501 results for “Racial Segregation”.
Segregation in College
acial segregation in the United States is associated with segregation or hypersegregation of services, facilities as well as basic provisions like education, medical care, housing, transportation and employment along racial lines. It is used in referring to socially and legally enforced separation of considerations and services offered to a give community on the basis of their race or skin color. The term racial segregation, in as much as it had and still has a wider implication than just the partial treatment of the African-Americans, it was and still is used widely in reference to this group of people.
Within campuses of most urban high schools, Latino and African-American students tend to sit in poorly resourced and overcrowded classrooms. Their teachers are not as qualified as those from predominantly white communities and hardly get basic essentials such as textbooks. Even though the Supreme Court of the United State…
Anyon, J., (1997). Ghetto Schooling: A Political Economy of Urban Educational Reform. New York: Teachers College Press.
Bell, D., (2004). Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Unequal opportunity: Race and Education. The Brookings Review, 16(2), Pp28-32.
The contributions of black Americans during World War II is indisputable. They served in the military and on the home front in civilian jobs that directly aided the war effort. Pictures from the National Archives show men and women in uniform and at work at their duties. At the time, these men and women got little recognition. Their stories appeared in the black press, but the majority of Americans -- who were white -- knew little and cared less. Racial tensions in the U.S. still ran high at the outbreak of World War II and American society was largely segregated. As social consciousness has gradually been raised, many Americans are hearing for the first time about the contributions of blacks. Actions have been taken to recognize individuals and compensate for the terrible negligence of war-era media to make the efforts and heroism of African-Americans more widely understood and…
1. Black, Helen K., and Thompson, William H. "A War Within a War: A World War II Buffalo Soldier's Story." Journal of Men's Studies 20, no. 1 (Jan. 2012): 32-46. Accessed Apr. 19, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.3149/jms.2001.32 .
2. Chappell, Kevin. "Blacks in World War II." Ebony 50, no. 11 (Sep. 1995): 58-64. Accessed Apr. 17, 2014. MasterFILE.
3. Elliot, Ray. "Two Wars to Win." Accessed Apr. 19, 2014. http://www.americancenturies.mass.edu/centapp/oh/story.do?shortName=elliot1939vv
4. Engelhardt, Brian C. "Fighting for the Double V: Memories of Six African-American Veterans of World War II." Berks History Center. Accessed Apr. 22, 2014. http://www.berkshistory.org/articles/doublev.html
acial Segregation and Testing
As Dingfelder (2004) notes, it is difficult to enforce desegregation when there are so many ways to keep groups separated, as show in the history of Shaker Heights. Indeed, as Waugh (1939) observes, groups tend to segregate themselves in every culture and society. But how does this relate to the Peckham Decision, which states that California school psychologists may no longer use intelligence testing on African-American children in order to determine whether that child has special educational needs? It relates because in the struggle to enforce equality, there is the tendency to be overprotective and overemphasize points that may appeared "biased" but in actuality are merely attempting to be helpful. In the case of Peckham, for instance, the decision to ban testing in this case can be seen as both helpful and harmful for African-American students with special needs: yet the issue will likely be so…
Dingfelder, S. (2004). Psychologist claims academic placement perpetuates racial segregation. Mointor on Psychology, 35(8), 62.
Waugh, E. (1939). Robbery Under Law. UK: Little, Brown.
In 20 of them, nonwhite enrollment is 90% or more." (Shaw, 1)
This is a condition which begs a question concerning the efforts of public representatives and government agencies in terms of improving the circumstances of the African-American community. In Chapter 7, Massey and Denton make an argument which underscores this question, indicating that African-American political representatives may often be at least somewhat to blame for sustaining the isolation experienced by the demographic. Namely, Massey and Denton contend that such public representatives will actually tend to exploit the benefits to electability and political mandate by maintaining pockets of African-American support. The geographical isolation of African-Americans will tend to make them a solid voting block which, while not stimulating greater power for the population itself, will help to elevate the career of individual public officials. In the text's perception, this is a cynical and self-interested tendency that helps to sustain tendencies…
Massey, D.S. & Denton, N.A. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Harvard University Press.
Shaw, L. (2008). The resegregation of Seattle's school. The Seattle Times.
Analogy of Racial Segregation
The consequences of past events can teach us lessons, shaping the way we think today. For instance, racial segregation, which was established by the Jim Crow laws of the Civil War period and ended in the 1960s with the Civil Rights Act, saw the public separation of blacks and whites. Lessons were learned in that the unethical condition of segregation was recognized, but nearly a century in waiting. Thus, the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth century, along with the reversal of the Civil Rights Act of 1875, were reexamined for their constitutionality, and the Civil Rights Act of 1965 ended the institution of racial segregation. Two cases to directly compare are Plessy v. Ferguson, which established the legal mode of "separate but equal," and rown v. oard of Education that ended racial segregation. The historical analogy of these two events demonstrates that history helps…
The Civil Rights Movement. (1997). Retrieved March 22, 2004, from Cable News Network Inc.
Davis, RLF. Creating Jim Crow: An In-Depth Essay. Retrieved March 22, 2004, from The History of Jim Crow Website: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm
.. And place these students disproportionately in low track, remedial programs."
This does not end here; those that belong to a race that makes up a small minority of the total strength of an education are easy targets for open mockery and detraction. Even though, this is a rare happening but when it does happen, it leaves a lifelong effect on the mind of the individual.
However, the educational system is not ignorant of these happenings, and many institutions, or certain teachers in an institution are trying to little by little wipe away a few differences through the wings of similar educational potentials and abilities. I have thrived myself because of this particular adopted environment.
When teachers or educational committees tend to point out the similarities between students of two different races on levels of intellect, ability or intuition, it is then that the barriers of racial discrimination are lifted…
Jeannie Oakes, Amy Stuart Wells, Susan Yonezawa and Karen Ray. Change Agentry and the Quest for equity: Lessons from detracking schools
Racial dynamics and change in educational organization
Struggles for racial democracy in Sunflower County in the 1980 substantially differed in many aspects from freedom struggles that were there in the 1950's and 1960's. Civil rights movements in the 1980 were not a monolithic entity. Tensions that were witnessed at the national level were not prominent at the local level. The civil rights movements' activities in the sunflower county illuminated problems unique to one area. Sunflower County was inhabited by isolated, dependent, unskilled, unneeded, and unwanted people a clear indication that the black freedom movement involved issues of class as well as those of race. Struggle for racial democracy in the Sunflower County in 1980 was the struggle to liberate the less privileged that made up about 70% of Sunflower County (Moye, 2004).
Unlike the 1960's Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), that targeted Sunflower County as a civil rights activism because of Eastland's political prominence, the…
Moye, J.D. (2004). Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945-1985. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Oates, S.B. (1994). Let the Trumpet Sound: A Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Harper
... Poor Catholic poor-white crazy woman, said the black folks' mouths" (8). But throughout the novel, it is factual treatment of race that dominates any emotional construction of race.
The central problem of identity in Cane is grounded in lack of acceptance of what has universally existed i.e. polarities. In the 1920s, writers like Toomer embraced a new kind of racial identity i.e. repudiation of race itself that emerged from accepting that world has always harbored differences and divergent viewpoints and thus different racial identities was also a norm and not something to be seen as a source of conflict.
Toomer sets the particular problem in the black world, but he sees it as the true artist does, whatever his race. The problem is the eternal one man must confront: the mind is the source of insight and of any art in life, but the mind also destroys the blood…
James Kraft "Jean Toomer's Cane"; Therman B. O'Daniel: Jean Toomer: A Critical Evaluation. College Language Association (U.S.) Howard University: Washington, DC. 1988
William Stanley Braithwaite, "The Negro in American Literature," in the New Negro, ed. Alain Locke (New York: Atheneum, 1969), 44.
Sherwood Anderson to Jean Toomer, 22. December 1922, reprinted in Jean Toomer, Cane, ed. Darwin Turner (New York: W.W. Norton, 1988), 160.
Jean Toomer to James Weldon Johnson, 11 July 1930, reprinted in a Jean Toomer Reader: Selected Unpublished Writings, ed. Frederik L. Rusch (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 106.
Change must be imminent yet it is hard to know where it will come from as racial and economic inequity that leads to and sustains segregated housing remains multifaceted, with no universal answer that will touch on all issues. The program must be comprehensive and yet it cannot exclude grass roots efforts to improve the situation, either in racially segregated areas or within the whole community of the United States. Probably the most important message of any research at this juncture would be to responsibly inform the majority in a way that will hit home the reality of the continuation of racial segregation in housing and discrimination in general, as the end of the civil rights era is not even in sight even though many think it passed before they were born.
Bickford, Adam, and Douglas S. Massey. "Segregation in the Second Ghetto: Racial and Ethnic Segregation…
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…
Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…
Allport, Gordon. "The Nature of Prejudice." Race, Racism and American Law. Ed.
Derek Bell. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973. 84-87.
Gordon Allport is a leading social scientist discussing the foundations of race and prejudice as it effect the United States. His work, "The Nature of Prejudice," is recognized as one of the most influential analysis of the reasons for the perpetuation of racial prejudice.
Bell, Derek ed. Race, Racism and American Law. Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1973.
The increased collaboration and mutual awareness of both mainstream and minority projects -- and the vanishing of the differentiation between the two spheres -- could only lead to better and more relevant arts projects (Moscou 2010). I hope to be able to facilitate increased integration of the performing arts community to this end.
Some major concepts that relate to the issue of race include identity, self-confidence and self-image, and a host of sociological and economic factors. The economic disparity between the various racially segregated neighborhoods in the greater Seattle area is readily apparent on a drive through such neighborhoods -- the "non-white" neighborhoods have older buildings in greater states of disrepair, a larger number of boarded-up and defunct storefronts, and higher crime rates than the more affluent white neighborhoods of the city itself and in outlying areas (Cornwall 2004; SJI 2010). Greater integration would likely also result in greater economic…
Cornwall, W. (2004). "Racial issues raised over Democratic mailing." Seattle times. Accessed 3 August 2010. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2002070838_48thrace23e.html
Moscou, J. (2010). Personal interview. Conducted 1 August 2010.
Race & social justice initiative. (2010). City of Seattle Official Website. Accessed 3 August 2010.
acial division/separation on campus in environment
Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections with other students. Segregation is too harsh of a term to use in this case, but it is clear some of the students at the university feel that people stick with their own racial groups when making friends. This has created a trend in campus life that is hard to overcome. Therefore, there remains a racial division/separation on campus.
Stereotypes are mentioned as one of the most common causes of racial division on campus. One participant in the focus group claimed that white students claimed they thought she was "ghetto" and stereotyped her as a "loud" African-American female until they got to know her. This experience shows that stereotypes continue to color first impressions of people, preventing meaningful friendships from forming…
Fischer, M.J. (2007). Settling into campus life: differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 78(2), 125-161.
Flower, L.A. (2004), Effects of living on campus on African-American students' educational gains in college, NASPA Journal, 41(2).
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…
Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. "Crash." (2005)
Crash Script. "Dialogue Transcript." Retrieved October 22, 2008, at http://www.script-o-rama.com .
IMDb. "Dances With Wolves." Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.imdb.com .
Ebert, Roger. "Crash." Retrieved October 21 at http://rogerebert.suntimes.com .
Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America
Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then expanded and intensified rapidly during the eighteenth century, reaching its peak during the start of the nineteenth. During most of this time, for all intents and purposes, simply to be black was enough to identify one as a slave. That is to say, racial distinctions between whites and people of color were not merely noted, but comprised the economic and legal foundation of American society. Once slavery was abolished, black Americans did not suddenly occupy a station equal to that of their white contemporaries. Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws were in effect, usually in the South, and other forms of segregation were commonplace throughout the nation. In the poem "Outcast," Claude McKay clearly identifies the prejudice and the alienation he faces…
Franklin, John Hope. "The Train from Hate." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
McKay, Claude. "Outcast." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
Okita, Dwight. "In Response to Executive Order 9066." In Missy James and Alan P. Merickel, eds., Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Fifth Edition. New York: Longman, 2012.
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.
Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…
Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations.
During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real property as well.
The 14th amendment which provides equal protection under the law was used to begin chipping away at the exclusionary policies, not only for Asians but for African-Americans.
The relationship between Chinese exclusion and the revolutionary improvements for African-Americans during econstruction often goes ignored, even though pre-Civil War state laws regulating the migration of slaves served as precursors to the Chinese exclusion laws. It was no coincidence that greater legal freedoms for African-Americans were tied to Chinese misfortunes. As one historian observed, "with Negro slavery a dead issue after 1865, greater attention was focused on immigration from China." Political forces quickly reacted to fill the racial void in the political arena (Johnson, 1998 pp 1112-1148)."
