimes in public places" (Heffernan, p. 225).
All of the issues that Heffernan has referenced contribute to the reason that the…
Eckholm, Erik. (2010). Congress Moves to Narrow Cocaine Sentencing Disparities. The New
York Times (p. a-16). Retrieved February 2, 2011, from General Reference Center Gold.
Heffernan, William C., and Kleinig, John. (2000). From Social Justice to Criminal Justice:
Poverty and the Administration of Criminal law. New York: Oxford University Press U.S..
Perception of acism and Colour Students
Historically, ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in comparison to their White counterparts in real society. Living in poverty also plays a role in being considered a disadvantaged individual. According to Boyle (2008) and the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, 25.3% Black/African-Americans, 21.5% Hispanics, and26.6% Native Americans and Native Alaskans live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008).In comparison, 10% of Whites and Asians live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008). The percentage of Black/African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and Native Alaskans living under the poverty line is doubled in comparison to Whites and Asians. For every one White or Asian individual living under the poverty line, there are two more Black/African-Americans, Hispanics or Native Americans and Native Alaskans that are living under the poverty line.
There is no coincidence that individuals living under the poverty line also live in areas where schools lack…
Alon, S. & Tienda, M. (2007). Diversity, opportunity, and the shifting meritocracy in higher education. American Sociological Review, 72(4), 487-511.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Cancian, M. (1998). Race-based verses Class-based affirmative action in college admissions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17(1), 94-105.
Dee, T.S. (2004). The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, 4(2), 52-59. Retrieved from ERIC database.
IV. ARRIERS to 'JUSTICE 'FOR ALL'
There are barriers that stand in the way of all individuals experiencing the same level of justice as other experience and these barriers may include those which are structural and socio-economic as well as other barriers to justice which include gender, race, and ethnicity. In other words, there are barriers effectively in place barring individuals from being on the receiving end of an equal level of justice based upon their socio-economic status even if the barriers of race and ethnicity are not present while someone of the same race in another region of the world or a different country area that will be on the receiving end of an inequity in justice based solely on the individual's race.
V. EXAMINATION of FACTORS AFFECTING JUSTICE
Cultural and societal barriers for justice include the barriers faced by individuals in a society that does not speak the…
Houseman, Alan W. And Perle, Linda E. (2007) Securing Equal Justice for all: A Brief History of Civil Legal Assistance in the United States. Center for Law and Social Policy. Online available at http://www.clasp.org/publications/legal_aid_history_2007.pdf
istory from 1865 to te present day. To focus te researc, select six subtopics (specific events or developments related to te topic, separated in time); tree from before 1930 and tree from after.
Tere are more tan 50 million immigrants (legal and illegal) and teir U.S.-born cildren (under 18) in te United States as of August 2012. As of te last decade, most immigrants come from te following countries: Honduras (85%), India (74%), Guatemala (73%), Peru (54%), El Salvador (49%), Ecuador (48%), and Cina (43%). Approximately, 28% of tese immigrants are in te country illegally. Rougly alf of Mexican and Central American and one-tird of Sout American immigrants are ere illegally.
Te Center for Immigration Studies (Rigt Side news) finds tat immigration as dramatically increased te population of low-income individuals in te United States, altoug many immigrants, te longer tey live in te country, make significant progress. However, immigrants…
Pula, James S. "American Immigration Policy and the Dillingham Commission," Polish-American Studies (1980) 37#1 pp 5-31
Yakushko, O et al. (2008) Stress and Coping in the Lives of Recent Immigrants and Refugees: Considerations for Counseling International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 3, 167-178
Moral Licensing and Morality:
Does Being Good Make You Bad?
This study focuses on 107 psychology students living in Australia for more than a year. The students were given a moral licensing crime task with two potential suspects; one of whom was more likely to be guilty. For the control group, both suspects were Anglo Australians; for the moral licensing group, the less suspicious suspect was Aboriginal. The hypotheses were that: moral licensing will not impact explicit moral self-concept; moral licensing will have a negative impact on implicit moral self-concept; moral licensing will make participants less racially sensitive; and moral licensing will make participants less likely to volunteer than the control participants. There was no significant different between the control condition and the moral licensing condition for explicit moral self-concept or for racism sensitivity. Participants in the control condition scored higher on the test for implicit moral self-concept and were…
Aquino, K., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 83, 1423-1440.
