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Both Emma and Evelyn embody the transformations occurring in American society that Doctorow depicts in his novel. Emma represents the radical transformation of women from objects of sexual lust to empowered individuals, while Evelyn represents the continued stereotyping of women by American culture. In her apartment, Emma symbolically removes Evelyn's restrictive clothing, garments that serve as symbols of women's oppression and of their being controlled by the desires of men. The debased appearance of Mother's Younger Brother from behind the curtains further emphasizes the twisted sexuality that stems from distorted views of women in society.
Forman might have selected to remove her from the script because Emma serves a largely symbolic role in Doctorow's novel. Nevertheless, Emma's presence in the film version of Ragtime is missed because she perfectly embodies the genuine political struggle for social justice in America.
Doctorow, E.L. Ragtime. New York: Penguin, 1997.
Doctorow, E.L. Ragtime. New York: Penguin, 1997.
Forman, Milos (dir.). Ragtime. 1981 Film based on the novel by E.L. Doctorow.
They are sympathetic to alker because of their fondness for Sarah, a young Black washerwoman who is Coalhouse's lover. The iconic ASP family is called only by their family identities, because unlike alker and the Jewish Tateh, they do not need to make a name for themselves -- their place in the world is secure. But even with the help of a prominent family, no one will take a stand against the firemen. alker becomes an angry, militant activist, feeling, perhaps rightly so, that in 20th century America, no one will treat a Black man with respect. However, the presence of the gentler but still strong Sarah underlines that not every Black American agrees with alker, as does the presence of prominent, historical Black Americans like Booker T. ashington.
The prejudices of the legal system and society make an ironic contrast between the fact that Black music gives the musical…
Ragtime." Score by Lynn Ahrens and Stephen Flaherty. Book by Terrence McNally.
She is just one symbol in the novel that represents how the American family would change during this time, and would never be the same. Impressionable young men like Younger Brother would take up radical causes, Father's would fail to move forward in their lives, and Mother's would begin to vocally fight against societal wrongs, including poverty and women's rights. America was in transition, the family was in transition, and even industry was in transition. It was a time of great expansion in the country, and only those who could grow with the changing society would be successful. Henry Ford knew how to change, and J.P. Morgan did not. That is why Ford succeeded, and Morgan died still looking for something more in his life. There are many symbols in this novel, but they all relate somehow to the great changes taking place in society, and many Americans' inability to…
Doctorow, E.L. Ragtime. New York: Plume, 1996.
individuals have struggle accepting change. It takes quite some time for one to adapt to this. For regions of a country or even whole nations, change may take decades or possibly centuries.
Edgar Lawrence Doctorow can certainly relate to this Born in 1931, Doctorow (aptly named after EL Poe) has lived through tumultuous changes and grew to see America converging from one of exclusive races and racism into one that styled itself the 'melting pot' where all races converged into an ideal America and, then, in turn, separated itself into distinctive races where Affirmative Action became the ruling policy of the day. No stranger to cultural changes (Baker, 11), Doctorow describes the impact of these changes in his book 'agtime' published in 1975. agtime (an irreverent tale of change and racism including various famous people in absurd situations) became one of the 100 best novels in American literature. (Harter, &…
Baker, John F. PW Interviews E.L. Doctorow in Conversations with E.L. Doctorow, ed. Christopher D. Morris, Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1999
Gussow, Mel. Novelist Syncopates History in Ragtime? In The New York Times, July 11th 1975
Doctorow, E.L. Ragtime, London: Picador, 1985
Blues and Ragtime: Paving the ay for Jazz
Blues and ragtime helped to pave the way for jazz, one of America's truly unique music genres. Originating in the South, these genres were inspired by the African backgrounds of slaves coupled with the oppression that freed men and women faced after their emancipation. New Orleans became a musical hotbed during the jazz era. It was also during the development and popularization of the genre that jazz music found its way to Chicago and California, as well as New York. It was through the development of blues and ragtime that jazz emerged and was made accessible to the public.
Blues, from which rock and roll grew out of, was an "indigenous creation of black slaves who adapted their African musical heritage to the American environment" (Szatmary 2). Through music, these slaves were able to retain a piece of their past while at…
Buddy Bolden. PBS. 3 July 2011, from .
Charles "Buddy" Bolden. 3 July 2011, from .
Edward "Kid" Ory. 3 July 2011, from .
Jelly Roll Morton. 3 July 2011, from .
The ultimate test of interchangeable parts in a factory system are if the ideas can 'make it' in the marketplace of commerce. The ultimate test of what is really beneficial to workers or society is subsumed to the need to make a profit.
