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One of the primary reasons that non-white minorities are so disproportionately affected by the reduction in federal aid for higher education expenses, and/or the availability of affordable programs and institutions, is that they have not had equal economic access, either. This is something else that Lui et al. note in their description of the development of American culture and society. A lack of education as well as a prejudiced belief in the abilities of minorities often relegates them into manual labor occupations, where potentials for earning and advancement are limited. This creates a perpetual cycle of poverty, or at least of lower-middle-class status (which can often be worse in terms of receiving aid for higher education) leading to a lack of education and advancement, which in turn reinforces the idea that education is not meant for minorities, which reduces funding, etc.
There have, of course, been many attempts to address…
retain racial prejudices and how can we break such molds? acism and prejudices, just like reading and speaking, are taught. This is one of the easy ways to develop and retain racial prejudices. Babies, toddlers, children, and even adolescents are highly susceptible to their environments. Yes, as children age into adolescents, they begin to think and act with more independence and defiance, yet they are not outside of the realm of influence from their families. The views, attitudes, perceptions, and language that people grow up in build the foundation for nearly all of their own attitudes. This is a reason why concerned and aware parents will seek to find a balance between exposing their children to a variety of people, so that they will not be fearful of people who are different, with being careful about to whom they expose their children to, either because some people do not agree…
Hampton, C., & Lee, K. (2012). Strategies and Activities for Reducing Racial Prejudice and Racism. University of Kansas, Web, Available from: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/sub_section_main_1173.aspx . 2012 December 29.
Maddox, PhD, K. (2006). Rethinking Racial Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination. American Psychological Association, Web, Available from: http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2006/04/maddox.aspx. 2012 December 28.
Sage Publications. (2006). Chapter 3 -- Causes and Consequences of Racial Prejudice. Web, Available from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/11557_Chapter_3.pdf . 2012 December 28.
Though prejudice seems to be a natural, hard-wired part of the human brain, racism is a learned trait, but the research discussed in Moskowitz's article suggests that there are predispositions in people's brains away from racism (and therefore probably towards racism as well). That is, when it comes to racism some people are simply faster learners than others. But though individual brain function explains some racism, it is far from the whole answer.
The research Moskowtitz explains only shows a predisposition towards the leanrned trait of racism; it ultimately fails to explain the source of racism. This is where institutional racism really connects to individual racism. In a society that as a whole is even slightly racist -- as many scholars suggest our is -- there are subconscious cues all around about the "good" and "bad" race or races. People who do not form negative associations do not pick up…
Adams, Glen. Commemorating Brown. New York: American Psychological Association, 2007.
Anti-Defamation League (ADL). "Racism." 2001. Accessed 3 April 2009. http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/racism.asp
Feinberg, Mark. "Racism and Psychology." American Psychology Association, 2000. Accessed 3 April 2009. http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/racism/contents.html
Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. "Racism." 2001. Accessed 3 April 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0002/ai_2699000284/
acial and Ethnic Differences National Contexts
A sociologist analyze racial ethnic differences national contexts. For, U.S., tend race a . In order develop skill, select analyze a society demonstrating ethnic stratification conflict, including evidence prejudice discrimination.
In sociology, the predominant line of thought has favored new prejudice interpretations, arguing for the continuing relevance of prejudice and discrimination in forming political opinions and in generating discrimination. New prejudice theories have argued that modern prejudice is multidimensional, combining racial and ostensibly nonracial beliefs. Little known to most sociologists, recent psychological research provides a new approach to understanding the sources of racial discrimination that compliments ideas from the new prejudice literature (Livingston, 2002).
esearch has demonstrated that implicit racial attitudes exist even for individuals who score low on measures of explicit racial prejudice and that these implicit beliefs influence judgments and perceptions. This literature provides one way to reconcile differences between continuing high…
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. (2000). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(1), 189-208.
Census Bureau U.S. (2001). (2001). The Hispanic population: 1990-2000 growth and change., . Washington DC:: Guzmin.
Feather, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,, 28(2), 446-459.
Issacharoff, S., Karlan, P.S., & Pildes, R.H. (2002). The law of democracy: Legal structure of the political process (Rev. 2nd ed.). . New York: Foundation Press.
Prejudice and the Clark Doll test
Prejudice Today and the Clark Doll Study
I once witnessed an incident involving racial prejudice at a local Wal-Mart store. The store was located in a predominately white, suburban area of town. I was standing in a checkout line behind a white couple shopping with their young son. Standing right behind them was a well-dressed, African-American woman with a few items in her hand. A white cashier was quietly ringing up the family's items when I overheard the preschool age, little boy calling for his mom and saying that they needed to change lines. He was standing up in the shopping cart giving the African-American lady dirty looks. She stood quietly, ignoring him. The parents seemed completely oblivious; however, after several pleadings from the son, the mother turned and said, "What is it?" The little boy turned and boldly pointed at the African-American lady.…
Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., & Fiske, S.T. (2010). "What did You Say, and Who do You Think You Are?" How Power Differences Affect Emotional Reactions to Prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 66(3), 477-492. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2010.01657.x.
Gee, C.L., & Heyman, G.D. (2007). Children's Evaluation of Other People's Self-Descriptions. Social Development, 16(4), 800-818. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00408.x.
al, 2002). In addition, change occurs quicker when leadership is diverse, as well (Hampton and Lee, 2007). Finally, ethnicity and diversity issues should be included in organizational behavior courses, so that all business and industry has more access to this information (Mamman, 1996). Change must occur in our society, and an end to prejudice must be achieved for our society and our workplaces to be truly free and equal.
Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf.
Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.
Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/H022.
Griessman, G. (1993). What is…
Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf .
Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.
Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HR022 .
Griessman, G. (1993). What is diversity? Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Multi-Cultural Center Web site: http://www.multi-culturalcenter.org/diversity.php.
acial Profiing Discussion
The events from 2001 marked a crucial point in the history of the United States from the perspective of the casualties and human loss they produce but at the same time from the perspective of the changes these events marked in the American society. Nowadays, the security measures are increased to such an extend that there have been wide debates on the potential abuses that may take place in terms of human rights, privacy issues, as well as personal security.
