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Brazilian ain Forest. There are four references used for this paper.
The world is filled with a variety of climates, each with its own type of habitants. It is interesting to examine the Brazilian ain Forest and determine the life style and sustainability of the rare and exotic animals that live there.
Understanding the ain Forest
Brazil is the home to almost half of the Amazon basin. The "river and forest system covers 2.7 million sq. miles and stretches into eight countries besides Brazil, including Venezuela to the north, Peru to the west and Bolivia to the south. The river itself, fed by more than 1,000 tributaries, meanders for 4,000 miles and every hour the Amazon delivers an average of 170 billion gallons of water to the Atlantic (Linden,1989)."
Home to Thousands of Species
The Brazilian ain Forest sustains so many species of life forms that biologists have difficulties in…… [Read More]
Global warming, natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes, and our quality of resources like air and water are all controversial topics today. Many people say that the benefits of industry and exploration outweigh the environmental costs, like fewer rain forests or the extinction of species. Others say that these environmental resources ought to be conserved, even if it means scaling back industrial operations like mining, logging, or production. And although the many individuals who illegally destroy parts of protected regions are fined or punished otherwise, there are hundreds, at least, who are never caught (Mirabella 1997).
The Amazon rain forest is one of these areas which is so debated; there are definite, tangible profits to be made through its deforestation and the cultivation of industrial pursuits; however, there are also marked costs in destroying or harming this natural resource. This paper will briefly examine a few of the harmful…… [Read More]
Certain traits must be present for any attempt at a shift in use of resources to work. First, the new use must hold the potential for greater income than what the people were doing. There must be some incentive for them to learn new skills
First, such attempts must promise better returns than the alternative practice and second, they need to be evaluated for how they fit into the set of activities pursued by households (arnham & Coomes, 1997).
Other organizations, such as the Foundation Cordillera Tropical of Ecuador, which was founded by a large landowner, have bought up large tracts of forest in order to protect the area's biodiversity.
The FCT hopes to conserve the region's biodiversity and forests by acquiring and protecting large sections of forest. This organization works to persuade the local people not to log these protected forests (Jokisch & Lair, 2002).
The fact that there…… [Read More]
Tropical ainforest Depletion
Tropical rainforests are arguably the most precious natural resource on our Earth and constitute the world's most diverse biological eco-system. They are the home to 70% of the world's plants and animals, containing more than 13 million species (oper, 1999-"Importance of ... "); provide high quality wood for a number of every-day and industrial uses such as for furniture, shipbuilding, and paper; are a repository of almost one-fourth of the existing medicinal drugs, and a potential source for numerous as yet undiscovered life-saving drugs. More importantly, rainforests constitute a critical life-support system for the Earth. They cycle essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, regulate temperature and precipitation, act as large reservoirs of water, protect watersheds from soil erosion, and harbor pollinators for agricultural crops. Unfortunately, rainforests are being destroyed at an alarming and unsustainable rate and may even disappear completely…… [Read More]
Destruction of ainforests by Man
The rainforest is one of several types of forest found throughout the tropics, and each type has different characteristics. The closed forests account for about half of the total area of tropical forest (around 62 per cent of the natural tropical forest) and comprise two types of continuous tree cover (Table 1.1). Eleven-twelfths of the closed forests, by area, are tropical moist forests and the rest are deciduous and semi-deciduous forests of various types. About two-thirds of the moist forests are tropical rainforests, composed of evergreen broadleaved trees which flourish in the high temperature and humidity of the low latitudes. The tropical moist deciduous forests (or monsoon forests) grow on the fringes of the tropical rainforests, and lose their leaves in the dry season (Ehrlich & Ehrlich, 2002).
Thesis Statement: ainforests can never be replaced once we have lost them.
Table 1.1 Distribution…… [Read More]
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…… [Read More]
..for them it is a good world" (Turnbull 14). And although small in stature, Turnbull writes, they are able to kill elephants single-handed with only a short handled spear and blend so well with the forest foliage that one could pass right by without noticing them.
Turnbull relates the BaMbuti customs, such as marriage rites, rituals and celebrations.