7.It occurred to Father one day that.... he was a Negro (p.134)
Despite the fact that identity might seem like something one is given at birth, the ways that society perceives one's color, ethnicity, and race are not always the same as one's personal sense of self.
8. It was the second of the frightened...provoked from her innocence (p.158)
The sense of a woman's innocence of sexuality is highlighted in this quotation, as the woman in question proceeds from a sense of early purity to awareness.
9. The theatre shook on its foundation and.... from the proscenium arch. (p. 171)
The proscenium arch is the gold,…
Negro Spirituals and the Development of Blues, agtime and Jazz Music
The melodies and rhythms of Africa have found their way to America through many ways and the African-American spirituals are one of them. There is one religious folk song, originally sung by the African-American protestants of the southern United States is now known as the spirituals. These pieces of music originated during the period of 1800 to 1850. It was a result of the efforts of trying to convert the then slaves to Christianity. This is generally known as the second Great Awakening. The words contained in the spirituals are based on images present in the Bible, and specially the stories in the Old Testament regarding liberation from bondage. There are also stories from the New Testament regarding the life of Jesus and the visions from the Book of evelation. These were the songs that the slaves sang while…
Berendt, J.E. "The jazz book: New Orleans to jazz rock and beyond." London et al.: Paladin Grafton Books. 1986, 171-172
Berlin, Edward A. "Ragtime - A Musical and Cultural History" London, University of California Press, 1980, p.43-46
Epstein, Dena J. "Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War." Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977, p.22-24
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. Prentice Hall: New Jersey, 1997, p.44-47
However, the true journey Tateh makes in the book is one from poverty-stricken street artist to prosperous businessman.
oth these journeys change Tateh, and that is the point of his journey throughout the novel. Doctorow writes, "ut his new existence thrilled him. He whole personality had turned outward and he had become a voluble and energetic man full of the future" (Doctorow 217). Eventually, he marries "Mother" and they move to California and live prosperously.
Tateh's life has changed dramatically, and his family has changed too. His journey also shows that America was changing at the time, and that families and society were becoming more blended. There was still a line between white and black, Jew and Christian, but society was becoming more accepting, and that is really the final point about Tateh's journey, he was one of the first to help blend immigrant and upper class, as people around…
Doctorow, E.L. Ragtime. New York: Random House, 1975.
A Brief History of Cool Jazz
December 6, 2012, would have marked the ninety-second birthday of pianist Dave Brubeck. The nonagenarian was looking forward to performing at the Palace Theater near his home in aterbury, Connecticut. Sadly, Brubeck died of heart failure just one day shy of the celebratory concert. The concert went on as scheduled, but it was a memorial rather than a birthday party. It is what Brubeck would have wanted. Brubeck was one of the originators of a jazz style that became known as "cool jazz." He was a brilliant pianist who loved to experiment with rhythms and instrumentation in ensemble work. Brubeck never stopped innovating over his long career during which he composed symphonies, classical and religious music, ballets and film scores He valued musical integrity over commercial reward. "You never know what's going to work," he said. "You just go with what you…
Dave Brubeck Quartet. 1961. YouTube. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. .
Dryden, Ken. "Take five: The public and private lives of Paul Desmond." All About Jazz.
2 Feb. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=17894 >.
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
Pianist-virtuoso and composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869) was born in New Orleans and grew up in a neighborhood where Creole music was commonly played. He was heavily influenced by African -- Caribbean music throughout the rest of his life (Gelfert, 2001). Gottschalk was exposed to these musical influences coming from outside his house as well as from his grandmother and nurse who were both natives of Saint -- Dominigue, French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola and later known as Haiti (Starr, 1995). Gottschalk had six sisters and brothers, five of them were half -- siblings born to his father's mulatto mistress (Gelfert, 2001; Starr, 1995). As a young child Gottschalk displayed a talent for playing the piano and his parents hired a private tutor to teach them. You also started learning the violin at the age of six and gave his first public piano performance…
Gelfert, A. (2001). The Life and Times of Louis Moreau Gottschalk. Retrieved on December 5,
2013 from http://www.louismoreaugottschalk.com/Biography/biography.html .
Gottschalk, L.M. (2006). Notes of a Pianist. New York: Princeton University Press.
Loggins, V. (1958). Where the Word Ends: The Life of Louis Moreau Gottschalk. LSU Press.
"The traditional march became the dominant form, and the result was a new art form, the Classic rag" (Jasen p. 83).
