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Once the image is procured, the radiologist sets the diagnostic. In addition, a surgical technologist assists radiographers in conducting inter-operative imaging. Finally, a radiology nurse would help provide patient care during radiological investigations or procedures by using their skills to identify and meet a patient's individual needs.
In my view, a professional medical team member is essentially empathetic. Given that the healthcare sector is the only working space that concerns itself exclusively with human well-being, it is of paramount importance that all medical staff be receptive to each patient's individual needs. Failing that, the risk of malpractice increases and, most notably, serious harm can come to a human being who was there to seek help in the first place. Therefore, acting on the Hippocratic Oath means more than doing your own part of the job right; it means that a proper level of interaction with the patient, his/her family and…
Queensland Health. (2010). Radiographer: A career in health. State of Queensland. [Online] Available: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/workforus/careers/Radiographer.pdf [2013, July 21].
The Society of Radiographers. (No date). Radiography Careers. [Online] Available: http://www.radiographycareers.co.uk/resources/radcareers.pdf [2013, July 21].
Radiology and Cyberspace
The creation of 'cyberspace,' or the sharing of information through email, on the Internet and on websites, has had a profound impact on nearly every field of human endeavor. Medical science, and particularly Radiology, has been particularly affected and enhanced by new technology. Radiology, by its very nature, has always been a leader in the use of emerging technology in the medical field. Now, new technology developed during the growth and expansion of the Internet is giving Radiology the opportunity to expand as never before.
What is Radiology
Radiology is the branch of medical science devoted to the use of a variety of energy sources in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, including x-ray, ultrasound, magnetic resonance, and nuclear energy. Diagnostic imaging allows practitioners to create images of internal body structures, including bones, tissues and organs. This usually necessitates a balance between using the correct amount of…
American Heart Association. "New Use for Imaging Test May Spot Heart Disease at Earliest Stages" Dec. 2000. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3341
Andrew, E.R. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Historical Overview" Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Imaging. J Wiley, 1995.
Caufield, C. Multiple Exposures: Chronicles of the Radiation Age. Secker & Warburg, 1989.
Eisenberg, Ronald and Marcene Lee Powell. Radiology: An Illustrated History. Mosby-Year Book, 1992.
adiology and Ethics
In the contemporary world of today, radiologists face a number of ethical challenges that are rather different as compared to the issues faced by other physicians in the healthcare field. This is due to the fact that the interaction between the physicians and patients is not like one that is in other fields. The issues that radiologists are challenged with on a daily basis include speeding up of imaging studies for patients, specialty care gate-keeping, wait lists, queue jumping and corresponding the individual and societal needs. Thus, it is required of every radiologist to persistently stabilize and re-examine the ethical and legal responsibilities that lies on his/her shoulders towards the patients in particular and society in general (Cunningham, eid, MacSwain & Clarke 170).
Ethical Issues in adiology
The radiologists have remarkable responsibilities towards their patients and it is their duty to do everything that can be done…
Cunningham, N., Reid, L., MacSwain, S. & Clarke, J.R. "Ethics in Radiology: Wait Lists Queue Jumping." Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal 64 (2013): 170-175. Print.
Fey, T.S. "Regulating Radiology: Ethical Issues in Mammography and Federal Legislation." Journal of Women's Health & Gender-Based Medicine 09.10 (2000): 1113-1118. Print.
Sohoni, C.A. "Medical Negligence: A Difficult Challenge for Radiology." Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging 23.01 (2013): 110-112. Print.
He proposed this technique as the solution to the problem of why some people do better than others in certain tasks, He likewise suggested cataloguing the differences in the size of the functional areas among individuals and correlating these with different talents and skills (Krotz 2001). Van Essen believed that his technique would ultimately lead to what makes people human or unique. rain mapping charts and determines specific areas, such as areas devoted to hearing, emotions and memory.
Dr. Joy Hirsch of the neuroscience department of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center discovered that functional areas are not areas but intricate networks (Krotz 2001). Her findings and projections point to systems of remotely connected brain areas as fundamental units that govern cognition. She also concluded that this assumption would be the guiding principle in research a few years from now. Dr. Hirsch maintains a lab at the O'Hare Airport, which turns out…
Business Marketing Strategies, Inc. (2004). Consumer-centered healthcare. Brain Matters, Inc. http://www.brinmattersinc.com/site.cfm/67%2CPatient+Information+htm
Corante. (2004). Brain imaging. http://www.corante.com/brainwaves/archives/cat_brain_imaging.html
Haverbush, Thomas J. (2003). Understanding diagnostic imaging. Online Orthopaedics. http://www.orthopodsurgeon.com/diagnosticimage.html
Krotz, Dan. (2001). 2010: a brain odyssey. CMP Media, Inc., special edition: United Business Media Company. http://www.dimag.com/specialedition/nuero.jhtml?_requestid=436348
Under conventional radiology, excessive exposure outputs a "black" film. In case of digital systems, good images are got from a large range of doses. With the help of digital fluoroscopy systems, it is extremely simple to get as well as delete images. There might be an inclination to get more images than what is required. In case of digital radiology, higher patient dosage implies improved image quality and therefore a propensity to apply higher patient doses than is actually needed. Different medical imaging works need different intensities of image quality and due to that doses that have no extra benefit for clinical purpose are avoided.
The quality of image can be affected through lack of correct levels of data compression and also post processing techniques and all these new challenges must be part of the optimization process and covered in the clinical and technical protocols. Local diagnostic reference levels must…
Bouzarjomehri, F. (2003, Dec) "Reduction of unwarranted Patient Exposure in X-ray examinations" Iran Journal of Radiology, pp: 121-124. Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://diglib.tums.ac.ir/pub/magmng/pdf/253.pdf
Fortunati, Leopoldina; Katz, James. E. (2003) "Mediating the Human Body: Technology,
Communication, and Fashion" Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Funama, Yoshinori; Awai, Kazuo; Umezu, Yoshiyuki, et. al. (2005, Mar) "Digital Cine
Others focus more on diagnostics rather than on direct medical treatment.
In that regard, breast imaging involves diagnosing diseases of the breast through mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and tissue biopsies. Cardiovascular radiology is the radiology specialty that uses X-rays, computer axial tomography (CAT scans), MRIs, and ultrasound to diagnose problems with the heart and circulatory system. Chest radiology employs many of the same technologies and tools to diagnose and treat medical conditions of the heart and lungs. Other radiology specialty practice areas include: gastrointestinal radiology, emergency radiology, head and neck radiology, musculoskeletal radiology, and reproductive radiology. Finally, radiology specialties can also intersect directly with other specialty areas of interest such as neurological, pediatric, and geriatric radiology.
The Associate of Applied Science in Radiologic Technology Degree
I am currently enrolled in the academic program that leads to certification as a radiological technologist. It is a two-year course of academic…
Harnessing Unstructured Data in Radiology
The harnessing of unstructured data is vital to moving the field of radiology forward. There are methods used for the mining of unstructured data, with one of the most common being Natural Language Processing (NLP). However, there are some difficulties with the use of NLP in the radiology field, because NLP lacks the capacity to analyze free-text radiology reports and images. There is too much uncertainty to be addressed with NLP, but there may be ways in which it can be useful. In order to make that determination, this paper examines the current usage of NLP and other methods such as RadLex and Annotation and Image Markup for unstructured data mining in the radiology field, as well as the desired and sought out use of the mining of unstructured data. oth clinical decision support and research analysis could benefit from unstructured data mining in the…
Huang, Y., & Lowe, H.J. (2007) A novel hybrid approach to automated negation detection in clinical radiology reports. Journal of the American Medical Information Association, 14: 304 -- 311.
McLoughlin, R.F., So, C.B., & Gray, R.R., et al. (1995). Radiology reports: How much descriptive detail is enough? AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology, 165: 803 -- 806.
Mendonca, E.A., Haas, J., Shagina, L., Larson, E., & Friedman, C. (2005). Extracting information on pneumonia in infants using natural language processing of radiology reports. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 38: 314 -- 321.