His accounts of these people rings a magically encounter. Turnbull is so taken by the forest people that he writes in poetic prose rather than anthropological language filled with statistics and dry observations. By detailing observations in such colorful style and with such humor, he brings these remote people to life for the reader.
It is difficult to read this book and not become as enchanted by the forest people as Turnbull was. They are truly charming and wondrous at the same time. And although it was perhaps not his intention, Turnbull…… [Read More]
Global warming has become a hot topic since last few decades and there have been continuous efforts in understanding its causes and drastic consequences over the environment. It is a simple term that relates to the increase in the temperature of the earth which affects the entire world equally. Global warming has advanced dramatically with the increase in the use of the hydrocarbons, excess burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. One of the major contributors in global warming is the rising amount of carbon dioxide gas in the environment, which is released by burning of fossil fuels and gets trapped inside the environment, causing it to get hotter day by day. To cut down the ratio of carbon dioxide as compare to oxygen gas, it is important that the naturally occurring forests must be conserved and there should be afforestation instead of de-forestation. Several other severe…… [Read More]
The natural factors that influence infiltration rate include soil characteristics, plant and animals, and topography. Man can modify these features to highly influence runoff. For instance, areas with grass/vegetation will reduce runoff by reducing speed of water on surface hence increasing percolation chances. On the other hand, bare lands will offer less resistance to water hence faster runoffs. In the event that rainfall produces much water to the land surface than it can be absorbed by the soil, the excess water will be left on the surface to flow down slopes as runoff. et areas with higher vegetation covers can have higher water tables that lead to faster saturations hence runoff.
On soil characteristics, finer soils will reduce infiltration and increase runoff and vice versa. Still, the size of rain drops can help compact soil reducing runoff. Concerning plant cover, they increase infiltration rates in that they slow the pace…… [Read More]
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…… [Read More]
evolution and natural selection is the addition of information. The process of evolution requires massive amounts of new information be added to an existing gene pool. What most people refer to as evolution is, in fact, natural selection. Natural selection occurs when genes that already exist in an animals' DNA, or sometimes on defective genes that have lost information (called mutation) are somehow altered. Neither process adds information to the gene pool so cannot be considered to be evolution. The evolutionary process is a slow and meticulous one and is preceded by numerous incidents of natural selection. True evolution is truly rare and takes place over the span of many years. Natural selection occurs far more frequently and can occur in the space of several generations.
Natural field experiments are efforts by the scientific community to apply the scientific method to real life situations. This process allows scientists to test…… [Read More]
Life is ephemeral in nature. In life, occurrences, situations, and circumstances are constantly changing. It is through these changing circumstances that opportunities arise. These opportunities provide life with excitement and wonder. To better enjoy life, a plan of activities is often needed to ensure that an individual doesn't become entrapped by the natural progressions of life. Negative aspects such as complacency, boredom, or animosity towards others can quickly turn life into a struggle. To avoid and alleviate many of these pitfalls, the creation of a personal bucket list is helpful. My list for instance, includes many aspects in which I am personally passionate about. This list, although incomplete, will provide ample excitement and reprieve from the daily rigors of life. Below are my bucket list and the reasoning behind each activity.
Travel to all seven continents volunteer / help out and make a difference.
The world is a…… [Read More]
Chile, officially known as epublic of Chile, is a South American country with Peru, Bolivia Argentina as its neighboring countries. The Pacific Ocean borders it on the west and south. Santiago is both its capital and the largest city. The country is primarily urban as 1/3 of the total population inhabits the areas in and around Santiago and Vina Del Mar. Almost ninety percent of the Chileans are oman Catholics whereas Spanish is the official language of the country ("Chile," 2012). This country in South America has a landscape filled with "dry deserts, snow-capped mountains, sandy beaches, and thick temperate rain forests" (au, 2007).
The climate in the country is as varied as its natural features. Aside from the apparently intense climatic conditions in some parts, the country enjoys a comfy and moderate climate ("Chile").
The southern part of the Chilean region was controlled by the Araucanians long before…… [Read More]
Gould's and Mayr's biological species concept, as presented by Stamos (2008). According to these scientists and to this species concept, two populations are termed as belonging to the same species if they are capable of interbreeding.