However, if one were to analyze the Entertainer more closely, the tonal harmonies are those that one would hear in classical music, such as in Bach's sonatas, where the subcoordinate harmonies of contemporary music are in play and the first chord is in progression with a second and the second with a third. These cycles create the overall feeling, founding a tone, whereas the melody carries on the direct relationship with the listener. Joplin uses these techniques to create in this piece of music a feeling of overall coordination and wholeness. Yet he does so in a "ragtime" beat that brings the technique up-to-date. This piece of music is timeless because of this, and therefore "classical" (Dahlhaus, p. 25).
In listening to the Entertainer, one is reminded of a…
Dahlhaus, C. (1979). Richard Wagner's Music Dramas. Trans. Mary Whittall. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jasen, D.A. And Tichenor, T.J. (1978). Rags and Ragtime: A Musical History. New York, NY: Dover Publications, p. 83.
Stark, J. (1915). "Joplin." Ragtime Review Vol 1 (2), p. 23.
Tichenor, T. (1996). Total Joplin: The Complete Works of Scott Joplin (CD-ROM, collection of scores, sheet music covers, prints and multimedia review of Joplin's life) Sunhawk, 1996.
Jazz Consisted of:
• Folk and blues styles
• Emphasis on:
• simple harmony
• and improvisation (based on melody)
• Mostly ensemble playing with all instruments playing together except for solos
The special conditions that gave rise to its development in New Orleans were:
• Brass band marches were popular
• The red-light districts known as "Storyville" had clubs where dance bands played
• French quadrilles, ragtime and blues were popular there
• The Afro-Creole and vaudeville shows were influences there
• Tourists came to New Orleans and that is how the "jazz" style of the area spread
• Many Africa-Americans were hired to perform in brothels and bars: Buddy Bolden, Louis Armstrong and many others
With so many different ethnicities and cultures gathering together in one urban location, people latched onto their community traditions and introduced their folk music trends into American society. Irish,…
The music of United States changed significantly during the twentieth century, and each generation went on to develop its own music. These were all immensely popular, had strong rhythmic touch and were very different from the earlier forms which existed. These were used for dancing or just for the purpose of listening. When the twentieth century started it was the time for a variety called Ragtime. After the end of the First World War, Jazz had its origin and it influenced all other forms till it was affected by the stock market crash in 1929. This period was called the roaring twenties. Then it was time for a new form to emerge and this was in the music of the ig ands and led at different stages by Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, Jimmie Lunceford, Glen Gray and Chick Webb in the beginning. They were then followed by…
Weinstock, Len. "The Big Band Era, Or How America Came Out Of the Great Depression and Went On To Win World War II, 1991" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/bigbandessay.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Azinhais, Joao "The King of Jazz" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/whitemanarticle.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Weinstock, Len. "The origins of Jazz" Retrieved at http://www.redhotjazz.com/originsarticle.html. Accessed on 03/08/2004
Slave Songs of the United States" A. Simpson & Co. Retrieved at http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/allen/allen.html . Accessed on 03/08/2004
Jelly oll Morton was born Ferdinand Joseph La Menthe in 1890 and later became a pioneer of modern American jazz. Growing up in New Orleans, he played piano in saloons and brothels when he was still a child. As an adult, he formed a band, the ed Hot Peppers and also played on his own. Morton is renown for his ability to bring traditionally black musical styles to the mainstream and he was heavily influenced by his New Orleans upbringing. Morton is particularly remembered for a series of recordings he made in Chicago for CA Victor in the 1920s, and Morton is credited as being one of the first to mix individual improvisation with more structured group arrangements. Although he claimed to have invented jazz, this is not strictly true; instead, he is credited as the first jazz composer. After Morton, improvisation became a staple of jazz. His best-known tunes…
"Jelly Roll Morton." The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. Accessed 10 October 2004.
"Jelly Roll Morton." Accessed 10 October 2004. http://www.redhotjazz.com/jellyroll.html
"Jelly Roll Morton. World Book online. Accessed 10 October 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/morton.htm
Spike Wilner Trio at Smalls
This is a review of the Spike Wilner Trio's performance at Smalls on December 1st, 2015. Smalls is located in Greenwich Village and is well-known as being a good jazz club. It is small as the name of the club suggests and in the basement but it is a good place to go to hear music. Spike plays the piano, while the other two members of the trio play accompany: Tyler Mitchell plucking beats on the bass and Anthony Pinciotti helping Tyler to beat out the rhythm on the drums.