Reiner, B.I., Siegel, E.L., & Knight, N., (2007). Radiology reporting: Past, present, and future: The radiologist perspective. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 5: 313 -- 319.
radiology program for several reasons. Firstly, I believe I have the aptitude to complete the course. Secondly, I believe I have the skills and personal qualities that will allow me to succeed both in the course and in a career as a radiologist. Finally, I have a genuine interest in working as a radiologist, and am sure that this course and this career is the right choice for me. I believe these reasons combine to show that I have the aptitude, the attitude and the enthusiasm required to complete the course and continue on to a successful and rewarding career.
Firstly, I believe I have the ability necessary to complete the course. I have always had an aptitude for science. I studied anatomy, biology and chemistry in high school and particularly enjoyed these courses. These subjects are part of the radiology course and I am sure I will again enjoy…
Future of adiology and X-ay Technologists
By tracing the historical development of radiography as a distinct field of diagnostic treatment, along with the evolving role of X-ray technologists in the delivery of quality health care within the public hospital/private practice model, it is possible to identify the attributes of this field that make it a foundational science within the practice of modern medicine. The ever-expanding ranks of X-ray technologists now serve a variety of essential functions within the health care delivery system, assisting in the cutting edge diagnostic assessment process that has improved patient acuity rates so drastically since the discovery of X-rays in the late 19th century. This paper will trace the development of radiography, radiology, and X-ray technologists within the medicinal realm, including a review of the field's past, present and future and the implications of this science for the further improvement of positive patient outcomes through preventative…
Fouras, A., Kitchen, M.J., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R.A., Hooper, S.B., & Hourigan, K. (2009). The
past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form. Journal of Applied Physics, 105(10), 102009-102009.
Knechtges, P.M., & Carlos, R.C. (2007). The evolving role of radiologists within the health care system. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 4(9), 626-635.
Nicolas, D., & Fernando, P.M. (1996). Analysis of the use of radiology in primary health care. Atencion primaria/Sociedad Espanola de Medicina de Familia y
This involves knowledge of a wide range of medical subjects including equipment, diagnosis techniques and a number of different bodily systems.
I am also drawn to radiology because of the many areas to work with sophisticated technologies and techniques. There is an appeal to being at the cutting edge of medicine, and working in a field noted for its rapid pace of change.
Moreover, because radiologists consult on many different situations, the exposure to a wide range of subspecialties gives me the chance to learn more than if I chose another discipline. To be able to study a field that allows me to deal with diverse issues like oncology, endovascular and more in a single day is an attraction.
A expect a radiology training program to incorporate intensive study of the equipment used. The field is rich with diverse subspecialties and I would expect that an enormous amount of time…
No author. (2008). Careers in Medicine: Specialty Information: Anesthesiology. Association of American Medical Colleges Retrieved June 17, 2008 at http://www.aamc.org/students/cim/pub_anesthesiology.htm
No author. (2008). Careers in Medicine: Specialty Information: Radiology. Association of American Medical Colleges Retrieved June 17, 2008 at http://www.aamc.org/students/cim/pub_radiology.htm
No author. (2007). Anesthesiology Residences and Fellowships. University of Florida. Retrieved June 17, 2008 at http://msquared.anest.ufl.edu/residency/
No author. (2008) Careers in Diagnostic Radiology. Radiological Society of North America. Retrieved June 17, 2008 at http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/careers/index.cfm?pg=diagcareer&bhcp=1
Radiology Program and My Personal Strengths wish to enter the radiology program for several reasons. First, I've always had an aptitude for science, and I particularly enjoy physics and biology, two disciplines that constitute a large portion of radiology. In addition, I decided some time ago that the profession that I chose would be one that involved service to others. As a result, I developed an interest in the health field. Several years ago, I visited the radiology department in a hospital where my cousin was employed. From that time forward, I was interested in pursuing a career in radiology. I investigated several radiology programs and decided that the program at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences was best suited to my goals. Your college offers a Bachelor of Science degree while most other colleges offer only an associate's degree. I hope to move to a management role…
("Introduction to Radiologist Assistant: Practice Standards," n. d.)
The Registered Radiologist Assistant finds out if the objectives of the action plan have been attained. The Registered Radiologist Assistant assesses the patient and the process to detect variances which might influence the anticipated result; terminates the assessment process in a timely, correct and all-inclusive manner; quantifies the process against instituted policies, benchmarks and protocols; detects exceptions to the anticipated results; records exceptions in a timely, correct and all-inclusive manner; fosters a revised plan of action if essential to attain the intended result and informs revised action plan to suitable team members. The Registered Radiologist Assistant executes the revised action plan. The Registered Radiologist Assistant carries forward the revised plan on the status of the patients and the most suitable means of attaining the anticipated result; takes action relying on patient and procedural changes; measures and assesses the outcome of the revised…
Killion, Jeff; Johnston, James. (n. d.) "Radiologist Assistant: A New Career Pathway for Radiologic Technologists http://www.eradimaging.com/site/article.cfm?ID=157
N.A. (2006, Aug) "American Registry of Radiologic Technologists® Continuing Education
Requirements for Renewal of Registration" http://www.arrt.org/education/cereq.pdf
N.A. (2005, Jan) "Registered Radiologist Assistant: Role Delineation http://www.arrt.org/radasst/finalraroledelineation.pdf .
[MSIT] the fact that X-rays are not used in MRI make it much safer for the patients as the radiation hazard is not there. Also, MRI provides greater contrast between the different tissues in comparison to a CT scanner offering more detailed anatomical review, better diagnostics, and improved interventional radiology. y adjusting the contrast mechanisms and other imaging parameters, the MRI allows the radiologist to obtain a highly detailed image of a particular region of study. Particularly, the MRI is highly effective as a diagnostic tool for studying the anatomy and abnormalities in the brain, spinal column and other vital regions enabling the easy identification of pathological tissues. The availability of super magnetic contrasting agents has further improved the visualization and the quality of the images. [Joseph P. Hornak]
y the 1970's, new advancements and improvements in imaging techniques extended their application to interventional procedures in different clinical…
CHARLES E. RAY, JR., M.D, "Interventional Radiology in Cancer Patients," AAFP, July 2001, Accessed September 15th 2008, available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000701/95.html
Otto Glassner, 'Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen and the Early History of the Roentgen Rays', Norman Publishing, 1992, pg. 236.
Thomas S. Curry, James E. Dowdey, Robert C. Murry, Edward E. Christensen, 'Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology', Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1990, pg. 166
Peterborough and Stamford Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 'Radiology a Brief history', Accessed 13th September 2008, available at http://www.rad-i-ology.co.uk/radsite/historical.htm
It uses a great deal of expensive and cutting-edge technology, and none of this is cheap. hile DR can do a great deal for a hospital radiology department, that department also must have the funds available to support what needs to be purchased and accomplished where DR is concerned if the department chooses to use this technology.
Image quality, other than cost, is quite probably the largest issue that is faced by those that wish to use this new technology. Therefore, it is important to discuss and compare the differences between the image quality of CR and the image quality of DR, so that more can be understood regarding the differences between them. One study looked at the plate readers that are used for CR images, and found that there were enough statistically significant differences between different plate readers as to indicate that there may be problems with…
Cesar, LJ. 1997. Computed radiography: its impact on radiographers. Radiologic Technology.
Daniels, C. 1998. The benefits of digital radiography. Radiologic Technology.
Demonstrated Clinical Benefits and Competitive Prices to Drive Digital Radiography Market. 2004. BusinessWire.
FUJIFILM Computed Radiography for Mammography Progresses From Market Entrant to Market Leadership Worldwide. 2002. PR Newswire.
The conclusion according to Ludwig, et al. (2001) is that "the flat-panel detector has diagnostic performance superior to that of conventional screen-film storage-phosphor radiography for detecting shall artificial osseous lesions at clinical exposure settings. With the flat-panel detector, exposure may be reduced by a sum of 50% in order to gain satisfactory
In the study entitled: "Performance of a Flat-Panel Detector in Detecting Artificial one Lesions: Comparison with Conventional Screen-Film and Storage-Phosphor Radiography" which was written by Karl Ludwig, M.D. et al. states that the case study was done with the express purpose of comparing a "large-area direct-readout flat-panel detector system with a convention screen-film system and storage-phosphor system" for the detection of "small artificial osseous lesions simulating osteolytic disease" and in the assessment of diagnostic performance as the exposure dose decreases over time. The results stated in the study were that: "ROC analysis showed A) Values of 0.820 (speed…
Cohen MD, Katz BP, Kalasinski LA, White SJ, Smith JA, Long B. Digital Imaging with a photostimulable phosphor in the chest of newborns. Radiology 1991; 181:829-832.