So, as Stamos further exemplifies, the chimpanzees form a single species, because they are capable of interbreeding, they are producing offspring. Human beings and chimpanzees are not capable of producing offspring together, so they belong to two different species. Furthermore, two races of dogs belong to the same species: they are capable of interbreeding and the resulting dog is also fertile. However, a horse and a donkey belong to different species: while they are able to interbreed, their resulting offspring is not itself fertile.
To sum up, my understand is that humans belong to the same species because of reproductive compatibility. At the same time, the human species is formed of different races, whereby…… [Read More]
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…… [Read More]
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…… [Read More]
People of the Rain Forest
This is a paper that talks about the Jivaro people of the South American rain forest. There are four references used in this paper.
There are many different tribes living throughout the world today. It is interesting to look at some of the people living in the rapidly disappearing rain forests of South America.
There is a tribe of people who live in the South American country of Ecuador known as the Jivaro. These people, who reside north of the Maran n River and east of the Andes, are known for "farming, hunting, fishing, and weaving (Jivaro, 2002)."
The Region and Language
The Jivaros live mainly in the "Morona-Santiage, Zamora Chinchipe, and Pastaza provinces near the Peruvian border (eil, 1991)." This tribe of approximately seventy-five groups reject all outsiders with their warlike tendencies (eil, 1991).
This region has limited modern means of…… [Read More]
Toulmin Model argument in response to one of the following prompts:
• What specific action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
Active in 15 countries, "Target Earth" is a group of individuals, churches, college fellowship and various ministries that are Christian protectors for everything that God created. The group feeds the hungry, saves endangered animals, rebuilds forests, and serves as active voice for environmental concerns. The groups mission is "erving the Earth, erving the Poor," which defines their connection of Christianity to environmentalism as they see it (Target Earth.com).
The news media is full of warnings that deal with environmental issues of one kind or the other be it global warming, endangered species, extinction of the rain forest, pollution, nuclear accidents, and so forth. The Christian community seems to apply less attention to these issues than they do to others. It may be because we…… [Read More]
Tale of a Shaman's Apprentice by Mark J. Plotkin, "chief ethno-botanist for Conservation International" (Plotkin: Back cover). The orks Cited one source in MLA format.
Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice
ith the augmenting technological development at a rapid pace, today life offers no guarantees but innumerable luxuries. However, the pruning of trees and cutting down priceless forests and vegetation that can provide evidence of life on earth has crippled the economy, with every sketching moment millions of people all over the world suffering from fatal diseases. Isn't it better to prevent the causes then to spend billions of dollars every year in conducting researches for the cure and possible treatments? As the adage goes: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! Hence, to search for cure of fatal diseases, that have transformed this world of happiness into one of suffering and to look for preventive measures, Poltkin,…… [Read More]
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…… [Read More]
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).
Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).
Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.
Asner,…… [Read More]
However, animals or human intervention are often needed to achieve seed dispersal over long distances (Czarnecka, 2005). Hurricanes are also responsible for transport of seeds over long distances (Czarnecka, 2005).
Grasslands were found to consist of a mosaic pattern where dense clusters of a single plant form. This suggests that seed rain around the plant is the primary seed dispersal process at work in these areas (Czarnecka, 2005). Wind may help to spread species to new patches, but the primary seed dispersal mechanism would be likely to be seeds falling to the ground. Compared to brush lands, the dominant species were within the Carex family. The dominant species in the brush lands was Origanum vulgare. Seed dispersal by anemochore dominated in the grasslands, with nearly 43% of the plants using this methods exclusively. Among brush land plants, dispersal by plants that depended on animals for dispersal, either by eating the…… [Read More]
Bosch Company and Social Media
The Bosch Company appears to have a strong and comprehensive presence within the world of social media. This is crucial as social media is a truly powerful and invasive tool that can be used to build relationships with new customers and strengthen already existing relationships with old customers. "Building a social strategy takes time and careful attention, but the point is: you need one. Many of my friends don't watch TV, don't read magazines or newspapers, and get most of their news from Twitter and Facebook. So where will brands have the best chance of engaging my friends? On Twitter and Facebook. Social media builds brand awareness in ways that no other form of media can and reaches customers who would be otherwise unreachable" (Barbara, 2012). The Bosch Company appears to have an acute understanding of this and has worked hard to create a truly…… [Read More]
The women sustainably harvest items from the forest, and how produce essential oils, lotions, and soaps from the ingredients they harvest. Because they only harvest ingredients instead of using the entire plant, the forest lives on, while they still are earning an income from the sales of their products.