There was a lot of syncopation I noticed immediately coming from their music as it would start and stop and pick up in an unexpected direction. Spike is very good at playing ragtime on the piano, but of course he is good at playing anything and the tones and textures that come from the trio…
The National League was formed in 1876 and enabled spectators to observe touring athletes play the game. The first World Series was played between the National League and its rival, the American League, in 1903. The popularity of baseball allowed for the financing of large baseball fields such as Fenway Park, Shibe Park, and Wrigley Field (Sports and Leisure, 2011). This era also saw the rise of collegiate football, boxing, and basketball.
The rise of entertainment was meteoric in the Gilded Age. With Americans working less and having a higher expendable income, they were able to enjoy entertainments such as expositions, amusement parks, vaudeville shows, sports, and music. To this day, the influence of these innovations and pastimes can still be seen in modern entertainment outlets and continue to amuse audiences everywhere.
Jim Crow Laws:
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that were enacted between 1876 and 1965…
About Vaudeville. (1999). Retrieved from American Masters:
An Introduction to American Cultural Expression during the Gilded Age and Progressive
Era (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://bss.sfsu.edu/cherny/cultlexp/expo.htm
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…
Behlmer, Rudy. "Big Bands in the Movies." Turner Classic Movies. 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=199314
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2006.
History Link, "The Jazz Singer, the First Successful Feature Film with Sound, Debuts in Seattle at the Blue Mouse on December 30, 1927." The Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2485
Schoenherr, Steven E. "Recording Technology History." San Diego University. 2005. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/notes.html#origins
Earliest Origins of Jazz
Jazz has several origins and influences that make it what it is today. The earliest origins of jazz can be traced back to the Congo where the slave trade was based. Here the Congo natives had a tradition of music that consisted of a single line of melody and had a pattern of the call-and-response that is typical of jazz today. The rhythms found in this native music also consisted of a structure that was a cross-beat. This cross-rhythm drove the sub-Saharan styles of music in Africa and was related to the speech patterns of the Africans. The relationship between the beats of the music is what made it complex, for one could not be separated from the other, as they participated in a kind of dialogue, so to speak. This supports the call-and-repeat scheme of the overall structure of this early influence on the development…
Cooke, Mervyn. Jazz. UK: Thames and Hudson, 1999. Print.
Kubik, Gerhard. Africa and the Blues. MI: University of Mississippi Press, 1999. Print.
Palmer, Robert. Deep Blues. NY: Penguin, 1981. Print.
JAZZ: KANSAS CITY AFTER-HOURS CLUS IN THE 1930S & THEIR CONTRIUTION TO JAZZ
The objective of this work is to examine the question of what would have happened to jazz if there had been a crackdown on illegal "after hour" clubs in Kansas City in the 1930s? Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study.
In the 1930s, while the rest of the United States and its cities were in the grips of The Depression, Kansas City was churning out jazz all night long. Kansas City was for all intents and purposes under the control of a local politician/mob boss/entrepreneur in the form of Jim Pendergrast who upon dying passed his power to his brother who was not as honest or ethical as Jim but who sustained an economic boom in Kansas City right in the middle of The Depression.
Where Did Jazz Get…
Pearson, Nathan W. (1994) Going to Kansas City. University of Illinois Press 1994.
Erenberg, Lewis A. (1999) Swingin' the Dream: Big Band Jazz and the Rebirth of American Culture. University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Ogren, Kathy J. (1992) The Jazz Revolution: Twenties America and the Meaning of Jazz. Oxford University Press U.S., 1992
Driggs, Frank and Haddix, Chuck (2005) Kansas City jazz: from ragtime to bebop-- a history. Oxford University Press U.S., 2005
Gershwin was influenced by French composers of the early twentieth century. The orchestrations in Gershwin's symphonic works frequently seem comparable to those of avel; similarly, avel's two piano concertos demonstrate an influence of Gershwin. Gershwin asked to learn with avel. Gershwin's own Concerto in F. was condemned for being connected to the work of Claude Debussy, more so than to the probable jazz style. The association did not discourage Gershwin from enduring to explore French styles. The title of an American in Paris replicates the very voyage that he had intentionally taken as a composer (Biography, 2010).