Effron, D. A, Miller, D.T., & Monin, B. (2012). Inventing racist roads not taken: the licensing effect of immoral counterfactual behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 103, 916-932. doi:10.1037/a0030008
Policy and Practice
acial disparity in arrests and convictions in Georgia are is a significant and growing social problem. Yet, legislation and policy seems to be lacking in an attempt to solve or even begin to reverse the increasing trend. Georgia has been a special focus of several human rights organizations for some time with regard to the disparity associated with arrests, convictions and sentencing but especially with those having to do with drug laws. In 1996 Human ights Watch (HW)a nonprofit organization that seeks to bring awareness to legal and policy issues that are applied unfairly to minorities determined that Georgia has one of the worst race records in the nation with regard to new drug enforcement laws as well as extremely disproportionately applied mandatory sentencing laws with regard to those laws.
HW determined through careful examination that between 1990 and 1995 3% of whites who qualified for mandatory…
Georgia's Supreme Court Chief Justice's Commission on Indigent Defense, 2002, www.georgiacourts.org/aoc/press/idc/idchearings/idcreport.doc
Human Rights Watch, 1996 Human Rights Violations in Drug Law Enforcement in Georgia. http://ndsn.org/sept96/hrw.html
Human Rights Watch, 2008, Targeting Blacks: Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/us0508_1.pdf
Tonry, Michael. Malign Neglect New York: Oxford University Press. 1996.
Gender and Culture in Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment: A egional, National and International Comparison
Comparing the rates of crime and punishment in the United States as a whole to various individual regions and states, and to other countries in the world can provide very useful information regarding criminal justice policies in the nation. Through such measurement and comparisons, programs that work -- and those that do not -- can be identified, expanded, adjusted, or eliminated as warranted by the evidence. On a deeper level, understanding such information can tell a society a lot about its attitudes towards crime and various 'types' or demographics of criminals, potentially exposing not only more fundamental societal issues but also cultural values, perspectives, and ethics. Within North American culture violence, racism and religion are often interrelated. Although the U.S. has always claimed to be a Christian nation -- or perhaps a Judeo-Christian one --…
Amnesty International. (2011). Death Sentences and Executions 2010. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ACT50/001/2011/en/ea1b6b25-a62a-4074-927d-ba51e88df2e9/act500012011en.pdf
CPF. (2011). California Death Penalty Statistics. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.californiapeopleoffaith.org/statestats.html
Death Penalty Information Center. (2011). Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/women-and-death-penalty
Man in Terror Scare Says Woman is Lying (2002). CNN.com.
Advertising and public relations serve to communicate ideas and convince the audience of something. Politicians are among the most prolific advertising spenders during election campaigns and can have enormous public relations machines. This is especially true of Presidential candidates, who must first run for their party's nomination and then must run for President. We know that Hillary Clinton went from frontrunner to loser in the race for the Democratic Presidential nomination in 2008. There are lessons to be learned about the different factors that contribute to selling an idea, in this case Clinton as President, to different audiences. This case study will evaluate Clinton's campaign leading up to the Democratic primary using the OSTE model. The OSTE model focuses on research, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation.
The Hillary Clinton campaign at the time of the case was a large organization. It featured both extensive advertising and public relations, backed…
Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social media killed her campaign. Success Creations. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://successcreeations.com/339/hillary-clintons-approach-to-social-media-killed-her-campaign/
Gawiser, S. & Witt, G. (2012). 20 questions a journalist should ask about poll results. National Council on Public Polls. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.ncpp.org/?q=node/4
Murray, M. (2008). The primary vs. general election fallacy. NBC News. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/23591347/
OpenSecrets.org. (2008). Hillary Clinton. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N
.....police brutality against people of color has a long history in the United States, the Rodney King incident and the media attention it received promised to alter policy and public discourse. Yet police brutality continues to be a problem and threatens to undermine civil rights in America. Police brutality against visible minorities also erodes public trust in the institution of the law and the system of law enforcement. Those effects are palpable not only at the community level but also at the individual level of perceptions of police, as one study shows a substantial number of Americans have evolved contempt for law enforcement, suspicion of law enforcement, or "perceive law enforcement as agents of brutality," (Chaney and Robertson 480). Community policing models cannot take root or hope to mitigate or reverse the effects of these results unless there is a nationwide policy change to law enforcement organizational culture and training.…
Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D.C.
This paper examines the political life of Marion Barry, former mayor of Washington D.C. And current member of Washington's city council. Barry was arrested and convicted of possession of crack. He has also been linked to a number of other political and personal scandals. This paper attempts to determine: the impact Barry's contemporaries believed his actions would have on his political career; the impact that his actions have had on his political career; how Barry remains politically relevant after a criminal conviction; the role that race plays in Barry's continued political viability; and what Barry's continued political viability say about the current state of racial relations in the United States.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Framing the Problem
Chapter 3. Study Questions
Chapter 4. Data Collection, Composition, and eporting
Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 6. Conclusion
Chapter 1: Introduction…
A&E. (2013). Marion S. Barry, Jr. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from Biography website:
Ashley, J. (1990, January 21). The Barry years: Triumphs and troubles. Retrieved April 9,
2013 from The Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/dc/barry/timeline.htm
Discretionary Situations for a Police Chief
Discretion in the Police Department
Discretionary Situations in Criminal Arrests: "Stop" and "Frisk," acial Profiling
The expectation is that public administrators apply a balancing act in the decision making process. Focus for this study is on law enforcement administrators, especially police chiefs, on their responses to their officers' discretion to criminal arrests. The argument put forth is that police discretion is limited by managerial and information technology monitoring methods, which direct police officers to adhere to set up procedures (Chan, 2003; owe, 2007). Given that police officers usually have the opportunity to make a decision on whether to apply laws. This concept paper finds that there is a close relationship between management decisions and use of discretion. It is on this basis the research will focus on the police chief's management decisions and the use of discretion in two major scenarios.
A police department…
Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318, 325-26 (2001). In Nirej, S.S. (2011). Redistributive Policing. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 101(4), 1171-1226.
Chan, J. (2003). Policing and New Technologies. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of Policing. New York: Willan, 655-679.
Frase, R.S. (2005). Sentencing Guidelines in Minnesota, 1978-2003. In Tonry, M. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 32, p131, p201.
Harcourt, B.E. (2007). Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age. 1st ed. University of Chicago Press, 119.
Disparity and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
Discrimination in the justice system is the dissimilarity based on the difference in treatment given to people regardless of their qualifications or behavior. The criminal justice system has different forms of discrimination including pure justice, contextual discrimination, institutionalized discrimination, and systematic discrimination. Every stage of the criminal justice system experiences systematic discrimination. Further, this form of discrimination occurs without variation in all corners of the world. This implies that systematic discrimination happens when a certain gender, ethnic, age or race group encounters discrimination in different parts of the world. Critics are of the opinion systematic discrimination does not exist while other believes that it exists when groups of people encounter consistent discrimination in the criminal justice system (obinson & Williams, 2009).
Institutionalized discrimination is associated with disparities in the results and not in the policies. Institutionalized discrimination is based on the aspect…
Mustard, B. (2009). Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in sentencing: Evidence from the U.S.
Federal Courts. New York: Springer.
Robinson, M. & Williams, M. (2009). The myth of a fair criminal justice system. South Carolina:
Edward Elgar Publishing.
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.
Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
Since its first mention at the UN General Assembly, global warming has come to be regarded the greatest human development challenge for the 21st century (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). This has prompted multiple studies, conventions and policy development meetings aimed at arresting the situation. One such study was the Fourth Assessment eport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Findings released in 2007 showed that global temperatures were unequivocal and accelerating. The magnitude - an average increment of 0.74 degrees centigrade in the past century, was notably the highest warming trend in recent times. The worrying aspect is that the warming trend is bound to continue with a predicted increment of about 1.8-6.4 degrees centigrade in the coming years (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). The increasing temperatures will have profound effects on life on earth as it is expected that the warming will disrupt…
Berg, L.R. (2008). Introductory Botany: Plants, People, and the Environment. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Islam, M.R., Chhetri, A.B., & Khan, M.M. (2011). Greening of Petroleum Operations:The Science of Sustainable Energy Production. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Maslin, M. (2006). Global Warming. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.
McInerney-Lankford, S.A., Darrow, M., Rajamani, L., & Banque M. (2011). Human Rights and Climate Change: A Review of the International Legal Dimensions. Washington, D.C: World Bank.