Racial Segregation Essays (Examples)

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Segregation in the American Society Has Been

Words: 2295 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82757470

segregation in the American society has been a subject for debate for decades now, especially since the second part of the 20th century when the African-American community in particular gained equal rights in the society, from the right to vote to the right to learn in the same schools, high schools, and universities. However, this equality has been fought for hardly and included constant pressures on the political and civil societies. Even so, despite these rights gained through decades of struggle, to this day, there is still the perception that segregation is visible in different walks of life. One of the most important environments where segregation is still visible is in schools (Cooper 4). This is not to say that only African-Americans are subject to indirect segregation. According to recent reports, "In spite of declining residential segregation for black families and large-scale movement to the suburbs in most parts of…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, Paul. Effective Schools for Disaffected Students: Segregation & Integration.

Routledge, NY, 1993.

Cross, W. Shades of Black: Diversity in African-American Identity. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1992.

Orazem, Peter F. "Black -- White Differences in Schooling Investment and Human Capital Production in Segregated Schools." The Economic Review, 77(4), 714 -- 723, 2003.
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Racial Dynamics and Change in

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15658575

.. And place these students disproportionately in low track, remedial programs."

This does not end here; those that belong to a race that makes up a small minority of the total strength of an education are easy targets for open mockery and detraction. Even though, this is a rare happening but when it does happen, it leaves a lifelong effect on the mind of the individual.

However, the educational system is not ignorant of these happenings, and many institutions, or certain teachers in an institution are trying to little by little wipe away a few differences through the wings of similar educational potentials and abilities. I have thrived myself because of this particular adopted environment.

When teachers or educational committees tend to point out the similarities between students of two different races on levels of intellect, ability or intuition, it is then that the barriers of racial discrimination are lifted…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jeannie Oakes, Amy Stuart Wells, Susan Yonezawa and Karen Ray. Change Agentry and the Quest for equity: Lessons from detracking schools

Racial dynamics and change in educational organization
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Segregation and the Rise of the White Working Class

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65119009

Segregation and the Rise of the hite orking Class

The primary theme of the reading entitled "Segregation and the Rise of the hite orking Class," which is the third chapter in illiam Julius ilson's book The Declining Significance of Race, is the economic reasons for racial subjugation in the United States. The author provides a plethora of evidence that indicates that money and varying economic principles intertwined with class and Marxism were at the heart of the racial issue and antagonism between hites and Blacks within this country. He examines this theme from a pre-Civil ar context in both the North and the South largely viewed through the framework of slavery and its effects in these areas. He also deconstructs this theme after the war in economic and political terms that are largely divided along racial lines.

There are several pieces of evidence that the author uses to marshal this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wilson, William Julius. The Declining Significance of Race. Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 2012. Print.
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Racial Democracy Struggles for Racial Democracy in

Words: 872 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38099952

acial Democracy

Struggles for racial democracy in Sunflower County in the 1980 substantially differed in many aspects from freedom struggles that were there in the 1950's and 1960's. Civil rights movements in the 1980 were not a monolithic entity. Tensions that were witnessed at the national level were not prominent at the local level. The civil rights movements' activities in the sunflower county illuminated problems unique to one area. Sunflower County was inhabited by isolated, dependent, unskilled, unneeded, and unwanted people a clear indication that the black freedom movement involved issues of class as well as those of race. Struggle for racial democracy in the Sunflower County in 1980 was the struggle to liberate the less privileged that made up about 70% of Sunflower County (Moye, 2004).

Unlike the 1960's Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), that targeted Sunflower County as a civil rights activism because of Eastland's political prominence, the…… [Read More]

References List

Moye, J.D. (2004). Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945-1985. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina

Press.

Oates, S.B. (1994). Let the Trumpet Sound: A Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Harper

Perennial.
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Does Segregation in America Still Exist

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74061364

Race

Orfield (2009) points out, in the beginning of his article, that after fifty-five years from the historical rown decision, segregation in school remains a big problem for the African-American and Latino populations, quite often to a higher degree than before. As he continues, this trend is particularly worrisome in suburban locations and in ghetto locations in the cities as well.

This paper, however, argues that this is more a consequence of economic and social factors rather than a racial issue, as in the past. The documentary Detropia provides useful arguments towards this thesis. The first thing to consider is that communities tend to be static rather than dynamic. This is a statement that is true not only for Africa-American and Latino communities, but also for Chinese or even European communities. It is much simpler for people to remain within the same community, benefiting from its protection (from an economic…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Orfield, Gary (2009). Reviving the Goal of an Integrated Society: A 21st Century Challenge. The Civil Rights Project

2. Parisi, D., Lichter, D., Taquino, M. (2011). Multi-Scale Residential Segregation: Black Exceptionalism and America's Changing Color Line. Social Forces B29-B52.
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Jean Toomer's Cane and Racial

Words: 2375 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67854022

... Poor Catholic poor-white crazy woman, said the black folks' mouths" (8). But throughout the novel, it is factual treatment of race that dominates any emotional construction of race.

The central problem of identity in Cane is grounded in lack of acceptance of what has universally existed i.e. polarities. In the 1920s, writers like Toomer embraced a new kind of racial identity i.e. repudiation of race itself that emerged from accepting that world has always harbored differences and divergent viewpoints and thus different racial identities was also a norm and not something to be seen as a source of conflict.