Aside from the French influence, Gershwin was fascinated by the works of Alban Berg, Dmitri Shostakovich, Igor Stravinsky, Darius Milhaud, and Arnold Schoenberg. He also asked Schoenberg for composition teachings, but Schoenberg refused. ussian Joseph Schillinger's persuasion as Gershwin's teacher of composition (1932 -- 1936) was considerable in providing him with a technique…
A Complete Guide to George and Ira. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2011, from Web site:
Biography. (2010). Retrieved February 1, 2011, from Web site:
Allen is saying that all of the wonders of technology can never replace tow people connecting and trusting each other. I completely agree with these concepts and given Mr. Allen's wit and comedic sense, am thankful it was made. Finally any film made during a specific period of time can't help but reflect the values of society at the time. The open discussions about sexuality and sex make light of society's open and free attitudes about these areas of the human experience in 1973.
Why Sleeper is a Classic
Sleeper will always be a classic because it combines Mr. Allen's slapstick and vaudevillian comedic approaches while integrating his favorite music, which is jazz and ragtime. In addition the triumph of the human spirit and human emotions, as chaotic and mercurial as they can be, will always be superior to technology. The use of technology as a means to coerce and…
George O'Har. "Technology and Its Discontents " Technology and Culture 45.2 (2004): 479-485.
This was the beginning of America's Golden Age of Musicals and thus it is important to understand what actually went into making a great musical. This was also a time when the Broadway show was assuming a standard format, one in which we still see to this day: two acts and several scenes. The first act being the key. The major songs are performed in the first act and then they would be later reprised, sometimes in both the first and the second acts. The show would open with a fast song, usually a dance number, employing all the chorus and introducing the principals into the play (2003, 84). The first love song would have to come soon enough so that it can be repeated in the first act. In Gershwin's Lady, Be Good!, the first love song was "So Am I."
The year 1926 was a big year for…
Green, S. (1980). Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. De Capo Press.
Hyland, W.G. (2003). George Gershwin: a new biography. Praeger.
Jablonski, E. (1998). Gershwin. De Capo Press.
Pollack, H. (2007). George Gershwin: his life and work. University of California Press; 1st edition.
Roxie was always infatuated by fame, particularly the case of Velma Kelly, a woman on the same cellblock as herself, who is accused of double murder of her sister and lover (who were cheating on her).
he musical suggests that sexual indiscretions are a part of life, not simply something produced by the sexual revolution of the 1970s. Sexual scheming is seen as human nature. It offers a very jaded perspective of the American justice system, which can be easily manipulated by media-savvy lawyers. In one musical scene, the lawyer Bobby Flynn manipulates Roxie like a puppet, speaking her words for her during a 'press conference' ragtime dance which emphasizes that "We Both Reached for the Gun" (Roxie's defense). Although the play is set during the gangster era, it is as much a commentary upon the mid-70s, a decade in which the nation had endured the end of the failed…
The musical suggests that sexual indiscretions are a part of life, not simply something produced by the sexual revolution of the 1970s. Sexual scheming is seen as human nature. It offers a very jaded perspective of the American justice system, which can be easily manipulated by media-savvy lawyers. In one musical scene, the lawyer Bobby Flynn manipulates Roxie like a puppet, speaking her words for her during a 'press conference' ragtime dance which emphasizes that "We Both Reached for the Gun" (Roxie's defense). Although the play is set during the gangster era, it is as much a commentary upon the mid-70s, a decade in which the nation had endured the end of the failed Vietnam War and Watergate. The play ends with Roxie's acquittal and the rise to stardom of Velma and Roxie, based upon their beauty and murderousness. The one woman who does not have a good attorney on their cellblock meets her untimely demise, even though she is the only person who seems innocent of her accused crime.
If Chicago was a ground-breaking commercial failure (although its later revivals have been extremely successful), Grease (1971) was a nostalgic success, a backward-looking musical that portrayed a simpler, pre-sexual revolution era when a 'bad girl' like Rizzo was called names for sleeping with boys and smoking (gasp) cigarettes. Grease is nostalgic as Happy Days for a past American glory age, although it contains certain 'winking' at the audience, regarding its sexual innuendo. And the climax of the musical portrays good girl Sandy going 'bad' in black leather for her beloved object of desire, Danny. The musical takes place at Rydell High School, and the teens have no other cares in the world than doing their hair, polishing their cars, and engaging in gossip over their romantic lives.
The focus in Grease tends to be more on the music than the spoken word and the 'book' in terms of advancing the plot, as is the case in Company and Chicago. But Grease's music is lively and uncomplicated and the musical's dancing, while energetic, harkens back to an earlier era of sock hops and doo-wops. Of these three musicals, it is Chicago that strikes the modern listener as the most innovative -- its collapsing of the third wall between audience and actors, its open use of characters playing 'personas' rather than inhabiting traditionally-rounded characters, and its utter amorality makes it seem more like a musical of the 21st century than the 20th.