Yamamuro, M (1995) Cardiac Functional Analysis with Multi-Detector Row CT and Segmental Reconstruction Algorithm: Comparison with Echocardiography, SPECT, and MR Imaging. Radiology. 2005 Feb;234(2):381-90.Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
Don Steven M.D., et al. (1999) Computed Radiography vs. Screen-Film Radiography: Detection of Pulmonary Edema in a Rabbit Model That Stimulates Neonatal Pulmonary Infiltrates. Mallinckrodt Institute of Technology, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University of Medicine. 1999 Jan 25
Ludwig, Karl et al. (2001) Performance of a Flat-Panel Detector in Detecting Artificial Bone Lesions: Comparison with Conventional Screen-Film and Storage-Phosphor Radiography 2001 Dec 16 Online available at http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/abstract/222/2/453?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1106962551056_13136&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&minscore=5000&journalcode=radiology .
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…
Abelha, Antonio, Jose Machado, Victor Alves, and Jose Neves. (2004). "Health Data Management in the Medical Arena." Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. [Online]. Available: https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/886/1/473-245.pdf.
Adelhard, K., S. Nissen-Meyer, C. Pistitsch, U. Fink and M. Reiser. (1999). "Functional requirements for a HIS-RIS-PACS-interface design, including integration of 'old' modalities." Method. Inf. Med. 38(1):1-8.
Albensi, B.C., E.V. Ilkanich, G. Dini and D. Janigro. (2004, December). "Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research. Bioscience, 54(12): 1127-38.
Arenson, R.L., K.P. Andriole, D.E. Avrin and R.G. Gould. (2000). "Computers in imaging and health care: now and in the future." Journal of Digital Imaging 13(4):145-56.
My education consists of a Bachelors degree in Radiological Science, I also maintain a high grade point average (gpa), and pride myself on the care given to my study and work history.
Although I already have a bachelors degree in the field of radiology, that is not enough. I wish to obtain a higher understanding of the subject matter, addition hands on experience, and the opportunity to use all the resources that will be afforded to me by continuing education to a higher level. I realize the need to continue in education if I want to work in the medical field working more extensively within the realm of radiology. Thank you in advance for the opportunity to express my desire in the field of radiology and what I hope to do upon being given the opportunity to continue at the graduate level.
I participated in local programs to feed the homeless through the Ethiopian Christian Fellowship. I volunteered for the Alameda food bank as well as for local hospitals and animal shelters.
My volunteer work brought me out of my shell, and enabled to feel that I could make a difference in the lives of others. By healing others, I healed myself. Through maturity I have come recognize and respect my limits and honor my capabilities. In my ten years living in the United States I have experienced more inside myself than many even better traveled will experience in a lifetime. I have gone from a happy and busy childhood, to being a lonely and miserable man, isolated and old before his time, to once again becoming accepted and beloved person who is a vital part of his community.
Scholarship Statement: Bernard Osher Allied Health Scholarship
The language of health and medicine…
Certainly, it must be stated that more study is needed and worth pursuing in this diagnostic method in forensics.
Bisset, . et al. (2002) Postmortem examinations using magnetic resonance imaging: four-year review of a working service BMJ 2002;324:1423-1424 (15 June) Online available: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/324/7351/1423
Post Mortem Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI) (2005) http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/developments.htm
Alderstein M.E., Peringa J., van der Hulst V.P.M, Blaauwgeers H.L.G., van Lith J.M.M. (2003), 'Perinatal mortality: clinical value of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging compared with autopsy in routine obstetric practice', BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 110 Issue 4 pp. 378-382
oberts I.S.D., Benbow E.W., Bisset ., Jenkins J.P.., Lee S.H., eid H., Jackson A. (2003), 'Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in determining cause of sudden death in adults: comparison with conventional autopsy', Histopathology 2003 42: 424-430 May 2003
Virtopsy: Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland 2005 the Technical Working Group Forensic Imaging…
Bisset, R. et al. (2002) Postmortem examinations using magnetic resonance imaging: four-year review of a working service BMJ 2002;324:1423-1424 (15 June) Online available: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/324/7351/1423
Post Mortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (2005) http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/developments.htm
Alderstein M.E., Peringa J., van der Hulst V.P.M, Blaauwgeers H.L.G., van Lith J.M.M. (2003), 'Perinatal mortality: clinical value of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging compared with autopsy in routine obstetric practice', BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 110 Issue 4 pp. 378-382
Roberts I.S.D., Benbow E.W., Bisset R., Jenkins J.P.R., Lee S.H., Reid H., Jackson A. (2003), 'Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in determining cause of sudden death in adults: comparison with conventional autopsy', Histopathology 2003 42: 424-430 May 2003
Synthesizing health care and technology can be a very advantageous endeavor when the proper planning and understanding are applied to this technique. Physician practices is one area of health care where this is quite evident. The benefits of incorporating technology and information systems are both great for the patient and the organization that decides to employ these measures.
Ball, Weaver & Kiel (2004) agreed with this argument throughout the text and demonstrated how this infusion can be of great use for those health care practitioners. They argued that data collection through information gathering systems can help prevent mass disease or a pandemic outbreak. They wrote " some administrative systems such as registration, scheduling and billing have data that are of value for public health surveillance and developers of new strategies for early detection of disease outbreaks are using them, " (p. 528).
The streamlining of information is one great…
Ball, M.J., Weaver, C.A. & Kiel, J.M. (2004). Healthcare information management systems: Cases, strategies, and solutions. NY: Springer.
Oncea, J. (2013). The Shocking Truth About The Future Physician Practices. Healthcare Technology Online, 24 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.healthcaretechnologyonline.com/doc/the-shocking-truth-about-the-future-of - physician-practices-0001
Pilling, J. (2003). Picture Archiving and Communication Systems: The Users' View. British Journal of Radiology, 2003 76, 519-524. Retrieved from http://bjr.birjournals.org/content/76/908/519.full
Strickland, N. (2000). PACS: Filmless Radiology. Arch DIS Child 2000; 83, 82-86. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1718393/pdf/v083p00082.pdf
Other signs of manifestation may include irregular bleeding not associated with a woman's normal menstrual cycle, pressure or pain during or after intercourse and abdominal pain of unknown origin (NIC, 2003).
Ultrasound, endovaginal ultrasound and transvaginal sonography have all been used to help identify malignancies within the reproductive organs including the uterus. Of these, the more effective of tools is Color Doppler Sonography, because it allows physicians to distinguish benign masses from malignant masses more easily than do traditional U/S, EVU and TVS techniques. The advantages of U/S, EVU and TVS include the relatively low risk of complications and exposure to radiation which may prove more dangerous than beneficial. In times of old CT scans were often used in an attempt to try to identify malignancies of the uterus and endometrium (oss & Goplerud, 1982). Today, by combining techniques, many doctors find it is much easier to exclude cancer…
Birnbaum, LS. (1991). Pharmacokinetic basis of age-related changes in sensitivity to toxicants. Ann Rev Pharmacol 31(1):101-28.
Charnley, G. & Putzrath, R.M. (2001). Children's health, susceptibility and regulatory approaches to reducing risks from chemical carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(2):187.
Fleischer, MD, Shappell, HW, Parker, LP, & Hanemann, MD. (2006) Color Doppler sonography of endometrial masses. Nashville: Departments of Radiology, OB/GYN, and Pathology: Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
NCI (2002 Oct). What is endometrial cancer, National Cancer Institute, UConn Health
In order to achieve this target, the personnel operating in a foreign subsidiary should take part in trainings regarding the locals' customs, traditions, way of thinking, language etc. Additionally, studies should be carried out for concluding if the company's products or services are adequate to a certain foreign market. For instance, a company wishing to sell beef on the Indian market where the cow is considered to be a sacred animal or an organization which designs white packages for its products sold in Japan where this color represents mourning will surely lead to collapse. Let's take, for example, the McDonald's case which has developed a successful transnational strategy. The king of fast-food chains has tailored its menus according to the gastronomic habits of the foreign markets it has entered. Just imagine the disastrous outcome of a hamburger with pork sold in an Arab country. In conclusion, molding over the foreign…
Chella, G. (2006). Differentiation - the only path to managing expectations. On the Internet at: www.blonnet.com/2006/09/25/stories/2006092500290900.htm. Retrieved March 3.