Toomer sets the particular problem in the black world, but he sees it as the true artist does, whatever his race. The problem is the eternal one man must confront: the mind is the source of insight and of any art in life, but the mind also destroys the blood…… [Read More]

References

James Kraft "Jean Toomer's Cane"; Therman B. O'Daniel: Jean Toomer: A Critical Evaluation. College Language Association (U.S.) Howard University: Washington, DC. 1988

William Stanley Braithwaite, "The Negro in American Literature," in the New Negro, ed. Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969), 44.

Sherwood Anderson to Jean Toomer, 22. December 1922, reprinted in Jean Toomer, Cane, ed. Darwin Turner (New York: W.W. Norton, 1988), 160.

Jean Toomer to James Weldon Johnson, 11 July 1930, reprinted in a Jean Toomer Reader: Selected Unpublished Writings, ed. Frederik L. Rusch (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 106.
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Housing Segregation Many Believe That

Words: 2030 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83356701



Change must be imminent yet it is hard to know where it will come from as racial and economic inequity that leads to and sustains segregated housing remains multifaceted, with no universal answer that will touch on all issues. The program must be comprehensive and yet it cannot exclude grass roots efforts to improve the situation, either in racially segregated areas or within the whole community of the United States. Probably the most important message of any research at this juncture would be to responsibly inform the majority in a way that will hit home the reality of the continuation of racial segregation in housing and discrimination in general, as the end of the civil rights era is not even in sight even though many think it passed before they were born.

orks Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95250984

Bickford, Adam, and Douglas S. Massey. "Segregation in the Second Ghetto: Racial and Ethnic Segregation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95250984

Bickford, Adam, and Douglas S. Massey. "Segregation in the Second Ghetto: Racial and Ethnic Segregation in American Public Housing, 1977." Social Forces 69.4 (1991): 1011-1036. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=3031876

Blauw, Wim, Juliet Saltman, and Elizabeth D. Huttman, eds. Urban Housing Segregation of Minorities in Western Europe and the United States. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002052001

Charles, Camille Zubrinsky. "The Dynamics of Racial Residential Segregation." Annual Review of Sociology (2003): 167+. Questia. 5 Dec. 2004 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002441370
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African Studies Racial Policy The

Words: 2852 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34202767

Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7745289

Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113156830

Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
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Early American History

Words: 2153 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41518257

Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allport, Gordon. "The Nature of Prejudice." Race, Racism and American Law. Ed.

Derek Bell. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973. 84-87.

Gordon Allport is a leading social scientist discussing the foundations of race and prejudice as it effect the United States. His work, "The Nature of Prejudice," is recognized as one of the most influential analysis of the reasons for the perpetuation of racial prejudice.

Bell, Derek ed. Race, Racism and American Law. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973.
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Sociology International and Domestic Residential Segregation and Immigration in US

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63810634

Residential Segregation

Since the peak in residential Black/hite segregation during the 1960s and 1970s, there has been a slow decline in the index of dissimilarity; however, this did not translate into an increase in interactions with different racial groups ("Residential Segregation" 15-19). By the 2010 Census, the average hite person still lives in a predominantly hite neighborhood and the average Black person lives in a predominately minority neighborhood. By comparison, the residential segregation experienced by Hispanics and Asians has remained relatively stable during the latter decades of the 20th century and during the first decade of the new millennium.

The two main competing models are "human ecology" and "socioeconomic status" ("Residential Segregation" 47). The human ecology model proposes that segregation is created by trends in migration and new housing starts, institutionalized discrimination, population growth, an urban center's size and age, and the demographics specific to a region. By comparison, ilson…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Farley, Reynolds and Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks during the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a more Integrated Society." American Sociological Review 59.1 (1994): 23-45. Print.

"Farmville: Film Description." POV, American Documentary, Inc. (2009). Web.

Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American Century." Demography, 42.4 (2005): 595-620.

Logan, John R., Stults, Brian J., and Farley, Reynolds. "Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change." Demography 41.1 (2004): 1-22. Print.
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Race Racialization and Racial Representation

Words: 1674 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98071803

The increased collaboration and mutual awareness of both mainstream and minority projects -- and the vanishing of the differentiation between the two spheres -- could only lead to better and more relevant arts projects (Moscou 2010). I hope to be able to facilitate increased integration of the performing arts community to this end.

Some major concepts that relate to the issue of race include identity, self-confidence and self-image, and a host of sociological and economic factors. The economic disparity between the various racially segregated neighborhoods in the greater Seattle area is readily apparent on a drive through such neighborhoods -- the "non-white" neighborhoods have older buildings in greater states of disrepair, a larger number of boarded-up and defunct storefronts, and higher crime rates than the more affluent white neighborhoods of the city itself and in outlying areas (Cornwall 2004; SJI 2010). Greater integration would likely also result in greater economic…… [Read More]

References

Cornwall, W. (2004). "Racial issues raised over Democratic mailing." Seattle times. Accessed 3 August 2010. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002070838_48thrace23e.html

Moscou, J. (2010). Personal interview. Conducted 1 August 2010.

Race & social justice initiative. (2010). City of Seattle Official Website. Accessed 3 August 2010.
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Race Racial Division Separation on Campus in Environment

Words: 408 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074092

ace

acial division/separation on campus in environment

Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections with other students. Segregation is too harsh of a term to use in this case, but it is clear some of the students at the university feel that people stick with their own racial groups when making friends. This has created a trend in campus life that is hard to overcome. Therefore, there remains a racial division/separation on campus.

