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Amazon Rainforest in Brazil is under attack from a variety of sources. The Rainforests are not only integral to the Brazilian economy, but to the world as well. The Rainforest provides a rich source of natural and generative resources to the country as well as serve as one of the largest natural carbon deposits, or carbon sinks, on the planet. The country is home to nearly half of Earth's rainforests, gobbling up 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide every year -- a third of the United States' 2010 greenhouse gas output (Editorial Board, 2012). There are three primary themes that emerge in this trend.
The first is that deforestation is threatening the vitality of the Earth's regenerative systems through soil degradation as well as the loss of carbon sinks. Another theme is that the use of the forest is not being used to its economic potential. Environmental issues aside, burning…
Associated Free Press. (2012, October 18). Brazil president makes final changes to forestry law. Retrieved from PHYS Org: http://phys.org/news/2012-10-brazil-forestry-law.html
Aziakou, G. (2012, November 2). New three-fingered frog discovered in southern Brazil. Retrieved from Assoicated Free Press: http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5hkAdC2pyvikFz70ZM7KPUbwEQ2Ow?docId=CNG.93a864be8af20b7dc07b6ebdcc4670e1.4e1
Aziakou, G. (2012, November 8). Reserve is haven for study of Brazil's Atlantic rainforest. Retrieved from My sinchew: http://www.mysinchew.com/node/79607
Barrionuevo, A. (2008, May 25). Brazil Rainforest Analysis Sets Off Political Debate . Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.agriculturedefensecoalition.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/37F_2008_Tree_Declines_NYTimes_May_25_2008_Brazil_Rainforest_Deforestation.pdf
Chiquita -- Rainforest Alliance Tie-Up
The Role of NGOs in Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility
The Role of NGOs in Environmental Protection
In complementing the efforts of the public and public health sectors towards providing more adequate and responsive healthcare services to poor people, non-governmental organizations or NGOs have come up with their brand of involvement and solution to problems (Chitra, 2003). Their objectives are to describe and discuss the common characteristics of functioning health systems in a given socio-economic, socio-cultural, political and ecological setting; highlight and delineate the crucial factors for reforms and manage an provide efficient health care services in the community; and act as catalyst for local and community participation in the overall improvement in the quality of life. Their civil and environmental objective is to develop civil and environmental consciousness among the public. The institutions currently involved in NGO environmental activities include the Environmental Training…
Bendell, J. (2012). Chiquita. A Global Guide. IISD: International Institute for Sustainable
Development. Retrieved on June 17, 2012 from http://www.iisd.org/business/viewcasestudy.aspx?=109
Chiquita (2008). Our company. Our communities. Our planet. 2008 Corporate Social
Responsibility Report. Chiquita Brands International, Inc. Retrieved on June 17,
Often, when rainforests are clear-cut, the land is used for cattle grazing. The cattle are then sold to developed countries for meat consumption since most individuals in developing countries cannot afford to buy meat. In both scenarios, it is the developed countries that create the consumer demands that cause rainforest destruction.
The rainforests are very important to the world for a variety of reasons (Kristula, 1997). One major reason is that the plants in the forest change carbon dioxide into clean air, which fights pollution. In addition, by absorbing carbon dioxide, the rainforests help deter the greenhouse effect. The trees of the rainforest store carbon dioxide in their roots, stems, branches, and leaves.
The plants and animals of the rainforest also provide human beings with food, fuel wood, shelter, jobs, and medicines (Kristula, 1997). "Image losing the potential cure for cancer or AIDS that might have been found in an…
National Association of Forest Industries, the. (1996). The world's rainforests. Forests Today. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nafi.com.au/faq/rainforests.html.
Tropical Rainforest Coalition. (1996). Adopt-an-acre. The Tropical Rainforest Coalition.
Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.rainforest.org/acre/adoptanacre.html.
Highland Park Elementary School. (1995). Rainforest Destruction. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.hipark.austin.isd.tenet.edu/projects/fourth/rainforests/environment.html.