This section was made up mainly of alto and tenor saxophones, but sometimes also included baritones as well.
1935 saw the creation of the Benny Goodman Trio, yet another development in the evolution of Goodman's style. The trio was made up of legendary jazz musicians; Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa who he had played with in his radio days, with Goodman leading and composing. In this era, Goodman followed a much more mature style, as seen in After You're Gone, (Groove Music, 2008). In these recordings, he explored a complete range of the clarinet and was prone to play in "blue thirds," (Groove Music, 2008). In 1936, the trio became a quartet with the addition of Lionel Hampton on the vibraphone.
One night in 1938, Goodman got the chance of a lifetime, and has been thereafter accredited with bringing swing music into national recognition. He and his band performed at Carnegie…
De Toledano, Ralph. "The Night Swing was Born." Insight on the News. Vol. 13. Feb.,
Gridley, Mark. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2005.
Groove Music. "Benny Goodman." Associated with PBS' Jazz a Film by Ken Burns:
Selected Artist Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 3/31/08 at http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_goodman_benny.htm
My appearance was always good and my ability to play on the piano, especially ragtime, which was then at the height of its vogue, made me a welcome guest."(Johnson, 139) Nevertheless, this only increases his feeling that he does not belong to his own race, and his sense that everything is a bitter irony. As the hero passes as a white man, he is forced many times to listen to unjust commentaries that are made against the black race and he realizes that he himself is ironically a disproof of these unfavorable remarks and an evidence that blackness does not render a man 'unfit': "The anomaly of my social position often appealed strongly to my sense of humor. I frequently smiled inwardly at some remark not altogether complimentary to people of color; and more than once I felt like declaiming, 'I am a colored man. Do I not disprove the…
Fitzgerald, Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Modern Library, 1934.
Johnson, James Weldon. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1927.
Wald, Gayle. Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in Twentieth- Century U.S. Literature and Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.
It wasn't until the 1920s and '30s that their blue-collar counterparts began to get paid vacations as well.
Americans in the late 20th century "worked more days per year than workers in other prosperous nations, such as those in Europe, yet on average, had less vacation time (Sabga, 2001)." Americans averaged two to three weeks off a year, in sharp contrast to many European nations which guaranteed up to six weeks a year. This is due to the fact "unlike in other countries, particularly Europe, vacations in the United States are not guaranteed by the government (Sabga, 2001)."
oles of Women
Women have played important roles in science and technology, however many times they have faced "social, economic, and intellectual obstacles (Kohlstedt, 2004)." In the early 20th century, the United States benefited from the efforts of "women of distinction like Anna
Botsford Comstock and Ellen Swallow ichards, while in Europe…
Asmar, Marwan. Dr. (31 December, 1999). "The makers of the 20th century." The Star (Jordan,
Cowen, Tyler. (January, 2000). "Who Says the Arts Are Dying?" USA Today (Magazine). (accessed 28 November, 2004). www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1272/2656_128/58576593/p1/article.jh).
Kohlstedt, Sally Gregory. (22 March, 2004). "Sustaining gains: reflections on women in science and technology in 20th-century United States." NWSA Journal.
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…
McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.
1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
Pop is tomorrow's Classical"- Paul McCartney. Discuss this contention within the context of rock/classical music collaborations since the early 1950s.
Classical Rock and Popular Prophecy
To the average music-listener, musical genres are easily divided into homogenous groupings without any danger of overlapping one another. Certainly, there are rare occurrences of "cross-over" hits on the radio that find airplay on both Adult Contemporary and Country stations, or those releases which find an audience among both Easy Listening and Rock fans. Another seemingly strange occurrence that may be observed by the slightly more alert music consumer is that time shifts musical pieces from one genre to another, and yesterday's Alternative Rock is today's Easy Listening, yet even this phenomenon is considered an anomaly of the music industry. A simplicity is desired among musical elitists that preserves some musical forms as valid, labeling others as mere fads. However, the deep impact of musical…
"Classical Music." Heart & Soul. World Book. 2004. http://www2.worldbook.com/features/aamusic/html/classical.htm
Duxbury, Janell R. "The Nexus of Classical and Rock." Progression, no. 39, p70-74. Summer, 2001. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/8660/article.html
Duxbury, Janell R. Rockin' the Classics and Classicizin' the Rock: A Selectively Annotated Discography. Greenwood Press, 1991.