One of the security measures enforced since September 2001 is the extended control measures and techniques used to prevent any terrorist attacks from taking place on American soil. At the same time though, despite the fact that increased security measures are justified, they also allow controversies over potential abuses. One of the arguments protesting against increased security measures as they are enforced today points out the role…
Cloud, John. "What's Race Got To Do With It?" Time Magazine. 2001. Online edition. Available at http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101010730/cover.html
Taylor, Leslie. "Police condemned for profiling of letter carrier." The StarI 2009. Available at http://www.thestar.com/News/GTA/article/670484
Dept. Of Justice. Fact Sheet: Racial profiling. June 17, 2003. Available online at http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2003/June/racial_profiling_fact_sheet.pdf
Differences in achievement are often attributed to race, ethnicity, gender or social class, when in reality it is often these demographic considerations that impact the ways teachers, parents, and educational professionals treat students. Lowered expectations for African-American students or elevated expectations for upper-income whites are common symptoms of the current and outmoded ideology. All schools needed to examine the problem with such obviously biased assumptions and to reform school curricula based on a more democratic ideology. Furthermore, the schools had to reform the definition of intelligence in order for the reforms to take root. Redefining intelligence was in fact the largest obstacle in altering the racial dynamics in the public schools.
We will not face such serious ideological challenges, as our organization is fundamentally different from a school. However, we face our own outmoded beliefs and assumptions and must also learn to redefine some of the essential aspects of our…
This prejudice has abated since then, but still exists throughout the U.S.
ative Alaskans who attend a high school in this Western state interviewed their "elders," those living through the 1930s to 1950s, about the inequalities that existed. These individuals, too, were not able to go to certain movies or be served at local white-owned restaurants. Even in 2007, many ative Alaskans relate stories about the bigotry that exits within their state. A few years ago, several white students exploded paint balls at a ative Alaskan walking down the street. ative Alaskans also have less representation and responsibilities in the judicial system and receive, on whole, a lesser education than the non-atives.
Economic differences occur in this country, as well, and these differences are becoming wider. The gap between the rich and the poor is widening, with the more well to do having greater opportunities for a better education, healthcare…
Native Alaskans who attend a high school in this Western state interviewed their "elders," those living through the 1930s to 1950s, about the inequalities that existed. These individuals, too, were not able to go to certain movies or be served at local white-owned restaurants. Even in 2007, many Native Alaskans relate stories about the bigotry that exits within their state. A few years ago, several white students exploded paint balls at a Native Alaskan walking down the street. Native Alaskans also have less representation and responsibilities in the judicial system and receive, on whole, a lesser education than the non-Natives.
Economic differences occur in this country, as well, and these differences are becoming wider. The gap between the rich and the poor is widening, with the more well to do having greater opportunities for a better education, healthcare services and services in general. According to the latest figures from the Internal Revenue Service, the wealthiest 1% of Americans earned more than 20% of all income in 2005. That means the richest Americans have surpassed the highs of the booming 1990s, according to the latest data from the IRS. If one is not certain that disparity exists, it is only necessary to compare the run down neighborhoods and schools, poverty, and crowded clinics in the inner cities to the newly built and pristine public schools, privilege and affluence, and modern healthcare surgicenters in the American suburbs. Just because laws are passed does not necessarily mean that major changes occur. There has been and continues to be in the United States a number of people who see themselves as different and better than others.
This essay used compare/contrast strategies (e.g., with the inner-city vs. suburbs); description (the look of the inner city compared to the more affluent areas), narratives (the elders' stories about how they were/are treated) and arguments (throughout).
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…
Giroux, Henry A. (2001). Theory and resistance in education (Critical studies in education and culture series). Praeger; Rev Exp edition.
San Juan (2002) states that the racism of sex in the U.S. is another element of the unequal political and economic relations that exist between the races in the American democracy. Women of color may even be conceived as constituting "a different kind of racial formation" (2002), although the violence inflicted against them as well as with familial servitude and social inferiority, testifies more sharply to the sedimented structures of class and national oppression embedded in both state and civil society (2002).
San Juan (2002) goes on to explore the articulations between sexuality and nationalism. "What demands scrutiny is more precisely how the categories of patriarchy and ethnonationalism contour the parameters of discourse about citizen identities" (2002). How the idea of nation is sexualized and how sex is nationalized, according to San Juan (2002), are topics that may give clues as to how racial conflicts are circumscribed within the force field of national self-identification.
Sexuality, San Juan (2002) suggests, unlike racial judgment is not a pure self-evident category. He states that it manifests its semantic and ethical potency in the field of racial and gendered politics. In the layering and sedimentation of beliefs about sexual liberty and national belonging in the United States, one will see ambiguities and disjunctions analogous to those between sexuality and freedom as well as the persistence of racist ideology.
Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.
Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).
Aggression and Prejudice:
One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…
Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…
Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.
Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.
Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.
Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.
Prejudice in Individuals:
Prejudice is the rigid irrational attitudes and opinions possessed by individuals or members of a specific group about another individual or group. onsequently, being prejudiced is defined as having preconceived beliefs regarding some people groups or cultural practices. In addition to being preconceived and difficult to change, prejudices can be positive or negative. While is possible to be prejudiced and fail to act upon the beliefs or attitudes, negative prejudices can result in discrimination. This negative form of prejudice is practiced in order to guard opportunities through denying access to groups of people. There is an urgent need to lessen prejudice because of the changing social structure, demographics, work place settings, and education settings. However, many efforts to reduce prejudices in these various settings have been legal and have failed to confront the dynamics of the disorder.
There are two prejudicial processes that operate differently…
Cole, J. (n.d.). Understanding Prejudice Behavior. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.beyondprejudice.com/under_stand.html
"Prejudice and Discrimination." (n.d.). Cliff Notes. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Prejudice-and-Discrimination.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26886.html
Schamotta, J. (n.d.). The Development of Prejudice. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8547880_development-prejudice.html
Understanding a form of prejudice and discrimination in a black community
Explain how prejudice and discrimination manifests in this community
Research on health and race often invoke discrimination, prejudice, and racism as probable causes for increased levels of mortality and morbidity in the black community. Discrimination and prejudice can impact people's social resources, opportunities, motivation, self-worth, and involvement with the wider society. Besides, the different views on inequality and equality serve as drivers for further prejudice. Therefore, the establishment, promotion, and sustenance of human rights and equality are dependent on understanding how individuals comprehend and apply these ideas in their daily lives (Abrams, 2010).