As racial exclusionary laws…
Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)
Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)
Looking at history from a purely anthropological standpoint, no one is actually native to North America. esearch concludes that this is true whether the particular research bases its findings on Darwinism or Judeo/Christian/Muslim beliefs. Life began somewhere in the area of the world now known as the Middle East. However, some people are more native, as a result of having lived in North America the longest, than others. After the original colonists arrived across the land bridge many thousands of years ago, it is debated who showed up next, but it was probably some European Vikings out for a short fishing trip. Columbus was a late comer, and he realized that people had already colonized the land he "discovered." It was not until everyone else had arrived in America, that Africans were brought over to work the land in chattel slavery. Three groups Native Americans (American Indians used…
Abernathy, D. (2002). The dynamics of global dominance: European overseas empires, 1415-1980. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Chavez y Gilbert, D.A. (2007). Cowboys and Indians are family after all. Retrieved from http://www.nmhcpl.org/First_American.html
Parrillo, V.N. (2011). Strangers to these shores: Race and ethnic relations in the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.
Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked about various strategies, they ultimately aim to deter the effects and eliminate completely the occurrence of oppression in the society.
Reflecting on the significant contributions of each individual to the progress of the civil rights movement and educational reform in the history of American society, it is evident that there cannot be one superior or best strategy that must be adopted to eliminate or deter oppression. What these readings and analyses of the works of Malcolm X, King, and Freire say about social change is that history provides us with various ways or perspectives to find a solution to a problem; each insight is helpful to the improvement of social changes in society. Freire's critical analysis of the educational system is…
Freire, P. (1990). "The Banking Concept of Education." In Ways of Reading. Boston: St. Martin's Press, Inc.
King, M.L. (1964). "Martin Luther King -- Acceptance Speech." Available at http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html .
Malcolm X (1964). "The Ballot or the Bullet." Available at http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
Cooperative Lesson Plan: Journal
The first lesson plan being discussed here is regarding the journal written by Douglass S.Massey on racial segregation and the creation of the underclass. Massey (1990) states that the racial segregation during the 1970s was a major reason that poverty levels were high in some areas of the city. This is basically explained by the fact that the rising incidence of segregation went on to reflect the economic and class different that arose in the society. It was noted that the poverty concentration of the minority were also linked with the socioeconomic character of the neighborhood. In other words, it was noted that segregation and poverty combined led to other acts like bad schooling, increased crime rate and poor family life in those neighborhoods.
One of the strategies that can be used to discuss this journal is positive interdependence and face-to-face promotive interaction. Because this is…
Logan, J. And Schneider, M. (1984). Racial segregation and racial change in American suburbs, 1970-1980. American Journal of Sociology, pp. 874 -- 888.
Massey, D. (1990). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. American Journal of Sociology, pp. 329 -- 357.
This has also been suggested by the survey of Forbes (2012). When some people are overpaid and the majority is underpaid, it leads to economic and social disparity in the society. Social disparity results in an increase in the crime rate as people are frustrated by lack of opportunities and consider crime as the only means which can provide them with their basic necessities. Economic disparity deprives people to meet their basic needs as the prices increase when economy grows. But this growth is limited to the elites in the society and there is no regard for the middle and lower class communities. Both the factors are unhealthy for the prosperity of a society as a whole.
acism is another issue portrayed in the movie. Although there have been stringent regulations regarding racist remarks but research has shown that almost 51% Americans engage in abusive comments towards the black community…
Brazile, D. (2012). Brazile: Racism's tenacious hold on U.S. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/01/opinion/brazile-race-sununu
Economist. (2010). Social Mobility and Inequality. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.economist.com/node/15908469
Forbes. (2012). How Income Inequality is Damaging the U.S. [online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frederickallen/2012/10/02/how-income-inequality-is-damaging-the-u-s/
Kramer, R.M., & Pittinsky, T.L. (2012). Restoring trust in organizations and leaders: Enduring challenges and emerging answers. New York: Oxford University Press.
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…
Anyon, Y. (2009). Sociological theories of learning disabilities: Understanding racial disproportionality in special education. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(1), 44-57.
Blanchett, Wanda J. (2010). Telling it like it is: The role of race, class & culture in the perpetuation of learning disability as a privileged category for the while middle class. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(2). Retrieved from http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/1233/1280
Blau, Peter M. (1977). A macro social theory of social structure. American Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 26-54.
Burt, Ronald S. (1995). Structural holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Harvard University Press.
Their philosophy was that immoral laws could be changed through the constitutional process and that even non-violent and civil disobedience was a form of lawlessness and that it is not acceptable to violate any laws even to achieve justice.
5.) According to Zinn, what were the achievements of the Civil Rights era and what has yet to be achieved?
Zinn acknowledges that the United States made tremendous progress in racism. However, he also warns that there are still many remaining areas of inequality between white and black society that have lasted much longer. In almost every measure of the quality of life, black people have fewer advantages than white people and they still face prejudice and discrimination. Zinn suggests that there is still a substantial amount of racism in the country that exists on more subtle levels that, in some ways makes it harder to address effectively.
1.) What is…
In the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the United States Supreme Court overturned the "separate but equal" standard adopted by the 1892 Plessy v. Ferguson. Until Brown v. Board of Education passed, American public schools were segregated. Brown v. Board of Education transformed American society by outlawing racial segregation. Now that American schools are integrated, the Brown v. Board of Education decision seems immutable. However, the decision potentially represents an overstepping of the Judicial Branch's power. While most people would agree that the decision of Brown v. Board of Education was absolutely mandatory, others would note that from a purely rational standpoint, the Supreme Court overstepped its role as an interpretive body.
In its reasoning, the Court relies on the research conclusion of psychologists as one of the bases of its decision. Although psychology may be considered to be a "soft" science, it is…
The Tampa Bay Times recently reported on the standoff between school administrators, who claim the offending passages have been taken out of context, and protestors who have cried foul over what they perceive to be ideological indoctrination, stating that "the concerns raise the specter of textbook wars in other states, especially Texas, where ideological camps have long locked horns over everything from the validity of evolution to how much the Founding Fathers were guided by Christianity" (Matus & Solochek, 2011).