Crow, K. (2000). Achieving Target Cost / Design-to-Cost Objectives. On the Internet at: www.npd-solutions.com/dtc.html. Retrieved March 3.
Johanssen, M. (2007). Five Phases of the Organizational Life Cycle. On the Internet at http://business.enotes.com/small-business-encyclopedia/organizational-life-cycle.Retrieved March 3, 2007.
Peterson, W., Gallen, V., Eponou, T., Wuyts-Fivawo, a., Wilks, M.(2002). Methods for Planning Effective Linkages. On the Internet at: www.isnar.cgiar.org/publications/briefing/Bp45.htm. Retrieved March 3.
(Computed Radiography Digital Solutions)
The advantages of the system can be numerous. One of them is better image quality, wherein better trabecular details would be seen; another advantage is that there is absolutely no need for retakes. This would save time and money, as well as avoid additional radiation for the patient. There will also be no loss of films, because there is no danger of these images being misplaced or lost, unlike as in the case of conventional x-rays. It is also possible to obtain multiple images with one single exposure, and the images can be manipulated according to the need of the attending physician/s. In addition, it is also possible to obtain multiple images on one film, and images can also be provided on medium other than film, like for example, on a CD, on paper, or they can even be viewed on a monitor. These are some…
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…
Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
picture archiving and communication system (PACS), a filmless radiology system that stores, retrieves, manages, distributes and display digital images. PACS replaces conventional radiological film and allows simultaneous computerized access by medical professionals and automation systems throughout the hospital and clinical environment. The market for PACS has grown since its introduction in the 1980s, expanding from $1 billion in 2008 to a projected $2.5 billion in 2015 (SearchHealthIT.com, 2010).
PACS consists primarily of four components: imaging systems, a secure local or wide area network for the distribution and exchange of patient information, workstations for viewing, processing and interpreting images, and storage archives that enable retrieval of images and related documentation and reports (SearchHealthIT.com, 2010).
One advantage of a PACS is the range of radiological image types which the system is compatible with, including X-ray photos, cyclopegia retinoscopy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MI), radio isotopes, and ultrasound (Biohealthmatics.com, 2010).
Biohealthmatics.com. (2010). PACS (Picture Archiving Communication System). Retrieved March 14, 2012 from: http://www.biohealthmatics.com/technologies/his/pacs.aspx
John C. Lincoln Health Network. (2012). Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS): Fast access to medical imaging results. Retrieved March 14, 2012 from: http://www.jcl.com/medical-services/medical-imaging/pacs
McKesson. (2012). PACS benefits go beyond the numbers. Retrieved March 14, 2012 from: http://www.medicalimagingtalk.com/29/pacs-benefits-patient-care/
SearchHealthIT.com. (2012). Picture archiving and communications system (PACS). Retrieved March 14, 2012 from: http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/definition/picture-archiving-and-communication-system-PACS
Terrace Hospital Marketing Plan
Marketing trategy -- Terrace Community Hospital
ummary- Terrace Hospital is a smaller, community hospital, located in a suburb of a major city. There are a number of large urban hospitals within 45-60 minutes of Terrace, but the focus for Terrace is as an expanded clinic that provides basic services for urgent care, seniors, obstetrics, general practice, counseling and education programs, radiology, complete blood work, and an osteo-care unit for citizens of the outlying communities that are 45-60 minutes from Terrace, and thus quite a distance from the urban hospitals. The hospital is reviewing its marketing plan in order to focus more on profitable and complete care, knowing that more complicated specializations are more available in the urban center.
Major Health Concerns -- Quality pediatric care, childhood obesity and Type-II diabetes, alcohol and cigarettes, substance abuse, TDs, geriatric care, obesity and cardio-renal issues.
Target Patients- The community…
Buckley, P. (2009). The Complete Guide to Hospital Marketing. Marblehead, MA: HCPro, Inc.
City University of New York. (2011). Marketing Planning, Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process. Retrieved from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/economic/friedman/mmmarketingplanning.htm
Eckrich, D.; Schlessinger, W. (2011). An Application of the marketing concept in health-care services planning. Journal of Marketing Research. Retrieved online from: http://www.www.aabri.com/manuscripts/10571.pdf
HR Council. (2012). HR Planning. Retrieved from: http://hrcouncil.ca/hr-toolkit/planning-strategic.cfm
The last few decades have seen the healthcare environment change from one that was dictated by physicians to one that is dictated more by big business and government entities. That is particularly problematic, because that puts healthcare into the hands of people who are not really focused on helping people, and are, instead, focused on the financial aspects of ensuring that people get care. While healthcare should be about taking care of people who are ailing, injured, or sick, it becomes who has the most money or the best insurance provider. There are a number of segments to the healthcare environment, as well, and they all play roles in the mission that involves caring for the health and well-being of the greater society. Among these segments is the pharmaceutical industry, which has provided medicines for more than 100 years so that people with disease and health conditions could…
Galloway, S.J., (2009). Simulation techniques to bridge the gap between novice and competent healthcare professionals. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(2), manuscript 3. doi:10.3912/OJIN.Vol14No02Man03
Hagler, D., & Wilson, R. (2013). Designing nursing staff competency assessment using simulation. Journal of Radiology Nursing, 32(4), 165-169. doi:10.1016/j.jradnu.2013.10.001
Iacono, M. (2013). The culture of accountability. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 28(2), 107-109. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2013.01.002
Muller, L. (2013). Integrity and accountability the omnibus final rule: Part 1. Professional Case Management, 18(4), 204-207. doi:10.1097/NCM.0b013e3182950694
Conventional Tomography outlining the various aspects, issues and methods used. It has 10 sources.
The field of medical imaging has been in existence for over one hundred years but new research and scientific breakthroughs have changed both its image and its role. adiology is not only diagnostic but is expanding to encompass curative techniques as well. The most common radiological investigation remains the conventional X-ray but a wide range of new and more efficient modalities have also been available for the past several decades. Amongst these methods is tomography, specifically in reference to this paper, Conventional Tomography.
adiographs deal with the internal anatomy of bodies, commonly used to view bones, calcified material, and soft tissue masses. This area has branched out since the use of fluorescent dyes but still is limited by the fact that a conventional radiography is unable to display within the framework of two-dimensional…
Author not available. (2003). The Encyclopedia of Medical Imaging Volume III: 1. Retrieved October 26, 2003, from Amersham plc
Flake M., Kinder C. (2003) Conventional Radiography Tomography and Their Biological Effects. Retrieved October 26, 2003, from Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute
The independent physician groups and hospitals provide services under the organization's guidelines, but they may also care for patients who are not members. (1997)
While managed care does offer employers more control in choosing the specifics of the health care plan provision at the same time the insurance companies and the profit-drive health-care organizations possess a strong role. Opponents of the government having a primary role in health care financing state that managed care "raises the specter of rationing, lower quality, less freedom to choose physicians, interference with physicians' clinical autonomy, reduced access to specialty care and teaching hospitals, and increased government regulation." (Gottlieb and Einhorn, 1997) Further criticism has been stated in relation to the financial mechanisms employed by managed-care plans geared toward efficiency due to the risk of providers relating to penalties or rewards based on some measures of efficiency.
While health care providers are expected "to provide…
The Future of Managed Care (2003) Online available at http://www.ncmedicaljournal.com/jan-feb-03/ar010303.pdf
Levitt, Seymour H. (2000) Impact of Managed Care on Scholarly Activity and Patient Care: Case Study of 12 Academic Radiology and Radiation Oncology Departments. Journal of Radiology 2000;216:618-623. Online available at http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/216/3/618
Gottlieb, Scott and Einhorn, Thomas a. (1997) Current Concepts Review - Managed Care: Form, Function and Evolution. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 79:125-36 (1997). Online available at http://www.ejbjs.org/cgi/content/full/79/1/125
Jennings, Mary Carol (2008-2009) 2008-2009 Legislative Agenda American Medical Student Association - Prepared by the 2008-2009 Jack Rutledge Legislative Director of the American Medical Students Association. Online available at http://www.amsa.org/legislativecenter/0809LegislativeAgenda.pdf
Missed reast Carcinomas
Mammography is a particular type of imaging which use an x-ray system, which has a low-dose for the purpose of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. ut even with the help of Mammography, in 10-30% cases of breast cancers would be missed. y way of this paper an attempt has been made to understand the factors, which cause for missed breast cancers, and discuss ways to reduce the false negative rate of mammography.
The false negative rate of mammography was around 8-10% according to the data of the reast Cancer Detection Demonstration project. Another study was of the opinion that the rate of missed breast cancers with regard to mammography was very high as 35%. (Harvey, Fajardo, Lnnis, 1993) In another study of 10 radiologists the true cases of cancers were considered to be in 74-96% cases which were understood after analyzing 150 mammograms. (Elmore,…
Harvey J.A, Fajardo L.L, Lnnis C.A. (1993) Preview mammograms on patients with impalpable with breast carcinomas: retrospective vs. blind interpretation, AJR Am J, Roentegenol, 161:1167, 1172
Elmore JG, Wells C.K, Lee C.H, et al. (1994) Variability in Radiologists' interpretation of mammograms. N Engl J. Med, 331: 1493-1499
Patel MR, Whitman GJ (1998) Negative mammograms in symptomatic patients with breast cancer. Acad Radiol, 5:26-33
Burrel HC, Sibbering DM, Wilson AR, et al. (1996) Screening interval breast cancers: mammographic features and prognosis factors. Radiology, 199: 811-817
Special Procedure requiring Special Sensitivity on the part of the Radiology Department and Attending Physicians
Testicular patients dying through ignorance," proclaimed a 2002 article in Life Extension Daily News. Researchers from Nijmegen's University Medical Center St. Radboud warned that a treatment delay of more than three months for testicular carcinoma was associated with a "significantly decreased" five-year survival rate. The most commonly cited reason for this critical diagnostic delay was not monetary issues. Instead, the delay was often due to patients fear and embarrassment of the condition and the location of the condition in the body. (Health Media Ltd., 2002) One way to prevent the spread of testicular carcinoma is speedy detection and treatment. Patients must conduct self-examinations on a regular basis, of course, and take responsibility for their own health. However, after detection has been made of a suspicious testicular mass, the next step often is the…
Cavallaro, John F. Testicular Cancer Survivor Stories. Web page last altered 2002. Accessed on July 28, 2003 at TCSS. http://tcrc.acor.org/stories/johnc.html .
Conscious Sedation," FAQs about Vascular Procedures, 2003. Fletcher Health Care. Accessed on July 28, 2003 at http://www.fahc.org/Radiology/vascular_proc.html#sedation
Testicular Patients dying through ignorance." Health Media Ltd. May 9, 2002 Life Extension Daily News. Accessed on July 28, 2003 at http://www.lef.org/newsarchive/disease/2002/05/09/eng-healthmedia/eng-healthmedia_200850_27_9615709930658.html
What Happens During the Procedure?" Fletcher Health Care. Accessed on July 28, 2003 at http://www.fahc.org/Radiology/vascular_proc.html
I stood by my younger sister when she fell from the giant tree in our backyard, her leg twisted behind her. She was crying, but I was doing my best to hold back my tears to help her feel strong. At the hospital, the first sign that I would eventually follow a career path in radiology became clear. I saw my sister's x-ray. It looked exactly like the x-rays I had seen on television but with one big difference: this was the x-ray that belonged to someone I knew, and it was with this magical document that the doctors were able to piece my broken sister back together. My decision to be a radiographer was not an immediately transparent one, though. I did not then and there become determined to be a radiological science professional. Instead, the experience planted a seed. This seed has since been nurtured and is…
Educational development is a mix of both formal and informal learning conditions as assessment of my own educational experience has taught me. I cannot say that one is more important than the other; each segment together has taught me different elements -- made me grow -- and combined in producing the 'me' that you see today.
In his "Notes for an Obituary," Einstein once noted that the system of education was a deliberate intention on the part of the state to mislead youth. He distrusted all forms of education, and from his pre-adolescent days refused to be taught. Religious leaders, too, he felt were disillusioned and deluding society. Yet Einstein felt that the fault belonged, not to the rabbi or to the priest, but with the force behind them that disregarded liberty of thought and made education compulsory. As regards Einstein himself, he was determined that formal education would not…
Kolb, David (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Ottawa University. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from: http://www.ottawa.edu/ .
Reaching In, Reaching Out.(RIRO) (n.d.) Children's storybooks that promote resilience. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from: http://www.reachinginreachingout.com/documents/Guidebook%20-%20Storybooks%20that%20Promote%20Resilience.pdf
Advances in Digital Medical Imaging
In the past few decades advances in healthcare have emerged, as new forms of technological integration are implemented as part of the overall healthcare management system. Healthcare providers, doctors and patients require more technological integration into the system providing real time data analysis and the possibility of enhancing medical knowledge. Sharing that knowledge can lead to what many describe as "digital medicine" where stored clinical data can generate medical knowledge which can be widely distributed, incorporated into decision support systems, and lead to more effective medical practices (ouler & Morgenstern, 2005). Digital medical image processing within the healthcare area has its origins in the 1970's when computed tomography was introduced as the first digital modality. In the decades that followed, advances in digital medical imaging technology have dramatically affected the planning and design of diagnostic interventional radiology facilities. Soon after the advent of computerized…
Bang, C. (2005). Digital Imaging Drives Health Care Design. Building Operation
Becker, S. (1994). Costs and Benefits of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol. 1, no. 5: 361-371.
Since survey data relies on self-reported information, and since the levels of anxiety in a patient can increase and decrease based on the experience of the patient, it is possible that lack of care in working the question can actually increase the patient's anxiety. For example, a question that states "If the radiology department finds cancer in your bones....," the patient may be forced to think about issues which increase their anxiety levels, thus inaccurately raising the levels of reported anxiety in the radiology department.
The other major limitation to the survey design is that, in any self-report, there is a possibility for patients to answer in a way that is contrary to reality (Snaith, 2003). In the case of anxiety research, the subject may not be aware of his or her levels of anxiety, or may choose to answer in such a way that denies the anxiety. s mentioned…
A study by Rachman in 1974 determined that, since fear and anxiety are closely related, subjects have a difficult time determining which is which. Thus, subjects in a fearful situation such as a radiology lab may have a tendency to over-estimate their levels of anxiety, due to their inability to distinguish fear from anxiety. On the other hand, smaller levels of anxiety may be undetectable to the subject, if the corresponding feeling of fear is absent (Ewert, 1986).
Additionally, survey research has been consistently been doubted due to the inability to prove a subjects response. Since surveys rely on the input of subjects, there are always slight possibilities that the subjects will lie, or be otherwise inaccurate in their responses. A study by Epstein in 1976 suggested that anxiety in humans is related to ideas of ego, self-esteem, and are associated with a weakness or inability to cope. Certain subjects who feel this way may inadvertently deny their own feelings of anxiety in a radiology department, because admitting the anxiety exists would threaten their self-concept (Ewert, 1986). In any of the above cases, the answers would be used in data collection, but would not be a true representation of anxiety levels.
A second type of research design is that of the experiment. In this design, the researcher manipulates an independent variable in
To be part of something that I can give my absolute one hundred percent to, along with having the perpetual opportunity to challenge myself to learn and grow, is a dream that any driven person intricately decorates through the course of their life. hether one aspires to become an economist or whether one wishes to join the military, their dream is built on ambition and hope that they will find their place in something they consider their niche. My niche, if I am being perfectly honest is being challenged. I have always wanted to blend my scientific background with a chance to explore which is primarily why radiologic technology is the path for me! My interest in Radiologic Technology stems from the fact that it is absolutely quintessential when it comes to the medical field. As we know, it is used for the production of images of all…
"What Is Radiologic Technology?" What Is Radiologic Technology? Bergen Community College, n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012.
Kai Hung Fung Artwork
Instrument of Expression and Communication
Kai Hung Fung and his Artwork
Kai Hung Fung is a radiologist known for his 3D creative work on human body. He gained attention in 2003 when he started using computed tomography (CT) to visualize human body parts. His creative work is based on a complete background research for example he researched about color usage in 3D image of computed tomography. He is also considered to be a pioneer of developing ainbow Technique. Through this technique contour line can be rendered into the rainbow colors to confine the 3D space.