Many experts have ideas about how to improve on sustainable development in the region. Another expert says, "For instance, improving the monitoring of species loss reduces ignorance about the ecological system and may lead to patents for medicinal plants. The latter enables synergies that integrate indigenous knowledge into management/conservation" (eyer). Convincing companies to invest in these types of development have often fallen on deaf ears because of costs. Many very large global corporations have large operations in the rainforest, such as Mitsubishi and Georgia Pacific, and because the government essentially gives them free reign with little regulation, they exploit the rainforest…… [Read More]
Sing with the Pigs is Human
According to the dictionary, 'anthropology' is the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings. The Kaulong peoples of Papua New Guinea devote their lives to moving from the lowest status to political "big men" and "big women," by displaying their accumulation of knowledge at all-night singing competitions ending in pig sacrifice and feasting. In the course of her fieldwork with the Kaulong, who live on the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea, Jane Goodale discovered and catalogued that everything of importance to them - every event, relationship, and transaction - was rooted in their constant quest for recognition as human beings. Goodale takes considerable time to determine both the Kaulong definition of 'human' and catalogue the tribal rituals and relationships that build into the Kaulong definition.
Her book is the result of her field work, living with…… [Read More]
finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…… [Read More]
A few of the most notable include: the vast disparities between rich / poor in the region, mining, logging and developing tourism. These various elements are important, because they are highlighting the underlying problems that will more than likely face the reserve in the future. Where, these interests will try to gain even more amounts of influence, despite the fact that the park is a protected through a host of different regulations. Some the recent regulations / actions that have been taken are: it has been included as a national park, the Projected Area Management Code has been adopted and there is a National Action Plan (to guide the future use of the park). At the same time, various efforts have been introduced to address the underlying challenges facing the park in the future to include: the expansion of the borders of the preserve, increased levels of staffing / enforcement…… [Read More]
A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.
Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…… [Read More]
There has been an ongoing process for the integration and co-operation of the countries in South America for quite sometime, but the individual countries have their own structures and problems. This leads to a situation where not much progress seems to be made.
The first attempt at the regional development of Latin America through the cooperation of the member states was through the Latin American Free Trade Association, set up in 1960. On 12 August 1980, the foreign ministers of the 11 member countries of the Latin American Free Trade Association signed an agreement in Montevideo, Capital of Uruguay. This announced the establishment of the Association for the Latin American Integration. The treaty officially entered into force on 18 March 1981. On the same day, the Latin American Free Trade Association stopped its activities.
The association is an inter-governmental integration organization for the Latin American region. It…… [Read More]
4. Social and Political Life
There is a general paucity of information about the actual societal and political structure of the Olmec. While there is not much evidence to build a comprehensive picture of the daily and social life of these people, there is enough available data from certain archeological sites to provide some reasonable speculations.
One of the assumptions that is derived from the excavation of sites at San Lorenzo and then at La Venta is that the society was very centralized. This in turn has led to the view that the society was highly structured, with a hierarchical basis of order and class stratification. This also implies the existence of a ruling elite and a system of power and control, which was possibly based on religious beliefs. This view of the structure of the society is summarized as follows: "Olmec society was & #8230;highly centralized, with a…… [Read More]
Indigenous Environmental Studies
For this assignment, we choose the problem of deforestation in Africa and it potential link to the outbreak of the Ebola virus. There have been scientific discussions and debates about whether deforestation was the primary cause of the rise and spread of the Ebola virus which is yet to be conclusively proven but there are enough indications to this end. Hence, for this paper, it is proposed to study the possible link between deforestation in Africa to the spread of the deadly virus that resulted in one of the greatest natural disasters for mankind.
Was deforestation the case of west Africa's Ebola outbreak?
Deforestation in Africa -- especially in sub-Saharan Africa is a major problem and a cause of concern for environmentalists as well as for the local population. However, this problem turned out to be a care for the global population after the rapid…… [Read More]
The territorial distribution among the villages is irregular and the distance between villages may vary from a few hours walk to a ten day walk.