The inclusion of biased statements within textbooks which are widely regarded by students as unimpeachable records of factual statement is startling to say the least. There are several serious ramifications that this disturbing trend may have on the nation's educational efficacy, with entire generations of students learning from wildly disparate perspectives depending on the vagaries of publishing arrangements, administrative agendas, and other corruptive forces. esearch on the construction of textbook…
Dhand, H. (1988). Bias in social studies textbooks: New research findings. History and Social Science Teacher, 24(1). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtS earch_SearchValue_0=EJ383085&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ38308 5
Hickman, H., & Porfilio, B.J. (2012). New Politics of the Textbook: Critical Analysis in the Core Content Areas (Vol. 2). SensePublishers.
Matus, R., & Solochek, J. (2011, January 21). Patriots United claims bias toward Islam in school textbooks?. The Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved from http://www.tampabay.com/news/education/k12/patriots-united-claims-bias-toward-islam - in-school-textbooks/1146816
Stambaugh, J.E., & Trank, C.Q. (2010). Not so simple: Integrating new research into textbooks. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9(4), 663-681. Retrieved from http://www.immagic.com/eLibrary/ARCHIVES/GENERAL/AOM_US/A101201S.pdf
History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare
Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act
The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed in 1946. The act was named after its chief proponents, Alabama's Senator Lister Hill (Thomas, 2008) and Ohio's Senator Harold Burton. Although the act was conceived of as a way of providing egalitarian access to improved medical facilities, it was actually created in times that were anything but. 1946 was the year after the end of World War II and racial segregation (as buttressed by Plessey v. Fergusson) (Wormser, 2002) was still rampant across the country. Moreover, the economic politics -- many of which are still in effect today -- in which federal, state and local legislation typically benefits those with the most economic resources of the day also helped to hamper the egalitarian spirit in which the Act was created.…
McBride, A. (2006). Brown v. Board of Education. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html
Parks, P. (2010). What is the Hill-Burton Act? www.jdsupra.com Retrieved from http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/what-is-the-hill-burton-act-63450/
Thomas, K. (2008). Hill-Burton Act. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1439
Wormser, R. (2002). Plessy v. Ferguson. www.pbs.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html
Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still bad, every bit as evil and just as belittling as all segregation was destined to be.
In "Little Rock Central: 50 Years Later," HBO's 2007 which was a documentary concerning the present-day Little Rock Central High School, a teenage girl mentions, "You [Caucasians] have it all fed on a silver spoon from the day you were born." The writer Jonathan Kozol makes this affirmation in his statement that was in a 2005 article from Harper's Magazine: "The current per-pupil expenditure level in the New York City [public] schools is $12,700, which can be linked with a per-pupil expenses equal in the additional of $23,000 in the wealthy suburban region of Manhasset, Long Island." Furthermore, he mentions that New York City schools…
6 Baer, Frances Lisa. Resistance to Public School Desegregation: Little Rock, Arkansas, and Beyond. 2008. 328.
7 Beals, M.P. "Warriors don't cry: A searing memoir of the battle to integrate little rock's central high." Simon & Schuster, 1994. 17
8 Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997)
The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases (16 Wall. 36), cannot be understood without keeping in view the history of the times when they were adopted, and the general objects they plainly sought to accomplish. At the time when they were incorporated into the Constitution, it required little knowledge of human nature to anticipate that those who had long been regarded as an inferior and subject race would, when suddenly raised to the rank of citizenship, be looked upon with jealousy and positive dislike, and that State laws might be enacted or enforced to perpetuate the distinctions that had before existed. Discriminations against them had been habitual.
100 U.S. 303, 306).
Furthermore, while the Court's decision was based on Strauder's right to an impartial jury, the Court believed that all-white juries were discriminatory against the potential jury pool. It held that:
Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Civil Rights Act of 1875, 18 Stat. Part III, p. 335 (Act of Mar. 1, 1875).
Gratz v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 244 (2003).
Running head: WEEK ASSIGNMENTS 1WEEK 7 ASSIGNMENTS 4Week 7 AssignmentsPart 1: Knowledge and Power in Shaping Racial and Class Stratification in SocietyThe stratification of class and race is typical in most communities. Koput & Gutek (2010) explain the assumption that there are people in the society who have sufficient human capital and have a higher propensity to accomplish higher-level tasks. However, they also affirm that this form of stratification only occurs when dealing with certain aspects such as education or experience. Racial stratification is a common problem in the society due to the associated impacts. Jackson (2007) addresses the famous works of Paulo Freire in which he reveals the truth about racial oppression in the community. Race stratification involves the ranking of ethnic groups based on their perceived superiority. However, this superiority is only achieved through the oppression of the less powerful ethnic groups. Class stratification mainly arises due to…
ReferencesAl-Hazza, T.C. & Bucher, K.T. (2008). Building Arab-Americans’ cultural identity and acceptance with children’s literature. The Reading Teacher, 62(3), 210-219.Gay, G. (2004). The importance of multicultural education. Educational Leadership 61(4). 30–35.Jackson, S. (2007). Freire re-viewed. Educational Theory 57(2) 199-213.Koput, K.W. & Gutek, B.A. (2010). Gender Stratification in the IT Industry: Sex, Status and Social Capital. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar PublishingRenda, T. and El-Haj, A. (2006). Race, politics, and Arab American youth: Shifting frameworks for conceptualizing educational equity. Educational Policy, 20(1). 13-34.
Additionally, the creation of a trust fund for housing could help to alleviate some of the economic burden on developers in Los Angeles. As compared to other major metropolis' such as San Jose, New York, and Chicago, Los Angeles uses the least amount of federal block grant funds on affordable housing on a per person basis, with just $23 per resident (In Short Demand). In addition to adopting an inclusionary zoning ordinance, the city should also implement an in-lieu fee to help fund it. Such a fee could be an alternative method to the institution of including an affordable unit in new developments, and could be directly applied to a housing trust fund. Estimates indicate that a $7 per square foot in-lieu fee would produce a surplus of upwards of $20 million a year, and could be used to remedy the housing shortage that not only affects Latinos, but other…
Kushner, James. Gov. Discrimination: Equal Protection Law & Litigation. Eagan: Clark Boardman Callaghan, 2008. Print
Los Angeles Housing Department, "Program Components -- City of Los Angeles Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance. 2004. Web. http://cityplanning.lacity.org/Code_Studies/other/ProposedICPolicyMatrix.PDF
Los Angeles Housing Department. In Short Supply: Recommendations of the Los Angeles Housing Crisis task Force. 1999. Web. http://www.ci.la.ca.us/lahd/shrtsup2k.PDF
Liu, Cathy. "Ethnic Enclave Residence and Employment Accessibility of Latino Workers in Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington D.C." University of Southern California, 2008. Web. http://www.usc.edu/schools/sppd/lusk/research/pdf/wp_2008-1001.pdf
alzer / Dewey / Education
Michael alzer's position on school busing in Spheres of Justice is rather ingenious. Before we look more closely at it, though, I'd like to recall the context for his argument in favor of what used to be called "forced busing" (a derogatory term which alzer distances himself from). The issue of using school busing to help to remedy the effects of racial segregation was the subject of two controversial Supreme Court rulings issued during the Nixon presidency: these were Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) and Milliken v. Bradley (1974). In Swann the Supreme Court found that it was constitutional to use busing for the purposes of overcoming the effects of poverty and housing inequality which led to racially homogenous populations within certain school disticts. The revisitation of the same topic in Milliken only three years later reflects the Supreme Court's establishment of a…
Walzer, Michael. Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Print.