Stereotypes are mentioned as one of the most common causes of racial division on campus. One participant in the focus group claimed that white students claimed they thought she was "ghetto" and stereotyped her as a "loud" African-American female until they got to know her. This experience shows that stereotypes continue to color first impressions of people, preventing meaningful friendships from forming…… [Read More]

References

Fischer, M.J. (2007). Settling into campus life: differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125-161.

Flower, L.A. (2004), Effects of living on campus on African-American students' educational gains in college, NASPA Journal, 41(2).
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Institutional Structures and Racial Inequality

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66312983

race and racial inequality are structured in the United States of America. It explains the concepts of oppression and privilege, describing ways in which various social institutions (educational system, the media, the economy, politics and the state, criminal justice system, etc.) intersect to construct categories of difference in society. It concludes with a policy suggestions that would help to decrease racial and ethnic inequality in U.S. society.

Institutional Structures and acial Inequality

The manifestation of racism in social institutions are major impediment in the struggle against rampant prejudice in the country. Specific example is shown by Simon (2008), in the television drama series, The Wire created and written by a former police reporter. The series depicts institutional dysfunction in the police department, City Hall, the public school system. It reveals how the characters are betrayed by the same institutions that are important to them in provision of education, protection and…… [Read More]

References

Catholic Charities USA. (2008). Poverty and Racism: Overlapping Threats to the Common Good. Alexandria: Larry Snyder.

Kuznia, R. (2009, April 8). Racism in Schools: Unintentional But No Less Damaging. Retrieved from www.miller-mccune.com: http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture-society/racism-in-schools-unintentional-3821/

Mauer, M. (2010 ). Statement of Marc Mauer Executive Director The Sentencing Project . Prepared for the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. Washington DC.

Quigley, B. (2010, July 26). Rampant Racism in the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from www.counterpunch.org:  http://www.counterpunch.org/2010/07/26/rampant-racism-in-the-criminal-justice-system/
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Racism and Racial Stigmas in

Words: 1758 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61934456

imdb.com).

hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.

In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)

Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com.

IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at  http://www.imdb.com .

Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com.
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Profiling America S Racist Ideology

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41630580

Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America

Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Franklin, John Hope. "The Train from Hate." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.

McKay, Claude. "Outcast." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.

Okita, Dwight. "In Response to Executive Order 9066." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
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Injustices Based on Racial Discrimination and Gender

Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18203616

Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.

Mending alls

Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at  http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)

Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963

Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.

America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
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Evolution of the Racial Exclusion

Words: 1434 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38409379

S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations.

During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real property as well.

The 14th amendment which provides equal protection under the law was used to begin chipping away at the exclusionary policies, not only for Asians but for African-Americans.

The relationship between Chinese exclusion and the revolutionary improvements for African-Americans during econstruction often goes ignored, even though pre-Civil War state laws regulating the migration of slaves served as precursors to the Chinese exclusion laws. It was no coincidence that greater legal freedoms for African-Americans were tied to Chinese misfortunes. As one historian observed, "with Negro slavery a dead issue after 1865, greater attention was focused on immigration from China." Political forces quickly reacted to fill the racial void in the political arena (Johnson, 1998 pp 1112-1148)."

As racial exclusionary laws…… [Read More]

References

Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)

 http://sun.menloschool.org/~mbrody/ushistory/angel/exclusion_act/ 

Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)

http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm
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Population and Society Residential Segregation

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68254862

Michael Powell describes the combination of factors that contribute to the harsh and drastic shift in the economic realities of the wealthy, black communities in Memphis, TN. This article was published by the New York Times just over two years ago, certainly during severe economic times during the United States, which have not subsided in the present, a few years later. The article provides a brief and modern history of the growth the black middle class in Memphis and some surrounding towns.

For a time, many black people were employed very well, owned attractive property, and lived comfortable middle class, American lifestyles. As of 2010, there were drastic events occurring with great frequency that changed the lives of many blacks for the worse. The article describes the rise and the descent of the middle class black community in Tennessee during the early 21st century. Additionally, the article provides evidence of…… [Read More]

References:

Farley, Reynolds, & Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society." American Sociological Association, Vol. 59, No. 1, 23 -- 45.

Powell, Michael. "Blacks in Memphis Lose Decades of Economic Gains." The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/31/business/economy/31memphis.html?pagewanted=all. 2012 July 20.
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Ethnic Racial Groups Looking at History From a

Words: 1876 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60819386

Ethnic/acial Groups

Looking at history from a purely anthropological standpoint, no one is actually native to North America. esearch concludes that this is true whether the particular research bases its findings on Darwinism or Judeo/Christian/Muslim beliefs. Life began somewhere in the area of the world now known as the Middle East. However, some people are more native, as a result of having lived in North America the longest, than others. After the original colonists arrived across the land bridge many thousands of years ago, it is debated who showed up next, but it was probably some European Vikings out for a short fishing trip. Columbus was a late comer, and he realized that people had already colonized the land he "discovered." It was not until everyone else had arrived in America, that Africans were brought over to work the land in chattel slavery. Three groups Native Americans (American Indians used…… [Read More]

References

Abernathy, D. (2002). The dynamics of global dominance: European overseas empires, 1415-1980. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Chavez y Gilbert, D.A. (2007). Cowboys and Indians are family after all. Retrieved from  http://www.nmhcpl.org/First_American.html 

Parrillo, V.N. (2011). Strangers to these shores: Race and ethnic relations in the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.
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American Apartheid Segregation and the

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52343825

" Additionally in chapter four the authors explained that the federal government actually developed maps that influenced the dispersement of federal loans. In addition these maps influenced who would receive private loans. Basically the authors explain that this type of deeply rooted discrimination had an extremely negative impact on Black neighborhoods that needed federal dollars for improvement. In addition this discrimination kept qualified blacks from having the ability to get mortgages so that they could become home owners. Home ownership is an essential part of being able to build wealth.