By using ainbow Technique, Mr. Fung won first position in 5th International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge. His artwork won the award of Best Science Photo 2007. He had won gold, silver and bronze awards for his creative work in various categories in the year of 2007. Again in 2008 he…
Beck. 1987. "Art and Communication." Accessed October 21, 2012 http://www.san.beck.org/Life18-Art.html
Fung. 2006. "Artwork Using 3D Computed Tomography: Extending Radiology into the Realm of Visual Art." Leonardo 39:187-191. Accessed October 21, 2012. doi:10.1162/leon.2006.39.3.187.
Fung. 2006. "The rainbow technique: an innovative approach to the artistic presentation of 3D" computed tomography." Leonardo 39:101-103. Accessed October 22, 2012.
Gajitz. 2011. "Scientific Scans Show Natural Art Inside of Human Bodies." Accessed October 21, 2012. http://gajitz.com/scientific-scans-show-natural-art-inside-of-human-bodies/
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
Estimates of cost savings from the reduction in film costs as well as through reduced work hours needed for the creation of images and the reading of images by physicians will lead to an average annual cost savings of between five hundred- and seven hundred and fifty-thousand dollars a year, leading to an overall cost benefit of one hundred- to three hundred and fifty-thousand dollars a year compared to traditional film production techniques (Hoffman 2008; ath 2010). A ten percent reduction in costs could be achieved through increasing the competitiveness of a the bidding process amongst companies that produce the technologies necessary for a successful PACS, as well as through reducing the time and personnel involved in training programs. This latter is not especially advisable, however, as indirect costs will likely be created though reductions in the efficacy of the adoption and a reduced improvement in treatment efficiencies and speeds…
Cannavo, M. (2005). "The new PACS puzzle: Cost and technological change." Imagining economics (July). Accessed 20 October 2010. http://www.imagingeconomics.com/issues/articles/2005-07_04.asp
D'Asseler, Y.; Koole, M.; Van Laere, K.; Vandenberghe, S.; Bouwens, L.; Van de Walle, R.; Van de Wiele, C.; Lemahieu, I. & Cierckx, R. (2000). "PACS and multimodality in medical imaging." Technology and health care 8(1), pp. 35-52.
Jackson, P. & Langlois, S. (2005). "Introduction of picture archiving and communication system at The Townsville Hospital." Australasian radiology 49(4), pp. 278-82.
Kalyanpur, A.; Singh, J. & Bedi, R. (2010). "Practical issues in picture archiving and communication system and networking." The Indian journal of radiology & imaging 20(1), pp. 2-5.
transfer to 'Dhobiwalla? What's that?" I asked.
"Oh!" he said, laughing heartily as he leaned back comfortably in his seat, scotch in hand. "They're the laundry service in India!"
Mr. Patel was one of the many corporate clients with whom I worked on several occasions, spending hours at a time confined to the flight cabin while crossing trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic paths. The conversations that come up while we are miles in the air range from what our favorite fruits are to movies, to -- as I learned that day -- how we best like to do our laundry. Mr. Patel also told me the names of fruits and vegetables that I could barely pronounce at first but once I tried them in Bombay I have never been able to stop my cravings.
One of the most enriching aspects of my career as a flight attendant has been my encounters and…
72). This initiative would also relate to Initiative No. 6 discussed further below.
Potential Benefits. This approach could even benefit the hospital's Human Resources Service. For example, in their essay, "Determining the Size of the Temporary orkforce - an Inventory Modeling Approach," Harel and Herrer point out that determine the staffing levels at a hospital emergency room on a given night requires a determination of how many nurses and physicians are required as core employees in order to minimize staffing costs. "Since all periods are alike in terms of demand for human resources and costs," they advise, "the core workforce size is determined at the outset, and there is no reason to change it over time. As the demand fluctuates from period to period we can adjust the workforce level by hiring agency temporary workers" (21). In this regard, the authors note that a hospital inventory control system can be…
Alpert, Sheri a. (2003). "Protecting Medical Privacy: Challenges in the Age of Genetic Information." Journal of Social Issues, 59(2):301.
Andrus, Miranda R., Katherine C. Herndon, Kristi W. Kelley and Lisa M. Murphey. (2004). "A Comparison of Diabetes Care in Rural and Urban Medical Clinics in Alabama." Journal of Community Health 29(1):29.
Slew of Solutions. (1998, October). Security Management 42(10):88.
Auerbach, Charles, Aaron Beckerman, Charles Cohen, Marian Goldstein, Elizabeth Quitkin and Barry D. Rock. (1995). "Management of Alternate Level of Care Patients Using a Computerized Database." Health and Social Work 20(2):133.
Finance and Hospitals Mission and Vision Statements
Finance is a term which is generally associated with the management of money including assets and liabilities. The most common association in everyday life may be the way income is managed to pay liabilities (debts), and allocate funds to expenditure. This includes decision made regarding everyday events as well as major life decisions.
When looking at the everyday events, the income will usually be in the form of wages from a job and/or allowances, such as from a student loan, or support from parents or a partner, and will then be allocated to expenditure.
The allocation of the income should be prioritized to satisfy liabilities or debts, and pay for essential expenditure. If funds are left over, non-essential expenditure may take place. Liabilities or debts which are seen in everyday life include the paying of mortgage and loan repayments, such as credit card…
Del Sol Medical Center, (2014), Our Mission and Values, accessed at http://www.laspalmasdelsolhealthcare.com/about-us/mission-vision-values-and-goals.aspx
Emory, (2014), Emory Healthcare, accessed at http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/about-us/mission-vision.html
Whelan, D, (2010, Aug 31), America's Most Profitable Hospitals, Forbes, accessed at http://www.forbes.com/2010/08/30/profitable-hospitals-hca-healthcare-business-mayo-clinic.html
massive shortage of radiologic technologists of the 1990s has abated, there is still some shortage of workers in the field. Most such workers ply their trade in large hospitals, which average 21 imaging workers. ural facilities have a harder time recruiting workers, so hospitals in the most desirable locations might not even experience a shortage at this point. Key to recruiting for rural hospitals is thus to outcompete the urban facilities, but they must also look to their own areas for talented people who can be guided into the profession.
ecruitment and retention are ultimately linked. Factors like training programs for career development solve problems both for facilities and workers. Workers like the control that such programs give them over career development -- this is a selling point both during the recruiting process and thereafter as well. For the hospital, such training results in workers who cost more, but who…
ASRT (2008). A nationwide survey of Radiology Department / Facility Managers and Directors conducted by The American Society of Radiologic Technologists. ASRT. In possession of the author.
Bednar, J. (2008). The can see clearly now despite less-severe shortage, radiologic technologists are still in demand. Health Care News. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from http://healthcarenews.com/they-can-see-clearly-now-despite-a-less-severe-shortage-radiologic-technologists-are-still-in-demand/
BLS (2016). Radiologic and MRI technologists. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved June 29, 2016 from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/radiologic-technologists.htm
Coombs, C., Wilkinson, A. & Preston, D. (2007). Improving the recruitment and return of nurses and allied health professionals: A quantitative study. Health Services Management Research. March 2007. In possession of the author.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has recently constructed an ultramodern pediatric imaging facility. The healthcare facility exclusively focuses its improved services on children's imaging. In this paper, we present a marketing approach that covers computed Tomography (CT), fluoroscopy, General radiology (X-ay), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MI), Nuclear Medicine as well as ultrasound. The work includes an assessment of both the internal as well as external environment which is important in allowing us to determine the full advantage associated with the CHOP brand, the strategic location of the facility as well as the purchase of the new and improved equipment to warrant the integrated marketing strategy. The approach is however, threatened by the existence of another major hospital within Philadelphia that also offers pediatric imaging services. This risk will however be mitigated by CHOP's approach of focusing on pediatric imaging at an affordable price. Pediatric imaging is to form CHOP's niche market.…
Brassington, F. And Pettitt, S. (2003), Principles Of Marketing, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, London
Kotler, P., Shalowitz, J and Stevens, R (2010).Strategic Marketing For Health Care Organizations: Building A Customer-Driven Health System [Hardcover]
Kotler, P., et al. (2005) Principles of Marketing 4th Ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited
US Census (2000) Philadelphia City, Pennsylvania Statistics and Demographics (U.S. Census 2000)
CPT coding is a fact of life in the provision of healthcare today. CPT stands for Current Procedural Terminology, and is a system first developed by the AMA (American Medical Association) in 1966 "to convert widely accepted, uniform descriptions of medical, surgical and diagnostic services rendered by healthcare providers into five-numeric codes" (Medical Coding Experts, p. 1). CPT codes are necessary in order for accurate reimbursement to be obtained for services rendered and procedures performed. Inaccurate coding may result in a loss of reimbursement or, should extra codes be assigned and/or submitted, insurance fraud.
Category one CPT codes are the standard set of codes, and are divided into six sections. These sections are: evaluation and management; anesthesiology; surgery; radiology; pathology and laboratory; and medicine (Medical Coding Experts, p. 4). Each section has a discrete span of numbers that applies to the procedures classified under that section heading. They…
American Medical Association. (2012). Chapter One: Introduction to CPT® Coding. Retrieved from https://catalog.ama-assn.org/MEDIA/ProductCatalog/m2310979/Intro%20to%20CPT%20Coding%20-%20Chapter%201%20Sample%20Pages.pdf
American Medical Association. (2012). CodeManager: CPT Code/Relative Value Search. Retrieved from https://ocm.ama-assn.org/OCM/CPTRelativeValueSearch.do
Medical Coding Experts. CPT Basics. Retrieved from http://www.medicalcodingexperts.com/Flashdemo/CPTbasics.html
Quizlet. (2010). Steps for CPT Coding. Retrieved from http://quizlet.com/1858882/steps-for-cpt-coding-flash-cards/
Achieving Your Goals
The alarm is set for 7 AM, but my little girl woke me up early today to remind me of the exam. I jump out of bed without a hint of grogginess and head downstairs to put on the coffee and help my daughter get ready for school. All the while I smile to myself and try to calm my nerves. Opening the kitchen window, I take a deep breath of the fresh spring air. I have visualized this moment for years, during which I studied diligently for my radiology certificate. Although I love teaching at public school I finally made a decision last year to fulfill the other half of my dream. Drawn to the health professions as well as to education, I know that I can balance my two careers without stressing out. I managed to secure a part-time job teaching at a private school…
An appointment will enhance a woman's life by providing peace of mind knowing that there is no sign of breast disease or cancer or assisting with detection of breast disease or cancer and allow for a plan of action to take place for treatment.
Studies consistently show that low income, low educational attainment, lack of health insurance, inability to speak English, lack of awareness of breast cancer risks and screening methods, acculturation level and lack of physician referral play important roles in the lower rates of screening utilization by Hispanic and African-American women. Hispanic women have lower breast cancer rates but are 20% more likely to die from the disease because they are less likely to seek health care services than other ethnic groups. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among African-American women and they are more likely to be diagnosed with larger tumors and more advanced stages of…
" (2004, p.159) Activities have included:
(1) Development and promotion of industry-wide standards;
(2) Funding of research for investigation of the impact of IT on quality;
(3) Provision of incentives that provide encouragement of investment in IT;
(4) Giving grants to investors in IT; and (5) Development of strategies to improve the flow of information across providers. (Report to Congress, June, 2004, p.159)
Stated additionally in the Report to Congress is that there are multiple functions that must be considered when purchase IT and hundreds of applications that various vendors offer. The various IT applications are stated to be within three categories including those of:
(1) Administrative and financial systems that facilitate billing, accounting and other administrative tasks;
(2) Clinical systems that facilitate or provide input into the care process; and (3) Infrastructure that supports both the administrative and clinical applications. (Report to Congress, June 2004, p.160)
The work published…
BC Medical Association. Getting IT Right: Patient Centered Information Technology [discussion paper]. Vancouver: BCMA. 2004:39-40.
Blum E. Paperless medical record not all it's cracked up to be AMNews; 17 February 2003. Online available at: www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/pick_03/bica0217.htm
Brookstone A, Braziller C. Engaging physicians in the use of electronic medical records. Electronic Healthcare 2003;2:23-27.
Brookstone, Alan. 2004. Electronic Medical Records: Creating the Environment for Change. BCMJ, Vol. 46, No. 5 June 2004. Online available at: http://www.bcmj.org/electronic-medical-records-creating-environment-change
Since modern medicine can sustain patients with proper medical follow-up for years, it becomes incumbent on the profession to follow the patients and provide them with the knowledge and tracking to insure that they are observing the procedures and medications which prolong their quality of life. Given hospitals' short-term orientation with the patients, there is a need to bridge patient care before, during and after acute-care visits.
While there are some nursing specialties which can be regarded as solely hospital- or community-based, many of the specialties call for a more holistic notion of patient care. y combining the CNS and NP specialties, this profession has a better chance of assuring better patient outcomes, and a better quality of life for the patient.
ennett, .J. (1998). Psychiatric mental health nursing: thriving in a changing environment through outcomes-based measurements. Semin. Nurse Manage., 144-148.
erger, a.M.-F. (1996). Advanced practice roles for nurses…
Bennett, B.J. (1998). Psychiatric mental health nursing: thriving in a changing environment through outcomes-based measurements. Semin. Nurse Manage., 144-148.
Berger, a.M.-F. (1996). Advanced practice roles for nurses in tomorrow's healthcare systems. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 250-255.
Chaska, N.L. (2001). The Nursing Profession Tomorrow and Beyond. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Cukr, P.L. (1997). The psychiatric clinical nurse specialist/nurse practitioner: an example of a combined role. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 2-12.
One possible explanation for the differences observed in the studies could be that the strengths of the chlorhexidine solution were different. It could also be that over time more effective techniques have been developed in the application of the solution, as the results do appear to improve over time.
There are limitations to the methodology of the study which are centered on the use of secondary data for analysis. The use of secondary data allows a wider range of data to be gathered from across the U.S. than would be practical from primary data collection which is the reason for the choice in this study. However this puts the control of several variables beyond the researcher. The results of the techniques may have been affected by the application of different individuals, departments and hospitals, all of whom may vary techniques and other factors influencing the success of these techniques. The…
Adams, D., Quavum, M., Worthington, T., Lambert, P., & Elliott, T. (2005). Evaluation of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% isopropyl alcohol skin disinfectant. Journal of Hospital Infections, 61 (4), 287-290.
Brungs, S., & Render, M. (2006). Using Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Central line Infections. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 10 (6), 723-725.
CDC. (2002). Guidelines for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Recommendations and Reports, 51 (RR-10), 1-34.
CDC Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2006, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/about/mission.htm
While the study had a number of scientific limitations; the two most significant were: 1) although the response rate of interns that volunteered to participate was 80%, those that did participate may not have been representative; and 2) the case-crossover analysis cannot account for the contribution of within-person factors that may have been co-variables with exposure status.
As a result of the related research, hospitals will be using medical resident interns as a means of making up for the lack of doctors caused by financing concerns. The redistribution of medical interns was expected to be completed before the next residency training year starts July 1, 2005, however, it remains currently underway. The Association of American Medical Colleges has stated that the health care system would be better off if the cap were lifted so hospitals could respond to the needs of their communities, such as adding a new cardiology…
Barger, L., Cade, E., Ayas, N., Cronin, J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. & Czeisler, C. (2005).
Extended Work Shifts and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes among Interns. NEJM
Cauchon, D. (2004). Medical Miscalculation Creates Doctor Shortage. USA Today,
Croasdale, M. (2004). Residency Slots Reallocated to Relieve Doctor Shortages.
Purchasing a CT Scanner
Benefits and Costs of Purchasing A CT Scanner: A Comprehensive Evaluation
"Each year, buyers of CT scanners faced much-improved choice sets; the question is how valuable those improvements were," and thus this is a review to explore whether or not the acquisition of CT scanners are actually worth a hospital committing to such an expensive effort (Ellickson et al. 2001 p 544). Overall, the health benefits of CT scans are often extremely positive to patient care. Still, the machines and organizational costs tied to their maintenance are often costly to both the organization and the patients. Yet, the purchase of such technology does provide greater quality and efficiency within patient care strategies, from a health and organizational perspective. In such, it is clear that the positives of purchasing such technology would then outweigh any potential negatives.