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…
American Civil Liberties Union - ACLU. (2014). About the ACLU. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/about-aclu-0
Bado, A. (2013). Fair Trial and Judicial Independence: Hungarian Perspectives. New York, NY: Springer
Carson, E.A. (2014). Prisoners in 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p13.pdf
Cyndi, B. (2009). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE.
Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand"
There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as a creation of nature, a work of breathtaking art, scientific breakthroughs that benefit human kind, and acts of bravery are, without doubt, worthy of the admiration and the sentiment that they inspire. Unfortunately, however, human beings also fruitlessly admire a great many more things that are illusory in nature and, therefore, not really worthy of respect. Take, for instance, the human desire to be good looking, rich, successful and powerful. These qualities seem desirable purely because people who possess these attributes appear to be better off in life. But, are they really? Or, do these qualities give rise to admiration only because we don't really understand what being beautiful, wealthy, successful or powerful entails?
Perhaps, it is precisely the recognition that…
Cool Nurse. "Marijuana." Cool Nurse Web site. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004:
MDCH. "Key Facts from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health." Michigan
Department of Community Health. Accessed Oct. 28, 2004: http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-2941_4871-79336 -- ,00.html
" The more the freedmen resumed the habits and postures of slaves, the better the planters were able to accept the new system.
Thus reconstruction even with all the good intentions of some people was still a major failure. It had failed to bring the kind of peace and freedom for blacks that it was intended to. Since the blacks had become more or less accustomed to being treated as chained men, it took them a long time to accept freedom in true manner. The transition was slow and highly painful. It wasn't easy to shift power to the masses and it certainly took a long time to bring an end to slave mentality. ights were not granted easily and even after equality had been established on paper; it was not completely given in practice for a very long time.
econstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993
Reconstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993
Eric Foner, a Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877, Harper & Row Publishers, December 1989
Trotter, Joe W., Reflections on the African-American experience, Vol. 29, Journal of Social History, 02-05-1996, pp 85(6)
Otto H. Olsen, Carpetbagger's Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee (John Hopkins Press, 1965). http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/procamn.htm
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…
American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.
Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.
Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
Affirmative Action has a long history; going back to the felt need by President Franklin D. oosevelt to avert a march on Washington, DC in 1941 by 100,000 African-Americans who were protesting discriminatory hiring practices in the defense industry (Anderson 22). The signing of Executive Order 8802 began the long, multi-decade process of ending Jim Crow policies, racial segregation, and other forms of discrimination in the military, government agencies, and corporation throughout the United States.
Although the arguments on both sides of this issue have varied over the years, the essence of affirmative action has been to end ongoing workplace discriminatory policies based on race, gender, age, or disability, and attempt to compensate for a long history of such policies that have led to overrepresentation of the majority demographic in the workforce. In the United States, this demographic has traditionally been healthy, young White males.
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection…
Anderson, Terry H. The Pursuit of Fairness: A History of Affirmative Action. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Economic situation summary: Table A-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 2011. Web. 24 Mar. 2012.
Saad, Syed, Carter, Gary, W., Rothenberg, Mark, and Israelson, Enid. Testing and Assessment: An Employer's Guide to Good Practices. U.S. Department of Labor, 1999. Web. 24 Mar. 2012.
Schultz, Duane P. And Schultz, Sydney E. Theories of Personality, 9th Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Camden, New Jersey is a city that symbolizes racial segregation and embodies the worst of American capitalism. In Camden, "poverty is a business," (Hedges and Sacco 88). George Norcross, aka "King George" -- is the de facto big man of Camden. Only, Norcross does not live in Camden, has no official elected position, and is white -- unlike the vast majority of Camden residents. Camden is not the typical white flight story, either. The history of Camden reveals potent trends in American urban geography, particularly the theme of how intersections between race, class, gender, and power entrench corruption in American society. One research question that can be elucidated through a deeper analysis of Chapter 2 in Hedges and Sacco's Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt would be how the people can reclaim their cities from the wanton destruction, alienation, and exploitation symbolized by the likes of King George.
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).
That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.
But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE
History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…
Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)
Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
Moreover, the Court stated that affirmative action could not become a permanent policy and suggested that sometime in the future, when affirmative action would no longer be necessary to promote diversity, it would no longer be permissible for universities to employ affirmative action in their admissions process (See generally, Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306 (2003)). Given the incredible advancements in the struggle for equality over the past half-century, it is conceivable that the Supreme Court is right, and that affirmative action will no longer be necessary in another quarter of a century.