Fissinger, Laura. "Jim Steinman: To 'Hell' & Back." BMI MusicWorld. Spring 1994. http://jimsteinman.com/bmi.htm
, in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He spearheaded the Aug., 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize." (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2003)
However, King's leadership in the civil-rights movement was challenged in the mid-1960s as others such as Malcolm X grew more militant. Indeed, his life paralleled the life of his hero Mahatma Gandhi. The originator of the nonviolent protest, Gandhi too took criticism as more militant colleagues pushed against non-violence in his later years.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s interests, however, broadened from civil rights to subsume criticism of the Vietnam War and a deeper concern over poverty. His plans for a Poor People's March to Washington were interrupted (1968) for a trip to Memphis, Tenn., in support of striking sanitation workers. On Apr. 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of…
Adams, Russell. (1963) Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. (1964) What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson.
Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968.
African-American Desk Reference. (2005). Thomas W. Burton. New York: Schaumberg.
Most large cities have a symphony orchestra, which may perform a dozen times during a season. Jazz and the blues, however, are usually available most of the time in small venues like bars and clubs, and often during the year at large festivals, such as the Monterey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California. Jazz is gaining in popularity on the radio too, and most larger cities have at least one jazz station, while they might not have a classical station. Classical music is accessible in a number of areas, but jazz and the blues are accessible in many more, and that is why today's listener has a wide choice of options when looking for live jazz and blues concerts.
Any trained musician knows all musical genres have similarities. They all use a distinct language of notes and rhythms, and they all use meter, tempo, and harmony. In this, jazz and blues…
Gioia, Ted. "The History of Jazz." WashingtonPost.com. 1997. 18 July 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/historyofjazz.htm
Knight, Richard. "All That JAZZ." Geographical Oct. 2001: 14.
Porter, Eric. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African-American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Shepard, T. Brooks. "Music Notes Earworthy." American Visions Oct. 1999: 48.
Besides other awards, he was given a special Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress in 1986-87. Copland left an endowment from his estate to a Fund for Composers, which gives $600,000/annum to promote new compositions and performances (Congressional Gold Medial eceipients; Trudeau; Pollack, 548; ockwell).
Copland was an active composer of numerous genres from 1925 to the mid-1960s. His works expressed a new semblance of Americana so easily identifiable that even when performed by foreign orchestras there is a sense of the pioneer days, of American patriotism, and even retelling of American mythology. A few seminal examples of this are:
Fanfare for the Common Man was written in 1942 for the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and was inspired by a speech by Vice-President Henry Wallace called the era the "Centruy of the Common Man." The piece was part of a program supoprting the American entry into World…
"Congressional Gold Medial Receipients." 23 September 1986. artandhistory.house.gov. .
Copland, a. Aaron Copland: Selected Writings: 1923-1972. Ed. R. Kostelanetz. New York: Routledge, 2004.
-- . "Day and Night: Aaron Copland." March 1975. Youtube.com. .
-- . "Fanfare for the Common Man." June 2001. YouTube. .
Miles Davis and Modern Jazz
In every artistic medium there are innovators who push innovation to the edge -- who change the paradigm of their art, and who become iconic figures within their world. Classical music had innovators in every generation -- Stravinsky's ite of Spring, Leonard Bernstein, and more. Jazz, too, evolved from a combination of folk and tribal styles through different eras (Dixie, Be Bop, etc.) into what now is really a true 20th century musical phenomenon.
The origins of Jazz have been much discussed -- emerging out of the African slave culture with a musical synergy of tribal (rhythm, scales, syncopation, and improvisation) and the European musical tradition of harmony, instrumentation and chromaticism. One famous musician noted, though, that jazz was uniquely American and that, "No America, no jazz. I've seen people try to connect it to other countries, for instance to Africa, but it doesn't have…
Remembering Miles. (1991, November 12). Retrieved March 2013, from The Rolling Stone Archieves: http:/www.rollingstone.com/Desktop?s=1991111428#/19911114/44
Miles Davis. (2006, June). Retrieved March 2013, from Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Indusction: http://www.rockhall.com/inductee/miles-davis
House Resolution 894 Honoring the 50th Anniversary of "Kind of Blue" and Reffirming Jazz as a National Treasure. (2009, December 15). Retrieved March 2013, from clerk.house.gov: http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll971.xml
Cook, M., et al. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Jazz. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
George Gershwin is undoubtedly one of America's most famous composers because of his originality and his ability to create new forms of music from existing genres. A gifted composer and songwriter, Gershwin adapted many new ideas that can be seen in such compositions as Rhapsody in Blue, Porgy and Bess, and An American in Paris. This paper will examine Gershwin's life and how his works challenged many of the conventional definitions in the musical community.
