Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the above
Construction of dams upstream on rivers may lead to:
a Narrower beaches b Wider beaches c The filling in of bays d The building of a barrier island
7. In the late 1920's until the present, the movement of plates is thought to be due to a convection currents in the crust b convection currents in the mantle c convection currents in the core d earthquakes along subduction zones
8. ____ are mudflows due to rapid melting of snow packs along the sides of snow covered mountains.
a Pyroclastic avalanche b Pahoehoe
9.Question: Longshore currents are likely to travel along the coast from:
a North to South
b South to North
c West to East
d In a southwest direction e In a westerly direction
10. Volcanism in Iceland is due to which of the following plate boundaries?
d None of the above
11. Subduction zones are mostly likely found where an ocean crust collides with ocean crust
b ocean crust collides with continental crust c continental crust collides with continental crust d where continental crust divergence takes place
12. The longest continuous chain of mountains formed by tectonic processes is found a in North America
b in South America
c in Asia
d on the ocean floor
14. The "Ring of Fire" is due to an ocean crust colliding with ocean crust
b ocean crust colliding with continental crust c continental crust colliding with continental crust d where continental crust divergence takes place
16. Volcanoes are found an along the midocean ridge
b near subduction zones
c hot spots (mantle plumes)
d all of the above
17. What is discharge?
a a stream's cross-sectional area multiplied by its velocity b the volume of a stream divided by it's cross-sectional area c the width of a stream times it's depth d the amount of water flowing past a certain point in a given amount of time e both a and d
18. Two different drainage basins or watersheds are separated from each other by an imaginary line called:
a a divide b a trellis c a floodplain d a gully e a terrace
19. Which of these factors contributes to stream velocity?
a stream channel size b stream gradient c stream channel shape d all of the above e only b and c
20. Which river has the largest discharge?
21. The volcanoes that comprise the Hawaiian Islands are a shield volcanoes b composite volcanoes c cinder cones d none of the above
22. When do floods occur?
a when a stream is diverted by the headward erosion of another stream b when a stream channel is altered to speed the flow of water c when a stream's discharge exceeds the capacity of its channel d only during the spring e when the artificial levees are overrun
23. The limiting level below which a stream cannot erode is known as the:
b Base Level
24. A meander that has been completely separated from a river is called:
a an incised meander b an oxbow lake c a drainage basin d a cutoff e a cut bank.
25. Which one of the following is the key factor controlling stream erosion, transport, and deposition?
a Sediment Load
26. How does a stream change as its discharge increases?
a Stream velocity, channel width and depth, all increase b Stream velocity increases, but channel width and depth decreases c Stream velocity, channel width and depth, all decrease d Stream channel depth and width increases, load decreases, and velocity decreases
27. An area which has NOT been glaciated may show ?
a Hanging valleys b V shape valleys c Corries
28. Which part of a stream's load is actually held in solution?
a weathered load b suspended load c chemical load d dissolved load e bed load
29. Which one of the following statements is true about dams?
a They help build up beaches b They lower the water table c They cause deposition below the dam d They cause erosion below the dam
30. Rejuvenation of a stream channel (renewed erosive activity) can be caused by:
a A higher sea level b A lower sea level...
What is the sediment deposit that forms when a stream enters the sea or a lake?
a An Alluvial Fan
b A Natural Levee
c A Delta
d A Floodplain
33. Which one of the following supplies base flow (a constant supply of water) to a stream?
a Overland flow after precipitation b Groundwater seeping into the stream channel c Rainfall during thunderstorms d Snowmelt
34. The volume of water that flows past a given point in a given time is the stream's:
35. The pebbles and boulders that are transported by a stream along the bottom of its channel are called:
b Suspended Load
c Dissolved Load
38. Rain Forest wildlife of Asia include all of the following except a Orangutan
c Red Lory.
d Bengal Tiger
e King Cobra
39. Deserts are most likely to occur a at 30 degrees above and below the equator.
b in the rain shadows of mountains.
c where cool, dry air descends.
d All of the above e None of the above
41. The eastern side of the Rockies tends to receive much less rainfall than the western side. This phenomenon is attributed to a convection currents.
b the rain shadow.
c human impact.
d All of the above e None of the above
42. This biome is scattered across the planet and accounts for only 3% of water on Earth. Salinity (salt) levels in this area are generally less than 1%.
a freshwater biome b estuary c marine biome d none of the above
45. You are in an area where the water fluctuates between very salty and not-so-salty. You look around you and see that the region is at the mouth of where a river and the ocean meet. You are most likely in a (n) ____ biome.
a estuarine aquatic biome b river aquatic biome c tundra terrestrial biome d inter-tidal aquatic biome e None of the above
47. Metamorphosed sandstone is called a Marble
e None of the above
49. The Ural Mountains were formed primarily by a Volcanism
c continental collision d intrusion of magma
50. Field capacity of a soil tends to increase with an increasing clay content b decreasing clay content c increasing sand content d decreasing sand content e Field capacity is not associated with soil
53. The Red Sea lies in a rift zone b subduction zone
c transform fault zone d deep sea trench
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
55. The two most important elements in a climatic description are temperature and a wind direction b precipitation c pressure d wind speed e altitude
58. Multi-layer clouds are heavy precipitation producers. Which of the following may be considered in this category?
d a and b e a and c
66. What percent of the Earth's water is fresh and accessible?
68. Where is most accessible fresh water found?
69. ____ dams resist the force of the water entirely by their own weight.
70. The evaporative loss of water from leaves is termed:
74. Spring tides are tides that ...
a have lows lower than normal and highs higher than normal
b have lows higher than normal and highs lower than normal
c are unpredictable d occur in the spring of the year
83. One of the distinctive features of a topographic map is that it shows ...
d scale of distances e Man-made structures
84. The cartographic technique by which points on the sphere of the Earth are transferred to points on the plane surface of a map is ...
85. The Mercator projection is actually which type of projection?
86. The reference lines on a globe which circle the Earth parallel to the equator are lines of ...
87. How many acres are in the E1/2 of the NW1/2 of the SW1/2 of a section?
90. What is the main cause of the dry conditions in the Atacam ?
a The rain clouds are all blocked by the Andes Mountains.
b A cold current off shore causes condensation of water vapor in the clouds before they reach land.
c It is too hot to rain.
d There is no source of water nearby.
91. Rain Forest wildlife of South America include all of the following except…
Geography of Soils and Vegetation in Coastal Environments; focus on Florida Coast Introduction A significant relationship exists between vegetation and soil: soil supports sufficient vegetation growth by providing the latter with moisture, anchorage, and essential nutrients; meanwhile, vegetation serves as a protective covering for soil, safeguarding it against erosion and also facilitating the maintenance of soil nutrition levels using nutrient cycling (i.e., accumulation of litter and its subsequent decay). Thus, soil and
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change. The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang River, Coomera River, Pimpama River, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang River catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and