Getting a job
One of the more pervasive myths about affirmative action in employment decisions is that if equally-qualified white and black people are applying for a job, the black person is more likely to get the job. That is simply and patently, untrue. First, it is impossible to have to identically-qualified applicants, which makes it an…
13 myths about affirmative action. (2008). Retrieved March 7, 2009 from African-American
Policy Forum. Web site: http://aapf.org/tool_to_speak_out/focus/
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Executive Order 10925. (1961). Retrieved March 7, 2009 from the Equal Employment
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights
Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred from one generation to the other. In the United States and outside the United States, films have become a powerful tool to transmit cultures. In 2009, there were more than 6.8 billion films released compared to the world population that was roughly the same number. Moreover, films have produced revenue of more than $30 billion annually, and its impact on films on people's behaviors is staggering. For example, many people across the world are imitating American culture by watching their movies. Moreover, films have become a powerful tool for propelling civil and social rights.[footnoteRef:1] The social civil rights are the class of rights and freedoms people demand from the government, private individuals or social organizations. Civil rights movements protect people from…
Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…
Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research
National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group
O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
" (Seitles, 1996)
Seitles claims that integration has been a success in the fight against racial prejudice and states that: "Social consequences of racial isolation intertwine with grim economic realities for minorities. Due to the lack of interaction between racial groups, African-Americans are unprepared to work and socialize in a white majority society, while conversely, whites are not relating to, working with, or living with blacks. Prospects for African-American children raised in such communities are greatly diminished because of the lack of interaction between blacks and whites. Moreover, minority possibilities for advancement consequently decline from the lower quality of education afforded to them in ghetto schools, precluding them from competing for high-income employment. Although these inequalities are not always directly caused by intentional discrimination, residential racial segregation perpetuates these inequalities. Thus, minorities who live in racially homogeneous communities are faced with disadvantages beyond the present economic and social inequalities associated…
Thomas Lee Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle Class Reform, 1880-1930 New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Appendix A, 407-410. Online available at: Plotkin (1997) http://www.public.asu.edu/~wplotkin/DeedsWeb/newberry.html
Wilen, William P. & Stasell, Wendy L. (2000) Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis: The Conflict Between Achieving Integration and Providing Decent Housing for Very Low-Income African-Americans Copyright 2000 by National Center on Poverty Law. All rights reserved. 34 Clearinghouse Rev. 117. http://www.povertylaw.org/legalresearch/articles/free/wilen.htm
Ranney, D. & Wright P. (2000) Race, Class, and the Abuse of State Power: The Case of Public Housing in Chicago Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement 2000 March, Publication#: V172 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/voorheesctr/racepaper.htm
Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis:
Perception of acism and Colour Students
Historically, ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in comparison to their White counterparts in real society. Living in poverty also plays a role in being considered a disadvantaged individual. According to Boyle (2008) and the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, 25.3% Black/African-Americans, 21.5% Hispanics, and26.6% Native Americans and Native Alaskans live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008).In comparison, 10% of Whites and Asians live under the poverty line (Boyle 2008). The percentage of Black/African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and Native Alaskans living under the poverty line is doubled in comparison to Whites and Asians. For every one White or Asian individual living under the poverty line, there are two more Black/African-Americans, Hispanics or Native Americans and Native Alaskans that are living under the poverty line.
There is no coincidence that individuals living under the poverty line also live in areas where schools lack…
Alon, S. & Tienda, M. (2007). Diversity, opportunity, and the shifting meritocracy in higher education. American Sociological Review, 72(4), 487-511.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Cancian, M. (1998). Race-based verses Class-based affirmative action in college admissions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 17(1), 94-105.
Dee, T.S. (2004). The race connection: Are teachers more effective with students who share their ethnicity? Education Next, 4(2), 52-59. Retrieved from ERIC database.
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
Brown v. Board of Education
On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, meaning that soon afterward white and black students would attend public schools side by side, with no administrative restrictions remaining on black students. The title of the Brown court case was Oliver L. Brown et al. v. The Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas) et.al., which was filed in federal district court in Kansas on Feb. 28, 1951, by Charles Bledsoe/NAACP of Topeka (Clark, Chein and Cook 497).
The number of plaintiffs affected by the U.S. Supreme Court ruling were 13 parents on behalf of 20 children. In summary, a black male, Oliver Brown, sued a Kansas school board on behalf of his daughter Linda who was in third grade, on the basis of racial discrimination in her schooling. Mr. Brown was…
Clark, K.B., I. Chein, and S.W. Cook. "The Effects of Segregation and the Consequences of Desegregation: A (September 1952) Social Science Statement in the Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court Case." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 495-501.
Fine, M. "The Power of the Brown V. Board of Education Decision: Theorizing Threats to Sustainability." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 502-10.
Hogan, T.D. "Evaluating the Demographic Impact of Societal Events through Intervention Analysis: The Brown Vs. Board of Education Decision." Demography 21.4 (1984): 673-82.
Pettigrew, T.F. "Justice Deferred a Half Century after Brown V. Board of Education." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 521-9.
This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and demands of the Colored. Similarly, the Non-European Liberation League, another group that opposed the current practices, were the proponents of the issues of immediate concern to Colored but African people. This lack of unity proved decisive, taking into consideration the immediate rise to power of the Nationalistic Party in 1948 and the subsequent inability to immediately react to the measures that would be taken in the following years.
The South African society, following the war was left without a well-defined national identity because of the continuous struggle to face the conquering forces of the Dutch and the ritish. Consequently, the rise to power of a nationalistic party can be seen as predictable, taking into consideration the general trend existing in the…
Goldin, Ian. Making race, the politics and economics of colored identity in South Africa. London: Longman. 1987.
Heribert, Adam, and Kogila Moodley. South Africa without apartheid. Dismantling racial domination. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986.
Hofmayer, I., Building a nation from words: Afrikaans language, literature and ethnic identity. University of London, MA thesis, 1983.
Nowak, Michael, and Luca Antonio Ricci. Post Apartheid South Africa: the first ten years. Washington: International Monetary Fund. 2005.
The Negro Soldier
The Frank Capra film The Negro Soldier (1944) was a wartime propaganda film produced by the U.S. Army in alliance with famed Hollywood director Frank Capra for the purpose of targeting African Americans and getting them to join Army and fight against the liberty-hating Germans. The film provided a positive example African American heroism as told through the preaching of the film’s narrator, Moss—an African American minister, who speaks eloquently in his church before his congregation of the need for the African American community to stand up for American values against those who oppose them. The film shows sequences of African American heroism to reinforce the preaching of Moss, who quotes Mein Kampf to stir up feelings of righteous indignation, and who describes how blacks throughout time and even now have stood up to oppose tyranny—from Crispus Attucks to boxer Joe Louis. The film concludes with…
acial segregation exists in the South. The blacks and whites do not participate together in many functions. There is tension between the two races and both fear each other's presence in any scenario. In his interviews, Howrtiz finds that, in schools, all races are present. The blacks are present in politics too. The difference comes in social aspects of the society where color still separates the people. An insight to the South shows how the societies interact, and share their cultural aspects and ideas. The societies in the South reenact and associate their history to the present day life. Very little or nothing changed due to the current life style and the introduction of technology.