A child of Jewish emigrants, Gershwin grew up in the Lower East Side of New York. He was drawn to music as a young boy and began playing a piano his family bought and intended for his brother to play. He shocked his family when he played the piano by imitating the movement of the keys on a player piano. ith practice, his talent exceeded that of his contemporaries. In fact, many that knew Gershwin…
Crawford, Richard. George Gershwin. New Grove Dictionary of Music. 2003. Grove Music Database. Site Accessed March 16, 3004.
Davidson, James, et al. Nation of Nations. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1990.
Flatow, Sheryl. "The Memory of all That." Biography. September 1998. Ebsco Database. Site Accessed March 16, 3004. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=999143&db=aph
Gardner Elysa. "We loves you, 'Porgy'." USA Today. March 2002. Ebsco Database. Site Accessed March 17, 3004. http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=J0E091499300602&db=aph
The Origins of Blues Music
The Blues is a type of music that comes from the Unites States of America. The history of this type of music is closely related to matters of labor, politics, economics, and ethnicity. The Blues is a distinct genre of music and within it there are other subcategories of blues music. Blues did not originate is a vacuum, with respect to musical influences and historical ties. Blues is a form of music that is connected to other musical forms of the past, the present, and the future. There are many precise details about the origins of the blues that are still unknown at this time. There is no specific year of establishment or creation of the blues. There are direct traces or connections to the blues to cultures and musical traditions in Africa, as well as to the musical traditions, predominantly coming from…
Oakley, Giles. The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues. First Da Capo Press, London. 1976, 1997. Print.
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Duke Ellington: "Symphony in Black"
Symphony in Black, A Rhapsody of Black Life" is Duke Ellington's second motion picture. The film was directed by Fred aller at Paramount Pictures and then was released during the mid-1930s. One of the most thought-provoking features of this short film is the lack of stereotypical, racist representations of African-Americans which deface earliest jazz movies. This motion picture showed Ellington as composer that was on the same level as other famous composer of "Rhapsody in Blue." In the film, Duke Ellington and his Orchestra are depicted as skilled, and a dignified performer. ith that said, this essay will discuss how Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, or Long Black Song reflect both the version of history that Ellington describes, and the idea of history that Conn sees as so essential to 1930s American culture.
Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, reflect…
Schuller, Gunther. The Swing Era. New York:: Oxford University Press, 1989. p.94.
Springer, Mike. Duke Ellington's Symphony in Black, Starring a 19-Year-old Billie Holiday. 9 January 2015. http://www.openculture.com/2013/05/duke_ellingtons_isymphony_in_blacki_starring_a_19-year-old_billie_holiday.html . 13 March 2016.
Symphony in Black. Dir. Fred Walker. 1935. Paramount.
The Jazz Age and Gatsby
F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby is the great novel of the Lawless Decade—the Roaring Twenties or the Jazz Age, as it was otherwise known. It was a time of easy credit and flowing cash. It was a time of Prohibition, when alcohol had been outlawed and people looking for a good time had to go underground to the speakeasies, where they drank their liquor in hiding. To be human meant to be a criminal, and thus everyone who wanted to have a drink became a scofflaw. The 1920s was the decade of the scofflaw, the decade of excess and the decade of the nouveau riche—the ones who, like Jay Gatsby, made their millions from bootlegging or from the stock market or from both. Nothing captured the essence of the post-war 1920s like jazz, which was a new kind of music in America—a music that…
Today many mainstream popular artists have Rhythm and Blues influences. In addition some artists fluctuate between signing R&B and pop music. Although there are often distinctions made between the two genres R&B is definitely a type of popular music that has been greatly influenced by all of the above Genres.
Rap music or hip hop is also a prime example of the influence of African-American Music on popular music. Rap music actually comes from the ancient art form of poetry. The original intent for rap was to tell a story -- provide a narrative. ithin the context of African-American folk tradition storytelling is extremely important -- the griot is important. Griots are the keepers of the oral traditions -- the storytellers. According to Powell (1991) "To the accompaniment of drums or other percussive instruments, griots entertain and educate their audiences by reciting tribal history and current events. Their performances are…
Powell, CT. (1991) Rap Music: An Education with a Beat from the Street
The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 60, No. 3,
Progler., J.A.(1995) Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm
Section Ethnomusicology, Vol. 39, No. 1,, pp. 21-54
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui