Racial Bias Essays (Examples)

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Racial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts a

Words: 1999 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45324950

acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts

A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.

In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).

esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…… [Read More]

References

Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.

Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.

Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.

Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
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Bias in the Curricula

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43394625

Bias in Curricula

Native American Bias in K-12 Literature

There are many artifacts used in curricula that illustrate a racial bias towards marginalized groups. American Indians are one such group adversely affected by stereotypical and offensive portrayals in educational material and literature. Native Americans are typically not even mentioned in American history textbooks past 6th grade curriculum. When they are referenced, it is often in terms of Pilgrims and Thanksgiving. Other times they are depicted as adversaries to be defeated in the "settling" of the West. As far as most Americans have been taught in the educational system, Native Americans virtually ceased to exist after 1890. In addition, there exists a very pervasive and subtle dehumanizing Native American stereotype that has become ingrained in American popular culture (i.e., sports teams, Halloween costumes, etc.). These misrepresentations -- and the misperceptions that follow - are commonly held by all Americans, and have…… [Read More]

References

Banks, L.R. (2005). The Indian in the cupboard. New York: Random House/Listening Library.

Olson, H.A. (2001). Classification or organization: What's the difference? Knowledge

Organization 28(1), 1-3.

Phillips, W.S. (1963). Indian Campfire Tales: Legends about the Ways of Animals and Men. New York: Platt & Munk.
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Racial Prejudice the Creation and

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74824027



One of the primary reasons that non-white minorities are so disproportionately affected by the reduction in federal aid for higher education expenses, and/or the availability of affordable programs and institutions, is that they have not had equal economic access, either. This is something else that Lui et al. note in their description of the development of American culture and society. A lack of education as well as a prejudiced belief in the abilities of minorities often relegates them into manual labor occupations, where potentials for earning and advancement are limited. This creates a perpetual cycle of poverty, or at least of lower-middle-class status (which can often be worse in terms of receiving aid for higher education) leading to a lack of education and advancement, which in turn reinforces the idea that education is not meant for minorities, which reduces funding, etc.

There have, of course, been many attempts to address…… [Read More]

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Bias Intercultural Communication and Leadership

Words: 1285 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47589575



Q5. How will you deal with others in your workplace who feel they have no biases but you are aware that they do?

I think that sensitivity training and diversity education should be mandatory components of all workplaces. This type of training should include self-administered questionnaires like the HIAT to raise awareness about the commonness of prejudice and also role-playing and discussions about different assumptions and communication styles. I should note that I do not believe that explicitly 'calling someone out' on their prejudices and shaming them is particularly helpful; firmly presenting an alternative point-of-view or way of looking at the situation is much more effective. Organizations must also have strong and effective anti-discrimination policies to reduce bias. This can help all workers. "We have developed a "good person/bad person" paradigm of diversity. A more accurate depiction, however, is that we all have bias of one kind or another. It…… [Read More]

References

Best practices: Employers. (2013). Workplace Empathy. Retrieved:

http://workplaceempathy.com/library/bestpractices/employer

FAQ. (2013). HIAT. Retrieved:

 https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/demo/background/faqs.html#faq1
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Racial Dynamics the Organization for

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5344665

Differences in achievement are often attributed to race, ethnicity, gender or social class, when in reality it is often these demographic considerations that impact the ways teachers, parents, and educational professionals treat students. Lowered expectations for African-American students or elevated expectations for upper-income whites are common symptoms of the current and outmoded ideology. All schools needed to examine the problem with such obviously biased assumptions and to reform school curricula based on a more democratic ideology. Furthermore, the schools had to reform the definition of intelligence in order for the reforms to take root. Redefining intelligence was in fact the largest obstacle in altering the racial dynamics in the public schools.

We will not face such serious ideological challenges, as our organization is fundamentally different from a school. However, we face our own outmoded beliefs and assumptions and must also learn to redefine some of the essential aspects of our…… [Read More]

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Biases in Decision-Making Biases Refer to Prejudices

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79274715

Biases in Decision-Making

Biases refer to prejudices or favors of or against an object, group, or individual in comparison to another (Moule, 2009). This aspect is normally unfair in relation to making critical as well as effective judgment or decisions. On the other hand, unconscious biases refer to our natural people preferences. Unconscious biases also relate to the concept of hidden biases in the process of making unfair decision. Unconscious biases have massive influence on the underpinnings with reference to the decision-making process. It is critical for individuals to overcome unconscious biases in order to make valuable and fair decisions in accordance with relevant activities.

Discuss how biases can affect our decision-making during the hiring process

Biases have massive influence on our decision-making in the process of hiring new employees in the context of an organization. Biases influence our decision-making when hiring new employees in several ways. One of the…… [Read More]

References

Messner, C., Wanke, M., & Weibel, C. (2011). Unconscious Personnel Selection. Social Cognition, 29(6), 699-710.

Moule, J. (2009). Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism. (Cover story).

Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 320-326.

Parloff, R., & Kaufman, S.M. (2007). The War Over Unconscious Bias. Fortune, 156(8), 90-
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Bias and Colorblindness Effects of Implicit Bias

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46269924

Bias and Colorblindness

Effects of implicit bias in contemporary society

Implicit bias involves the stereotypical associations which are very subtle that those who hold them are not able to recognize them. Implicit bias has some effects on gender and race within the contemporary society. Implicit bias has an influence on people's behavior. Implicit bias is responsible for most of the racial disparities that continue to occur in the society today.it is also termed as a source of a lot of racial disparities when it comes to criminal justice system. It has been found out that most of the people including those who fully embrace norms of nondiscrimination hold implicit biases which make them treat black Americans in ways that are discriminatory. At the same time, implicit bias can also lead to gender-based discrimination. This is because there are some stereotypical associations made with reference to one gender being better than…… [Read More]

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Racial Ideology of Latinas

Words: 11967 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57637272



The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.

The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]

Reference:

Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.

San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).

San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.

Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
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Addressing Racial Disparities in Incarceration

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97578649

acial Disparities in Incarceration

There is an abundance of salient information related to prisons and the correctional system in the United States dispensed throughout Mauer's article, "Addressing racial disparities in incarceration." The article was published in 2011, which makes it still relevant and informative for contemporary society. As the title of this work of literature suggests, it widely discusses various aspects of the prison system pertaining to racial disparities. Despite this title, it is noteworthy that the bulk of the author's research is concentrated on those disparities as related to Caucasians, African-Americans and Latinos, with little more than a note about other races including Asians and Native Americans (both of which the author claims there is a paucity of relevant data for) (Mauer, 2011, p. 88S). Additionally, it is important to realize that the racial disparity in various facets of incarceration reflects a relative scarcity of Caucasians and an abundance…… [Read More]

References

Mauer, M. (2011). Addressing racial disparities in incarceration. The Prison Journal Supplement to 91(3), 87S-101S.
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Explicit and Implicit Bias

Words: 1416 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22910487

humans unique is the combination of attitudes and opinions that make up perspective. Development of perspective determines how an individual lives, learns, and what decisions the individual makes. The attitude of a person has behavioral, affective, and cognitive components. Furthermore, it can exist in two different ways. The first is explicit attitudes. These attitudes manifest at a conscious level. They are intentionally formed and easy to identify (Wittenbrink & Schwarz, 2007). Implicit attitudes occur in an unconscious level, are not easy to identify, and are involuntarily formed. A brief example of this is a person meeting someone new.