In the fifth chapter of the book the authors focus on the creation of the underclass. The authors explain that the development of the underclass took many years to develop. This underclass was developed as a direct result of segregation and all of the racist attitudes and idioms that occurred as a result of segregation. The underclass is often composed…… [Read More]

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Chicago Race Riot 1919 Racial

Words: 2376 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31719455



Unemployment was still very high given the return of so many from the war and the immigration levels of all races. The need for gainful employment and equitable housing was contentious among all the races, but was of coarse most heated amongst the newcomers, who had relatively little social and political connections to ensure their employment or housing opportunity.

Within the events of the riot there are several important moments, the beginning of the riot being the foremost. The event was a reflection of the overall feelings of the time and in many ways can be seen as the pinnacle of a tense and diseases social state.

On unday July 27, riot came to Chicago. All morning, groups of whites and blacks had been vying for territory between the 26th and 29th treet beaches. Unofficially segregated, the turf broke along racial lines. A group of black teenagers, who had transgresses…… [Read More]

Stephen W. Grable "Racial Violence within the Context of Community History." Pg. 276.

C.K. Doreski, "Chicago, Race, and the Rhetoric of the 1919 Riot." Pg. 298.

C.K. Doreski, "Chicago, Race, and the Rhetoric of the 1919 Riot." Pg. 300.
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Oppression Community Action Against Racial

Words: 1793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86000860

Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked about various strategies, they ultimately aim to deter the effects and eliminate completely the occurrence of oppression in the society.

Reflecting on the significant contributions of each individual to the progress of the civil rights movement and educational reform in the history of American society, it is evident that there cannot be one superior or best strategy that must be adopted to eliminate or deter oppression. What these readings and analyses of the works of Malcolm X, King, and Freire say about social change is that history provides us with various ways or perspectives to find a solution to a problem; each insight is helpful to the improvement of social changes in society. Freire's critical analysis of the educational system is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Freire, P. (1990). "The Banking Concept of Education." In Ways of Reading. Boston: St. Martin's Press, Inc.

King, M.L. (1964). "Martin Luther King -- Acceptance Speech." Available at http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html.

Malcolm X (1964). "The Ballot or the Bullet." Available at http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html.
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Crime in America - The Racial and Class Implications

Words: 4614 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31983701

Race, Class & Crime

The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…… [Read More]

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Elvis and Black Music the

Words: 4658 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86227731

Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.

Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.

Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.

Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…… [Read More]

Works Cited

African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,

From: http://www.questia.com/html.

Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.

Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
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Cooperative Lesson

Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43663522

Cooperative Lesson Plan: Journal

The first lesson plan being discussed here is regarding the journal written by Douglass S.Massey on racial segregation and the creation of the underclass. Massey (1990) states that the racial segregation during the 1970s was a major reason that poverty levels were high in some areas of the city. This is basically explained by the fact that the rising incidence of segregation went on to reflect the economic and class different that arose in the society. It was noted that the poverty concentration of the minority were also linked with the socioeconomic character of the neighborhood. In other words, it was noted that segregation and poverty combined led to other acts like bad schooling, increased crime rate and poor family life in those neighborhoods.

One of the strategies that can be used to discuss this journal is positive interdependence and face-to-face promotive interaction. Because this is…… [Read More]

References

Logan, J. And Schneider, M. (1984). Racial segregation and racial change in American suburbs, 1970-1980. American Journal of Sociology, pp. 874 -- 888.

Massey, D. (1990). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. American Journal of Sociology, pp. 329 -- 357.
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Affordable Housing & the Use

Words: 5459 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58307285

For example, any ontrols or regulations that are not unreasonable and bear some relationship to the general welfare of the ommunity are permissible unless prosribed by preemptive state or federal laws or by the federal or state onstitutions. Legal sholars have stated that inherent in the polie power, is the power to exlude or ondition development along with the power to mandate inlusion of development with partiular harateristis that further the general welfare of the ommunity. This is problemati beause just about any zoning ordinane an be validated under the polie power.

Current zoning regulations have long been ited as the ause of inreases in housing and land osts, beause most urrent zoning ordinanes seek to exlude affordable housing by driving up property values in more affluent neighborhoods. Current zoning ordinanes are used as the primary means that governments use to ontrol the physial development of land and the kinds…… [Read More]

cited inclusionary housing as a solution, even mandatory inclusionary housing programs have not been successfully implemented. Instead of focusing on the actions of the past, real estate developers and government agencies must step up and provide a viable solution. The real estate market must be leveled off, as housing is becoming unaffordable to those with even a moderate income. Finally, the power of zoning should not be used to exclude affordable housing; instead it should be used to encourage the new development of affordable housing for low-income residents.

Jennifer Morgan, Zoning for All: Using Exclusionary Zoning Techniques to Promote Affordable Housing. 44 Emory L.J. 359, 395 (1995).

Marc Seitles. The Perpetuation of Residential Racial Segregation in America: Historical Discrimination, Modern Forms of Exclusion, and Inclusionary Remedies. 14 J. Land Use & Envl Law 89, 91 (1998). In Southern cities of the United States, African-American servants and laborers lived side by side with their white employers, and in northern urban areas, African-Americans were more likely to share a neighborhood with whites than to live in racially segregated communities.

See id. At 93.

See id. At 92.
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Friday Night Lights the Movie

Words: 2499 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63855717

This has also been suggested by the survey of Forbes (2012). When some people are overpaid and the majority is underpaid, it leads to economic and social disparity in the society. Social disparity results in an increase in the crime rate as people are frustrated by lack of opportunities and consider crime as the only means which can provide them with their basic necessities. Economic disparity deprives people to meet their basic needs as the prices increase when economy grows. But this growth is limited to the elites in the society and there is no regard for the middle and lower class communities. Both the factors are unhealthy for the prosperity of a society as a whole.

acism is another issue portrayed in the movie. Although there have been stringent regulations regarding racist remarks but research has shown that almost 51% Americans engage in abusive comments towards the black community…… [Read More]

References:

Brazile, D. (2012). Brazile: Racism's tenacious hold on U.S. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/01/opinion/brazile-race-sununu 

Economist. (2010). Social Mobility and Inequality. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from  http://www.economist.com/node/15908469 

Forbes. (2012). How Income Inequality is Damaging the U.S. [online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frederickallen/2012/10/02/how-income-inequality-is-damaging-the-u-s/

Kramer, R.M., & Pittinsky, T.L. (2012). Restoring trust in organizations and leaders: Enduring challenges and emerging answers. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special

Words: 4423 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67221345

Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.

Stratification.

Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.

Literature eview

Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.

According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…… [Read More]

References

Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.

Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from  http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280 

Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.

Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
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Race and Racism in the

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40048270



3.

According to Yosso, "Vincent Tinto's Stages of Passage" model argues that students engage in three processes early on in college: separation, transition and incorporation. However, in the Esmeralda section of Yosso's book, where Esmeralda narrates the story, one discovers that this is really just a specific formulation of stages geared to focus on the experiences of white students and doesn't at all encapsulate the very unique and very distinct experience of minority students. Esmeralda's first stage refers to the imminent culture shock that Chicana/o students are met with when they experience life on a college campus (Yosso, 125). The culture, lifestyle, and expectations turn out to be drastically, different from what they are used to. The second stage devised refers to the act of building up a sense of community among the Chicana/o and other ethnic minority students to help them combat the sense of racism they experience on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calfeti, Jessica. Arizona Bans Ethnic Studies. 12 May 2010. Website. 16 May 2012.

FBI.gov. Hate Crimes. 2012. Website. 16 May 2012.

Haney-Lopez, Ian. Racism on Trial: The Chicano Fight for Justice. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2003. Print.

Yosso, Tara. Critical race counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. New York: Routledge Publishers, 2006. Print.
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Zinn Chapter 17 English 2nd

Words: 733 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57428140

Their philosophy was that immoral laws could be changed through the constitutional process and that even non-violent and civil disobedience was a form of lawlessness and that it is not acceptable to violate any laws even to achieve justice.

5.) According to Zinn, what were the achievements of the Civil Rights era and what has yet to be achieved?

Zinn acknowledges that the United States made tremendous progress in racism. However, he also warns that there are still many remaining areas of inequality between white and black society that have lasted much longer. In almost every measure of the quality of life, black people have fewer advantages than white people and they still face prejudice and discrimination. Zinn suggests that there is still a substantial amount of racism in the country that exists on more subtle levels that, in some ways makes it harder to address effectively.

1.) What is…… [Read More]

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US Supreme Court

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78344139

Supreme Court

In the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the United States Supreme Court overturned the "separate but equal" standard adopted by the 1892 Plessy v. Ferguson. Until Brown v. Board of Education passed, American public schools were segregated. Brown v. Board of Education transformed American society by outlawing racial segregation. Now that American schools are integrated, the Brown v. Board of Education decision seems immutable. However, the decision potentially represents an overstepping of the Judicial Branch's power. While most people would agree that the decision of Brown v. Board of Education was absolutely mandatory, others would note that from a purely rational standpoint, the Supreme Court overstepped its role as an interpretive body.

In its reasoning, the Court relies on the research conclusion of psychologists as one of the bases of its decision. Although psychology may be considered to be a "soft" science, it is…… [Read More]

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Bias With Respect to Social

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25631417

The Tampa Bay Times recently reported on the standoff between school administrators, who claim the offending passages have been taken out of context, and protestors who have cried foul over what they perceive to be ideological indoctrination, stating that "the concerns raise the specter of textbook wars in other states, especially Texas, where ideological camps have long locked horns over everything from the validity of evolution to how much the Founding Fathers were guided by Christianity" (Matus & Solochek, 2011).

The inclusion of biased statements within textbooks which are widely regarded by students as unimpeachable records of factual statement is startling to say the least. There are several serious ramifications that this disturbing trend may have on the nation's educational efficacy, with entire generations of students learning from wildly disparate perspectives depending on the vagaries of publishing arrangements, administrative agendas, and other corruptive forces. esearch on the construction of textbook…… [Read More]

References

Dhand, H. (1988). Bias in social studies textbooks: New research findings. History and Social Science Teacher, 24(1). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtS earch_SearchValue_0=EJ383085&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ38308 5

Hickman, H., & Porfilio, B.J. (2012). New Politics of the Textbook: Critical Analysis in the Core Content Areas (Vol. 2). SensePublishers.

Matus, R., & Solochek, J. (2011, January 21). Patriots United claims bias toward Islam in school textbooks?. The Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved from http://www.tampabay.com/news/education/k12/patriots-united-claims-bias-toward-islam- in-school-textbooks/1146816

Stambaugh, J.E., & Trank, C.Q. (2010). Not so simple: Integrating new research into textbooks. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9(4), 663-681. Retrieved from  http://www.immagic.com/eLibrary/ARCHIVES/GENERAL/AOM_US/A101201S.pdf
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History of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24319515

History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare

Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act

The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…… [Read More]

References

McBride, A. (2006). Brown v. Board of Education. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html 

Parks, P. (2010). What is the Hill-Burton Act? www.jdsupra.com Retrieved from  http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/what-is-the-hill-burton-act-63450/ 

Thomas, K. (2008). Hill-Burton Act. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1439

Wormser, R. (2002). Plessy v. Ferguson. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html
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Crisis at Central High the

Words: 2470 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57024844

Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still bad, every bit as evil and just as belittling as all segregation was destined to be.

In "Little Rock Central: 50 Years Later," HBO's 2007 which was a documentary concerning the present-day Little Rock Central High School, a teenage girl mentions, "You [Caucasians] have it all fed on a silver spoon from the day you were born." The writer Jonathan Kozol makes this affirmation in his statement that was in a 2005 article from Harper's Magazine: "The current per-pupil expenditure level in the New York City [public] schools is $12,700, which can be linked with a per-pupil expenses equal in the additional of $23,000 in the wealthy suburban region of Manhasset, Long Island." Furthermore, he mentions that New York City schools…… [Read More]

6 Baer, Frances Lisa. Resistance to Public School Desegregation: Little Rock, Arkansas, and Beyond. 2008. 328.

7 Beals, M.P. "Warriors don't cry: A searing memoir of the battle to integrate little rock's central high." Simon & Schuster, 1994. 17

8 Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997)
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Equal Protection the Supreme Court

Words: 4130 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69991310

The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases (16 Wall. 36), cannot be understood without keeping in view the history of the times when they were adopted, and the general objects they plainly sought to accomplish. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed. Discriminations against them had been habitual.

100 U.S. 303, 306).

Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. It held that:

The…… [Read More]

References

Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. Part III, p. 335 (Act of Mar. 1, 1875).

Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003).
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Housing Issues for Los Angeles

Words: 2212 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90952798



Additionally, the creation of a trust fund for housing could help to alleviate some of the economic burden on developers in Los Angeles. As compared to other major metropolis' such as San Jose, New York, and Chicago, Los Angeles uses the least amount of federal block grant funds on affordable housing on a per person basis, with just $23 per resident (In Short Demand). In addition to adopting an inclusionary zoning ordinance, the city should also implement an in-lieu fee to help fund it. Such a fee could be an alternative method to the institution of including an affordable unit in new developments, and could be directly applied to a housing trust fund. Estimates indicate that a $7 per square foot in-lieu fee would produce a surplus of upwards of $20 million a year, and could be used to remedy the housing shortage that not only affects Latinos, but other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kushner, James. Gov. Discrimination: Equal Protection Law & Litigation. Eagan: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 2008. Print

Los Angeles Housing Department, "Program Components -- City of Los Angeles Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance. 2004. Web.  http://cityplanning.lacity.org/Code_Studies/other/ProposedICPolicyMatrix.PDF 

Los Angeles Housing Department. In Short Supply: Recommendations of the Los Angeles Housing Crisis task Force. 1999. Web. http://www.ci.la.ca.us/lahd/shrtsup2k.PDF

Liu, Cathy. "Ethnic Enclave Residence and Employment Accessibility of Latino Workers in Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington D.C." University of Southern California, 2008. Web. http://www.usc.edu/schools/sppd/lusk/research/pdf/wp_2008-1001.pdf
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Walzer Dewey Education Michael Walzer's

Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14260331

alzer / Dewey / Education

Michael alzer's position on school busing in Spheres of Justice is rather ingenious. Before we look more closely at it, though, I'd like to recall the context for his argument in favor of what used to be called "forced busing" (a derogatory term which alzer distances himself from). The issue of using school busing to help to remedy the effects of racial segregation was the subject of two controversial Supreme Court rulings issued during the Nixon presidency: these were Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) and Milliken v. Bradley (1974). In Swann the Supreme Court found that it was constitutional to use busing for the purposes of overcoming the effects of poverty and housing inequality which led to racially homogenous populations within certain school disticts. The revisitation of the same topic in Milliken only three years later reflects the Supreme Court's establishment of a…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Walzer, Michael. Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Print.
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Hernandez vs Texas Importance to Latinos in the US

Words: 3756 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64306498

Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.

Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.

Overview

In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…… [Read More]

References

American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0

Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer

Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf 

Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
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Rhetorical Theory and Practice

Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3845924

Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand"

There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as a creation of nature, a work of breathtaking art, scientific breakthroughs that benefit human kind, and acts of bravery are, without doubt, worthy of the admiration and the sentiment that they inspire. Unfortunately, however, human beings also fruitlessly admire a great many more things that are illusory in nature and, therefore, not really worthy of respect. Take, for instance, the human desire to be good looking, rich, successful and powerful. These qualities seem desirable purely because people who possess these attributes appear to be better off in life. But, are they really? Or, do these qualities give rise to admiration only because we don't really understand what being beautiful, wealthy, successful or powerful entails?

Perhaps, it is precisely the recognition that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cool Nurse. "Marijuana." Cool Nurse Web site. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004:

http://www.coolnurse.com/marijuana.htm

MDCH. "Key Facts from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Michigan

Department of Community Health. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004: http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-2941_4871-79336 -- ,00.html
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Reconstruction Period Reconstruction 1865-1877 Was

Words: 1774 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45756449

" The more the freedmen resumed the habits and postures of slaves, the better the planters were able to accept the new system.

Thus reconstruction even with all the good intentions of some people was still a major failure. It had failed to bring the kind of peace and freedom for blacks that it was intended to. Since the blacks had become more or less accustomed to being treated as chained men, it took them a long time to accept freedom in true manner. The transition was slow and highly painful. It wasn't easy to shift power to the masses and it certainly took a long time to bring an end to slave mentality. ights were not granted easily and even after equality had been established on paper; it was not completely given in practice for a very long time.

eferences

econstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993

Eric Foner,…… [Read More]

References

Reconstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993

Eric Foner, a Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877, Harper & Row Publishers, December 1989

Trotter, Joe W., Reflections on the African-American experience, Vol. 29, Journal of Social History, 02-05-1996, pp 85(6)

Otto H. Olsen, Carpetbagger's Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee (John Hopkins Press, 1965). http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/procamn.htm
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Political Psychology Has Always Been

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76136874

A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'

A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…… [Read More]

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Government Ethics

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64672022

Ethics

Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.

However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…… [Read More]

References

American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.

Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.

Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
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Project Affirmative Action and Uniform Guidelines

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91566028

Affirmative Action has a long history; going back to the felt need by President Franklin D. oosevelt to avert a march on Washington, DC in 1941 by 100,000 African-Americans who were protesting discriminatory hiring practices in the defense industry (Anderson 22). The signing of Executive Order 8802 began the long, multi-decade process of ending Jim Crow policies, racial segregation, and other forms of discrimination in the military, government agencies, and corporation throughout the United States.

Although the arguments on both sides of this issue have varied over the years, the essence of affirmative action has been to end ongoing workplace discriminatory policies based on race, gender, age, or disability, and attempt to compensate for a long history of such policies that have led to overrepresentation of the majority demographic in the workforce. In the United States, this demographic has traditionally been healthy, young White males.

Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Terry H. The Pursuit of Fairness: A History of Affirmative Action. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. Economic situation summary: Table A-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 2011. Web. 24 Mar. 2012.

Saad, Syed, Carter, Gary, W., Rothenberg, Mark, and Israelson, Enid. Testing and Assessment: An Employer's Guide to Good Practices. U.S. Department of Labor, 1999. Web. 24 Mar. 2012.

Schultz, Duane P. And Schultz, Sydney E. Theories of Personality, 9th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
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Validity of Data America Considers

Words: 15529 Length: 56 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27742090

Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).

That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.

But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE

History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…… [Read More]

Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)

Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)

Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
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Affirmative Action the End of

Words: 2958 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32555456



Moreover, the Court stated that affirmative action could not become a permanent policy and suggested that sometime in the future, when affirmative action would no longer be necessary to promote diversity, it would no longer be permissible for universities to employ affirmative action in their admissions process (See generally, Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003)). Given the incredible advancements in the struggle for equality over the past half-century, it is conceivable that the Supreme Court is right, and that affirmative action will no longer be necessary in another quarter of a century.

Getting a job

One of the more pervasive myths about affirmative action in employment decisions is that if equally-qualified white and black people are applying for a job, the black person is more likely to get the job. That is simply and patently, untrue. First, it is impossible to have to identically-qualified applicants, which makes it an…… [Read More]

References

13 myths about affirmative action. (2008). Retrieved March 7, 2009 from African-American

Policy Forum. Web site: http://aapf.org/tool_to_speak_out/focus/

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Executive Order 10925. (1961). Retrieved March 7, 2009 from the Equal Employment
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Second Reconstructions One of the Most Dramatic

Words: 6309 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52783284

Second Reconstructions

One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?

Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.

Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
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Educational Law How Lawful How

Words: 3482 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99959850

Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research

National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group

O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.

Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
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African-American Housing Chicago Study Chicago

Words: 2715 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8081549

" (Seitles, 1996)

Seitles claims that integration has been a success in the fight against racial prejudice and states that: "Social consequences of racial isolation intertwine with grim economic realities for minorities. Due to the lack of interaction between racial groups, African-Americans are unprepared to work and socialize in a white majority society, while conversely, whites are not relating to, working with, or living with blacks. Prospects for African-American children raised in such communities are greatly diminished because of the lack of interaction between blacks and whites. Moreover, minority possibilities for advancement consequently decline from the lower quality of education afforded to them in ghetto schools, precluding them from competing for high-income employment. Although these inequalities are not always directly caused by intentional discrimination, residential racial segregation perpetuates these inequalities. Thus, minorities who live in racially homogeneous communities are faced with disadvantages beyond the present economic and social inequalities associated…… [Read More]

References

Thomas Lee Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle Class Reform, 1880-1930 New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Appendix A, 407-410. Online available at: Plotkin (1997) http://www.public.asu.edu/~wplotkin/DeedsWeb/newberry.html

Wilen, William P. & Stasell, Wendy L. (2000) Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis: The Conflict Between Achieving Integration and Providing Decent Housing for Very Low-Income African-Americans Copyright 2000 by National Center on Poverty Law. All rights reserved. 34 Clearinghouse Rev. 117. http://www.povertylaw.org/legalresearch/articles/free/wilen.htm

Ranney, D. & Wright P. (2000) Race, Class, and the Abuse of State Power: The Case of Public Housing in Chicago Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement 2000 March, Publication#: V172 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/voorheesctr/racepaper.htm

Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis:
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Perception of Racism

Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77088300

Perception of acism and Colour Students

Historically, ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in comparison to their White counterparts in real society. Living in poverty also plays a role in being considered a disadvantaged individual. According to Boyle (2008) and the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, 25.3% Black/African-Americans, 21.5% Hispanics, and26.6% Native Americans and Native Alaskans live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008).In comparison, 10% of Whites and Asians live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008). The percentage of Black/African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and Native Alaskans living under the poverty line is doubled in comparison to Whites and Asians. For every one White or Asian individual living under the poverty line, there are two more Black/African-Americans, Hispanics or Native Americans and Native Alaskans that are living under the poverty line.

There is no coincidence that individuals living under the poverty line also live in areas where schools lack…… [Read More]

References

Alon, S. & Tienda, M. (2007). Diversity, opportunity, and the shifting meritocracy in higher education. American Sociological Review, 72(4), 487-511.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Cancian, M. (1998). Race-based verses Class-based affirmative action in college admissions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17(1), 94-105.

Dee, T.S. (2004). The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, 4(2), 52-59. Retrieved from ERIC database.
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Race in Sociology

Words: 1526 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71211713

ace in Sociology

The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.

ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…… [Read More]

References

Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard:  https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf 

Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm

Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html

Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia:  http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
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Civil Rights African-Americans and Women's

Words: 2487 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23336181



Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).

At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman

Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.

Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
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Brown v Board of Education

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90175975

Brown v. Board of Education

On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, meaning that soon afterward white and black students would attend public schools side by side, with no administrative restrictions remaining on black students. The title of the Brown court case was Oliver L. Brown et al. v. The Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas) et.al., which was filed in federal district court in Kansas on Feb. 28, 1951, by Charles Bledsoe/NAACP of Topeka (Clark, Chein and Cook 497).

The number of plaintiffs affected by the U.S. Supreme Court ruling were 13 parents on behalf of 20 children. In summary, a black male, Oliver Brown, sued a Kansas school board on behalf of his daughter Linda who was in third grade, on the basis of racial discrimination in her schooling. Mr. Brown was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clark, K.B., I. Chein, and S.W. Cook. "The Effects of Segregation and the Consequences of Desegregation: A (September 1952) Social Science Statement in the Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court Case." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 495-501.

Fine, M. "The Power of the Brown V. Board of Education Decision: Theorizing Threats to Sustainability." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 502-10.

Hogan, T.D. "Evaluating the Demographic Impact of Societal Events through Intervention Analysis: The Brown Vs. Board of Education Decision." Demography 21.4 (1984): 673-82.

Pettigrew, T.F. "Justice Deferred a Half Century after Brown V. Board of Education." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 521-9.
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South African The Rise Fall

Words: 3742 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93278598

This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.

The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the ritish. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goldin, Ian. Making race, the politics and economics of colored identity in South Africa. London: Longman. 1987.

Heribert, Adam, and Kogila Moodley. South Africa without apartheid. Dismantling racial domination. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.

Hofmayer, I., Building a nation from words: Afrikaans language, literature and ethnic identity. University of London, MA thesis, 1983.

Nowak, Michael, and Luca Antonio Ricci. Post Apartheid South Africa: the first ten years. Washington: International Monetary Fund. 2005.
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Confederates of the Attic Confederates

Words: 1451 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79453711

acial segregation exists in the South. The blacks and whites do not participate together in many functions. There is tension between the two races and both fear each other's presence in any scenario. In his interviews, Howrtiz finds that, in schools, all races are present. The blacks are present in politics too. The difference comes in social aspects of the society where color still separates the people. An insight to the South shows how the societies interact, and share their cultural aspects and ideas. The societies in the South reenact and associate their history to the present day life. Very little or nothing changed due to the current life style and the introduction of technology.

3. An understanding of how the role of social force selected above plays in developing the social values in the South.

All religions are equal and have a significant role in uniting people. People of…… [Read More]

Reference

Howrtiz, T. Confereates in the Attic: Dispatches from the unfinished civil war. New York:

Vintage Books.1998. Print
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History of Racism and the

Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5709741

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]

References

Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24

Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52

Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html. Accessed on 28 June, 2005