Yanomami are basically peaceful people, however a number of them are brutal warriors. In majority of the cases, their militaristic skills are you to capture a woman in order to maximize the reproductive success of their best warriors. The general trend is that the militaristic villages are usually at a distance of several days walk from each other while the peaceful ones are usually at a distance of merely less than a day. The Yanomami do not live in the form of large populations and the villages will usually split when the population reaches 100 to 150 people. However, when there is war raging out there preferences change and they will not split before they reach a population of around 300 individuals. The reasons for…… [Read More]
The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe also called Yanomamo, Yanomam, and Sanuma who live in the tropical rain forest of Southern Venezuela and Northern razil. The society is composed of four subdivisions of Indians. (Yanomami Indians) Each subdivision has its own language. "They include the Sanema which live in the Northern Sector, the Ninam which live in the southeastern sector, the Yanomam which live in the southeastern part and the Yanomamo which live in the southwestern part of Yanomami area."
The Yanomamo are one of the largest unacculturated aboriginal groups left in South America, with a total population of around 12,000. Their subsistence is based on hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. The predominant crops are plantains and bananas. Their diet includes yams, sweet potatoes and the fruit of the peach palm. (eierle, J.M.)
The social construction of the culture is composed of small groups numbering approximately 75 people in…… [Read More]
Yellow fever is a tropical disease that is spread to humans by infected mosquitoes, and although most infections are mild, the disease can be severe and life threatening (Yellow pp). Found in Africa and South America, yellow fever is preventable by immunization and travelers to those countries are advised to get the vaccine (Yellow pp). In South America sporadic infections occur mostly in forestry and agricultural workers from occupational exposure in or near forests (Yellow-1 pp).
There are two kinds of yellow fever which are spread by two different cycles of infection (Yellow pp). Jungle yellow fever is mainly a disease of monkeys that is spread from infected mosquitoes to monkeys in the tropical rain forest (Yellow pp). It is then spread to people who are bitten by mosquitoes that have been infected by monkeys (Yellow pp). Jungle yellow fever is rare and usually occurs in persons who work in…… [Read More]
The Pseudacris (or Hyla) Regilla is more commonly known as the Pacific Tree Frog. It is quite small, between three quarters to two inches in length. Its coloration varies greatly, and may be brown, green, red, gray, black, or some mixture of these colors.
A dark eye strip differentiates the Pacific Tree from other frogs. Ventral coloration is cream colored with yellow or white on the hindquarters. Adult males have a dark gray or black throat. Tadpoles are dark above and light colored below. Their eyes are laterally positioned and protrude beyond the margin of the head when viewed from above. The Pacific Tree Frog's cartilage located between its fingers provides maneuverability for climbing. Its limbs are slender in proportion to the rest of its body and its hind feet are webbed. Interestingly, female Pacific Tree Frogs are larger than male ones.
The Pacific Tree Frog breeds in…… [Read More]
Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights regarding the Politics of the Amazon
In today's society, there is a tremendous need for global initiatives to support biodiversity, conservation and the protection of nature, as well as the culture of local inhabitants, especially those living in the Amazon. In recent years, many governments and coalitions have partnered with communities and native leaders to protect biodiversity and culture.
Grass-roots organizations and scientific discoveries have increased awareness about these issues, which include democratic participation by indigenous people, intellectual property rights, and cultural and ethnic identity. Within the context of globalization, the world is shrinking, and the dominant cultures, those of Europe and the United States, are penetrating the local world, including the indigenous groups in the Amazon basin. This paper will discuss the Andean indigenous interest and rights regarding the politics of the Amazon.
Global interest in ecological issues began in the mid-1980's.…… [Read More]
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…… [Read More]
Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).
Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:
1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, "tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which…… [Read More]
" In addition, Manz reports that, "It took more than a decade after the worst of the violence, but eventually the Catholic Church, the United Nations, and the president of the United States rendered a verdict about the horrors suffered by villagers in Santa Mar'a Tzeja and the rest of Guatemala." In fact, the verdict charged Guatemalan authorities with outright genocide, and the author emphasizes that, "No other country in the hemisphere has been charged with genocide."