But the supply far outstrips demand, Europeans are finding. The climate of this marketplace itself is decidedly cloudy. Advance prices have plunged by half.
At this point, one shouldn't portray it as a liquid, vibrant market," said Atle C. Christiansen of PointCarbon, a Norway-based research firm (Climate, 2004).
More than six years after governments negotiated the historic climate accord in Kyoto, Japan, the world is taking only halting steps _ not always forward, never in unison _ to follow through (Climate, 2004).
In fact, the Kyoto treaty itself is not yet in force, since it hasn't been ratified, as required, by industrial countries emitting a total of 55% of "greenhouse gases," such as carbon dioxide, that trap heat in the atmosphere that Earth otherwise would give off.
ussia's expected accession later this year would clear the 55% hurdle. But even a functioning Kyoto agreement would have little impact: Its limited…
Amazon rainforest destruction at 10-year high
By Raymond Colitt in Sao Paulo (accessed 5-19-05)
Published: May 20, 2005 03:00 | Last updated: May 20, 2005 03:00
http://news.ft.com/cms/s/4ea07b74-c8cd-11d9-87c9-00000e2511c8.html rainforest (accessed 5-19-05)
A few of the most notable include: the vast disparities between rich / poor in the region, mining, logging and developing tourism. These various elements are important, because they are highlighting the underlying problems that will more than likely face the reserve in the future. Where, these interests will try to gain even more amounts of influence, despite the fact that the park is a protected through a host of different regulations. Some the recent regulations / actions that have been taken are: it has been included as a national park, the Projected Area Management Code has been adopted and there is a National Action Plan (to guide the future use of the park). At the same time, various efforts have been introduced to address the underlying challenges facing the park in the future to include: the expansion of the borders of the preserve, increased levels of staffing / enforcement…
Rainforests of Atsinanana. (2009). African Cultural Heritage. Retrieved from: http://www.africannaturalheritage.org/Rainforests-of-the-Atsinanana-Madagascar.html
Rainforests of Atsinanana. (2006). Marojey. Retrieved from: http://www.marojejy.com/Pdf/UNESCO%20World%20Heritage%20Madagascar.pdf
Rainforests of Atsinanana. (2011). UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1257
Rainforests of Atsinanana of Madagascar. (2010). United Nations Environment Program. Retrieved from: http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/pdf/ATSINANANA.pdf
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
The current construction of World-Systems analysis holds that core countries, including America, Europe's thriving economies, and developed nations in Africa and Asia, derive enormous economic and political power from "the axial division of labor of a capitalist world-economy (that) divides production into core-like products and peripheral products" (Wallerstein 28). Madagascar's relative abundance of untapped natural resources, in the form of massive "old-growth" tropical rainforests, and deposits of minerals like chromite and titanium ore which are now used in the construction of cellular telephones and laptop computing devices, represent peripheral products that can be exploited for the ongoing manufacture and distribution of the core products driving the engine of globalized commerce.
(America, China, India)
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-ivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National esearch." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin…
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-Rivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National Research." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin D. Brewer. "Trade globalization since 1795: Waves of integration in the world-system." American Sociological Review (2000): 77-95.
Duiker, William J. Contemporary World History. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2009.
Friedman, Thomas L. The world is flat [updated and expanded]: A brief history of the twenty- first century. Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2006.
I would also like to know the suggested length of the canopy trees and the measurements of this 'partial shade'. (a third variable that I would like to know is what type of cacao they experimented with since there are different kinds).
