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It is not known if the bias found among males also exists among women. This study will address both the gap in methodology and the lack of studies regarding women. It will contribute to the existing body of evidence by filling in these important gaps.
Valid research is based on consistency and a mutual understanding of the research parameters. Although, many of the terms used in this study will be familiar to the layperson, it is important to understand exactly what is meant so that precise understanding of the variables in the study can be understood. The following operational definitions will be used throughout this research project.
African-American - This term will refer to any person of African-American decent. It will be used to describe those that are of a high percentage of African-American ancestry, as well as those of low percentage or mixed ancestry, but who identify themselves…
Hart, C. & Lopez, E. (2007). Evaluation of the Race Card Strategy: The Importance of Supporting Evidence. Journal of Credibility Assessment and Witness Psychology. 8 (1): 1-9. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://truth.boisestate.edu/jcaawp/2007_1_9/2007_1_9.pdf
Hernandez-Julian, R. & Tomic, a. (2006). How Elected Judges Respond to the Racial Composition of their Constituencies. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://ssrn.com/abstract=890738
Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law (2005). Answering the Call for a More Diverse Judiciary. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://www.abanet.org/buslaw/2005minoritylawyer/materials/jdr.pdf
Mitchell, T., Haw, R., & Pfeifer, J. (2005). Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta- Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment. Law and Human Behavior. 29-96): 621-637. Retrieved March 14, 2009 at http://digitalcommons.utep.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=christian_meissner
am tone! And guess what he did this time? He asked to borrow my Barbie and when he was carrying her down the stairs, he accidentally tripped and fell and broke her arm" (570)) Following am's actual visit, an interview conducted in an informal style by eliciting a free narrative form each of the four different groups who had seen am tone revealed that the stereotype- fed group resulted in a modest number of false reports towards the stranger (10% insisted in maintaining that they saw him do something that he had never done) (although the suggestion-fed group resulted in a dramatically higher number of false reports). "As demonstrated by our control group," concluded the authors, "when the context of a child's reporting of an event is free of the strong stereotypes and repeated leading questions that may be introduced by adults, the odds are tilted in favor of factual…
Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Bargh, J.A. (1994). The four horsemen of automaticity: Awareness, intention, efficiency, and control in social cognition. In Robert S. Wyer, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of social cognition (pp 675-694). Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Duckitt, R. (1992). Psychology and prejudice: A historical analysis and integrative framework. American Psychologist, 11, 1183-1193.
Fiske, S.T. (2002). What we know now about bias and intergroup conflict, the problem of the century. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123-128.
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.
Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.
Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.
Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
Bias in Curricula
Native American Bias in K-12 Literature
There are many artifacts used in curricula that illustrate a racial bias towards marginalized groups. American Indians are one such group adversely affected by stereotypical and offensive portrayals in educational material and literature. Native Americans are typically not even mentioned in American history textbooks past 6th grade curriculum. When they are referenced, it is often in terms of Pilgrims and Thanksgiving. Other times they are depicted as adversaries to be defeated in the "settling" of the West. As far as most Americans have been taught in the educational system, Native Americans virtually ceased to exist after 1890. In addition, there exists a very pervasive and subtle dehumanizing Native American stereotype that has become ingrained in American popular culture (i.e., sports teams, Halloween costumes, etc.). These misrepresentations -- and the misperceptions that follow - are commonly held by all Americans, and have…
Banks, L.R. (2005). The Indian in the cupboard. New York: Random House/Listening Library.
Olson, H.A. (2001). Classification or organization: What's the difference? Knowledge
Organization 28(1), 1-3.
Phillips, W.S. (1963). Indian Campfire Tales: Legends about the Ways of Animals and Men. New York: Platt & Munk.
Q5. How will you deal with others in your workplace who feel they have no biases but you are aware that they do?
I think that sensitivity training and diversity education should be mandatory components of all workplaces. This type of training should include self-administered questionnaires like the HIAT to raise awareness about the commonness of prejudice and also role-playing and discussions about different assumptions and communication styles. I should note that I do not believe that explicitly 'calling someone out' on their prejudices and shaming them is particularly helpful; firmly presenting an alternative point-of-view or way of looking at the situation is much more effective. Organizations must also have strong and effective anti-discrimination policies to reduce bias. This can help all workers. "We have developed a "good person/bad person" paradigm of diversity. A more accurate depiction, however, is that we all have bias of one kind or another. It…
Best practices: Employers. (2013). Workplace Empathy. Retrieved:
FAQ. (2013). HIAT. Retrieved:
Differences in achievement are often attributed to race, ethnicity, gender or social class, when in reality it is often these demographic considerations that impact the ways teachers, parents, and educational professionals treat students. Lowered expectations for African-American students or elevated expectations for upper-income whites are common symptoms of the current and outmoded ideology. All schools needed to examine the problem with such obviously biased assumptions and to reform school curricula based on a more democratic ideology. Furthermore, the schools had to reform the definition of intelligence in order for the reforms to take root. Redefining intelligence was in fact the largest obstacle in altering the racial dynamics in the public schools.
We will not face such serious ideological challenges, as our organization is fundamentally different from a school. However, we face our own outmoded beliefs and assumptions and must also learn to redefine some of the essential aspects of our…
Biases in Decision-Making
Biases refer to prejudices or favors of or against an object, group, or individual in comparison to another (Moule, 2009). This aspect is normally unfair in relation to making critical as well as effective judgment or decisions. On the other hand, unconscious biases refer to our natural people preferences. Unconscious biases also relate to the concept of hidden biases in the process of making unfair decision. Unconscious biases have massive influence on the underpinnings with reference to the decision-making process. It is critical for individuals to overcome unconscious biases in order to make valuable and fair decisions in accordance with relevant activities.