To their credit, the people of Guatemala have managed to overcome this violent legacy and stand poised to become part of the international community in substantive ways, due in large part to the findings of this report. As Manz points out, "This judgment was of great moral importance to the people of Santa Mar'a Tzeja and so many others like them who had suffered grievously at the hands of the military. No longer…… [Read More]
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…… [Read More]
A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization
The Maya are a group of people of southern Mexico and northern Central America with some three thousand years of loaded history. The Maya were a division of the Mesoamerican Pre-Columbian civilizations. Dissimilar to popular belief, the Maya people never vanished completely, there are millions that still live in the area, and a lot of them still speak one of the many Maya languages (A Brief History of the Mayan Civilization, 2011). The Maya are perhaps the most well-known of the traditional civilizations of Mesoamerica. Mayan history began in the Yucatan around 2600 B.C., Mayan history grew to fame around A.D. 250 in contemporary southern Mexico, Guatemala, western Honduras, El Salvador, and northern Belize (Mayan History, n.d.).
Building on the innate inventions and thoughts of previous civilizations such as the Olmec, the Maya advanced astronomy, calendrical systems and hieroglyphic writing. The Maya…… [Read More]
Certainly, other types of animal flash cards could be used. An even better idea might be to have hand puppet or stuffed animal examples of the animals in the book to pass around for the children to look at. During their break, they could play with the toys as an added refresher for the animal concepts that they learned during the classroom and field trip sessions. Besides providing an excellent review, it would be a seamless method of integrating the reading with field trip sessions and prop and toy purchases. This type of activity will give the teacher indicators of the students' abilities as a class and individuals prior to beginning the reading unit. It might be wise to do the field trip as the follow-up idea to the book with Brett's work as preparatory for that activity.
1. Brett, J. (1989). The mitten. New York, NY: G.P.…… [Read More]
Yanomamo people of Central Brazil are one of the oldest examples of the classic pre-Columbian forest footmen. They are believed to be the most primitive, culturally intact people in existence in the world. They are literally a Stone Age tribe. Cataloged by anthropologists as Neo-Indians with cultural characteristics that date back more than 8000 years. They have never discovered the wheel and the only metal they use is what has been traded to them from the outside. Their numbering system is one, two, and more than two.
The Yanomamo live in almost complete seclusion in the Amazon rain forests of South America. Apart from their periodic warfare, they have managed to build and sustain their unique culture through adaptations to their environment for generations.
There are approximately 23,000 Yanomamo spread among roughly 225 villages in the Amazon Basin. Each village acts autonomously, but has alliances with other villages that carry…… [Read More]
It had started in the present-day Sahel region of south-eastern Mauritania and western Mali. (The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa) The evidence for this is again not in written records, but archeological evidence, and this also makes it clear that the history of Ghana has been influenced a lot by geographical changes. A similar situation exists with Egypt. There was a discovery by archeologists in the late 20th century that there was human habitation before 8000 BC in an area in the southwestern corner of Egypt, which is near the border with Sudan. Who are these people? They are likely to have been nomads attracted to this area of Egypt because of the hospitable climate and environment. Now it is exceptionally dry, but once that area had grassy plains and temporary lakes which were caused by seasonal rains. (Encyclopedia: History of…… [Read More]
North America into Sub-Regions
By total area, the United States is the world's third largest country, with landscape that varies from temperate forestland and rolling hills on the East coast, mangrove in Florida, the Great Plains in the center of the country, the Mississippi and Missouri river system, the Great Lakes which are shared with Canada, the Rocky Mountains west of the plains, the deserts and temperate coastal zones west of the Rocky Mountains, the temperate rain forests in the Pacific Northwest, and the tundra of Alaska (United). Canada, the second largest country in the world, occupies the northern half of the North American continent, and is divided into six regions, the Pacific Coast, the Interior Plains, the Canadian Shield, the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, and the Arctic Lowlands (Geographic). The majority of the regions of both countries tend to correspond with one another. Aside from the South…… [Read More]
Personal, Local, or National Issue;
Climate change has become one of the most debated subjects that mark the current political agendas throughout the world. The international community, the international and regional NGOs as well as the public opinion are constantly flagging more and more issues on the negative impact the lack of sustainable development has on the environment. Among other perspectives, one that has been rather often considered in relation to this subject is the role international organizations and in particular the ones at the level of the United Nations have mitigating the risks of climate change at the global level. This is in my opinion an important matter to discuss from several points-of-view; firstly, the issue of climate change affects the world at a global level and its perspectives are grim in comparison to the efforts made by every state individually in addressing the particularities of the situations; secondly,…… [Read More]
Song from the Sound of Music
Shakespeare began the story of Twelfth Night with the line "If music be the food of love play on." Though, in the play, the Duke of Illyria, Orsino, asks for a surfeit of music in the hope that an overkill of love will help him overcome his infatuation for Olivia (Shakespeare, 1.1, 1-18), the line has now become immortalized as audiences have tended to read a wealth of meaning into it. The popularity of the oft-quoted line is hardly surprising given experiential knowledge of music as one of the greatest pleasures of life. Indeed, music sensitizes and heightens all kinds of emotions and moods, ranging from the sentimental, philosophical, and maudlin to the sensual, ecstatic and peppy. But more than anything, the real power of music lies in soothing the soul by enabling a sense of connection to a universal consciousness. The title song…… [Read More]
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…… [Read More]
Huaorani of Ecuador are a fascinating group of people that have recently been uprooted from their traditional nomadic way of life and placed in social and political constraints. Inhabiting the Napo, Orellana, and Pastaza Provinces of Amazonian Ecuador, the Huaorani have been traditionally very isolated from the modern world. Even the Huaorani language is an artifact of isolation: it bears no resemblance to any other language known to exist in the world. The Huaorani currently number about 1,370 with an astounding 55% of the population under the age of sixteen, due to recent changes in social organization (Rival, 2000). hile the Huaorani still rely on the bountiful Amazonian rainforest for food, medicines, and shelter, they no longer roam freely and set up camp at will. Due to illegal deforestation and oil exploitation in the Ecuadorian Amazon, the Huaorani have been forces to establish permanent settlements in areas that are still…… [Read More]
The reality of modern life is that everything has a carbon footprint.
This is why it is important to offset it.
In Carbonica we don't believe in emission credits or permissible levels of carbon emissions.
We believe that the only acceptable level of emissions is zero.
We also believe that trees are the only true carbon offset and Nature's very efficient method of carbon capture.
We would like to help people like you make a difference, and with Carbonica you can become a zero footprint individual and make a positive contribution to the environment.
This mission statement exhibits the opposite problem from the earlier example; it is exhaustive, but it is neither brief nor efficient. It does make clear what services the organization gives (planting trees), but it does not specify how the organization accomplishes that objective until the sixth paragraph: "Our mission is to plant trees and fund multi-story…… [Read More]
The government should create more incentives to use energy efficient alternatives, and they should be developed so that more people can afford them and use them.
Another solution, although extremely unpopular, it to tax carbon emissions. Some experts propose a worldwide tax of $50 per ton, which would tax industries that create greenhouse gases (Johansen 256). While this would not instantly solve the problem, it would encourage industries to develop alternatives to fossil fuels, and this could help reduce emissions while setting aside some of the tax funds to help combat global warming in other ways. Of course, industries reliant on fossil fuels are extremely opposed to the idea, and the tax would add costs to everyday items such as gasoline, oil, and coal.
The science and history of global warming defend this solution. Global warming has increased more in the last 100 years than it has at any time…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, there really are no immediate solutions that would reduce the technology division between first world and third world nations: unless of course there was a complete reengineering of the social segregation of the haves and have not's. In an economic sense, for the Third World, food and water should probably come first in their specific hierarchy of needs. "Progress in raising real incomes and alleviating poverty has been disappointingly slow in many developing countries, and the relative gap between the richest and poorest countries has continued to widen. In Africa, the level of real per capita income today is lower than it was 30 years ago. In developing countries in the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere, real incomes have risen, but at a slower pace than in industrial countries." (IMF, 2000)
Aspray, William, and Martin Campbell. A History of the Information Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1996…… [Read More]
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…… [Read More]
It can be assumed, therefore, that some of these cups contained human blood. As of yet, however, there is no direct relationship established between the sacrifice ceremony and the goblets. It is only believed that the Moche performed a number of different rituals with sacrificial components for various reasons. One type of sacrifice called the Mountain Sacrifice, for instance, is only known through iconography.
Bourget, who excavated fifteen strata of human remains at the Huaca de la Luna, found evidence of at least five distinct rituals (Pillsbury 2001: 96). "Few of the skeletons were complete; many disarticulated body parts were scattered across the area." In addition to the human remains, the archeologists found fragments of at least 50 unfired clay effigies of nude males with ropes around their necks, which were shown seated cross-legged with their hands resting on their knees."
In a number of instances, the finds are linked…… [Read More]
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."
Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.
In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…… [Read More]
53). He points out that four countries (in 1917) -- England, France, Germany, and the United States -- own 80 per cent of the world's finance capital; thus, in his view, the whole rest of the world is subjugated, that is, indebted to and tributary to those four "international banker countries."
Where once monopolists exported goods to other countries to make a profit, now they export finance capital. This is another symptom of the imperialistic stage of capitalism -- what to do with excess wealth? Lenin states that it would not be capitalism if the excess wealth were used to improve the quality of life for the millions of people who are still underfed and leading lives of misery. Instead, the capital is exported to "backward" countries and used to make more profits. In backward countries (now called developing nations) where there is a shortage of capital, labor is cheap,…… [Read More]
The artistic authenticity of a particular object is determined, in part, by the objects provenance -- its history that helps us to understand the significance and original cultural context of the object. ithout this context it becomes complicated to identify certain tribal cultural artifacts as artwork or not.
But let's imagine that there exists an institutional framework or bureaucratic organization with the resources to undertake such a monumental task of artistic identification. There would still be additional problems to consider. In Indonesia, for instance, there are numerous political and cultural obstacles facing the emerging push for preservation. Communication in the nation is lackluster. Identifying and controlling all potential tribal art among the indigenous people is a task best left to the imagination. The infrastructure simply does not yet exist to properly compensate indigenous artists and craftsmen, let alone stem the tide of black-market deals and random destruction. Yet this is…… [Read More]
The anxiety is compounded based not only on choice, but also on taste and preference. Because of technology, we humans are capable of doing tremendous damage to the planet based on the decisions of what to eat. In fact, this is so serious, that Pollan notes that we now have the added dilemma of potentially devastating the ecology of some areas simply to provide a certain "taste" for x cuisine.
This is even more complex when we think about ethics and our treatment of animals. I had never realized just how unethical factory farming could be -- and how out of balance it is to raise thousands and thousands of chickens or turkeys in a hot barn that is so unhealthy for them that they have to be pumped full of antibiotics just to live; or the egg farms that pack chickens so tight their feet grow into the wires.…… [Read More]
The African nation of Angola is poised for a major change in its economic and social development. However, the nation will need programs for prevention, care, and treatment of there biggest threat - HIV / AIDS. ith the current ceasefire between the Angolan government and the UNITA rebels, the country must address its greatest problem HIV / AIDS. "The death of insurgent leader Jonas Savimbi in 2002 and a subsequent cease-fire with UNITA may bode well for the country." (Angola) But the process of fighting the horrible disease takes money. This report focuses on the African nation of Angola and some possible financial solution to the constant healthcare threat from AIDS. Even after twenty-seven years of civil war, Angola as a nation has an opportunity today to transform its future. But the war on Aids will take a concerted effort by the Government of Angola, international donors, and the…… [Read More]
The flooding of the artificial damn and the strategic burning of the petrol begins to lose effect because so many dead or dying ants begin to pile up in large clumps that their living counterparts are able to use them as bridges over the water. At that point, Leiningen realizes that the only way to save his plantation and the lives of his workers is to flood the entire plantation while they take refuge in the highest part of the property. To do so, Leiningen must get to a control valve mechanism that is hundreds of yards away from the remaining safe area of the plantation and already completely covered by the ants.
With the help of native workers, Leiningen puts together a makeshift safety suit that covers his entire body and they cover it with ointments believed to repel the ants and petrol. Leiningen takes off on foot toward…… [Read More]