These three aspects are important for the following reasons:
. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like…
1. The researchers may have studied only 2 rainforests in which case their research is insignificant. The rainforests may have had conditions that may have supported the researcher's conclusions -- we need a diversity of rainforests that contain different conditions in order to more reliably test hypothesis. The researchers may have conducted their research in an ad hoc manner or with certain shortfalls that would invalidate their conclusions. A scientific study needs to be both reliable and valid (in both external and internal way) to be accepted. Certain conditions for both elements need to be addressed. I would like to know whether researchers met these in order to know whether to accept study http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0305-sulawesi.html#DR35bKAtoweXgSRq.99
2. The height of the trees as well as diameter of shade is important in order to recreate study
3. Cacao comes in various types. I would like to know whether researchers experimented with just one kind or several in order to know whether to generalize to cacao as a whole.
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
Barrier island beaches generally develop where:
a The coast is composed of hard rock b the nearby land has a rugged topography of hills and mountains c the sea floor deepens rapidly offshore d The sea floor remains shallow for a long distance offshore
During storms in winter:
a There is a higher percentage of fine-grained sand on beaches
b More erosion occurs in bays than on headlands
c Beaches are eroded d Beaches are built up e Offshore sand bars are destroyed
Along the Midocean ridge
a earthquakes occur b sea floor spreading occurs c volcanism occurs d all the above occur
Where would you find examples of barrier island coasts?
c British Columbia and Alaska
d Texas and the Gulf Coast
Which of the following boundaries characterize the San Andreas Fault?
d None of the…
market communication plan for Divine Chocolate that produces chocolates for a noble cause of supporting the cocoa farmers of Ghana and promoting Fair Trade. The paper consists of an analysis of its business environment as well as a set of recommended strategies which it can use to beat the competition and effectively communicate its marketing messages to the most potential target customers.
Divine Chocolate is one of the leading Fair Trade chocolate manufacturers in the United Kingdom and United States. In addition to producing the best quality chocolates, Divine Chocolate also aims to promote fair trade in the Global community. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the current business and marketing strategies of Divine Chocolate and proposes a market communication plan which can help it better understand its target market, effectively run its advertising and promotional campaigns, and beat the competitor brands which are supported by numerous unknown credential…
Batra, R., Myers, J.G., & Aaker, D.A. 2009, Advertising Management, 5th Edition. New Delhi: Pearson.
Batsell, J. 2004, Bumper crop of coffee labels, Available at [Accessed March 7th, 2013]
Brassington, F. & Pettitt, S. 2006, Principles of Marketing, 4th Edition. Harlow: Prentice-Hall.
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. 2010, Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
The women sustainably harvest items from the forest, and how produce essential oils, lotions, and soaps from the ingredients they harvest. Because they only harvest ingredients instead of using the entire plant, the forest lives on, while they still are earning an income from the sales of their products.
Many experts have ideas about how to improve on sustainable development in the region. Another expert says, "For instance, improving the monitoring of species loss reduces ignorance about the ecological system and may lead to patents for medicinal plants. The latter enables synergies that integrate indigenous knowledge into management/conservation" (eyer). Convincing companies to invest in these types of development have often fallen on deaf ears because of costs. Many very large global corporations have large operations in the rainforest, such as Mitsubishi and Georgia Pacific, and because the government essentially gives them free reign with little regulation, they exploit the rainforest…
Butler, Rhett a. "Deforestation in the Amazon." Mongabay.com. 2009. 19 March 2010.
Editors. "Rainforest Facts." Raintree Nutrition. 2010. 19 March 2010.
Over last five years, the government has begun to change focus in regards to its policies towards the Amazon. Where, it has designated a number of different areas as protected national parks. Currently, there are nearly 201 million hectares that are protected from development. Then, in 2006, a law was passed creating an agency to manage the forests and protect them. With the law stating, that all protected forests should remain public land and that these areas should maintain their forest cover. This is significant because it would reduce the total amounts of destruction that was occurring. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than the State Acre. Where, deforestation decreased by over 50% since 1998. The main reason for the drop was: the enforcement of the new laws by razilian official and increased funding for social development in the area. According to the state's…
"Amazon Deforestation Rate has Tripled." Fox News. 29 September 2008. Web. 6 Apr. 2010. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,430401,00.html
"Land Use and Rural Development in the Brazilian Amazon." Wilson Center. 24 Feb. 2010. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
Cochrane, Mark. "Priority Areas for Establishing National Forrest in the Brazilian Amazon." Conservation Ecology. 6 (41) (2002).4. Print.