The new person is wearing the shirt of the other person's favorite team. His name is Stu. Stu already likes the new person because he likes that team and they have something big, in common. Stu goes out a second night and has a bad interaction with a stranger. He doesn't know…… [Read More]

References

Dragiewicz, M. (2012). Gender bias in the courts: Implications for battered mothers and their children.Family And Intimate Partner Violence Quarterly, 5(1), 13-35. Retrieved from http://www.safetylit.org/citations/index.php?fuseaction=citations.viewdetails&citationIds%5B%5D=citjournalarticle_426721_38

Rehavi, M. & Starr, S. (2012). Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Charging and Its Sentencing Consequences. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1985377

Ross, D. & Dove, T. (2014). Bias in the Box: For capital juries across America, race still plays a role in who gets to serve. Virginia Quarterly Review, 90(4), 178-201.

Wittenbrink, B. & Schwarz, N. (2007). Implicit measures of attitudes. New York: Guilford Press.
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Personal Awareness of Cultural Bias in Social and Cultural Diversity

Words: 2763 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49030133

Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)

Question 2

The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…… [Read More]

Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)

American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).

These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)

Question 7

As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
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A Concise Analysis of Evaluating Educational Inequality along Racial Lines

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56387184

Educational Inequality Along acial Lines

The role of education in the American society cannot be overemphasized. Education plays an important role in equipping students with knowledge and skills for transforming their life and the society at large. Also, the education system instills appropriate values, behaviors, and attitudes in students, making them useful members of the society. Nonetheless, while education is important, it tends to reinforce the existing social inequality, particularly along racial lines. Funding inequalities and learning outcomes between schools from privileged backgrounds and those from unprivileged backgrounds attest to this. This paper examines inequality in education along racial lines. The paper specifically focuses on four aspects: the role of education from two sociological perspectives; the role of funding in producing educational inequality along racial lines; America's cultural diversity (in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and class) and the educator's role in promoting cultural diversity; as well as an anti-racist…… [Read More]

References

Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2014). Restoring opportunity: the crisis of inequality and the challenge for American Education. Boston: Harvard Education Press.

Farley, J. (2012). Majority-Minority Relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.

Parrillo, V. (2009). Diversity in America. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.
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Capital Punishment System Is Still Racially Biased

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93005300

Capital Punishment System is Still acially Biased" by David A. Love asserts that the times when the death penalty tends to be administered is based on generally arbitrary, unfair and racially biased factors, and is seldom based on the merits of the case. One example that Love offers is the acial Justice Act which is legislation in North Carolina that allows a death row prisoner to challenge their sentencing through the use of statistical evidence of racial prejudice in the nation. The very fact that such legislation exists in America is a shining piece of evidence for the fact that our nation is indeed a very skewed one when it comes to racial inequality, and that there is a long history of the legal and illegal persecution of others according to race. Love demonstrates compelling evidence to demonstrate how capital punishment has long been an issue of race, with the…… [Read More]

References

Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2007). The color of justice. Belmont: Thomson

Wadsworth.
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African Studies Racial Policy The

Words: 2852 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34202767

Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7745289

Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113156830

Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
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Bias With Respect to Social

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25631417

The Tampa Bay Times recently reported on the standoff between school administrators, who claim the offending passages have been taken out of context, and protestors who have cried foul over what they perceive to be ideological indoctrination, stating that "the concerns raise the specter of textbook wars in other states, especially Texas, where ideological camps have long locked horns over everything from the validity of evolution to how much the Founding Fathers were guided by Christianity" (Matus & Solochek, 2011).

The inclusion of biased statements within textbooks which are widely regarded by students as unimpeachable records of factual statement is startling to say the least. There are several serious ramifications that this disturbing trend may have on the nation's educational efficacy, with entire generations of students learning from wildly disparate perspectives depending on the vagaries of publishing arrangements, administrative agendas, and other corruptive forces. esearch on the construction of textbook…… [Read More]

References

Dhand, H. (1988). Bias in social studies textbooks: New research findings. History and Social Science Teacher, 24(1). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtS earch_SearchValue_0=EJ383085&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ38308 5

Hickman, H., & Porfilio, B.J. (2012). New Politics of the Textbook: Critical Analysis in the Core Content Areas (Vol. 2). SensePublishers.

Matus, R., & Solochek, J. (2011, January 21). Patriots United claims bias toward Islam in school textbooks?. The Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved from http://www.tampabay.com/news/education/k12/patriots-united-claims-bias-toward-islam- in-school-textbooks/1146816

Stambaugh, J.E., & Trank, C.Q. (2010). Not so simple: Integrating new research into textbooks. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9(4), 663-681. Retrieved from   http://www.immagic.com/eLibrary/ARCHIVES/GENERAL/AOM_US/A101201S.pdf
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Bias Against Minorities in Death Penalty Sentences

Words: 970 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79809576

bias against minorities in death penalty sentences. The writer uses a research approach to analyze this hypothesis. One of the things the writer does is critique literature that has already been published about the topic. At that point the writer discusses the literature's impact and validity and draws an independent conclusion. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.

America has waffled on the topic of capital punishment since the nation's infancy. There are some eras in which the nation's people stood firmly behind the death penalty and believed the adage "an eye for an eye," while at other times the voters have stopped the allowance of execution as a punishment. With each change there are those who are advocates and those who are detractors from the principle itself. Whether or not the death penalty is a viable solution for crime diversion is still under debate. In addition to…… [Read More]

Elisabeth Frater, WHITE HOUSE: Testing the Federal Death Penalty., National Journal, 12-02-2000.

Katz, Michael. The Undeserving Poor. New York: Pantheon Books, 1989.

Petersilia, J. "Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System: A Summary." Crime and Delinquency 31 (1985): 28.
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Bias in the Classroom Today

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4375239

maintain a culturally relevant and anti-bias program in a classroom setting as well as the identification of some principles and strategies for working effectively with English as second language students and what type of support or training teachers might need to implement these principles and strategies. Finally, a description concerning some ways that teachers can control the classroom environment to enhance cultural relevant learning and specific examples of materials and activities that might be used is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning strategies for developing anti-bias programming in the classroom in the conclusion.

Ways that a culturally relevant and anti-bias program can be established and maintained in a classroom setting

Humans are naturally biased creatures and the process begins early on. For instance, Barta and Winn (1996) report that, "Children begin to develop biases and prejudices long before they reach our classrooms. Research shows that…… [Read More]

A young girl from a multi-ethnic Hawaiian family join family members including aunts and grandmothers in the home's kitchen to make dumplings destined for the traditional dumpling soup that is being made for the family's traditional New Year's Eve celebration. This book discusses racial identities, family structure, and holidays.

Reiser, L. (1993). Margaret and Margarita. New York: Greenwillow Books.

This book describes how two young girls meet in a park and determine how to play despite the inability of the girls to speak each other's languages (Spanish and English). The book also describes the respective family structures of the two girls.
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Biased View Is Presenting Facts

Words: 1942 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63593208

lack peoples believe that America is being white society day by day and other identities are favored very less as compare to white peoples. It is the white race which controls almost everything for Muslims and black it is like a dream to be a president or getting selected for any higher post America may be a melting point but this problem has become common issue now but none can do anything to get rid of it. If we go in depth we will come to know who is being victim of prejudice the things which are being affected by prejudice in America are institutes and Offices. It is affecting peoples because of prejudice all of the black Americans has become victims of complex, prejudice is also affecting all of the events, which serve as dedication to American liberty. There are still few peoples found in America who believes that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Report Card. 'Prejudice in America'. http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/07-23-2007/0004630594&EDATE=

Tracinski, Rober. April 16, 2001. 'America's Problem with Prejudice' http://www.aynrand.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=7349&news_iv_ctrl=1076

Wikipedia. 'Prejudice.' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prejudice#Sociology

Incarceration and Race.' http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/usa/Rcedrg00-01.htm
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Bias in Voter Turnout and State Welfare

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20534811

Bias in Voter Turnout and State Welfare Changes

The authors of the article are predominantly concerned with the welfare policies that were passed after 1996 when the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was signed into law. Centrally, the article highlights the influences that the class bias in the voter turn-out had on the welfare changes especially in state welfare policies since the passing and signing into effect the TANF.

The widely held position that the low voter turn out in the disenfranchised sections of the population like the minority and the economically week regions contributes to the bad policies that have been passed since 1996 is the basic question the authors discuss. They try to evaluate and see whether it is true that the lower voter turn out in such regions as mentioned above do directly contribute to bad policies that do not care for the poor in the…… [Read More]

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Racial Profiling and Fusion Centers

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30672205

tenet of Christian societies is a need to create healthy and safe local communities. Christians frequently emphasize freedom and justice within the Judeo-Christian perspective. That means creation and promotion of fair criminal justice policies. These criminal justice policies must do away actions based on stereotypes and try to eliminate racial profiling as of apprehending potential criminals. With the support of religious entities and congregations, implementation of community-oriented policing methods through collaboration with intelligence-gathering entities may lead to effective and easier community policing. Things like fusion centers and intelligence-led policing (ILP) may make such a novel aim possible.

Fusion centers act as an information sharing center. Fusion centers were created under the U.S. Department of Justice through two government agencies: Office of Justice Programs and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Most of them were formed from 2003-2007 (ukus, Warner, & Zhang, 2017). The purpose of fusion centers is to promote at…… [Read More]

References

Lambert, D. (2010). FBI -- Intelligence-Led Policing in a Fusion Center. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2010/december/intelligence-led-policing-in-a-fusion-center

Rukus, J., Warner, M. E., & Zhang, X. (2017). Community Policing: Least Effective Where Need Is Greatest. Crime & Delinquency, 1-24. doi:10.1177/0011128716686339

Schmalleger, F. (2017). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Career & Technology.

Spencer, K. B., Charbonneau, A. K., & Glaser, J. (2016). Implicit Bias and Policing. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), 50-63. doi:10.1111/spc3.12210
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Racial Injustice in the Legal System

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20127296

Kill a Mockingbird

A Textual Analysis of the Character Development within this Short Story

The short story by Harper Lee, "To Kill a Mockingbird," is an illustration of how people viewed the various stereotypical traits, which are deeply ingrained in the culture and associated with the various demographics that were present in the South during the period in which the story was set. The 1930s in the South was a period in the United States that most people cannot fully envision due to the fact that there have been many systemic changes in the country's culture. However, despite many drastic differences that are present in the contemporary period relative to the story's setting, on the other hand there are also many similarities that continue to persist until this day. For example, one of the primary themes in the story centers upon a sense of racial injustice that was present in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Warner, 1982. Print.
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Chinese American Racial Stereotypes in American Media

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 582070

Racial Stereotypes

Cultural Biases in America Against Individuals of Asian Extraction

Attention Getter

Personalize issue even for non-Asians

Racial Stereotypes

hat they are in general

hy and how they exist culturally

Anti-Asian Stereotypes

Long-standing nature

Asians not seen as true Americans

Trading Cards

Advertising of past

Advertising today of anti-Asian nature

Negative Asian Stereotypes

hat they are hy bad

Positive Asian Stereotypes

hat they are hy no 'good' stereotype, good or bad

Violence Against Asians

Radio talk show host

Chinese delivery person

Call for Tolerance

Speech Text

Cultural Biases in America Against Individuals of Asian Extraction

Look around you. How many faces of color do you see? Or, perhaps you yourself are considered or consider yourself a person of color. e would like to think that we are all the same under the skin, so to speak. Yet our culture tells us differently. In the phrases of James Chan, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chan, James. "Rough on Rats" --Racism and Advertising in the Latter Half of the Nineteenth Century." The Chinese Historical Society of America. Article retrieved on April 11,2004 at http://www.chsa.org/features/ching/ching_conf.htm

Ginsberg, Marsha. "Crisis inflames biases against Asians." San Francisco Chronicle. 2001. Article retrieved on April 11,2004 at  http://americanmediawatch.tripod.com/id39.htm
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Women and Gender Bias the

Words: 13238 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41373850

Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?

If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).

ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html

Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005

"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/ 

"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from  http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
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Culture Bias in Intelligence Assessments

Words: 4715 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78028729

Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment

Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.

The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.

We…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5001314786

Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.

Enriching the Focus on ethnicity and race. (1998). APA Monitor. VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3 - March 1998 www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=95784671

Alexander, K.L. (1997). Public Schools and the Public Good. Social Forces, 76(1), 1-30.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=86928340
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End Racial Preferences Affirmative Action Was an

Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14073193

End Racial Pefeences?

Affimative action was an impefect solution to the poblems which iddled an impefect society. Centuies of slavey, subjugation, misogyny and othe issues contibuted to a society whee the playing field in Ameica has been fa less than equal fo an enomous amount of time. This means that women and minoities often have to stuggle and wok twice as had to get ahead and often don't. Affimative action was designed as a means of attempting to level out the playing field, so that these goups could have moe of a fai shot at getting into bette schools and secuing moe desiable jobs. Obama has been quoted as still being a suppote of affimative action as a positive and effective means of discouaging decades of histoic and cuent discimination; howeve, as Obama advises, affimative action has to be moe than a simple quote system and take into consideation the…… [Read More]

references-in-college-admissions/2012/02/22/gIQAY3EVTR_blog.html

Rodriguez, G. (2010, August). Affirmative action's time is up. Retrieved from lastimes.com:  http://articles.latimes.com/print/2010/aug/02/opinion/la-oe-rodriguez-whiteanxiety-20100802
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Social Biases A Continuing Societal

Words: 1559 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29182202

(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

amasubramanian, S. &…… [Read More]

References:

Faxed material

Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
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Racism and Racial Stigmas in

Words: 1758 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61934456

imdb.com).

hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.

In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)

Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com.

IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at   http://www.imdb.com  .

Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com.
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Hate Bias Crimes in New Jersey

Words: 2722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1918204

Hate is in fact moving the modern society away from freedom and democracy, and it is imperative that remedial measures are taken immediately to combat this. (Shulman, 1997)

Some of the tools, other than legal options, can be education, and the promotion of social interaction between different groups. However, there are frequent criticisms of the law, stating that it is more 'reactive' than 'proactive', meaning that legal remedies are more often than not applied to actions that have already taken place, rather than preventing them, like for example, when a hate crime has already taken place, then the law can be applied. However, the law is far above being just a punitive measure to be taken whenever necessary; law, in the form of legal sanctions, or human rights laws, or laws meant for immigration, or the law made by a judge, also known as 'common law', is primarily meant to…… [Read More]

References

About ADL, Hate Crimes" Retrieved at http://www.adl.org/focus_sheets/focus_hate_crimes.asp. Accessed on 23 July, 2005

Bell, Jeannine. "O Say! Can you see: Free expression by the light of fiery Crosses" Retrieved From www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crcl/vol39_2/bell.pdf+the+words+of+a+criminal+statute+in+New+Jersey+that+penalizes+the+perpetrator+of+hate/bias+crimes.+&hl=en"  http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/crcl/vol39_2/bell.pdf . Accessed on 22 July, 2005

Constitutional Rights Foundation: Bill of Rights in Action" (Summer, 1994) Retrieved at http://www.crf-usa.org/bria/bria10_3.html. Accessed on 22 July, 2005

Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice" Retrieved at http://www.ccis.edu/online/schedule/syllabi/CJAD320B.pdf. Accessed on 22 July, 2005
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Gender Bias & Inclusion Recently

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1184587



In another McGraw Hill edition, entitled American History: Early Years to 1877, there does seem to be more of a stress upon being clear and factual, rather than presenting an equal number of women and men than in the Houghton Mifflin approach. Major figures such as George ashington, Abraham Lincoln, and Ulysses Grant are given the greatest amount of attention. Issues of sex, gender, and sexual orientation and gender identity are seldom included in this textbook. There was an avoidance of special 'boxed' topics, segregating female or diversity issues away from other issues.

In most of these social studies books, the issue of female oppression is not at the forefront, although when relevant to the history of the past, such as with the struggles of African-Americans to find their way to freedom via the Underground Railroad under Harriet Tubman's watch, these issues are not ignored. This raises the question, of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American History: Early Years to 1877. (2006). New York: Glencoe McGraw Hill.

Community Map." (2004). Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at  http://www.eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/content/maps/A_comm.pdf 

Golden, Daniel. (19 Aug 2006). "Aiming for Diversity, Textbooks Overshoot." The Wall

Street Journal. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB115595234477240157-RhaWj2JLBSK5vWf_z_2LGU4TkzU_20060829.html?mod=blogs
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Criminal Justice Bias Crime Several

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75476317



5. Police and department decisions play a major role in the reliability and validity of hate crime data because they are the ones who classify and define hate crimes, and then send the data to the UCR. If a police department has very vague or confusing classifications and definitions, they may not report all hate crimes, or even recognize certain crimes as hate crimes. In that case, the crimes are underreported or even ignored, and the department is responsible for this. In addition, departments may fear their own self-preservation if they report too many hate crimes, so, they underreport them to "preserve" the department. For example, studies show that prosecutions are rare in hate crime cases, so departments may feel that reporting a hate crime will result in little justice in the justice system, and so, they will not report the crime as a hate crime. In addition, often violence…… [Read More]

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Unequal Treatment Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8102880

Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities

in Health Care

The recent report of the Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (2002 Smedley et. al.), indicates that bias, stereotyping, and prejudice may often contribute to the quality of health care that is provided to non-white patients. For anyone entering into the field of health care, this information is beneficial because it uncovers many of the reasons why some patients receive inadequate health care that can lead to future prevention of this problem.

The vast majority of studies reviewed concluded that minorities are less likely to get the same treatment as whites, including necessary procedures. The studies also suggested that patient attitudes cannot explain completely why disparities exist in health care. Clearly, race has become as issue in the health care industry. The report brings to light the depth of the problem when it…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Smedley, Brian, Stitth, Adrienne, and Nelson, Alan. (2002) Unequal Treatment:

Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Retrieved September 5,

2003, from http://books.nap.edu/books/030908265X/html/index.html
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Injustices Based on Racial Discrimination and Gender

Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18203616

Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.

Mending alls

Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at  http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)

Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963

Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.

America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
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Criminal Justice Systemic Malignity Racial

Words: 2221 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3292173

aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).

Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?

Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013

from  http://law.jrank.org/pages/9628/Racial-Profiling.html 

Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
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The Social Contract and Racial

Words: 1830 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17364037

Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Mills, C.W. (2000). Race and the Social Contract Tradition. Social
Identities, 6(4).
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False Identification and Lineup Instructions Biased Unbiased There

Words: 2470 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66774782

False Identification and Lineup Instructions Biased/Unbiased

There are many instances where people have been wrongly accused only because they were falsely identified or either because there was not enough evidence present that would prove them guilty. George Allen Jr. was convicted in 1983 on the charges of capital murder, rape, sodomy and first degree burglary. It has been noted that the reason for his false conviction was false confession, invalid or improper forensic evidence and government misconduct (Innocenceproject.org, 2013). Another case is of Barry Gibbs who was charged with second degree murder in the year 1988. He was wrongly charged due to eyewitness misidentification and government misconduct. It was noted that Barry Gibbs served 17.5 years of jail time before he was exonerated in the year 2005. (Innocenceproject.org, 2013)

These cases therefore give an idea that eyewitness misidentification is a very important cause of wrongful convictions all over the country…… [Read More]

References

Brandon, R. & Davies, C. (1973). Wrongful imprisonment. [Hamden, Conn.]: Archon Books.

Buckhout, R. & Others (1974). Determinants of eyewitness performance on a lineup.. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4 (3), 191-192.

Christianson, S. (1992). Emotional stress and eyewitness memory: a critical review. Psychological bulletin, 112 (2), 284.

Grether, W.F., & Baker, C.A. (1972). Visual presentation of information. In H.P. Van Cott & R.G. Kinkade (Eds.), Human engineering guide to equipment design (pp. 41-121). Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research
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Male Bias in the Development Process an Overview

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90346709

Male Bias

Until the 1970s and 1980s, women were largely ignored by policy makers on the national and internal levels, while neoclassical economic models assumed that the aggregate income of households would be shared equally between men and women. More recent research has proven these assumptions to be false, and that the conflict model of household economics is more the norm in reality. Economists and government statisticians also failed to recognize the value of women's unpaid labor in domestic and reproductive work, or that Structural Adjustment Programs imposed by the International Monetary Fund had a disproportionately negative effect on women. In addition, even in the formal sectors of the economy, women's labor was generally low-paid, unskilled and insecure compared to men. Feminist theorists have demonstrated that gender relations are "socially determined" (Elson 1) and that development issues cannot be considered apart from these. For this reasons, economists and social planners…… [Read More]

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Education - Counseling Bias Against

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42236698

" "This agent of RE/MAX blatantly discriminated against Latinos," said NFHA President and CEO Shanna L. Smith. So, the bottom line of that story is Latinos may be getting good jobs in some cases but finding appropriate housing near one's place of work can be a minefield of bias and deception.

Meanwhile, to answer the question, what effects does being Latino have on seeking a professional career, a study by the AFL-CIO shows that "...three of four Latino workers say workplace rights need more protection" (www.aflcio.org).Accordingto the AFL-CIO research, called "the most exhaustive study ever conducted on worker's rights," nearly one-third of Latinos interviewed on the job said they have faced "workplace discrimination based on their ethnicity" (AFL-CIO). The Peter D. Hart Research Associates group conducted this research for the AFL-CIO; the research sampled 1,792 adult Latinos and Asians. It was called "orker's Rights in America: hat orkers Think About…… [Read More]

Works Cited

FindLaw.com. (2008). Employment Discrimination in Alabama. Federal Law Prohibits

Employment Discrimination. Retrieved February 22, 2009, at http://library.findlaw.com.

Forbes.com. (2009). Department of Justice Settles Racial Discrimination Lawsuit Against RE/MAX Franchisee and Agent: National Fair Housing Alliance & HUD

Investigations Determined Discrimination. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at  http://www.forbes.com .
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GM Case on Job Bias

Words: 2899 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39308154

GM 1983 Discrimination suit

G.M. And acial Discrimination

The civil rights movement in the United States began slowly. Changing centuries of discriminatory practices across an entire country was not a task that was without opposition, and ignorance on the part of the average citizen. However, when that ignorance was institutionalized within businesses, the wheels of justice needed a significant push in order to begin to afford black American access to the same opportunities which Caucasian-Americans enjoyed. Toward this end, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission actively sought out target candidates which would have the largest impact on moving the civil rights agenda forward.

In 1973, a suit filed against the worlds largest automaker, General Motors, the EEOC alleged that the corporation actively discriminated against black, Hispanic and women workers. At the time of the suit's filing, the company had 6.4% of its journeymen (skilled labor) positions filled by minority workers. Under…… [Read More]

Resources:

Agence France Presse. Minority workers sue General Motors for 7.4 billion dollars

03/21/2002

Brunner, Borgna. Civil Rights. 2003. Info Please.com. 2 Dec 2003.  http://www.infoplease.com .

Civil Rights: an overview. Legal Information institute. 2003. Cornell University. 2 Dec. 2003. http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/civil_rights.html.
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Crime in America - The Racial and Class Implications

Words: 4614 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31983701

Race, Class & Crime

The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…… [Read More]

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Race and the Death Penalty

Words: 2630 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39455793

It is difficult to argue that the death penalty is being applied evenly and fairly as required by the Supreme Court's Furman v. Georgia decision. In fact, it could be argued, with statistics like these, that the application of the death penalty is being influenced by racial factors.

If the race of the victim is a factor in deciding whether or not the defendant receives the death penalty, then the race of the defendant is even more of a factor. For decades, critics of the justice system have asserted race to be a factor in crime and prosecutions in the United States, and it was ultimately the arbitrary imposition of the death penalty on African-Americans in Georgia that led to the Supreme Court's banning it in 1971. Black defendants are still overwhelming prosecuted more often than white defendants, but it is not only death penalty cases where this is the…… [Read More]

References

"ACLU: Race and the Death Penalty." (2003). The American Civil Liberties Union.

Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/capital-punishment/race-and-death-penalty

Banner, Stuart, the Death Penalty: An American History. (2002) United States: Harvard

UP. Print.
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Race Discrimination Justice Discrimination Race Discimination Criminal

Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91802995

ace Discrimination Justice

Discrimination

ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE

ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.

Background

acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…… [Read More]

References

Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.

Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.

Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.

Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
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Psychological Disengagement

Words: 1426 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44849136

ace and Academic Disengagement

Psychological Disengagement

Psychological disengagement represents a coping mechanism that preserves a person's sense of self-worth in the face of negative feedback. For example, a student may discount a bad grade on an exam by framing it as an aberration, thereby preserving a 'good student' self-identity. Employing this coping mechanism has specific advantages, such as allowing the student to be persistent about achieving academic success despite receiving negative feedback (Nussbaum and Steele, 2007). On the other hand, psychological disengagement could facilitate a student framing academic success as irrelevant to their personal goals and future. Such students tend to perform poorly in school and suffer from increased dropout rates (reviewed by Stephan, Caudroit, Boiche, and Sarrazin, 2011). In contrast, students who are academically successful tend not to disengage, despite receiving a negative evaluation, and self-perceptions of their academic competency suffers accordingly. Understanding the mechanisms that encourages psychological disengagement…… [Read More]

References

Major, Brenda, Spencer, Steven, Schmader, Toni, and Wolfe, Connie. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34-50.

Nussbaum, A. David and Steele, Claude M. (2007). Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 127-134.

Schmader, Toni, Major, Brenda, and Gramzow, Richard, H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93-111.

Stephan, Yannick, Caudroit, Johan, Boiche, Julie, and Sarrazin, Philippe. (2011). Predictors of situational disengagement in the academic setting: The contribution of grades, perceived competence, and academic motivation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 441-455.
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Narrative Which Describes Your Personal Understanding of

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38489442

narrative which describes your personal understanding of how race functions in contemporary society.

I understand that "race" is largely a human social construct that has little factual basis. With the benefit of the various modern DNA sciences, we know today that the external features that typically denote race are completely unreliable because they do not accurately correspond to our lineage. I would define "race" as a meaningless distinction that has evolved into one of the primary factors that many people use to distinguish groups of people they consider "different" from themselves.

Racism is evident to me on a daily basis in the sense that I continually observe social interactions dictated substantially by race-based associations and expectations instead of by objective elements of those interactions. To me, racism encompasses much more than negative conscious beliefs and attitudes about other people; it includes the so-called "positive" elements of racial heritage, such as…… [Read More]

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Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special

Words: 4423 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67221345

Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.

Stratification.

Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.

Literature eview

Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.

According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…… [Read More]

References

Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.

Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from  http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280 

Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.

Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
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Communication Prompt 1 -Transforming Conflict

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77320262



B: No you didn't.

A: You just weren't listening.

Nonviolent Communication:

A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?

B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.

A: Thank you

Prompt (2) Stereotypes:

Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.

The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.

Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.

We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.

Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…… [Read More]

Reference

Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online:  http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
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Patient Sexual Orientation on Diagnosis Since DSM-IV

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75469852

Patient Sexual Orientation on Diagnosis Since DSM-IV

Since the creation of DSM-IV as a diagnostic tool, whether or not a patient is homosexual has affected their diagnosis. Whether or not this should be so is a discussion for another day, but why it is so is a more pressing question which needs to be answered. Concerns that many people are not getting the proper clinical diagnosis simply because they have a sexual orientation that varies from what is considered normal are likely not unfounded. In order to determine whether or not this effect on their diagnosis is detrimental, or even legitimate, it will be necessary to examine not only the history of clinical diagnosis, but how homosexuals are treated by psychologists in the present day.

The intent of this paper is to examine the available literature on this topic in several different ways in order to obtain a clear understanding…… [Read More]

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Result of Re-Imposing the Death Penalty

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8729667

Death Penalty

Since re-imposing the death penalty in 1977, the United States of America has executed more than 1200 persons, and currently has more than 3000 more awaiting execution. Proponents of capital punishment claim that these deaths were necessary for the protection of society and the deterrence of future criminal activity. But opponents reject these arguments and cite scientific studies and statistics which demonstrate the death penalty has been used by courts in an arbitrary and unfair manner, more often given as sentences to the poor and minorities. In addition, opponents point to the fact that over 138 people have been exonerated and released from death rows since the early 1970's, while statistically, at least 10% of those convicted of capital crimes are actually innocent. While there are many more reasons why the death penalty should be permanently abolished, the way it has been misused and the fact that many…… [Read More]

References

Gross, Samuel, et al. (2004). "Exonerations in the United States 1989 Through 2003:

Social Science Research Network." Going to Search. Retrieved from                  http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=753084                 

Information Center. Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org.
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Women in Literature Toni Morrison

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33155543

A black woman walking up to the counter at Macy's will be a customer, not an American-American customer; a Latino buying a car at a used car lot in Memphis won't be a Mexican-American he will be a customer. That's how it should be.

THREE: Why is the focus so different between male authors and female authors? For the same reason that men see the world from a very different lens than women see the world. Naomi Wolf has a very good perspective on why there is such a dramatic difference between what men write about and what women write about, and I agree with her wholeheartedly. There were archaic yet potent attitudes toward women a century ago, Wolf explains, in which "normal female activity, especially the kind that would lead women into power, was classified as ugly and sick." In fact, there were whispers that if a woman engaged…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty and Race Arguments

Words: 4823 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45563116

Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…… [Read More]

References

Aguirre, a., Jr., & Baker, D.V. (1991). Race, racism, and the death penalty in the United States. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Vande Vere Publishing.

Amnesty International (1999).. Killing with prejudice: race and the death penalty. Amnesty International, Pub. No. AMR 51/52/99. London: Amnesty International.

Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, Q., & Pulaski, C.A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N.A., & Broffitt, B. (1998). Racial discrimination and the death penalty in the post-Furman era: An empirical and legal overview, with recent findings from Philadelphia. Cornell Law Review 83:1638-770
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Standardized Tests Truly Reflective of

Words: 6649 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86850476



OCR recognizes that colleges and universities are under a lot of legal and political pressure to stop using racial and ethnic factors in admission," Clegg commented. "[In response,] the agency wants to intimidate colleges and universities to continue using these preferences." (lack Issues in Higher Education, 1999)

The National Association of Scholars, while raising doubts about the reasoning behind the OCR document titled "Nondiscrimination in High-Stakes Testing," pointed to what it believes is hypocrisy from higher education gurus who had previously undervalued the use of the test scores.

It goes without saying that these guidelines are outrageous," commented the association's president, Dr. Stephen H. alch, in 1999. "ut it's hard not to see this as the educational establishment's being hoisted by its own petard. (lack Issues in Higher Education, 1999)

For some time now," alch continued in a statement released shortly after OCR began distributing the guidelines, "our best universities…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Black Issues in Higher Education. (1999) Exam Negation - new law prevents reliance on discriminatory standardized tests. Black Issues in Higher Education.

Black Issues in Higher Education. (2005) Holy Cross makes standardized test scores optional: college officials concerned about inherent racial and socio-economic bias in standardized tests. Black Issues in Higher Education.

Boyd, W.M. (1977). SAT's minorities: The dangers of under-prediction. Change, 9, 48-64. Chambers, G.A. (1988, March 7). All of America's children: variants in ACT test scores-What principals need to know. Paper presented at the annual convention of the NASSP, Anaheim, CA. (Available from the author, Division of Educational Administration, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242)

The College Entrance Examination Board. (1983). Ten SATs. New York: Author.
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Unconscious Racism in Psychology

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10094383

Unconscious acism in Psychology

Unconsciousness acism in Psychology

This essay is aimed at exploring whether unconscious racism exists through analyzing both sides of the arguments. The paper will briefly review the research evidences that validate the existence of implicit racial behavior that many individuals have unconscious negative perceptions and stereotypical beliefs about minority groups that often leads to understated bias without conscious awareness. It will be followed by criticisms of the concept of unconscious prejudice and the evidences presented in opposition.

Empirical Studies Supporting Unconscious acism

acism in today's modern world is both inconsistently normal and irrational. According to the study by ichard Delgado (1997, p.29), racism varies significantly with the common public ideology and exists in every member of the society, even though at unconscious levels. This irrationality and inconsistency is an integral part of the reason for the unconscious nature of bias. Delgado further explains that when our…… [Read More]

References

Blanton, H. & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of measure. The Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 34, pp. 277-97.

Delgado, R. (1997). Critical white studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Gawronski, B. (2002). What does the implicit association test measure? A test of the convergent and discriminant validity of prejudice-related IATs. Experimental Psychology, Vol. 49 (3), pp. 171-180.

Greenwald, a.G., Uhlmann, E.L., Poehlman, T.A. & Banaji, M.R. (2009). Understanding and using the implicit test association: III meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 97 (1), pp. 17-41.
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Representative System of Government Has Motivated a

Words: 3360 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32468859

representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.

Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.

Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.

Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
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Los Angeles -- a City

Words: 2402 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43888960

"

Moreover, population groups "…pull up roots and seemingly go out of their way to avoid one another…" throughout Southern California, Worster writes (242). An example of the concept of "pulling up roots" is the community of Watts, which in the 1960s, Worster continues, was "an almost entirely black populace" but by the mid-1990s is "predominately Mexican-American" (p. 243). And Little Tokyo, positioned just south of Los Angeles' City Hall, is now home to a "dwindling population of Japanese-Americans" who have scant interaction with the colonies of artists "who began reclaiming and inhabiting factory and loft buildings" in Little Tokyo. Armenians that once dominated the eastern fringes of Hollywood have "relocated to suburban Glendale" and South Koreans have "settled in the Mid-Wilshire district" which has caused the "displacement of a sizable community of Central Americans," Worster explains. This movement of cultures and ethnicities around the sprawling great Los Angeles region…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berry, Mary Frances, 2000, Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality and Discrimination. DIANE Publishing: Darby, Pennsylvania.

Crash. Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. Rated R. (2005)

Erie, Steven P., Freeman, Gregory, and Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale, 2004, W (h)ither Sprawl? Have Regional Water Policies Subsidized Suburban Development? In Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of Southern California, Eds. J. Wolch, M. Pastor, and P. Dreier. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN.

Frommer, Marcos, 1992, 'An Interview with Mike Davis,' Chicago Review, vol. 38, issue 4, 21-44.
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Psychological Analysis of White Man's Burden

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94128502

hite Man's Burden

The film hite Man's Burden directed by Desmond Nakano tells the story of an alternate reality wherein the African-American men are the predominant members of upper class society and the Caucasian population is in the social minority, a complete reversal of the current social racial dichotomy of the real world. Such a circumstance is not likely in the world as we know it. Even though members of the African-American race have been able to obtain position of power in the world, including the office of the President of the United States, there is still a great difference between the positions of power that the two races play in American society. Most high-paying jobs and political offices are held by Caucasian people. The dichotomy of racial inequality can be discussed in terms of two different types of social psychological phenomena: discrimination and confirmation bias.

In the movie, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

White Man's Burden. Dir. Desmond Nakano. Prod. Lawrence Bender. Perf. John Travolta and Harry Belafonte. UGC, 1995. DVD.
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Criminal Justice Gaetz S July 2004 Safe

Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26021148

Criminal Justice

Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.

This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…… [Read More]

Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.

Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."

The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
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Cultural Differences in IQ Scores

Words: 2525 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80317230

IQ Test Scores

Cultural Differences in IQ Test Scores

Most studies carried out in the United States to measure intelligence (IQ) indicate a significant gap in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites. The gap is more pronounced in certain areas of intelligence such as general intelligence and on tests requiring problem solving and more complex mental operations than on tests of rote learning and immediate memory. The gap has narrowed since the 1970s but still persists stubbornly. Debate has raged among the psychologists and social scientists about the reasons for the gap. The "hereditists" believe that the difference in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites is largely due to genetic reasons. The "environmentalists" are equally certain that the gap is due to environmental reasons and has nothing to do with genetics. This paper looks at both the heredity explanation as well as the environmental explanations of…… [Read More]

References

Dorfman, Donald D. (1995). "Soft Science with a Neoconservative Agenda." A Review of the Bell Curves. 40: 5. Contemporary Psychology, APA's journal of book reviews. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.apa.org/journals/bell.html

Haughton, Noela A. (2002). "Biased Content, Context, and Values: An Examination of the SAT." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at  http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQincome.htm 

Jencks, Christopher and Phillips, Meredith. (1998). "The Black- White Test Score Ga: An Introduction." (pp. 2-22) The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips - eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Keita, L. (1999). "Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean." The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23: 1, p. 65.
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Special Ed Disproportionate Representation of Minorities in

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24953568

Special Ed

Disproportionate Representation of Minorities in Special Education

Special Education is intended to function as a powerful resource for giving extra attention, assistance and educational resource to those with severe and irreparable learning deficiencies. However, there is also a danger that situational learning deficits may be perceived as deficiencies, leading to the incorrect classification of young students as special needs. here improperly classified, the results to one's learning potential and academic advancement may be disastrous. This is why the disproportionately high representation of minorities in American special education contexts is so troubling. As the discussion here will show, this disproportion suggests that there may be some cultural, sociological and global forces that are responsible for an unequal placement of minorities in special education settings.

Current Theories:

One of the most compelling theories in circulation in the literature is that of the 'normal child.' As identified in the research by…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ahram, R., Fergus, E., & Noguera, P. (2011). Addressing racial/ethnic disproportionality in special education: Case studies of suburban school districts. Teachers College Record, 113(10), 2233-2266.

Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.

Gabel, S.L., Curcic, S., Powell, J.J., Khader, K., & Albee, L. (2009). Migration and ethnic group disproportionality in special education: An exploratory study. Disability & Society, 24(5), 625-639.

Hibel, J., Farkas, G., & Morgan, P.L. (2010). Who is placed into special education?. Sociology of Education, 83(4), 312-332.
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Hernandez vs Texas Importance to Latinos in the US

Words: 3756 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64306498

Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.

Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.

Overview

In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…… [Read More]

References

American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0

Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer

Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf 

Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
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National Incident-Based Reporting System Ibrs Is a

Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80804776

National Incident-Based Reporting System (IBRS) is a system used by national and state law enforcement agencies to report and analyze crimes. he system allows for the widespread use of data related to a variety of crimes coming to law enforcement agencies. he data collected includes the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident.

he information collected by the IBRS is extensive and the use of the system can be, therefore, complex. Since the system was introduced in 1985 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation the basic system has been adopted by a number of local and state law enforcement agencies as well. Some of these jurisdictions, including the State of New York, have chosen to enhance the system or adapt it to their…… [Read More]

The reporting of hate crimes is still in its infancy. Data is only available from 1992 to the present and it is only in the past ten years that wholesale participation has been available. As participation becomes more universal, the results will be more complete and as reporting protocols are improved the results will be more accurate. By their nature, hate crimes involve a high degree of bias and therefore discplined reporting protocols are a necessity.

The IBRS system affords law enforcement agencies with the opportunity to take advantage of the phenonmenal capacity of modern police and data processing systems to accumulate a myriad of details regarding criminal activity and criminals. The sophistication of the system allows investigating officers the ability to record pertinent facts in a systematic method that results in the organizing of data into specific segments. This leads to more accurate and complete analysis and, arguably, this leads to better law enforcement techniques.

The mission of the IBRS system is to enhance the quality, and timeliness of crime data collection and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing of the collected crime statistics. Presently, participation in the use of the IBRS system is not universal and a great deal of the reporting of crime statistics by the FBI and other reporting agencies is still done using summary format. It is the hope that in the near future the IBRS system will be used by all law enforcement agencies throughout the country. It is believed that this will result in better reporting results.
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SAT Controversy

Words: 4764 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15586602

SAT Controversy

The application of SAT for College Entrance Examination has been widely debated, with several supporters for its continued usage and several opponents for its discontinuance. The paper shall deal with both sides of the argument and shall reach at a conclusion.

The SAT is the country's historical, widely prevalent, and misapplied, of College Entrance examinations. The SAT-I is constituted of two phases, Verbal and Math, each marked on a 200-800 point scale. The 138 questions include specifically many choices and the ten questions relating to Mathematics need students to pen down the answers. By pattern, the test denotes more speed that many test undertakers are prevalently finding it short of answering them within the stipulated time. The SAT-II, previously attainment tests, is one hour subject-based exams, which is completely in a multiple choice pattern (excluding the SAT-II written exam, which is comprehensive of one 20 minute essay). The…… [Read More]

References

Bissell, Andrew. (2001) "Opponents of the SAT fail the test of logic. http://www.digisys.net/fhspub/00-01/march30/stories/sat.htm

Cavanagh, Sean. "Researchers Call SAT Alternative Better Predictor of College Success," Economist, January 29, 2003.

Danowitz Sagaria, M.A. (Ed.). (1988). "Empowering women: Leadership development strategies on campus" (New Directions for Student Services No. 44). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Dorans, N.J. Lyu, C.F. Pommerich, M. And Houston W.M. (1997) "Concordance between ACT Assessment and Recentered SAT I Sum Scores" College and University, 73, 24-31
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Issues of Diversity

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97185513

Crime

With the advent of technology, there are other tests apart from Blood Type present to rule out a crime. If today, the assailant's blood type does not match the blood on the crime scene, it does not necessarily prove him guilty. Forensics studies have indicated that there are two types of people on this planet regarding secretion of ABO proteins in body fluids. There are the secretors, and then there are nonsecretors. In cases of rape, the fluid usually tested is semen. The thing to note is that if that person is a secretor, only then his blood antigens will be present in the semen. If the semen is negative for any antigen that can either mean that the person is type O or is a non-secretor (Lyle, 2011) Furthermore, there are thousands and millions of people who have the same blood type. Due to this reason, DNA testing…… [Read More]

References

Flaherty, C. (2013). Cops: black mob kidnaps, rapes teen girls. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.wnd.com/2013/11/cops-black-mob-kidnaps-rapes-teen-girls / [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].

Gross, S.R., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D.J., Montgomery, N. & Patil, S. (2005). Exonerations in the United States 1989 through 2003. The journal of criminal law and criminology (1973-), 95 (2), pp. 523 -- 560.

Innocenceproject.org. (2014). The innocence project - know the cases: browse profiles:bennett barbour. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Bennett_Barbour.php [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].

Johnson, S. (1984). Cross-Racial Identification Errors in Criminal Cases. CORNELL L. REV., 69 (934), 935-36.
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Racism Social Science Literature Has Largely Defined

Words: 812 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88271335

Racism

Social Science literature has largely defined racist societies as those where: official ideology proclaims that racial differences are unbridgeable; the ideal is "race purity"; social segregation is mandated by law; and stigmatized groups have limited access to economic opportunities so that they are kept impoverished (Fredrickson, p. 101). Thus, it is evident that the historical definition of racism has emerged from a construct of political, sociological and economic ideology, which overtly practices racial discrimination. Since modern day America professes an ideology of equality, the question thus arises as to whether anti-black racism is now a part of the nation's ignoble past. Unfortunately, it appears that the answer to that question is in the negative, as racial prejudices continue to perpetuate an economic and social divide between African-American blacks and "white" America, albeit under the guise of Laissez-faire racism or persistent negative stereotyping (Martin & Tuch, p. 16). Logically, therefore,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fredrickson, G.M. "Racism: A Short History." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. "I Have a Dream." The U.S. Constitution Online. Accessed Aug 8, 2004:  http://www.usconstitution.net/dream.html 

Martin, J.K., & Tuch, S.A. "Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change." Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
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Race The Power of Illusion

Words: 827 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42393975

After all, it was only a few generations ago that the FHA was discriminating against black applicants. Schools are still highly segregated. Race in many ways determines access to social and cultural capital, as well as financial capital. Throughout successive generations, it has been difficult if not downright impossible for the sons and daughters of non-white individuals to achieve social and economic parity with whites. The government could do things like infuse large amounts of money into predominantly poor, black communities. The residents of these communities need to have the opportunity to start their own businesses rather than work for a distant (white-owned) corporation that does not give back to the community. When black communities become more self-sustaining economically, it will be easier for them to improve infrastructure. The results will take time but would be totally feasible and no one would be affected adversely.

In light of the consequences…… [Read More]

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Person Account From the Perspective

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52011189

There is one however, and it is the level of education they have. I plan to go through with my Master's Degree at some point and many of the people who lead my community including council people, the mayor the police chief and department heads also have high levels of education.

If I could change any inequality in my community I would change the fact that there are two African-American city employees out of 300 total workers.

I would do it with a drive to recruit people of color and encourage them to apply for open positions. I would require them to have educations equal to the average education of other city employees. I would change it so that the face of our town reflected the true demographic make up of the town.

When I called the mayor he had no way of knowing what color I am. When he…… [Read More]

References

Wright, Timothy (town mayor)

Kittewell, Cathy (County Clerk)

Johnson, Samuel (Police Chief)
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History of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24319515

History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act

The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…… [Read More]

References

McBride, A. (2006). Brown v. Board of Education. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html 

Parks, P. (2010). What is the Hill-Burton Act? www.jdsupra.com Retrieved from  http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/what-is-the-hill-burton-act-63450/ 

Thomas, K. (2008). Hill-Burton Act. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1439

Wormser, R. (2002). Plessy v. Ferguson. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html
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Death Penalty as Justified Murder

Words: 2596 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70372808

However, the reasons why people commit crime are as different as the individuals themselves. Intentional murder comes in two different flavors. The first is the carefully plotted, well thought out, planned act. In this scenario, motivational theory takes over. The person must feel that they will gain some type of value from the action. It may be that they gain something, such as money, or they may feel that eliminating a person will offer them some type of protection. In any case, the person justifies their actions through a perceived reward in the future (Horisch and Strassmair).

In the case of an intentional murder, the death penalty may deter the action. However, several conditions must be met for the fear of death to act as a deterrent. The person must feel that there is a significant possibility that they will be caught and punished for their crimes. In many cases,…… [Read More]

References

Amnesty International. Death Penalty. 2008. www.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/page.do?id=1011005).

Death Penalty Information Center. Facts About the Death Penalty. March 1, 2009.  http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FactSheet.pdf  (Accessed March 10, 2009). (Gumbel, a. The Innocence Project: Guilty Until Proven Innocent. Common Dreams My 4, 2006). http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0504-09.htm (Accessed March 10, 2009).

Horisch, H. And Strassmair, C. An experimental test of the deterrence hypothesis. Discussion Papers in Economics. February 27, 2008. University of Munich. http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2139/2/crime_Munich_DP.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009).

Radelet, M., Bedau, H., and Putnam, C. In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, and Bedau and Radelet, "Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases." Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 21-179)
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Policy-Related Suggestions E G Education Legal

Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44964667



By delving into and categorizing the different treatments, ocial psychologists test and arrive at conclusions of socially helpful interventions and treatments. Other professionals such as social workers and therapists can then incorporate these treatments in their practices whilst policy makers can formulate laws (if applicable) incorporating them into the institution.

A) select one that makes use of the distinction between automatic cognitive-processes and controlled processing, and by using that article explain why that-distinction is important in current social psychological research. Are the methods-used to measure these two processes different? If so, how and why? (Do not-forget to cite the title of the article.)

Payne (2006) dwells on implicit and instinctive bias that compels people to make snap judgeship. These judgments can sometimes be dangerous and self if not socially destructive such as race stereotypes that can lead people to see a weapon where none exists and can result in faulty…… [Read More]

Sources

Brewer, M.B., Brown, R..J., Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (2003). The handbook of social psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Fiske, S.T., & Neuberg, S.L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 1-74.

Legault, L. et al. (2011) Ironic Effects of Antiprejudice Messages: How Motivational Interventions Can Reduce (but Also Increase) Prejudice Psychological Science 22(12) 1472

Oskamp, S. (2000). Multiple paths to reducing prejudice and discrimination, Psychology Press: U.S.
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Causes Effects of Racism on US

Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69906479

Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects

hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).

There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal

Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.

Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook

Got Wrong. New York: The New Press, 2008.
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Racialized Body

Words: 2789 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28143104

ace: Hazards and Benefits

Corporeal Manifestation of ace

ace represents the recognition of otherness, but in contrast to the many other ways that people choose to group individuals, the outward differences society associates with race is inherently unchangeable. This means that individuals who are persecuted or marginalized for something they have no control over find themselves struggling with an identity that has brought suffering into their lives and the lives of their loved ones. Belonging to a marginalized or persecuted racial group can therefore foster feelings that range from self-loathing to pride-filled defiance.

The psychological effects of racial identity in a race-based society, like the United States, can be both positive and negative, depending to a large extent on whether you belong to the majority or minority identity. The corporeal manifestation of race can therefore emerge as a change in mental and physical health. To better understand how race impacts…… [Read More]

References

Bell, James and Lim, Nicole. (2005). Young once, Indian forever: Youth gangs in Indian Country. American Indian Quarterly, 29(3/4), 626-652.

Bonczar, Thomas P. (2003). Prevalence of imprisonment in the U.S. populatin, 1974-2001. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 2 Dec. 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/piusp01.pdf.

Clarke, Christina A., Miller, Tim., Chang, Ellen T., Yin, Daixin, Cockburn, Myles, and Gomez, Scarlett I. (2010). Racial and social class gradients in life expectancy in contemporary California. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 1373-1380.

Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A. And Umana-Taylor, Adriana J. (2011). Examining the role of physical appearance in Latino adolescents' ethnic identity. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 151-162.
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Race Justice Assessing Juveniles Perceptions

Words: 3600 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45647231

052 (Barkan & Cohn, p.205).

Death Penalty Attitudes of the Offender

The same literature that shows blacks are less likely to favor capital punishment shows that black offenders are more likely to support shorter sentencing and less likely to agree with capital punishment (Baker, Lambert & Jenkins, 2005). At least, this trend is evident with regard to violent crimes. When approaching individuals and asking about minor crimes, black and white attitudes were similar (Baker, Lambert & Jenkins, 2005). However, this information is to be taken with a grain of salt, because other studies of harsh punishment suggest little differences exist in the opinions of offenders with regard to violent crime and non-violent crime, and with regard to capital punishment (Tsoudis, 2000).

Weitzer (2000) suggests black male offenders (36%) are more likely to support life sentences than they are capital punishment, especially if they come from environments that are poor and…… [Read More]

References

Baker, David N., Lambert, Eric G. & Jenkins, Morris. (2005 Mar) Racial differences in death penalty support and opposition: A preliminary study of white and black college students. Journal of Black Studies, 35(4): 201-224

Barkan, Steven & Cohn, S. (1994). Racial prejudice and support for the death penalty by whites, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 31(2): May: 202-209.

Bedau, Hugo a., & Cassell, Paul G. (2004) Debating the death penalty: Should America have capital punishment? The experts on both sides make their best case. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cochran, John & Chamlin, Mitchell. (2006) the enduring racial divide in death penalty support. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34(1): 85-99.
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Racism and Bloodliness How Does

Words: 801 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81960478

In colonial times, they were known to be Appalachians, Portuguese, Turkish slaves or even Gypsies. Their dark skin and mixed, doubtful origin made them a target for the ridicule and hate of the white population.

During 1800s the Melungeons lived on the border between Virginia and Tennessee and the name was used as an insult. The truth however was revealed when the results of a DNA study were printed in the Journal of Genealogy. The results shocked a large part of the white population, as it showed that they were the off springs of sub-Saharan Africans and white, European women.

This proves that although on the surface discrimination was dominant but mixing of races was also endemic. This presents a totally different picture to what has been portrayed by historians. Some researchers claim that such incidents were very common in those times in America and some researchers have pointed out…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alden T. Vaughan, Roots of American Racism (New York, Oxford University Press, 1995)

Travis Loller, "Melungeons Aren't Who They Thought They Were," the Tennessean, May 26, 2012.
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Artifact in Socio-Cultural Context --

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72590242



Among the ironies evident in the film, the hardest-working people in the community seemed to be the black women employed by white families. That obviously conflicts with some of the most common racist themes about African-Americans: that they are "lazy" or, in the vernacular of the era, "shiftless" (Healey, 2008). acial bias was the societal norm in Mississippi in the 1960s; in fact, both stereotyping and prejudice were actually codified into laws that criminalized the promotion of racial equality. Blacks were still prohibited by law from using the same facilities as whites when the movie opens. One of the white employers devotes her community improvement efforts to enacting a new law requiring separate bathrooms in any home employing black housekeepers.

The characters in the film exhibit a quiet dignity and attitudes that contradict another typical racially prejudiced stereotype: namely, that American blacks are secretly seething with hatred toward white people.…… [Read More]

References

The Help. (2011). Touchstone Films.

Healey, J.F. (2008). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group

Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
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Role of Lech Walensa in

Words: 2117 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55632392

" (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) Neither does the article pay sufficient attention to the motivational aspects that led Walensa to enter the Solidarity movement, and the reason for the rejection of communism.

For example, the important aspect that personally motivated Walensa was not so much any intellectual disagreement with communism - in fact he virtually ignored the student protests of 1968, which he felt was "... A problem for the intellectuals." (Walsh, est, and Rai 133) However this attitude was to change when"...on December 12, 1970, the Communist regime decreed steep increases in the prices of basic foodstuffs. The suddenness of this action in the immediate pre-Christmas season shocked Polish workers, and many went into the streets in spontaneous protest. "(Walsh, est, and Rai 133)

Not enough attention is given to the reasons that lay beneath the Soviet reaction to Walensa. This refers to the"... change in Soviet leadership…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lech Wa?

sa November 2, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walensa

Casmir, Fred L., ed. Communication in Eastern Europe: The Role of History, Culture, and Media in Contemporary Conflicts. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.

Gardner, Hall. Surviving the Millennium: American Global Strategy, the Collapse of the Soviet Empire, and the Question of Peace. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.