3. An understanding of how the role of social force selected above plays in developing the social values in the South.
All religions are equal and have a significant role in uniting people. People of…
Howrtiz, T. Confereates in the Attic: Dispatches from the unfinished civil war. New York:
Vintage Books.1998. Print
This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)
In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…
Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116
Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24
Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52
Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Diversity and its Discontents" (Arturo Madrid)
Madrid provides, perhaps, the most intriguing look into the pessimistic parliamentary assemblies of conceived perceptions focusing on the diversifying components of diversity itself. Sneaking in subtle notations about the idiocy behind many of the prominent malcontents that we have recognized through history in terms of segregation and racial provocation, "Diversity and its Discontents" prompts for more of a diverted attention to the perceptions that develop through persisting diversity than the fundamental signifying contributions that outline the progression of diversity. Madrid's concepts do not exemplify the persona of atonement that inflicts the prose of our other authors, but does come through as a genuine consort of the experiences in ethnical divide.
Day in the Life of Two Americas" (Leonard Steinhorn and arbara Diggs-rown)
Steinhorn and Diggs-rown perfect the proportionate degrees of reprimanded division within the United States as an entire collective nation. Sprouting from intricate…
Thandenka. 1999. Afro Centric News Network. Retrieved from the World Wide Web; December 10th, 2007:
Jelita McCLeod, Special to The Washington Post Monday, July 7, 2003; Page C10;
People Like Us," writes about diversity in the U.S. The world has always perceived the U.S. as a place teeming with diverse people. This statement can be considered true in a way: the U.S. is home to individuals from innumerable different races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, political views, interests, personalities, income levels, etc. However, all these substantially diverse inhabitants of the country do not tend to unite; rather, they strive hard to only connect with those who are essentially like themselves. The essay's author writes that Americans seek places in which they are at ease and believe they can prosper. This trend does nothing to foster diversity -- instead, it has a totally opposite effect. The tendency of Americans to be drawn to people they are comfortable around, (and before whom they can reveal their true selves) leads to formation of clusters, based on religion, ethnicity, social class, etc. Americans aren't…
Binchy, Chris. People Like Us. London: Pan, 2005. Print.
Brooks, David. "People Like Us." 68-69 (2003): Web.
Gentleman. Diversity. S.l.: VP Records, 2011. Print.
Marquis, Jefferson P. Managing Diversity in Corporate America: An Exploratory Analysis. Santa Monica: RAND, 2007. Print.
Writing a Letter from Birmingham Jail analysis essay offers the student the gift of going back in time to the courage and ferocity of the Civil Rights Movement to examine one of the most eloquent documents of that era. The Civil Rights Era was one of the uglier periods in American history—and one of the most triumphant and inspiring. No document embodies this dichotomy as fully as King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail. In it, King details many of the horrors that black Americans have suffered at the hands of white hatred and complacency. Yet, the letter is without a doubt, a document of hope and conviction, inspiration and profundity. This paper details the background circumstances that provoked King in writing the letter and examines closely the brilliance contained in the words, ultimately discussing why it remains such a lauded document even today.
Letter from Birmingham Jail is often…
The author has further criticized the educational policy of the country, and has accused the careless approach of the government towards public schools, the government has been accused of encouraging the concept of cheap schools and expensive schools, and the terms are applicable on the students of the respective students as well.
The author has criticized the educational department for restricting the 'opportunity for preschool education for no reason but the accident of birth and budgetary choices of the government, while children of the privileged are often given veritable feasts of rich developmental early education' (Kozol, 2005). The quality of the students and their performance has great demarcation on the basis of the financial capability of the families of the students. The rich parents are able to provide better education to their children at very young stage which is responsible for the development of 'social competence and rudimentary pedagogic skills'…
Jonathan Kozol. Still separate, Still Unequal: America's Educational Apartheid. Harper's Magazine V.311, N.1864. Sept, 2005.
Their educational system was superior, as was their economic foundation, and their statuses were those of the privileged (Falola, 202).
There can be no question that apartheid came into being due to centuries of oppression of the non-white cultures in South Africa by the Dutch and British inhabitants and settlers. The wars and conflicts between races and political factions decimated the landscape, and resulted in thousands of lost lives on both sides of the racial line. hile the system of apartheid certainly destroyed the lives of nearly all black citizens of South Africa, it had an equally detrimental effect on the countless number of white opponents who dared to speak out against the oppression, and of those white citizens whose economic status was already low. In all cases, and for all citizens of South Africa, the time of apartheid was a time of conflict, loss, and struggle.
Eades, Lindsay Michie. The End of Apartheid in South Africa. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Falola, Toyin. Key Events in African History: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Lazerson, Joshua N. Against the Tide: Whites in the Struggle against Apartheid. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
Leonard, Richard. Computers in South Africa: A Survey of U.S. Companies. New York: The African Fund, 1978.
The hierarchical society, which characterized the new nation, was another aspect, which would soon be transformed. "The political rulers had come largely from the social elites. The churches were supported by those elites. and, in most cases, the churches had been officially sanctioned by the political structures of the states. Social, political, and religious authority had been tightly interwoven in the same small group of elite leaders." [
Ira Chernus] the Electoral voting system and the cultural changes initiated by the new political situation created a new wave of social and moral reforms.
Another major social change that started to happen was the dissolution of apartheid. Though it must be understood that racial segregation continued in existence much long after the abolition of slavery, the cause for desegregation was initiated in the 1830's. Oberlin College, started in 1833, became the first ever College in the U.S. To admit…
Howard Cincotta, "An Outline of American History," USIA, May 1994, http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch6_p4.htm
Bonnie Eisenberg & Mary Ruthsdotter, "Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998," Accessed Sep 10th 2006, available at http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
James Brewer Stewart, 'Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://afgen.com/abmovement.html
NPS, 'National Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/amistad/connecticutabolitionists.htm
Segregation in College acial segregation in the United States is associated with segregation or hypersegregation of services, facilities as well as basic provisions like education, medical care, housing, transportation…Read Full Paper ❯
Racial Seg/WWII The contributions of black Americans during World War II is indisputable. They served in the military and on the home front in civilian jobs that directly aided…Read Full Paper ❯
acial Segregation and Testing As Dingfelder (2004) notes, it is difficult to enforce desegregation when there are so many ways to keep groups separated, as show in the history…Read Full Paper ❯
In 20 of them, nonwhite enrollment is 90% or more." (Shaw, 1) This is a condition which begs a question concerning the efforts of public representatives and government agencies…Read Full Paper ❯
Analogy of Racial Segregation The consequences of past events can teach us lessons, shaping the way we think today. For instance, racial segregation, which was established by the Jim…Read Full Paper ❯
.. And place these students disproportionately in low track, remedial programs." This does not end here; those that belong to a race that makes up a small minority of…Read Full Paper ❯
acial Democracy Struggles for racial democracy in Sunflower County in the 1980 substantially differed in many aspects from freedom struggles that were there in the 1950's and 1960's. Civil…Read Full Paper ❯
... Poor Catholic poor-white crazy woman, said the black folks' mouths" (8). But throughout the novel, it is factual treatment of race that dominates any emotional construction of race.…Read Full Paper ❯
Change must be imminent yet it is hard to know where it will come from as racial and economic inequity that leads to and sustains segregated housing remains multifaceted,…Read Full Paper ❯
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and…Read Full Paper ❯
Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior…Read Full Paper ❯
The increased collaboration and mutual awareness of both mainstream and minority projects -- and the vanishing of the differentiation between the two spheres -- could only lead to better…Read Full Paper ❯
ace acial division/separation on campus in environment Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections…Read Full Paper ❯
imdb.com). hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - African-American
Racial Profiling and Discrimination in America Slavery in the United States formally began during the late seventeenth century, when the country was still a British colony. The institution then…Read Full Paper ❯
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe.…Read Full Paper ❯
S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations. During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethnic/acial Groups Looking at history from a purely anthropological standpoint, no one is actually native to North America. esearch concludes that this is true whether the particular research bases…Read Full Paper ❯
Freire's discussion of the oppressive activities that discriminate students is similar to the racial discrimination experienced by the black Americans. Thus, even though Freire, Malcolm X, and King talked…Read Full Paper ❯
Race, Class & Crime The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very…Read Full Paper ❯
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of…Read Full Paper ❯
Cooperative Lesson Plan: Journal The first lesson plan being discussed here is regarding the journal written by Douglass S.Massey on racial segregation and the creation of the underclass. Massey…Read Full Paper ❯
This has also been suggested by the survey of Forbes (2012). When some people are overpaid and the majority is underpaid, it leads to economic and social disparity in…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly…Read Full Paper ❯
Their philosophy was that immoral laws could be changed through the constitutional process and that even non-violent and civil disobedience was a form of lawlessness and that it is…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Supreme Court In the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the United States Supreme Court overturned the "separate but equal" standard adopted by the 1892 Plessy…Read Full Paper ❯
The Tampa Bay Times recently reported on the standoff between school administrators, who claim the offending passages have been taken out of context, and protestors who have cried foul…Read Full Paper ❯
History Of Federal Involvement in the Delivery of Healthcare Health Care History: The Hill-Burton Act The Hill-Burton Act was a decidedly ambitious piece of legislation that was initially passed…Read Full Paper ❯
Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still…Read Full Paper ❯
The true spirit and meaning of the amendments, as we said in the Slaughter-House Cases (16 Wall. 36), cannot be understood without keeping in view the history of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Running head: WEEK ASSIGNMENTS 1WEEK 7 ASSIGNMENTS 4Week 7 AssignmentsPart 1: Knowledge and Power in Shaping Racial and Class Stratification in SocietyThe stratification of class and race is typical…Read Full Paper ❯
Additionally, the creation of a trust fund for housing could help to alleviate some of the economic burden on developers in Los Angeles. As compared to other major metropolis'…Read Full Paper ❯
alzer / Dewey / Education Michael alzer's position on school busing in Spheres of Justice is rather ingenious. Before we look more closely at it, though, I'd like to…Read Full Paper ❯
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S. Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal…Read Full Paper ❯
Commonplace: "You Always Admire hat You Really Don't Understand" There are a great many things that arouse admiration in this world of ours. Some of these things such as…Read Full Paper ❯
" The more the freedmen resumed the habits and postures of slaves, the better the planters were able to accept the new system. Thus reconstruction even with all the…Read Full Paper ❯
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.' A balance between history and psychology is needed…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in…Read Full Paper ❯
Affirmative Action has a long history; going back to the felt need by President Franklin D. oosevelt to avert a march on Washington, DC in 1941 by 100,000 African-Americans…Read Full Paper ❯
Sociology - Problems
Camden, New Jersey is a city that symbolizes racial segregation and embodies the worst of American capitalism. In Camden, "poverty is a business," (Hedges and Sacco 88). George Norcross,…Read Full Paper ❯
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial…Read Full Paper ❯
Moreover, the Court stated that affirmative action could not become a permanent policy and suggested that sometime in the future, when affirmative action would no longer be necessary to…Read Full Paper ❯
Second Reconstructions One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners…Read Full Paper ❯
Popular Film Cultures Have Propelled Civil and Social Rights Culture is referred as shared interaction, patterns, cognitive constructs, behaviors as well as effective understanding learned through socialization and transferred…Read Full Paper ❯
Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Seitles, 1996) Seitles claims that integration has been a success in the fight against racial prejudice and states that: "Social consequences of racial isolation intertwine with grim economic…Read Full Paper ❯
Perception of acism and Colour Students Historically, ethnic minorities are at a disadvantage in comparison to their White counterparts in real society. Living in poverty also plays a role…Read Full Paper ❯
ace in Sociology The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
Brown v. Board of Education On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, meaning…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - African
This was largely because the resistance was split along racial lines. For instance, the Afrikaans National Council wanted freedom from foreign oppression without taking into consideration the needs and…Read Full Paper ❯
Race / Racism
The Negro Soldier Introduction The Frank Capra film The Negro Soldier (1944) was a wartime propaganda film produced by the U.S. Army in alliance with famed Hollywood director Frank…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
acial segregation exists in the South. The blacks and whites do not participate together in many functions. There is tension between the two races and both fear each other's…Read Full Paper ❯
This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves,…Read Full Paper ❯
Diversity and its Discontents" (Arturo Madrid) Madrid provides, perhaps, the most intriguing look into the pessimistic parliamentary assemblies of conceived perceptions focusing on the diversifying components of diversity itself.…Read Full Paper ❯
People Like Us," writes about diversity in the U.S. The world has always perceived the U.S. as a place teeming with diverse people. This statement can be considered true…Read Full Paper ❯
Abstract Writing a Letter from Birmingham Jail analysis essay offers the student the gift of going back in time to the courage and ferocity of the Civil Rights Movement…Read Full Paper ❯
The author has further criticized the educational policy of the country, and has accused the careless approach of the government towards public schools, the government has been accused of…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - African
Their educational system was superior, as was their economic foundation, and their statuses were those of the privileged (Falola, 202). There can be no question that apartheid came into…Read Full Paper ❯
The hierarchical society, which characterized the new nation, was another aspect, which would soon be transformed. "The political rulers had come largely from the social elites. The churches were…Read Full Paper ❯