Discuss how biases can affect our decision-making during the hiring process
Biases have massive influence on our decision-making in the process of hiring new employees in the context of an organization. Biases influence our decision-making when hiring new employees in several ways. One of the…
Messner, C., Wanke, M., & Weibel, C. (2011). Unconscious Personnel Selection. Social Cognition, 29(6), 699-710.
Moule, J. (2009). Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism. (Cover story).
Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 320-326.
Parloff, R., & Kaufman, S.M. (2007). The War Over Unconscious Bias. Fortune, 156(8), 90-
Bias and Colorblindness
Effects of implicit bias in contemporary society
Implicit bias involves the stereotypical associations which are very subtle that those who hold them are not able to recognize them. Implicit bias has some effects on gender and race within the contemporary society. Implicit bias has an influence on people's behavior. Implicit bias is responsible for most of the racial disparities that continue to occur in the society today.it is also termed as a source of a lot of racial disparities when it comes to criminal justice system. It has been found out that most of the people including those who fully embrace norms of nondiscrimination hold implicit biases which make them treat black Americans in ways that are discriminatory. At the same time, implicit bias can also lead to gender-based discrimination. This is because there are some stereotypical associations made with reference to one gender being better than…
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
The killing of the two black American young men Amadou Diallo and Louima were separated by about two years but Amadou's killing happened just before the trial of Louima's case. Amadou's killing drew a lot of public interest that was focused on the conduct of the New York Police. It was the only such heated debate since the Knapp commission of the 70s which disclosed corruption in the police department. Amadou was from a middle class family that migrated from Guinea. They were engaged in simple trade activities including selling items on the streets. Amadou was shot 41 times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed…
humans unique is the combination of attitudes and opinions that make up perspective. Development of perspective determines how an individual lives, learns, and what decisions the individual makes. The attitude of a person has behavioral, affective, and cognitive components. Furthermore, it can exist in two different ways. The first is explicit attitudes. These attitudes manifest at a conscious level. They are intentionally formed and easy to identify (Wittenbrink & Schwarz, 2007). Implicit attitudes occur in an unconscious level, are not easy to identify, and are involuntarily formed. A brief example of this is a person meeting someone new.
The new person is wearing the shirt of the other person's favorite team. His name is Stu. Stu already likes the new person because he likes that team and they have something big, in common. Stu goes out a second night and has a bad interaction with a stranger. He doesn't know…
Dragiewicz, M. (2012). Gender bias in the courts: Implications for battered mothers and their children.Family And Intimate Partner Violence Quarterly, 5(1), 13-35. Retrieved from http://www.safetylit.org/citations/index.php?fuseaction=citations.viewdetails&citationIds%5B%5D=citjournalarticle_426721_38
Rehavi, M. & Starr, S. (2012). Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Charging and Its Sentencing Consequences. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1985377
Ross, D. & Dove, T. (2014). Bias in the Box: For capital juries across America, race still plays a role in who gets to serve. Virginia Quarterly Review, 90(4), 178-201.
Wittenbrink, B. & Schwarz, N. (2007). Implicit measures of attitudes. New York: Guilford Press.
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
Educational Inequality Along acial Lines
The role of education in the American society cannot be overemphasized. Education plays an important role in equipping students with knowledge and skills for transforming their life and the society at large. Also, the education system instills appropriate values, behaviors, and attitudes in students, making them useful members of the society. Nonetheless, while education is important, it tends to reinforce the existing social inequality, particularly along racial lines. Funding inequalities and learning outcomes between schools from privileged backgrounds and those from unprivileged backgrounds attest to this. This paper examines inequality in education along racial lines. The paper specifically focuses on four aspects: the role of education from two sociological perspectives; the role of funding in producing educational inequality along racial lines; America's cultural diversity (in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and class) and the educator's role in promoting cultural diversity; as well as an anti-racist…
Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2014). Restoring opportunity: the crisis of inequality and the challenge for American Education. Boston: Harvard Education Press.
Farley, J. (2012). Majority-Minority Relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
Parrillo, V. (2009). Diversity in America. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.
Capital Punishment System is Still acially Biased" by David A. Love asserts that the times when the death penalty tends to be administered is based on generally arbitrary, unfair and racially biased factors, and is seldom based on the merits of the case. One example that Love offers is the acial Justice Act which is legislation in North Carolina that allows a death row prisoner to challenge their sentencing through the use of statistical evidence of racial prejudice in the nation. The very fact that such legislation exists in America is a shining piece of evidence for the fact that our nation is indeed a very skewed one when it comes to racial inequality, and that there is a long history of the legal and illegal persecution of others according to race. Love demonstrates compelling evidence to demonstrate how capital punishment has long been an issue of race, with the…
Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2007). The color of justice. Belmont: Thomson
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…
Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.
Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
The Tampa Bay Times recently reported on the standoff between school administrators, who claim the offending passages have been taken out of context, and protestors who have cried foul over what they perceive to be ideological indoctrination, stating that "the concerns raise the specter of textbook wars in other states, especially Texas, where ideological camps have long locked horns over everything from the validity of evolution to how much the Founding Fathers were guided by Christianity" (Matus & Solochek, 2011).