Early sociological accounts regarding black's higher offending rates focused not on the physical constraints created by racial prejudice but instead on the supposed unique facets of their culture that disrupts conventional behavior while encouraging violence and crime. A few recent structural perceptions openly incorporate racial, physical…
Abrams, D. (2010). Process of Prejudice: Theory, evidence, and intervention. Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report.
Burt, C. H., Simons, R., & Gibbons, F. (2012). Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience. Am Sociol Rev., 648–677.
College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. (2010). The Education Crisis Facing Young Men of Color (Vol. 1, pp. 1-42, Rep.). College Board
Fleming C, Lamont M, and Welburn J. (2012). \\\\"African Americans Respond to Stigmatization: The Meanings and Salience of Confronting, Deflecting Conflict, Educating the Ignorant and \\\\'Managing the Self.\\\\'\\\\" Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(3):400–17.
Gaylord-Harden, N. K. (2009). The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 532-43.
Griffin, E., & Armstead, C. (2020). Black\\\\'s Coping Responses to Racial Stress. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 609–618.
Lawson, C. (2016). Racism and Coping Mechanisms within the African American Community. UFDC.
NPR, R. H. (2017). Discrimination in America: Experiencing and views of African Americans.
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.
Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…
Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Educational Inequality Along acial Lines
The role of education in the American society cannot be overemphasized. Education plays an important role in equipping students with knowledge and skills for transforming their life and the society at large. Also, the education system instills appropriate values, behaviors, and attitudes in students, making them useful members of the society. Nonetheless, while education is important, it tends to reinforce the existing social inequality, particularly along racial lines. Funding inequalities and learning outcomes between schools from privileged backgrounds and those from unprivileged backgrounds attest to this. This paper examines inequality in education along racial lines. The paper specifically focuses on four aspects: the role of education from two sociological perspectives; the role of funding in producing educational inequality along racial lines; America's cultural diversity (in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and class) and the educator's role in promoting cultural diversity; as well as an anti-racist…
Duncan, G., & Murnane, R. (2014). Restoring opportunity: the crisis of inequality and the challenge for American Education. Boston: Harvard Education Press.
Farley, J. (2012). Majority-Minority Relations. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: theory, research, and practice. 2nd ed. New York: Teachers College Press.
Parrillo, V. (2009). Diversity in America. 3rd ed. Los Angeles: Pine Forge Press.
Namely, the institutions of
slavery and Jim Crow that were used to constrain the growth and advancement
of African Americans are today disregarded as being directly relevant to
the fortunes and opportunities of blacks in America. This is both
unrealistic and unethical, with the denial of its lasting impact casting
American racism in an historical light rather than one which is still
present and problematic. It is thus that the social contract today serves
the interests of dominance even as it feigns to have disavowed these
aspects of itself.
A true resolution to the failures of the social contract may only
really occur when the discourse on America's racialist past and the lasting
effects of this on the current fortunes of African Americans is resolved.
In that regard, Mills regards it as largely a fiction that racial
discrimination ended in any meaningful way after the Emancipation
Proclamation; rather, racial prejudice…
Mills, C.W. (2000). Race and the Social Contract Tradition. Social
Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked about various strategies, they ultimately aim to deter the effects and eliminate completely the occurrence of oppression in the society.
Reflecting on the significant contributions of each individual to the progress of the civil rights movement and educational reform in the history of American society, it is evident that there cannot be one superior or best strategy that must be adopted to eliminate or deter oppression. What these readings and analyses of the works of Malcolm X, King, and Freire say about social change is that history provides us with various ways or perspectives to find a solution to a problem; each insight is helpful to the improvement of social changes in society. Freire's critical analysis of the educational system is…
Freire, P. (1990). "The Banking Concept of Education." In Ways of Reading. Boston: St. Martin's Press, Inc.
King, M.L. (1964). "Martin Luther King -- Acceptance Speech." Available at http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html .
Malcolm X (1964). "The Ballot or the Bullet." Available at http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
If you walk in to a bookstore or browse online you will find hundreds, in fact thousands, of essays, books, articles, and speeches about prejudice. Obviously, most of them are against prejudice and before you begin reading any of them, let me tell you that chances are good that they will contain phrases like "don't have prejudice against people," "prejudice results in downfall" or "prejudice is a bad thing,." ut what puzzles the mind is whether phrases like "we shouldn't have prejudice against people" are enough to end prejudice. Does a moral lesson at the end of a very moving story convince you not to have prejudice against your fellow beings? Does it convince people not to judge others and to treat everyone equally? I think not. In order to understand what prejudice is, does a person have to experience it firsthand?
In order to ponder over this important…
Angelou, Maya. "Graduation." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008).335-342. Print.
Hurston, Zora. "How It Feels To Be Colored Me." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008). 159-161. Print.
Kincaid, Jamaica. "On Seeing England For The First Time." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008).720-727. Print.
Staples, Brent. "Just Walk On By." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008). 153-155. Print.
racial ideology helped shape black and white people's interpretation of the relationship between masters and slaves.
Dr. Cartwright was a respected doctor from the University of Louisiana when he wrote this paper in 1851. He cites two diseases specific to the African race, "Dysaesthesia Aethiopica is a disease peculiar to Negroes, affecting both mind and body in a manner as well expressed by dysaesthesia, the name I have given it, as could be by a single term." He believes it occurs mostly in free Negroes, who "have not got some white person to direct and to take care of them," and causes general "rascality."
This alone would be enough to illustrate conceptual prejudice between the whites and blacks of the time, but Cartwright goes on to say Negroes also suffer from "Drapetomania," a disease that makes them run away. Clearly, the whites see the blacks as simple children who need…
Cartwright, Dr. Samuel. Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race. PBS.org.1998.
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. American Studies at the University of Virginia.1 July, 1997.
< http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/JACOBS/hjhome.htm >
As the definition by Black's Law Dictionary emphasizes, prejudice simply means, at least in part, a "partiality" for one reason or another. It seems reasonable to posit that most human resource directors as "partial" towards candidates with superior qualifications in preference to those who do not possess such qualification, just as it is reasonable to posit that a job candidate with a proven track record would likely be a superior candidate to one who job history is replete with terminations by reason of embezzlement or corporate malfeasance.
Furthermore, prejudice in this context is conducive to efficiency in the workplace because it just makes good business sense to rely on one's professional experience and expertise in formulating hiring decisions where all other factors may be equal. Indeed, this is a fundamental part of the human condition and is an inescapable element in the manner in which people go about conducting their…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1991.
De Meuse, Kenneth P., Eau Claire and K.S. O'Neill. 2007. "A Longitudinal Evaluation of Senior Managers' Perceptions and Attitudes of a Workplace Diversity Training Program."
Human Resource Planning 30(2): 38-40.
Griffin, Ricky W. And Anne M. O'Leary-Kelly. The Dark Side of Organizational Behavior. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.
tenet of Christian societies is a need to create healthy and safe local communities. Christians frequently emphasize freedom and justice within the Judeo-Christian perspective. That means creation and promotion of fair criminal justice policies. These criminal justice policies must do away actions based on stereotypes and try to eliminate racial profiling as of apprehending potential criminals. With the support of religious entities and congregations, implementation of community-oriented policing methods through collaboration with intelligence-gathering entities may lead to effective and easier community policing. Things like fusion centers and intelligence-led policing (ILP) may make such a novel aim possible.
Fusion centers act as an information sharing center. Fusion centers were created under the U.S. Department of Justice through two government agencies: Office of Justice Programs and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Most of them were formed from 2003-2007 (ukus, Warner, & Zhang, 2017). The purpose of fusion centers is to promote at…
Lambert, D. (2010). FBI -- Intelligence-Led Policing in a Fusion Center. Retrieved from https://leb.fbi.gov/2010/december/intelligence-led-policing-in-a-fusion-center
Rukus, J., Warner, M. E., & Zhang, X. (2017). Community Policing: Least Effective Where Need Is Greatest. Crime & Delinquency, 1-24. doi:10.1177/0011128716686339
Schmalleger, F. (2017). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Career & Technology.
Spencer, K. B., Charbonneau, A. K., & Glaser, J. (2016). Implicit Bias and Policing. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10(1), 50-63. doi:10.1111/spc3.12210
Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…
Allport, Gordon. "The Nature of Prejudice." Race, Racism and American Law. Ed.
Derek Bell. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973. 84-87.
Gordon Allport is a leading social scientist discussing the foundations of race and prejudice as it effect the United States. His work, "The Nature of Prejudice," is recognized as one of the most influential analysis of the reasons for the perpetuation of racial prejudice.
Bell, Derek ed. Race, Racism and American Law. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973.
(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.
The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)
"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a etter Oakland (PUELO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…
Nicole Davis. 2001. The slippery slope of racial profiling. Color Lines. December 2001.
St. Petersburg Times, June 8, 2003. Aschroft's America. Editorial.
Anthony Romero. 2001. Letter to Attorney General Ashcroft. American Civil Liberties Union, Oct. 17, 2001.
New York Times, Mar. 13, 2002. Hundreds of Arabs still detained in U.S. Jails. From Reuters.
Racial Exclusion in America
When one thinks of racial exclusion, they usually think of the reconstruction period of the late 1800s and the Jim Crow Laws. The Jim Crow laws prohibited blacks from drinking from the same water fountains, eating in the same restaurants, and ride in the back of the bus. Most ideas of racial exclusion are targeted at blacks, however, many other ethnic groups were the victims of racial exclusion as well. They may not have had laws condoning it, as was the case with blacks and Native Americans, but exclusion was there never the less. The books "Black Boy" by Richard Wright and "America is in the Heart" by Carlos Bulosan are two of the best examples illustrating the effects of racial exclusion from an insider's perspective. This paper will compare these two books both from historical perspective and from a contemporary standpoint.
Everyone knows about the…
Discriminatory practices were encouraged, such as the Jim Crow laws that supported segregation. However, the push for segregation led to increased inequities borne by the Negroes. Many southern states encouraged segregation, as well. The original Civil ights Act of 1957 had a limited scope, which impinged upon the rights of others.
Pros & Cons
During this time, many discriminatory cases were in the spotlight, and this was no exception. The case heightened awareness, as well as the flaws of the law. Civil ights bills were evolving, as this case ruling was a milestone in history. Conversely, many Negroes lost their lives to the cause, thus paving the way for a more equitable justice system.
Although not as prevalent today, prejudice and discrimination is still experienced by many. Civil rights are no longer reserved for race, but it has extended to other protected classes, such as gender, religion,…
A&E Television Networks (2011). History of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/alabama
Dysart Schools. (n.d.). Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=prejudice+theories&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=8SrQTp2tIZP_sQLpxt3IDg&start=0&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=5f6e1c9d40277296&biw=1078&bih=570
Findlaw. (2011). Supreme Court: United States v. Alabama, 362 U.S. 602 (1960)
362 U.S. 602. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=362&invol=602
Children and Prejudice
hat a person first needs to know in order to fully understand the various factors that influence racial / ethnic stereotypes is what being Caucasian truly means in our society. In other words, what does "whiteness" mean for a Caucasian child? hat does whiteness mean to a child who is African-American -- or to a child that is Latino, or Native American? The authors (Derman-Sparks, et al., 2005) delve into this and other important issues that relate to not just ethnicity but to social power and influence.
hat is Racism -- this is important to know -- in America? According to the authors it is important to understand that racism is not just an attitude that one person has towards another. In fact racism in American is an "…institutionalized system of power" that makes the determination as to what groups are "advantaged" and what groups are "disadvantaged"…
Derman-Sparks, L., and Ramsey, P.G. (2005). What If All the Children in My Class Are White?
Beyond the Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2014, from the National Association for the Education of Young Children.
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…
Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)
Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com .
IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com .
Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.
esearch has shown that good communication amid patients and health care providers is directly connected to a person's happiness, treatment adherence and affirmative health results (Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers, 2007).
The goal of a lot of provider-oriented health it tools is to make relevant patient information flawlessly and unmistakably accessible to providers at the point of care. In so doing, these tools can decrease clinical indecision related to blurred or mistaken patient information that may be found in a handwritten medical record. In the nonexistence of desired information or in the presence of blurred or uncertain data, providers may undervalue patient precise information while at the same time overweighting their own medical viewpoints, suppositions, prejudices, or stereotypes about certain kinds of patients. If apparent and precise patient information is accessible to the clinician, the utilization of this information should augment, getting rid of the need for relying on…
Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers. (2007). Retrieved March 13, 2011, from Web
race and racial inequality are structured in the United States of America. It explains the concepts of oppression and privilege, describing ways in which various social institutions (educational system, the media, the economy, politics and the state, criminal justice system, etc.) intersect to construct categories of difference in society. It concludes with a policy suggestions that would help to decrease racial and ethnic inequality in U.S. society.
Institutional Structures and acial Inequality
The manifestation of racism in social institutions are major impediment in the struggle against rampant prejudice in the country. Specific example is shown by Simon (2008), in the television drama series, The Wire created and written by a former police reporter. The series depicts institutional dysfunction in the police department, City Hall, the public school system. It reveals how the characters are betrayed by the same institutions that are important to them in provision of education, protection and…
Catholic Charities USA. (2008). Poverty and Racism: Overlapping Threats to the Common Good. Alexandria: Larry Snyder.
Kuznia, R. (2009, April 8). Racism in Schools: Unintentional But No Less Damaging. Retrieved from www.miller-mccune.com: http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/racism-in-schools-unintentional-3821/
Mauer, M. (2010 ). Statement of Marc Mauer Executive Director The Sentencing Project . Prepared for the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Washington DC.
Quigley, B. (2010, July 26). Rampant Racism in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from www.counterpunch.org: http://www.counterpunch.org/2010/07/26/rampant-racism-in-the-criminal-justice-system/
Looking at history from a purely anthropological standpoint, no one is actually native to North America. esearch concludes that this is true whether the particular research bases its findings on Darwinism or Judeo/Christian/Muslim beliefs. Life began somewhere in the area of the world now known as the Middle East. However, some people are more native, as a result of having lived in North America the longest, than others. After the original colonists arrived across the land bridge many thousands of years ago, it is debated who showed up next, but it was probably some European Vikings out for a short fishing trip. Columbus was a late comer, and he realized that people had already colonized the land he "discovered." It was not until everyone else had arrived in America, that Africans were brought over to work the land in chattel slavery. Three groups Native Americans (American Indians used…
Abernathy, D. (2002). The dynamics of global dominance: European overseas empires, 1415-1980. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Chavez y Gilbert, D.A. (2007). Cowboys and Indians are family after all. Retrieved from http://www.nmhcpl.org/First_American.html
Parrillo, V.N. (2011). Strangers to these shores: Race and ethnic relations in the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.
On numerous occasions, we have perceived people being treated in a different and disparaging manner simply because they emanate from a certain cultural or ethnic group and community. This is something that takes place every day and is an ongoing heated issue of debate. This is an issue that has been in place for a very long time (Cohen, 2011). anging from captivity of the African people to oppression of African-Americans in the United States, racism is an issue that has caused a great deal of harm, anguish and pain to numerous people in the society. The same case is still ongoing in the present day, for instance, with the United States having the "Black Lives Matter" movement due to racial actions against young black people in different states. There has also been prejudice and racism shown against individuals emanating from the Muslim community being mistreated and oppressed…
Cohen, L. J. (2011). The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism. Psychology Today. Retrieved 24 March, 2016 from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/handy-psychology-answers/201101/the-psychology-prejudice-and-racism
Conner, D. F., & Barkley, R. A. (2004). Aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: Research and treatment. New York: The Guilford Press.
Global Awareness and Cultural and Racial Diversity
The need to successfully promote global awareness and cultural and racial diversity took on a completely new meaning recently. "There are over six billion people on this planet we call Earth. Diversity is more than just a notion. The term diversity has been defined by Merriam-ebster online as meaning 'differing from one another or unlike. Composed of distinct or unlike elements or qualities', this word is also used to simply mean different." (Burns) By Barak Obama becoming the nation's first black president, we have forever changed the nation's future; but in a sense, this momentous election will also alter how we will forever look at our nations past history. For more than two hundred years, the United States of America was traditionally managed by older white guys and by them being in charge, the world's thinking was shaped. The expectations of every…
Works Cited, continued
Schniedewind, Nancy. "There Ain't No White People Here!": The Transforming Impact of Teachers' Racial Consciousness on Students and Schools. Equity & Excellence in Education. 2005, 38: 280 -- 289.
Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities
in Health Care
The recent report of the Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (2002 Smedley et. al.), indicates that bias, stereotyping, and prejudice may often contribute to the quality of health care that is provided to non-white patients. For anyone entering into the field of health care, this information is beneficial because it uncovers many of the reasons why some patients receive inadequate health care that can lead to future prevention of this problem.
The vast majority of studies reviewed concluded that minorities are less likely to get the same treatment as whites, including necessary procedures. The studies also suggested that patient attitudes cannot explain completely why disparities exist in health care. Clearly, race has become as issue in the health care industry. The report brings to light the depth of the problem when it…
Smedley, Brian, Stitth, Adrienne, and Nelson, Alan. (2002) Unequal Treatment:
Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Retrieved September 5,
2003, from http://books.nap.edu/books/030908265X/html/index.html
Heat of the Night
Theories on Prejudice and Discrimination
The first thought on prejudice and discrimination in this movie naturally falls to the race of Virgil Tibbs (i.e., Sidney Poitier) but this movie delves in much more subtle comparisons and stereotypical prejudices than mere skin color.
A film in the late 1960's did not headline a black actor. Significant is the fact that Tibbs is allowed to be smart, clever, empathetic, superior, and dedicated to finding the killer - even while realizing he is being framed for a murder he did not commit.
Sheriff Bill Gillespie (Rod Steiger) is the perfect white counterpoint to Tibbs: manipulative, curiously vulnerable, steely when crossed, and white - stereotypical redneck portrayal of a Southern public servant.
The underlying theory of prejudicial racism is clearly defined - if subtly - by the deserted condition of the train station, the hour of Tibbs' arrival, and being…
aker reviewed three landmark Supreme Court decisions on capital punishment and concluded that the death penalty is capriciously imposed on lack defendants and thus serves the extra-legal function of preserving majority group interests. He viewed discrimination in capital sentencing as deliberate and identified the primary reasons why lack defendants with white victims have been denied fairness in capital sentencing. These are prosecutorial discretion in the selective prosecution of capital cases, prosecutorial misuse of peremptory challenges to systematically exclude lacks from juries, judicial overrides by trial judges, prosecutorial misconduct and the ineffective assistance by defense counsel (Emmelman).
Helen Taylor Greene used a colonial model to explore the effectiveness and limitations placed on the police in the past and in the present (Emmelman, 2005). This colonial model showed that the police, regardless of color, were an oppressive force in many communities. Lately, lack political empowerment and ascendancy in many law enforcement departments…
American Law Library (2009). Racial profiling: should police practice racial profiling?
Vol.8, American Encyclopedia: Net Industries. Retrieved on March 29, 2013
Banks, C (2004), Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 3. Sage
Thebedi suffers because of the same reason but her story reveals how broken a race becomes after years of repeated abuse. Thebedi lives in a culture thousands of miles away from the segregation realized in America but somehow, that mentality made its way across the ocean. The most amazing aspect of this story is the fact that it could have taken place on an American farm. The white man's ways belittled the black man even in his own land. Prejudice is no respecter of persons. hile we associate it with whites and blacks in America, across the globe people are killed and mistreated for all kinds of beliefs. One thing is clear: this state of mind comes from within the heart of man, not from without. Children play with each other without restraint and it is only when they begin to adopt the beliefs of their elders that they begin…
Gordimer, Nadine. "Country Lovers."
Walker, Alice. "The Welcome Table."
The Price of Racial Harmony
Almost thirty years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, race relations in the United States continue to be strained and the dream of racial harmony appears to be as far from reality as it ever was. Many commentators, including Shelby Steele, consider that the cause of these continued difficulties lies in society's determined emphasis upon race and color, rather than upon equality and individualism. The convenient packaging and classification of people into the camps of either black or white perpetuates the divisive conflict of oppressors vs. victims, and innocence vs. power. Although integration and multiculturalism are among the catchwords of the time, the present situation is merely a case of blacks and whites adopting the path of least resistance. To truly achieve equality and cooperation within racial relations, society must make radical changes in the way that it acts and thinks. This…
Hooks, B. Killing Rage: Ending Racism. New York: Henry Holt, 1995.
Steele, Shelby. "I'm Black, You're White, Who's Innocent?" Rereading America. Eds. Gary Colombo, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle. 2nd ed. Boston: Bedford, 1992.
ethnic, racial, and religious group is subject to stereotyping from others. This means that there are terms and ideas prescribed to a group of people based on certain characteristics that makes assumptions on those individuals because of these assumed characteristics. Stereotypes are rarely if ever based upon true characteristics but upon archaic and prejudicial ideas. There are both positive and negative stereotypes, but even ones that seem to compliment the specific group are still offensive because they give all individuals in that group the same characteristics, denying the people their individuality. Stereotypes are some of the most prevalent and ingrained ideas within the society. Even people who understand the fallacy of stereotyping and do not believe in them are aware of the terms applied to certain groups and may find themselves buying into some of them on a subconscious level. This is because these ideas have become conditioned into the…
American Labor Market
Darrick Hamilton's assessment of discrimination and how discrimination is measured in the U.S. labor market reveals a number of variables that play a part in determining the nature and extent of inequality in the U.S. hat the study does show is that class dichotomies are apparent and that economic disparity essentially ensures that the two classes remain divided by socio-economic barriers, which prevent the lower class from ever rising beyond the class ceiling that keeps them within their socio-economic status.
Class is an obvious issue in America: classism interacts with racism in various ways but the exact manner of the interaction -- or how it is interpreted -- depends on some degree to the manner in which the interaction is measured. As Hamilton notes, "An individual may experience discrimination and not interpret it as such, or an individual may not experience discrimination but perceive that they were…
Hamilton, Darrick. "Issues Concerning Discrimination and Measurements of Discrimination in U.S. Labor Markets." Perspectives, 98-111. Web.
Biases in Decision-Making
Biases refer to prejudices or favors of or against an object, group, or individual in comparison to another (Moule, 2009). This aspect is normally unfair in relation to making critical as well as effective judgment or decisions. On the other hand, unconscious biases refer to our natural people preferences. Unconscious biases also relate to the concept of hidden biases in the process of making unfair decision. Unconscious biases have massive influence on the underpinnings with reference to the decision-making process. It is critical for individuals to overcome unconscious biases in order to make valuable and fair decisions in accordance with relevant activities.
Discuss how biases can affect our decision-making during the hiring process
Biases have massive influence on our decision-making in the process of hiring new employees in the context of an organization. Biases influence our decision-making when hiring new employees in several ways. One of the…
Messner, C., Wanke, M., & Weibel, C. (2011). Unconscious Personnel Selection. Social Cognition, 29(6), 699-710.
Moule, J. (2009). Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism. (Cover story).
Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 320-326.
Parloff, R., & Kaufman, S.M. (2007). The War Over Unconscious Bias. Fortune, 156(8), 90-
"Why is it so easy to develop and then retain racial prejudices?" How can we break this "mold"?
acial prejudices are formed easily because they are learned cognitive patterns. One develops racial prejudices just as one learns a language or learns how to ride a bicycle. Just as it is difficult to "unlearn" a skill, it can also be difficult to "unlearn" racism. However, it is possible to break the "mold" of racism by refusing to engage the racist mind, refusing to engage racist discourse, recognizing when racism exists, and teaching the future generation about love and respect.
As Nittle (n.d.) points out, most types of racial prejudice arise from "race-based stereotypes." Stereotypes are cognitive categories or structures. In many ways, stereotypes help human beings organize an otherwise overwhelmingly complex world. Thus, we group similar things into clusters or categories. All ducks and penguins fall into the bird category.…
Hawley, W. (n.d.). Strategies for reducing racial and ethnic prejudice. Teaching Tolerance. Retrieved online: http://www.tolerance.org/supplement/strategies-reducing-racial-and-ethnic-prejudice-essential-pr
Nittle, N.K. (n.d.). What is racial prejudice? Retrieved online: http://racerelations.about.com/od/understandingrac1/a/What-Is-Racial-Prejudice.htm
"Racial Prejudice," (n.d.). All About Popular Issues. Retrieved online: http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/racial-prejudice.htm
"Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK24680/
This is because our authority figures are tainted by the same prejudices and discrimination that affect everyone. Thus, preventing these events would have only been possible if the police in the odney King instance didn't act in this manner toward an African-American, and in the Chicago instance, if the police would have arrested the white rock thrower in the first place.
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. etrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). ace, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Keyes, . (2006). The quote verifier: Who said what, where, and when. New York: St.
Kwong, P. (1992). "The First Multicultural iots," in Hazen, D. (ed.) Inside the L.A. riots:
What really happened- and why it will happen again. San Francisco: Institute for Alternative…
Bush, G. (1992, May 1). Address to the nation on the civil disturbances in Los Angeles,
California. Retrieved December 17, 2011 from George Bush Presidential Library
Henry, M. (2004). Race, poverty, and domestic policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Case study There is no such thing
Q1.The origin of slavery can be traced back to late 1600's in Jamestown in Virginia. In early 1600's the Virginia Company came to America and established the colony of Virginia. In the process of establishing the colony the English settlers also brought with them Portuguese and Dutch traders to help in the establishment of the colony. The English settlers had previously failed in their several attempts to establish a colony but were persistent enough to sees their dream come true. The successful establishment of the colony was later followed by successful trading between the settlers and the locals. In one such incidence that may have most importance was when one trader traded his cargo of African slaves for food.The slaves were first taken in as indentured servants to work in return for freedom, food or land.
The African were given same considerations…
Alexander, R. (2005). Racism, African-Americans, and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Buell, T. (2004).Slavery in America: A primary source history of the intolerable practice of slavery. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source.
Oskamp, S. (2000).Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Sociological Analysis: Salt of the Earth
Salt of the Earth
The 1954 film Salt of the Earth explores a wide variety of social issues that would come to the forefront of social conscience in the coming decades. The film examines the economic and social inequalities perpetrated by the economic system in the United States, racial prejudice, and gender equity. The script is based on a real-life labor strike and uses the actual miners involved in the labor dispute as actors. The movie was made outside the studio system by blacklisted writer Michael Wilson, director Paul Jarrico, and director Herbert Biberman.
Economic and Social Inequalities
The movie exposes the shabby working and living conditions of the Mexican-American community. It provides some historical background on how Hispanic rights were violated by white industrialists. The land was once owned by members of the local Mexican-American community, however the Zinc Company moved in, took…
Biberman, H.J. (Director). (1954). Salt of the Earth. [Motion Picture]. United States: Independent Productions Coorporation. YouTube. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXTcDUxu22A
Conlin, M. (2003, May 26).The new gender gap. Business week. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/03_21/b3834001_mz001.htm
"Social and economic inequality in the United States." (2012). West coast poverty center, University of Washington. Retrieved September 19, 2012, from http://depts.washington.edu/wcpc/Inequality
eduction of Prejudice
The Contact Hypothesis of Gordon Allport and the eduction of Prejudice
The literature covering the nature of prejudice, its scope, the effects of prejudice, and methods to reduce on prejudice is among the most extraordinary body of literature in all of social science. The total volume of research on the topic of prejudice is quite extraordinary and this body of work reflects several decades of scholarly investigation of the meaning of prejudice, its assessment, its etiology, its consequences, and methods to reduce prejudice. There are very few areas of study that have attracted a greater range of theoretical perspectives than the area of prejudice. Theorizing about the nature and manifestation of prejudice has also been accompanied by many spirited debates about the appropriate way to conceptualize methods to reduce prejudice in people. The result has been a rich body of measurement instruments and reduction strategies. The most…
Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences: A brief course. (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R.M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), 159-163.
Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S. & Leyens, J. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843-856.
Reasoning Behind the Title: To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird took the form of a novel before its adaptation into a film. This is a work that has a strong literal and metaphorical link to the title. To Kill a Mockingbird is an infinitive phrase that describes an action. The title is a phrase that communicates part of the main theme of the novel. By the time the reader has completed the novel, the reader should understand quite clearly what the consequences of killing a mockingbird in real life as well as within the context of the narrative. Mockingbirds, as the novel expounds upon, represent innocence and joy. Through various actions in the novel and as demonstrated through nearly all of the character arcs in the story, to kill a mockingbird is a solemn tragedy.
Characters such as Jem, Dill, Tom Robinson, Mr. Raymond, and Boo Radley are…
Unintentional discrimination occurs when a company's policies uncritically reflect prejudicial stereotypes yet do not involve overt racial prejudices of its managers or executives. Does legislation to verify voter identification fall under the domain of unintentional or intentional discrimination? Explain your views.
The voter verification effects that are currently being proposed, predominately in Conservative lead states, are both unintentional and intentional discrimination. They are unintentional in their best case given that legislators have reasonable assumptions to make the passage of these verification requirements mandatory for all potential voters. Some analysts believe that voter fraud is a real threat to the political system. Although there have only been a handful of voter fraud cases ever prosecuted in the United States, there might be a seemingly legitimate argument to support voter identification initiatives. For example, J. Christian Adams, an election lawyer in Alexandria, Va., and advocate for voter-ID laws who…
Bialik, C. (2012, September 1). Counting Voter Fraud. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://blogs.wsj.com/numbersguy/counting-voter-fraud-1165/
Demby, G. (2012, August 16). Pennsylvania Voter ID Law: Mike Turzai Repeats Debunked Myth About Election Fraud. Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/16/pennsylvania-voter-id-law_n_1790844.html
Plunder, J. (2012, August 19). Ohio Republicans finally admit limited hours intended to suppress black voters. Retrieved from Plunderbund: http://www.plunderbund.com/2012/08/19/ohio-republicans-finally-admit-limited-hours-intended-to-suppress-black-voters/
Racism and the American Ideals
Racial divisions in 19th century American culture excluded African-Americans and Native Americans from the American ideals of liberty and inclusion on a fundamental level. The pushing off the land (and slaughtering) of the Native American tribes by the U.S. government was an exercise in Manifest Destiny (O'Sullivan 5), which later came to be expressed in terms of New Expansionism once the borders of the frontier were at their natural limits. And as for African-Americans -- they may have been freed by Lincoln in order to help the North win the war against the South, but inclusion was never really on the table: Jim Crow laws sprang up in the South and racism continued to be expressed in terms of segregation and mob violence. Liberty was for the ASPs (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants), the ruling elite of the political, economical and social establishment. No amount of noble…
Crevecœur, J. Hector St. John de. Autobiography. Gutenberg. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life. Web. 26 Feb 2016.
Franklin, Ben. "Remarks concerning the Savages of North America." Web. 26 Feb
They needed to pass a medical exam, a test on their language skill and many others. Among the people who were turned away without exception were those deemed mentally deficient, admitted or suspected revolutionaries, and those who did not pay for their own passage (Anderson 28-29). In short, many immigrants felt that they were being inspected, manhandled, mistreated, and dealt with in a manner more befitting of animals than human beings.
The quota system that made this sort of treatment possible was eventually overturned in 1965. "Following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the National Origins System, a new wave of immigration began. Since 1970, more than three-quarters of legal immigrants have come from developing nations in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia." (Torr 71). This has often been regarded as the third wave of United States Immigration. This act sought to base whether or not…
Anderson, Dale. Arriving at Ellis Island. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2002.
Andryszewski, Tricia. Immigration: Newcomers and Their Impact on the United States. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1995.
Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation. New York: Random House, 1991.
Brown, Lester R. And Gary Gardner et al., eds. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
Statistics show that black murderers are far more likely than white murderers to get the death penalty, especially if the victim was white. Blacks make up 12% of the population but 40% of the population on death row, as noted. Georgia can serve as a case in point. Statistics show that a black man accused of killing a white person in Georgia is substantially more likely to receive the death penalty than a white person convicted of killing either a white or a black, and forty-six percent of the inmates on Georgia's death row are black, with most on death row for killing a white person. The situation is much the same in the 35 other states that have capital punishment. In Maryland, blacks make up nearly 90% of the prisoners on death row; in Illinois, 63%; and in Pennsylvania, 60%. The disparity nationwide is even greater when the race…
Aguirre, a., Jr., & Baker, D.V. (1991). Race, racism, and the death penalty in the United States. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Vande Vere Publishing.
Amnesty International (1999).. Killing with prejudice: race and the death penalty. Amnesty International, Pub. No. AMR 51/52/99. London: Amnesty International.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, Q., & Pulaski, C.A., Jr. (1990). Equal justice and the death penalty: A legal and empirical analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Baldus, D.C., Woodworth, G., Zuckerman, D., Weiner, N.A., & Broffitt, B. (1998). Racial discrimination and the death penalty in the post-Furman era: An empirical and legal overview, with recent findings from Philadelphia. Cornell Law Review 83:1638-770
The gothic elements in the novel serve to portray even better the squalor and the fierceness of the environment in which they were impelled to live. Even though Harlem was an African-American community, the life of the black woman was by no means improved by this fact. The place itself was degenerate and full of crime and as such, it did not offer any protection. All this was due to the racial discrimination of the white people against the black. Although the black had some economical and political rights, the society was very far from equality. The white people simply considered them less than human, and persecuted them only in a subtler way than during the years of slavery. A black person could not rise to a better social or economical statute simply because the prejudices against him or her were permanent obstacles. As Petry shows, the condition of the…
Petry, Ann. The Street. New York: Mariner Books, 1998.
A key role here would be that of the teacher, as most interactions at this age usually occur in school. Therefore, proper advice from a guiding counselor on issues referring to racial differences, to questions such as "What does it mean to be black?" could be of help in prompting further discussions on related subjects.
In analyzing the CNN pole, the role of the teacher is evident: he must help students answer their questions and address their fears, in order for each generation to be les inflicted by racial prejudices.
ut, as everly Tatum pointed out in one of her articles, "many educators are unskilled at talking about racial issues. Many teachers have had limited possibility to explore such issues in their own education, and they hesitate to lead discussions about racial tensions for fear that they will generate classroom conflicts." School counselors must be prepared to help students from…
Tatum, Beverly Daniel.1997. Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter; Oct, Vol. 13 Issue 10, p1, 3p
Tatum, Beverly Daniel.2003.Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?. Perseus Books Group
Cross, William.1992. Shades of Black: Diversity in African-American Identity. Temple University Press
Farley, Christopher, Fedarko, Kevin. 1997. Kids and race. Time. Vol. 150 Issue 22, p88, 4p, 4c
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…
Daniels, Roger. "Executive Order No. 9066." Modern American Poetry. University of Illinois. Web. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/haiku/9066.htm
Dower, John. War without Mercy: Pacific War. Random House Digital. 2012.
Lie, John. Multiethnic Japan. Harvard University Press. 2004.
Primus, Richard A. The American Language of Rights. Cambridge University Press. 1999.
Social Science literature has largely defined racist societies as those where: official ideology proclaims that racial differences are unbridgeable; the ideal is "race purity"; social segregation is mandated by law; and stigmatized groups have limited access to economic opportunities so that they are kept impoverished (Fredrickson, p. 101). Thus, it is evident that the historical definition of racism has emerged from a construct of political, sociological and economic ideology, which overtly practices racial discrimination. Since modern day America professes an ideology of equality, the question thus arises as to whether anti-black racism is now a part of the nation's ignoble past. Unfortunately, it appears that the answer to that question is in the negative, as racial prejudices continue to perpetuate an economic and social divide between African-American blacks and "white" America, albeit under the guise of Laissez-faire racism or persistent negative stereotyping (Martin & Tuch, p. 16). Logically, therefore,…
Fredrickson, G.M. "Racism: A Short History." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. "I Have a Dream." The U.S. Constitution Online. Accessed Aug 8, 2004: http://www.usconstitution.net/dream.html
Martin, J.K., & Tuch, S.A. "Racial Attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and Change." Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases (16 Wall. 36), cannot be understood without keeping in view the history of the times when they were adopted, and the general objects they plainly sought to accomplish. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed. Discriminations against them had been habitual.
100 U.S. 303, 306).
Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. It held that:
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. Part III, p. 335 (Act of Mar. 1, 1875).
Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003).
Racial differences and prejudice: the role of intercultural communication competence in strengthening group cohesion in "Remember the Titans"
Popular media such as films are most effective ways to convey specific messages to the audience that are socially-relevant to them. Through audio-visual media, people are able to put into the right perspective or context issues that would otherwise have been discussed without clarity and understanding. ecause of the effectiveness of audio-visual media as communicator of socially-relevant messages, movies and films are often used to illustrate an individual or group's point-of-view or opinion about an important and controversial social issue.
The movie "Remember the Titans" exemplifies the preceding discussion: it is a film that discusses how racial prejudice and discrimination was a prevalent attitude and behavior during the 1970s in American society. Set in the state of Virginia, the "Titans" chronicles the true life of the football team of T.C. Williams…
Adler, R. (1998). Interplay: the process of interpersonal communication. CA: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Remember the Titans. Dir. Boaz Yakin. Prod. Jerry Burckheimer. Walt Disney, 2000.
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…
Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.
Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.
Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.