CT scanners are an impressive testament to the evolution of…
Berenson, Alex & Abelson, Reed. (2008). Weighing the costs of a CT scan's look inside the heart. The New York Times. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/29/business/29scan.html?pagewanted=all
Beutel, Jacob; Kundel, Harold L.; & Van Metter, Richard L. (2000). Handbook of Medical Imaging: Volume 1 Physics and Psychophysics. The International Society for Optical Engineering.
Ellickson, Paul; Stern, Scott; & Trajtenberg, Manuel. (2001). Patient welfare and patient compliance: An empirical framework for measuring the benefits from pharmaceutical innovation. Medical Care Output Productivity. University of Chicago Press. 537-554. National Bureau of Economic Research. Web. http://www.nber.org/chapters/c7641.pdf
Hough, Douglas E. (2008). The Business of Healthcare. Greenwood Publishing Group.
What is diversity?
Diversity refers to the differences that occur among people and groups which should be taken into account in the healthcare setting. In the healthcare environment diversity and the recognition of diversity is an extremely important concept as it deals with recognizing the needs and requirements of the individual, as well as the needs and requirements of different groups. Furthermore, diversity is seen in a positive light in the healthcare context, as understanding diversity means that the healthcare professional is in a better position to understand the needs of the patient and to improve the treatment of people from different groups or areas of society.
Discuss and give examples of how people are diverse.
People can be diverse in various ways. One could refer to gender differences, as well as cultural and ethnic diversities. Understanding these differences becomes important in dealing with specific…
Davidhizar, R., Dowd, S., Newman-Giger, J. ( 2008). Model for cultural diversity in the radiology department. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3387/is_n3_v68/ai_n28683141/
Secured real time protocol (STP) is also being identified to enhance the security parameter of WAN and LAN network elements. "STP provides protection with encryption keys for wired and wireless networks including bandwidth limited channels." (Guillen and Chacon 2009 P. 690). There is also a growing use of IP secure to protect organization from the interception of data over the LAN and WAN environment.
To enhance network security, Chen, Horng, & Yang (2008) postulate the use of public key cryptography. While there is a growing use of public key cryptography, there is still a shortcoming identified with the use of public key cryptography in the LAN and WAN environment. Since the public key is being kept in a public file, it is possible for an active intruder to forge the contents of the public key and use it to get access onto the data kept within the network system. To…
Chen, T. Horng, G. & Yang, C. (2008).Public Key Authentication Schemes for Local Area. Informaticia.19 (1):3-16.
Fetterolf, P.C. & Anandalinga, G. (1992). Optimal design of LAN-WAN internetworks:
an approach using simulated annealing. Annals of Operations Research. 36: 275-298.
Guillen, P.E. & Chacon, D. A (2009). VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology. 58: 688-695.
usiness Unit Strategic Plan on Implementation of a PET CT unit at a local hospital
Draft: This paper attempts to examine whether or not it is convenient for a local hospital to achieve an ultimate technology medical device, mainly a PET/CT scanning system. In order to come up with a convenient answer and proper solutions, I will present the vision statement, mission statement, objectives, values, strategies, programs, the goals the hospital expects to achieve with the help of the investment it is about to develop. Afterwards I would develop a SWOT analysis which is going to emphasize the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the proposed objective. Moreover, the last part of my paper would focus on the marketing strategies that should be developed in order to convince more patients to use the modern device, on the sales projections and technology means which are expected to be used in the…
Fusion image: A New Type of Technologist for a New Type of Technology, at http://www.crcpd.org/PET-CT_Fusion_Imaging/PET-CT%20Consensus%20Paper.doc;
Win-Win Strategy for Mobile PET CT, at http://interactive.snm.org/index.cfm?PageID=4092&RPID=627;
About PET/CT Scanning, at http://www.upmccancercenters.com/radonc/petct.html ;
PET/CT, at www.crcpd.org/;
CPT codes in medical offices that employ Health Information Management professionals. Many current practices are using HIM professionals to help document patient visits and any treatments performed or offered to them. Having well trained HIM personnel can help the practice receive maximum reimbursement for the services that are performed there. This brief review will document the numerical system used for CPT codes that are detailed in billing literature as well as the appropriate methods for using them.
Coding professionals provide an invaluable service to physician practices and hospitals as they are truly the front line defense as far as ensuring reimbursements are near or even at maximum for their patients. The medical team works very hard for the patients they serve, and they should be reimbursed for it appropriately. Correct and appropriate medical codes will allow the office to recoup as much as possible from the services they provide.
Torrey, T. (2011) What Are CPT Codes? http://patients.about.com/od/costsconsumerism/a/cptcodes.htm . Last accessed January 18, 2011.
Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia and St. Francis Medical, Columbus Georgia
Because resources are by definition scarce, it is important for tertiary healthcare providers to develop healthcare delivery structures that are efficient and effective. Since every healthcare organization is unique, though, these delivery structures can vary widely in scope and purpose. To gain some fresh insights into the healthcare delivery structures that are used by civilian and military health facilities, this paper provides a comparison of Martin Army Medical Center at Fort Benning, Georgia with St. Francis Medical in Columbus, Georgia, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Comparison
Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia
Health care delivery structure. Opened in 1958, this is a U.S. Department of Defense facility operated by the U.S. Army that offers inpatient, outpatient and emergency services. At present, Martin Army Medical Center 250-bed,…
About St. Francis Hospital. (2012). St. Francis Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.
About us. (2012). Martin Army Community Hospital. Retrieved from http://www.martin.
Social Performance, Part 2 This a continuation assignment. Imagine company ethics program effective program. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines Organizations encourages firm set ethics programs.
Company: Pinnacle Professional College
Pinnacle Professional College is a for-profit institution that offers technologically-related continuing education courses, professional certification, and degrees primarily in technical fields such as dental hygiene, diagnostic sonography, and radiology. For-profit institutions have come under increasing scrutiny by the federal government for taking student's money, causing them to go into debt, and giving them with degrees of little value. To set the school apart from such unethical institutions, Pinnacle must show that that students move on to gainful employment that they would not otherwise have been able to obtain without attending Pinnacle. Pinnacle also has an ethical responsibility to ensure that students to not accrue more debt than they can conceivably pay off in a reasonable period of time. According to one NYU…
Auburn University Student Loan Code of Conduct. (2012). Auburn University. Retrieved:
Briody, Blaire. (2012)11 surprising student loan facts. MSN Money. Retrieved:
Sonic Healthcare's Marketing Tactics And Strategies
Sonic Healthcare is a medical facility that offers diagnostic services. These include Pathology and adiology. The company traces its roots back in 1992 when a young accountant, Michael Boyd bought into a small company that was at the verge of collapsing. He gradually increased his share ownership and later appointed Dr. Colin Goldschmidt, who is histo-pathologist to take charge of the company as the CEO. Sonic Healthcare took the pathological dimensions during this time. Ever since, the company has adapted several strategies that have propelled it to be one the leading facilities in the entire world. This paper seeks to explore some of the strategies used by this company.
Tactics / Strategies elating to Marketing Mix
Product / Service related
Sonic Healthcare has a clearly defined niche of operations as a pathological and radiological Centre. The healthcare facility opted to concentrate on a narrow…
Jobson's Year Book of Public Companies, (1999), Volume 71, New York, NY: Dun & Bradstreet Marketing Pty, p.872.
Business Review Weekly: BRW, (2000), Volume 22, Issues 26-29, Texas, TX: Business Review Weekly, p.31.
BRW., (2006), Volume 28, Issues 13-24, Texas, TX: Business Review Weekly, P.124
Positive prognosis for Sonic Healthcare, Retrieved from: http://www.austrade.gov.au/Positive-prognosis-for-Sonic-Healthcare
RFP in Healthcare Industry
Request for proposal in health care industry
Request for Proposal (RFP) in Healthcare Industry
In order to continually provide adequate Medicare to patients, a review of the electronic health record options reveal that the appropriate strategy is to procure Electronic Medical Record software. The primary objective of this RFP is to implore bids from system integrators or commercial off the shelf software merchants to devise, install, construct and implement integrated EMR software solution. The health care system, Future Correctional Center seeks to procure a software solution including licenses, hardware (as recommend by the bidder), execution, and maintenance and support services. In addition, the software configuration should present a core set of EMR attributes that meet particular requirements such as order entry, outcome review, nursing and physician documentation, registration.
Something significant to note; Future Correctional Center will not consider proposals from bidders offering software as a service…