The inclusion of biased statements within textbooks which are widely regarded by students as unimpeachable records of factual statement is startling to say the least. There are several serious ramifications that this disturbing trend may have on the nation's educational efficacy, with entire generations of students learning from wildly disparate perspectives depending on the vagaries of publishing arrangements, administrative agendas, and other corruptive forces. esearch on the construction of textbook…
Dhand, H. (1988). Bias in social studies textbooks: New research findings. History and Social Science Teacher, 24(1). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtS earch_SearchValue_0=EJ383085&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ38308 5
Hickman, H., & Porfilio, B.J. (2012). New Politics of the Textbook: Critical Analysis in the Core Content Areas (Vol. 2). SensePublishers.
Matus, R., & Solochek, J. (2011, January 21). Patriots United claims bias toward Islam in school textbooks?. The Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved from http://www.tampabay.com/news/education/k12/patriots-united-claims-bias-toward-islam - in-school-textbooks/1146816
Stambaugh, J.E., & Trank, C.Q. (2010). Not so simple: Integrating new research into textbooks. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9(4), 663-681. Retrieved from http://www.immagic.com/eLibrary/ARCHIVES/GENERAL/AOM_US/A101201S.pdf
maintain a culturally relevant and anti-bias program in a classroom setting as well as the identification of some principles and strategies for working effectively with English as second language students and what type of support or training teachers might need to implement these principles and strategies. Finally, a description concerning some ways that teachers can control the classroom environment to enhance cultural relevant learning and specific examples of materials and activities that might be used is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning strategies for developing anti-bias programming in the classroom in the conclusion.
Ways that a culturally relevant and anti-bias program can be established and maintained in a classroom setting
Humans are naturally biased creatures and the process begins early on. For instance, Barta and Winn (1996) report that, "Children begin to develop biases and prejudices long before they reach our classrooms. Research shows that…
A young girl from a multi-ethnic Hawaiian family join family members including aunts and grandmothers in the home's kitchen to make dumplings destined for the traditional dumpling soup that is being made for the family's traditional New Year's Eve celebration. This book discusses racial identities, family structure, and holidays.
Reiser, L. (1993). Margaret and Margarita. New York: Greenwillow Books.
This book describes how two young girls meet in a park and determine how to play despite the inability of the girls to speak each other's languages (Spanish and English). The book also describes the respective family structures of the two girls.
lack peoples believe that America is being white society day by day and other identities are favored very less as compare to white peoples. It is the white race which controls almost everything for Muslims and black it is like a dream to be a president or getting selected for any higher post America may be a melting point but this problem has become common issue now but none can do anything to get rid of it. If we go in depth we will come to know who is being victim of prejudice the things which are being affected by prejudice in America are institutes and Offices. It is affecting peoples because of prejudice all of the black Americans has become victims of complex, prejudice is also affecting all of the events, which serve as dedication to American liberty. There are still few peoples found in America who believes that…
Report Card. 'Prejudice in America'. http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/07-23-2007/0004630594&EDATE=
Tracinski, Rober. April 16, 2001. 'America's Problem with Prejudice' http://www.aynrand.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=7349&news_iv_ctrl=1076
Wikipedia. 'Prejudice.' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prejudice#Sociology
Incarceration and Race.' http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/usa/Rcedrg00-01.htm
tenet of Christian societies is a need to create healthy and safe local communities. Christians frequently emphasize freedom and justice within the Judeo-Christian perspective. That means creation and promotion of fair criminal justice policies. These criminal justice policies must do away actions based on stereotypes and try to eliminate racial profiling as of apprehending potential criminals. With the support of religious entities and congregations, implementation of community-oriented policing methods through collaboration with intelligence-gathering entities may lead to effective and easier community policing. Things like fusion centers and intelligence-led policing (ILP) may make such a novel aim possible.
Fusion centers act as an information sharing center. Fusion centers were created under the U.S. Department of Justice through two government agencies: Office of Justice Programs and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Most of them were formed from 2003-2007 (ukus, Warner, & Zhang, 2017). The purpose of fusion centers is to promote at…
Lambert, D. (2010). FBI -- Intelligence-Led Policing in a Fusion Center. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2010/december/intelligence-led-policing-in-a-fusion-center
Rukus, J., Warner, M. E., & Zhang, X. (2017). Community Policing: Least Effective Where Need Is Greatest. Crime & Delinquency, 1-24. doi:10.1177/0011128716686339
Schmalleger, F. (2017). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Career & Technology.
Spencer, K. B., Charbonneau, A. K., & Glaser, J. (2016). Implicit Bias and Policing. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), 50-63. doi:10.1111/spc3.12210
Kill a Mockingbird
A Textual Analysis of the Character Development within this Short Story
The short story by Harper Lee, "To Kill a Mockingbird," is an illustration of how people viewed the various stereotypical traits, which are deeply ingrained in the culture and associated with the various demographics that were present in the South during the period in which the story was set. The 1930s in the South was a period in the United States that most people cannot fully envision due to the fact that there have been many systemic changes in the country's culture. However, despite many drastic differences that are present in the contemporary period relative to the story's setting, on the other hand there are also many similarities that continue to persist until this day. For example, one of the primary themes in the story centers upon a sense of racial injustice that was present in…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Warner, 1982. Print.
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.
Enriching the Focus on ethnicity and race. (1998). APA Monitor. VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3 - March 1998 www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=95784671
Alexander, K.L. (1997). Public Schools and the Public Good. Social Forces, 76(1), 1-30.
End Racial Pefeences?
Affimative action was an impefect solution to the poblems which iddled an impefect society. Centuies of slavey, subjugation, misogyny and othe issues contibuted to a society whee the playing field in Ameica has been fa less than equal fo an enomous amount of time. This means that women and minoities often have to stuggle and wok twice as had to get ahead and often don't. Affimative action was designed as a means of attempting to level out the playing field, so that these goups could have moe of a fai shot at getting into bette schools and secuing moe desiable jobs. Obama has been quoted as still being a suppote of affimative action as a positive and effective means of discouaging decades of histoic and cuent discimination; howeve, as Obama advises, affimative action has to be moe than a simple quote system and take into consideation the…
Rodriguez, G. (2010, August). Affirmative action's time is up. Retrieved from lastimes.com: http://articles.latimes.com/print/2010/aug/02/opinion/la-oe-rodriguez-whiteanxiety-20100802
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…
Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)
Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com .
IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com .
Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
(2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice esearch, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis evisited. Status Bias in the eduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. esearch Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. etrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Pearson, A., Dovidio, J., & Pratto, F. (2007).acial Prejudice, Intergroup Hate, and Blatant and Subtle Bias of Whites toward Blacks in Legal Decision Making in the United States. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 2007, Vol. 7 Issue 2, p145-158, 14p. etrieved July 8, 2009 from EBSCO online database Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=27747337&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
amasubramanian, S. &…
Fiske, S. (2004) Intent and Ordinary Bias: Unintended Thought and Social Motivation Create Casual Prejudice. Social Justice Research, Vol. 17 Issue 2, p117-127, 11p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s8h&AN=13079636&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Henry, P.J. And Hardin, C. (2006). The Contact Hypothesis Revisited. Status Bias in the Reduction of Implicit Prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Association of Psychological Science. Vol.1-7 -- Number 10. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=23000285&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Mandel, I. (2009). Cultural Prejudice & Discrimination. Research Starters Sociology, 2009, p1-6, 6p. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from EBSCO online database http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rst&AN=36267911&loginpage=Login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site
.....psychologists working in prisons in the United States, Boothby & Clements (2000) found some disturbing trends in corrections. Although the number of prison psychologists has doubled in the past twenty years, the vast majority of prison psychologists remain Caucasian males who may be unable to address the diverse needs of the incarcerated community. Biases and assumptions about inmates may also hinder the ability of inmates to seek and receive psychological treatment. Moreover, a full third of prison psychologist work time is spent on administrative duties -- more than the time spent on direct treatment. Only 26% of their work time is devoted to directly treating the inmates, meaning that structural and institutional variables are impeding the delivery of quality mental health care to the prison community.
Interestingly, the profession of clinical psychology was practically born in the prison context. As Magaletta, et al. (2016) point out, prison wardens partnered with…
In another McGraw Hill edition, entitled American History: Early Years to 1877, there does seem to be more of a stress upon being clear and factual, rather than presenting an equal number of women and men than in the Houghton Mifflin approach. Major figures such as George ashington, Abraham Lincoln, and Ulysses Grant are given the greatest amount of attention. Issues of sex, gender, and sexual orientation and gender identity are seldom included in this textbook. There was an avoidance of special 'boxed' topics, segregating female or diversity issues away from other issues.
In most of these social studies books, the issue of female oppression is not at the forefront, although when relevant to the history of the past, such as with the struggles of African-Americans to find their way to freedom via the Underground Railroad under Harriet Tubman's watch, these issues are not ignored. This raises the question, of…
American History: Early Years to 1877. (2006). New York: Glencoe McGraw Hill.
Community Map." (2004). Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at http://www.eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/content/maps/A_comm.pdf
Golden, Daniel. (19 Aug 2006). "Aiming for Diversity, Textbooks Overshoot." The Wall
Street Journal. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB115595234477240157-RhaWj2JLBSK5vWf_z_2LGU4TkzU_20060829.html?mod=blogs
5. Police and department decisions play a major role in the reliability and validity of hate crime data because they are the ones who classify and define hate crimes, and then send the data to the UCR. If a police department has very vague or confusing classifications and definitions, they may not report all hate crimes, or even recognize certain crimes as hate crimes. In that case, the crimes are underreported or even ignored, and the department is responsible for this. In addition, departments may fear their own self-preservation if they report too many hate crimes, so, they underreport them to "preserve" the department. For example, studies show that prosecutions are rare in hate crime cases, so departments may feel that reporting a hate crime will result in little justice in the justice system, and so, they will not report the crime as a hate crime. In addition, often violence…
Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities
in Health Care
The recent report of the Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (2002 Smedley et. al.), indicates that bias, stereotyping, and prejudice may often contribute to the quality of health care that is provided to non-white patients. For anyone entering into the field of health care, this information is beneficial because it uncovers many of the reasons why some patients receive inadequate health care that can lead to future prevention of this problem.
The vast majority of studies reviewed concluded that minorities are less likely to get the same treatment as whites, including necessary procedures. The studies also suggested that patient attitudes cannot explain completely why disparities exist in health care. Clearly, race has become as issue in the health care industry. The report brings to light the depth of the problem when it…
Smedley, Brian, Stitth, Adrienne, and Nelson, Alan. (2002) Unequal Treatment:
Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Retrieved September 5,
2003, from http://books.nap.edu/books/030908265X/html/index.html
No teacher can entirely avoid the realities of student standardized assessment. But teachers must make informed choices in the classroom in regards to how students are instructed, based upon individual student needs and awareness of student diversity. There are significant questions regarding the potential biases of many standardized tests, particularly in regards to historically discriminated-against racial, ethnic, and socio-economic groups. Teachers must be aware of these questions and biases and act as advocates for their students on a schoolwide and statewide level to ensure fairness.
Ethical Standards in Assessment:
Minimizing Bias and Student Diversity in Assessment
Education is supposed to be a great social leveler. Unfortunately, many concerns have been raised regarding the ability of commonly-used educational assessment tools to provide unbiased information about all students, regardless of students’ demographic characteristics. Teachers must balance the need to prepare students for these highly pressured exam environments with the need for…
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.
Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…
Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice…
Mills, C.W. (2000). Race and the Social Contract Tradition. Social
False Identification and Lineup Instructions Biased/Unbiased
There are many instances where people have been wrongly accused only because they were falsely identified or either because there was not enough evidence present that would prove them guilty. George Allen Jr. was convicted in 1983 on the charges of capital murder, rape, sodomy and first degree burglary. It has been noted that the reason for his false conviction was false confession, invalid or improper forensic evidence and government misconduct (Innocenceproject.org, 2013). Another case is of Barry Gibbs who was charged with second degree murder in the year 1988. He was wrongly charged due to eyewitness misidentification and government misconduct. It was noted that Barry Gibbs served 17.5 years of jail time before he was exonerated in the year 2005. (Innocenceproject.org, 2013)
These cases therefore give an idea that eyewitness misidentification is a very important cause of wrongful convictions all over the country…
Brandon, R. & Davies, C. (1973). Wrongful imprisonment. [Hamden, Conn.]: Archon Books.
Buckhout, R. & Others (1974). Determinants of eyewitness performance on a lineup.. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4 (3), 191-192.
Christianson, S. (1992). Emotional stress and eyewitness memory: a critical review. Psychological bulletin, 112 (2), 284.
Grether, W.F., & Baker, C.A. (1972). Visual presentation of information. In H.P. Van Cott & R.G. Kinkade (Eds.), Human engineering guide to equipment design (pp. 41-121). Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research
Until the 1970s and 1980s, women were largely ignored by policy makers on the national and internal levels, while neoclassical economic models assumed that the aggregate income of households would be shared equally between men and women. More recent research has proven these assumptions to be false, and that the conflict model of household economics is more the norm in reality. Economists and government statisticians also failed to recognize the value of women's unpaid labor in domestic and reproductive work, or that Structural Adjustment Programs imposed by the International Monetary Fund had a disproportionately negative effect on women. In addition, even in the formal sectors of the economy, women's labor was generally low-paid, unskilled and insecure compared to men. Feminist theorists have demonstrated that gender relations are "socially determined" (Elson 1) and that development issues cannot be considered apart from these. For this reasons, economists and social planners…
" "This agent of RE/MAX blatantly discriminated against Latinos," said NFHA President and CEO Shanna L. Smith. So, the bottom line of that story is Latinos may be getting good jobs in some cases but finding appropriate housing near one's place of work can be a minefield of bias and deception.
Meanwhile, to answer the question, what effects does being Latino have on seeking a professional career, a study by the AFL-CIO shows that "...three of four Latino workers say workplace rights need more protection" (www.aflcio.org).Accordingto the AFL-CIO research, called "the most exhaustive study ever conducted on worker's rights," nearly one-third of Latinos interviewed on the job said they have faced "workplace discrimination based on their ethnicity" (AFL-CIO). The Peter D. Hart Research Associates group conducted this research for the AFL-CIO; the research sampled 1,792 adult Latinos and Asians. It was called "orker's Rights in America: hat orkers Think About…
FindLaw.com. (2008). Employment Discrimination in Alabama. Federal Law Prohibits
Employment Discrimination. Retrieved February 22, 2009, at http://library.findlaw.com .
Forbes.com. (2009). Department of Justice Settles Racial Discrimination Lawsuit Against RE/MAX Franchisee and Agent: National Fair Housing Alliance & HUD
Investigations Determined Discrimination. Retrieved February 23, 2009, at http://www.forbes.com .
GM 1983 Discrimination suit
G.M. And acial Discrimination
The civil rights movement in the United States began slowly. Changing centuries of discriminatory practices across an entire country was not a task that was without opposition, and ignorance on the part of the average citizen. However, when that ignorance was institutionalized within businesses, the wheels of justice needed a significant push in order to begin to afford black American access to the same opportunities which Caucasian-Americans enjoyed. Toward this end, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission actively sought out target candidates which would have the largest impact on moving the civil rights agenda forward.
In 1973, a suit filed against the worlds largest automaker, General Motors, the EEOC alleged that the corporation actively discriminated against black, Hispanic and women workers. At the time of the suit's filing, the company had 6.4% of its journeymen (skilled labor) positions filled by minority workers. Under…
Agence France Presse. Minority workers sue General Motors for 7.4 billion dollars
Brunner, Borgna. Civil Rights. 2003. Info Please.com. 2 Dec 2003. http://www.infoplease.com .
Civil Rights: an overview. Legal Information institute. 2003. Cornell University. 2 Dec. 2003. http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/civil_rights.html .
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
It is difficult to argue that the death penalty is being applied evenly and fairly as required by the Supreme Court's Furman v. Georgia decision. In fact, it could be argued, with statistics like these, that the application of the death penalty is being influenced by racial factors.
If the race of the victim is a factor in deciding whether or not the defendant receives the death penalty, then the race of the defendant is even more of a factor. For decades, critics of the justice system have asserted race to be a factor in crime and prosecutions in the United States, and it was ultimately the arbitrary imposition of the death penalty on African-Americans in Georgia that led to the Supreme Court's banning it in 1971. Black defendants are still overwhelming prosecuted more often than white defendants, but it is not only death penalty cases where this is the…
"ACLU: Race and the Death Penalty." (2003). The American Civil Liberties Union.
Retrieved from http://www.aclu.org/capital-punishment/race-and-death-penalty
Banner, Stuart, the Death Penalty: An American History. (2002) United States: Harvard
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
ace and Academic Disengagement
Psychological disengagement represents a coping mechanism that preserves a person's sense of self-worth in the face of negative feedback. For example, a student may discount a bad grade on an exam by framing it as an aberration, thereby preserving a 'good student' self-identity. Employing this coping mechanism has specific advantages, such as allowing the student to be persistent about achieving academic success despite receiving negative feedback (Nussbaum and Steele, 2007). On the other hand, psychological disengagement could facilitate a student framing academic success as irrelevant to their personal goals and future. Such students tend to perform poorly in school and suffer from increased dropout rates (reviewed by Stephan, Caudroit, Boiche, and Sarrazin, 2011). In contrast, students who are academically successful tend not to disengage, despite receiving a negative evaluation, and self-perceptions of their academic competency suffers accordingly. Understanding the mechanisms that encourages psychological disengagement…
Major, Brenda, Spencer, Steven, Schmader, Toni, and Wolfe, Connie. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34-50.
Nussbaum, A. David and Steele, Claude M. (2007). Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 127-134.
Schmader, Toni, Major, Brenda, and Gramzow, Richard, H. (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93-111.
Stephan, Yannick, Caudroit, Johan, Boiche, Julie, and Sarrazin, Philippe. (2011). Predictors of situational disengagement in the academic setting: The contribution of grades, perceived competence, and academic motivation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 441-455.
narrative which describes your personal understanding of how race functions in contemporary society.
I understand that "race" is largely a human social construct that has little factual basis. With the benefit of the various modern DNA sciences, we know today that the external features that typically denote race are completely unreliable because they do not accurately correspond to our lineage. I would define "race" as a meaningless distinction that has evolved into one of the primary factors that many people use to distinguish groups of people they consider "different" from themselves.
Racism is evident to me on a daily basis in the sense that I continually observe social interactions dictated substantially by race-based associations and expectations instead of by objective elements of those interactions. To me, racism encompasses much more than negative conscious beliefs and attitudes about other people; it includes the so-called "positive" elements of racial heritage, such as…
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280
Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.
Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…
Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online: http://www.cnvc.org/about/marshall-rosenberg.html
Since re-imposing the death penalty in 1977, the United States of America has executed more than 1200 persons, and currently has more than 3000 more awaiting execution. Proponents of capital punishment claim that these deaths were necessary for the protection of society and the deterrence of future criminal activity. But opponents reject these arguments and cite scientific studies and statistics which demonstrate the death penalty has been used by courts in an arbitrary and unfair manner, more often given as sentences to the poor and minorities. In addition, opponents point to the fact that over 138 people have been exonerated and released from death rows since the early 1970's, while statistically, at least 10% of those convicted of capital crimes are actually innocent. While there are many more reasons why the death penalty should be permanently abolished, the way it has been misused and the fact that many…
Gross, Samuel, et al. (2004). "Exonerations in the United States 1989 Through 2003:
Social Science Research Network." Going to Search. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=753084
Information Center. Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org.
A black woman walking up to the counter at Macy's will be a customer, not an American-American customer; a Latino buying a car at a used car lot in Memphis won't be a Mexican-American he will be a customer. That's how it should be.
THREE: Why is the focus so different between male authors and female authors? For the same reason that men see the world from a very different lens than women see the world. Naomi Wolf has a very good perspective on why there is such a dramatic difference between what men write about and what women write about, and I agree with her wholeheartedly. There were archaic yet potent attitudes toward women a century ago, Wolf explains, in which "normal female activity, especially the kind that would lead women into power, was classified as ugly and sick." In fact, there were whispers that if a woman engaged…
Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…
Aguirre, a., Jr., & Baker, D.V. (1991). Race, racism, and the death penalty in the United States. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Vande Vere Publishing.
Amnesty International (1999).. Killing with prejudice: race and the death penalty. Amnesty International, Pub. No. AMR 51/52/99. London: Amnesty International.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, Q., & Pulaski, C.A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N.A., & Broffitt, B. (1998). Racial discrimination and the death penalty in the post-Furman era: An empirical and legal overview, with recent findings from Philadelphia. Cornell Law Review 83:1638-770
Unconscious acism in Psychology
Unconsciousness acism in Psychology
This essay is aimed at exploring whether unconscious racism exists through analyzing both sides of the arguments. The paper will briefly review the research evidences that validate the existence of implicit racial behavior that many individuals have unconscious negative perceptions and stereotypical beliefs about minority groups that often leads to understated bias without conscious awareness. It will be followed by criticisms of the concept of unconscious prejudice and the evidences presented in opposition.
Empirical Studies Supporting Unconscious acism
acism in today's modern world is both inconsistently normal and irrational. According to the study by ichard Delgado (1997, p.29), racism varies significantly with the common public ideology and exists in every member of the society, even though at unconscious levels. This irrationality and inconsistency is an integral part of the reason for the unconscious nature of bias. Delgado further explains that when our…
Blanton, H. & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of measure. The Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 34, pp. 277-97.
Delgado, R. (1997). Critical white studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Gawronski, B. (2002). What does the implicit association test measure? A test of the convergent and discriminant validity of prejudice-related IATs. Experimental Psychology, Vol. 49 (3), pp. 171-180.
Greenwald, a.G., Uhlmann, E.L., Poehlman, T.A. & Banaji, M.R. (2009). Understanding and using the implicit test association: III meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 97 (1), pp. 17-41.
representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…
Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.
Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.
Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.
Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
Moreover, population groups "…pull up roots and seemingly go out of their way to avoid one another…" throughout Southern California, Worster writes (242). An example of the concept of "pulling up roots" is the community of Watts, which in the 1960s, Worster continues, was "an almost entirely black populace" but by the mid-1990s is "predominately Mexican-American" (p. 243). And Little Tokyo, positioned just south of Los Angeles' City Hall, is now home to a "dwindling population of Japanese-Americans" who have scant interaction with the colonies of artists "who began reclaiming and inhabiting factory and loft buildings" in Little Tokyo. Armenians that once dominated the eastern fringes of Hollywood have "relocated to suburban Glendale" and South Koreans have "settled in the Mid-Wilshire district" which has caused the "displacement of a sizable community of Central Americans," Worster explains. This movement of cultures and ethnicities around the sprawling great Los Angeles region…
Berry, Mary Frances, 2000, Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality and Discrimination. DIANE Publishing: Darby, Pennsylvania.
Crash. Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. Rated R. (2005)
Erie, Steven P., Freeman, Gregory, and Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale, 2004, W (h)ither Sprawl? Have Regional Water Policies Subsidized Suburban Development? In Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of Southern California, Eds. J. Wolch, M. Pastor, and P. Dreier. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN.
Frommer, Marcos, 1992, 'An Interview with Mike Davis,' Chicago Review, vol. 38, issue 4, 21-44.
hite Man's Burden
The film hite Man's Burden directed by Desmond Nakano tells the story of an alternate reality wherein the African-American men are the predominant members of upper class society and the Caucasian population is in the social minority, a complete reversal of the current social racial dichotomy of the real world. Such a circumstance is not likely in the world as we know it. Even though members of the African-American race have been able to obtain position of power in the world, including the office of the President of the United States, there is still a great difference between the positions of power that the two races play in American society. Most high-paying jobs and political offices are held by Caucasian people. The dichotomy of racial inequality can be discussed in terms of two different types of social psychological phenomena: discrimination and confirmation bias.
In the movie, the…
White Man's Burden. Dir. Desmond Nakano. Prod. Lawrence Bender. Perf. John Travolta and Harry Belafonte. UGC, 1995. DVD.
IQ Test Scores
Cultural Differences in IQ Test Scores
Most studies carried out in the United States to measure intelligence (IQ) indicate a significant gap in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites. The gap is more pronounced in certain areas of intelligence such as general intelligence and on tests requiring problem solving and more complex mental operations than on tests of rote learning and immediate memory. The gap has narrowed since the 1970s but still persists stubbornly. Debate has raged among the psychologists and social scientists about the reasons for the gap. The "hereditists" believe that the difference in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites is largely due to genetic reasons. The "environmentalists" are equally certain that the gap is due to environmental reasons and has nothing to do with genetics. This paper looks at both the heredity explanation as well as the environmental explanations of…
Dorfman, Donald D. (1995). "Soft Science with a Neoconservative Agenda." A Review of the Bell Curves. 40: 5. Contemporary Psychology, APA's journal of book reviews. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.apa.org/journals/bell.html
Haughton, Noela A. (2002). "Biased Content, Context, and Values: An Examination of the SAT." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQincome.htm
Jencks, Christopher and Phillips, Meredith. (1998). "The Black- White Test Score Ga: An Introduction." (pp. 2-22) The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips - eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Keita, L. (1999). "Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean." The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23: 1, p. 65.
Gaetz, S. (July 2004). Safe streets for whom? Homeless youth, social exclusion, and criminal victimization. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice.
This journal article reports the researcher's survey findings regarding the prevalence of victimization among street youths compared to domiciled youths. Gaetz defines the street youth operatively as "people up to the age of 24 who are 'absolutely periodically, or temporarily without shelter, as well as those who are at substantial risk of being in the street in the immediate future" (433). Survey findings show that just as expected, victimization mostly occur among the street than domiciled youth. Moreover, street youth reporting of criminal victimization is not common among both males and females. 41.7% of the respondents who have been victimized "told a friend" about the incident of victimization, 33.1% "did not tell anyone," and a far 17.2% reported the victimization to their partner (boyfriend or girlfriend)…
Felson, R. et. al. (August 2002). Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Criminology, Vol. 40, Issue 3.
Felson et. al.'s research utilized the National Crime Victimization Survey as its primary instrument in determining, assessing, and measuring the factors that lead to reporting (or not reporting) incidences of domestic violence. Survey findings show that there are three primary factors that are significantly relevant in inhibiting victims to reporting domestic violence to the police: "the desire for privacy, the desire to protect the offender ... And fear of reprisal."
The NCVS survey findings illustrate how the prevalence and continuous occurrence of abuse and domestic violence, especially among females, is still a social problem that needs unwavering attention by the government and civil society. New findings such as hesitance of male victims to report on their victimization reflect the changing nature of domestic violence in American society. In the same way that females need protection through the dissemination of proper and useful information about domestic violence, males are also in need of protection as well. Another important implication of the study is the changing nature of the respondents' (victims) concept of domestic violence, which varies significantly across gender.
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…
American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer
Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
National Incident-Based Reporting System (IBRS) is a system used by national and state law enforcement agencies to report and analyze crimes. he system allows for the widespread use of data related to a variety of crimes coming to law enforcement agencies. he data collected includes the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident.
he information collected by the IBRS is extensive and the use of the system can be, therefore, complex. Since the system was introduced in 1985 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation the basic system has been adopted by a number of local and state law enforcement agencies as well. Some of these jurisdictions, including the State of New York, have chosen to enhance the system or adapt it to their…
The reporting of hate crimes is still in its infancy. Data is only available from 1992 to the present and it is only in the past ten years that wholesale participation has been available. As participation becomes more universal, the results will be more complete and as reporting protocols are improved the results will be more accurate. By their nature, hate crimes involve a high degree of bias and therefore discplined reporting protocols are a necessity.
The IBRS system affords law enforcement agencies with the opportunity to take advantage of the phenonmenal capacity of modern police and data processing systems to accumulate a myriad of details regarding criminal activity and criminals. The sophistication of the system allows investigating officers the ability to record pertinent facts in a systematic method that results in the organizing of data into specific segments. This leads to more accurate and complete analysis and, arguably, this leads to better law enforcement techniques.
The mission of the IBRS system is to enhance the quality, and timeliness of crime data collection and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing of the collected crime statistics. Presently, participation in the use of the IBRS system is not universal and a great deal of the reporting of crime statistics by the FBI and other reporting agencies is still done using summary format. It is the hope that in the near future the IBRS system will be used by all law enforcement agencies throughout the country. It is believed that this will result in better reporting results.
The application of SAT for College Entrance Examination has been widely debated, with several supporters for its continued usage and several opponents for its discontinuance. The paper shall deal with both sides of the argument and shall reach at a conclusion.
The SAT is the country's historical, widely prevalent, and misapplied, of College Entrance examinations. The SAT-I is constituted of two phases, Verbal and Math, each marked on a 200-800 point scale. The 138 questions include specifically many choices and the ten questions relating to Mathematics need students to pen down the answers. By pattern, the test denotes more speed that many test undertakers are prevalently finding it short of answering them within the stipulated time. The SAT-II, previously attainment tests, is one hour subject-based exams, which is completely in a multiple choice pattern (excluding the SAT-II written exam, which is comprehensive of one 20 minute essay). The…
Bissell, Andrew. (2001) "Opponents of the SAT fail the test of logic. http://www.digisys.net/fhspub/00-01/march30/stories/sat.htm
Cavanagh, Sean. "Researchers Call SAT Alternative Better Predictor of College Success," Economist, January 29, 2003.
Danowitz Sagaria, M.A. (Ed.). (1988). "Empowering women: Leadership development strategies on campus" (New Directions for Student Services No. 44). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Dorans, N.J. Lyu, C.F. Pommerich, M. And Houston W.M. (1997) "Concordance between ACT Assessment and Recentered SAT I Sum Scores" College and University, 73, 24-31
With the advent of technology, there are other tests apart from Blood Type present to rule out a crime. If today, the assailant's blood type does not match the blood on the crime scene, it does not necessarily prove him guilty. Forensics studies have indicated that there are two types of people on this planet regarding secretion of ABO proteins in body fluids. There are the secretors, and then there are nonsecretors. In cases of rape, the fluid usually tested is semen. The thing to note is that if that person is a secretor, only then his blood antigens will be present in the semen. If the semen is negative for any antigen that can either mean that the person is type O or is a non-secretor (Lyle, 2011) Furthermore, there are thousands and millions of people who have the same blood type. Due to this reason, DNA testing…
Flaherty, C. (2013). Cops: black mob kidnaps, rapes teen girls. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.wnd.com/2013/11/cops-black-mob-kidnaps-rapes-teen-girls / [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Gross, S.R., Jacoby, K., Matheson, D.J., Montgomery, N. & Patil, S. (2005). Exonerations in the United States 1989 through 2003. The journal of criminal law and criminology (1973-), 95 (2), pp. 523 -- 560.
Innocenceproject.org. (2014). The innocence project - know the cases: browse profiles:bennett barbour. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Bennett_Barbour.php [Accessed: 13 Jan 2014].
Johnson, S. (1984). Cross-Racial Identification Errors in Criminal Cases. CORNELL L. REV., 69 (934), 935-36.
Social Science literature has largely defined racist societies as those where: official ideology proclaims that racial differences are unbridgeable; the ideal is "race purity"; social segregation is mandated by law; and stigmatized groups have limited access to economic opportunities so that they are kept impoverished (Fredrickson, p. 101). Thus, it is evident that the historical definition of racism has emerged from a construct of political, sociological and economic ideology, which overtly practices racial discrimination. Since modern day America professes an ideology of equality, the question thus arises as to whether anti-black racism is now a part of the nation's ignoble past. Unfortunately, it appears that the answer to that question is in the negative, as racial prejudices continue to perpetuate an economic and social divide between African-American blacks and "white" America, albeit under the guise of Laissez-faire racism or persistent negative stereotyping (Martin & Tuch, p. 16). Logically, therefore,…
Fredrickson, G.M. "Racism: A Short History." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. "I Have a Dream." The U.S. Constitution Online. Accessed Aug 8, 2004: http://www.usconstitution.net/dream.html
Martin, J.K., & Tuch, S.A. "Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change." Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
There is one however, and it is the level of education they have. I plan to go through with my Master's Degree at some point and many of the people who lead my community including council people, the mayor the police chief and department heads also have high levels of education.
If I could change any inequality in my community I would change the fact that there are two African-American city employees out of 300 total workers.
I would do it with a drive to recruit people of color and encourage them to apply for open positions. I would require them to have educations equal to the average education of other city employees. I would change it so that the face of our town reflected the true demographic make up of the town.
When I called the mayor he had no way of knowing what color I am. When he…
Wright, Timothy (town mayor)
Kittewell, Cathy (County Clerk)
Johnson, Samuel (Police Chief)
History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare
Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act
The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…
McBride, A. (2006). Brown v. Board of Education. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html
Parks, P. (2010). What is the Hill-Burton Act? www.jdsupra.com Retrieved from http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/what-is-the-hill-burton-act-63450/
Thomas, K. (2008). Hill-Burton Act. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1439
Wormser, R. (2002). Plessy v. Ferguson. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html