Hallowell, Christopher, and Walter Levy. Listening to Earth. Longman, 2004. 210-211. Print.
The United States was also very much economically dependent on the old-growth conifer forests of the Pacific Northwest during the period of heavy deforestation that occurred there. This dependence was not as total as Brazil's is, due to the sheer size of the country and abundance of other resources in the nation, but during the development of the nineteenth century especially the lumber that the old -- growth forests provided -- as well as the land that was used for farming once the trees had been cleared -- were vital elements of the continuing expansion of the nation (Foster 1991). Brazil is experiencing its own era of rapid economic expansion in the current era, and limiting its deforestation would limit this growth potential.
In this light, it becomes difficult to see how the United States or anyone living there can simply ask Brazil to stop the massive deforestation of its…
Butler, R. (2008). "Deforestation in the Amazon." WSPA. Accessed 21 July 2010. http://www.mongabay.com/brazil.html
Foster, J. (1991). "Capitalism and the ancient forest - battle over old growth forest in the Pacific Northwest." CBS MoneyWatch. Accessed 21 July 2010. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_n5_v43/ai_11489365/
In fact it is large companies and the inequities of international trade which are the root causes of rainforest destruction." Consider the following facts:(1)M millions of hectares of primary rainforests are being destroyed in South East Asia by logging, and the driving force in this industry is not the local population but international demand for timber; (2) in Central America, 40% of all the rainforests have been cleared or burned down in the last 40 years, mostly for cattle pasture to feed the export market; (3) "Latin American environment groups have cited skewed land distribution as the most important factor frustrating the conservation and sustainable use of rainforest areas; and (4) the economic exploitation of poorer countries by the world's industrialized nations underlines much of the over-exploitation of tropical ecosystems by populations without land or employment.
This inevitably calls for reform in relation to both bilateral and multilateral aid policies…
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
Environmental Problems and Deforestation
One of the most serious environmental problems facing society today is global warming. This problem has been related to the important issue of the depletion of trees and natural forests throughout the world. Scientists and medical experts are becoming increasingly concerned at the affect that global warming is having on human health and the environment. This sense of alarm is being increased by the fact that predictions about extreme weather and climatic changes that were previously seen to be an indication of the effects of global warming, are now taking place. This has also caused scientists to predict more dire effects of global warming for the future. Global warming has been linked to shortages of food supplies and the increase in infectious diseases as well as changes in the various biological ecosystems of the world, which are already having profound effects on human life and health.…
D'EMILIO, FRANCES ( 2003) "WHO Links Global Warming to More Deaths," AP Online, December 11.
Rainforests and Global Warming. Rainforest Action Network. Retrieved May 22, 2005. http://www.ran.org/info_center/factsheets/04a.html
Revington J. The Causes of Tropical Deforestation. May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/32defore.html
Revington J. Stopping Tropical Deforestation May 21, 2005. http://www.ru.org/stopping-deforestation.htm
advertisements for Harley Davidson both have the overall message that Harley Davidson's are for rebellious individuals and that societies rules do not apply to the Harley Davidson owner.
The text of the first ad, "in some circles, paisley and florals have yet to catch on" sets the tone for the ad and also conveys the meaning. Firstly, the text has an air of importance to it as well as an air of indifference. The "in some circles" is patronizing and suggests that these 'some' are not as good as the rest. The humor associated with 'paisley and florals' takes the edge of this patronizing feel, so that overall the text has a humor that means it is not to be taken too seriously. This creates a humorous and ironic tone to the ad. This text, without the picture, also captures the meaning of the ad. These 'circles' that haven't caught…
In addition, large quantities of natural gas are required to produce fertilizers which are needed for growing corn. It is estimated that an average of 135 pounds of nitrogen (a potent-greenhouse-gas) per acre is used in growing corn in most U.S. farms. Besides, research by the U.S. Department for Agriculture (USDA) shows that tilled soil releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere in proportion to the volume of soil loosened (Kenny).
Most of all, it is erroneous to assume that ethanol is likely to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil. It has been estimated that the current ethanol production in the United States that has triggered such massive increase in grain and food prices around the world barely satisfies less than 3% of U.S. gasoline needs; and if the entire U.S. grain harvest were converted into ethanol, it would satisfy scarcely 18% of the country's automotive fuel need (Brown.). Furthermore,…
Brown, Lester R. "Why Ethanol Production Will Drive World Food Prices Even Higher in 2008." Earth Policy Institute. January 24, 2008. May 30, 2008. http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update69.htm
Carter, Colin a. And Henry I. Miller. "Hidden Costs of Corn-Based Ethanol." Christian Science Monitor. May 21, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0521/p09s02-coop.html
Corn...Fuel...Fire!" Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. December 17, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.stri.org/english/about_stri/headline_news/news/article.php?id=736
Flavin, Christopher. "Biofuels 2.0: It's Time for Congress to Act." World Watch.
2006). According to Branch et al., "Essentially, a public participation program may be deemed effective to the extent that it provides for open disclosure and addresses all four acceptability dimensions in ways that are appropriate and effective for a particular community and situation" (2006, p. 724). Therefore, the EPA's decision-making process in this case would likely have been different had all four of these dimensions being taking into consideration and efforts made to adequately satisfy each of these requirements in the final outcome.
Arentsen, M.J., Bressers, H. & O'Toole, L.J. 2001 'Institutional and Policy esponses to Uncertainty in Environmental Policy: A Comparison of Dutch and U.S. Styles.' Policy
Studies Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 597.
Benton, . & Funkhouser, G.. 1994 'Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge: An
International Comparison among Business Students.' Journal of Managerial Issues, vol.
6, no. 3, pp. 366-368.
Branch, K.M., Bradbury, J.A. & Malone, E.…
Arentsen, M.J., Bressers, H. & O'Toole, L.J. 2001 'Institutional and Policy Responses to Uncertainty in Environmental Policy: A Comparison of Dutch and U.S. Styles.' Policy
Studies Journal, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 597.
Benton, R. & Funkhouser, G.R. 1994 'Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge: An
International Comparison among Business Students.' Journal of Managerial Issues, vol.
Fact or Fiction
Global arming is a controversial topic largely because of its sprawling prediction of worldwide catastrophe, an image which is far exaggerated from the reality of global climate change. If it were to be a more subtle phenomenon, say an increase in cloud cover, or more sunny days in February, then people would not pay any attention to the matter and would go on living their carefree lives. This is not the reality however, as science predicts massive changes to the way all of humanity will have to live due to climate change. Some may scoff at this allegation, and some may seriously change their habits in fear of the future. For the sake of comparison, I will present global warming believers, and global warming deniers and will analyze the motivations for each side to stretch its influence, whether in the political realm or…
"The Basics of Global Warming - Science of Global Warming - Environmental Defense Fund." Environmental Defense Fund - Finding the Ways That Work. Web. 25 July 2011. .
Klein, Naomi. Global Warming, Fact or Fiction. Web. 25 July 2011. .
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Web. 25 July 2011. .
Environmental determinism has long been out of favor among historians and social scientists, although well into the 19th Century even the majority of Westerners were highly dependent on the climate and environment for their survival. Since the entire world economy was based on agriculture, a shortfall in harvests meant famines, epidemics and death for those who were at or below subsistence level. Such famines were a primary cause for the overthrow of the monarchy in France in 1789, for example, and they led to rebellions, riots and instability wherever they occurred. As late as the 1840s in Ireland, the great potato blight led to the death or immigration of half the population, and the near-destruction of Irish society. In the case of Easter Island, Norse Greenland and the Classic Maya civilization, climate change combined with deforestation and agricultural practices that destroyed the environment led to the total collapse…
Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Penguin Books, 2006).
Demarest Arthur A.. Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Fagan, Brian M. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History (Basic Books, 2000).
Gill, Richardson B. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death (University of New Mexico Press, 2000).
Boesch & Boesche-Achermann found that this organization was key to a hunt's success -- when three or four chimps hunted, there was a success ratio of more than half. The chimps knew it, too; 92% of all the hunts the researchers observed were carried out in groups. Of those that were done in groups, 63% had some level of coordination. This statistic differs greatly from Jane Goodall's chimps at Gombe, who coordinated only 7% of their hunts. Boesch & Boesche-Achermann suggest that this contrast is of value to our understanding of human evolution; when a dramatic climate change struck Africa, east of the ift Valley, it caused our ancestors to -- in adaptation to these new conditions -- develop cooperation in hunting. However, in Boesch & Boesche-Achermann's rainforest-dwelling chimps, we also see a high level of cooperation. Thus, we may need to rethink the timeline and setting of human evolution.…
Boesch, Christopher, and Boesch-Achermann, Hedwige. "Dim Forest, Bright Chimps." Natural
History September (1991): 50, 52-56.
While Cadbury was initially vulnerable resulting in this take over, Kraft had to borrow heavily to afford the final price of 850p per share. In the coming months and years, Kraft will have to balance against recovering the money put into this acquisition (Wiggins, 2010). A risk, many British politicians and citizens alike fear will mean the end of their signature chocolate in an effort by Kraft to increase their profit margin quickly.
Case Study 2: Discussion
The Kraft acquisition of Cadbury is a corporate negotiation making headlines across the world both for the magnitude of the deal and the incredible hostility which marked the negotiations prior to the final signing of the agreement. Cadbury wound up in a financially vulnerable position after several strategically bold maneuvers ultimately resulted in a poor stock showing for the newly de- merged Dr. Pepper Snapple drinks company, and the reliance of Cadbury on…
1. "Exxon, Mobil in $80B deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 1 Dec. 1998.
2. Beaudin, Guy. "Kraft- Cadbury: Making Acquisitions Work." BusinessWeek. 9 Feb. 2010.
3. "Mannesmann seals deal." CNN Money official site. CNN, 3 Feb. 2000.
4. "$58B bank deal set: J.P. Morgan agrees to buy Bank One in a deal that would combine two of the nation's biggest banks." CNN Money.com. 15 Jan 2004.
Brazil and Chili -- a Cultural Comparison
Brazil was originally colonized by Portugal, while the Spanish colonized Chili. The natural resources that provide jobs and help the economy in Brazil include gold, timber, tin, nickel, iron ore, oil and hydropower. Chili's natural resources include hydropower, copper, nitrates, molybdenum and timber as well. Chili only has 2.62% of its land that is arable; in Brazil, 6.93% of the land is arable. Brazil's fishing industry has a lot of fresh water and ocean to use, 55,460 square kilometers (with 7,491 miles of coastline); the Chilean fishing industry has just 12,290 square kilometers of ocean and fresh water to use (with 6,435 miles of coastline).
In Brazil the deforestation of the Amazon Basin (rainforest) is severe and has put many species of plants and animals in jeopardy. Improper mining tactics have caused Brazil's environment great harm and severe oil spills have caused degradation…
About.com. (2008). Fast Facts About Mesopotamia. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/nearest/ss/052909Mesopotamia.htm.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The World Factbook. Retrieved May 15, 2011, from
Juan Antonio Corretjer was born March 3, 1908 into a very political family. His father and uncles were involved in the Ciales Uprising in 1898, which protested the United States occupation of Puerto ico. Corretjer was introduced to politics early in his life, when he accompanied his father and uncles to political rallies (Wikipedia). His political career continued in elementary school, when Corretjer joined the Literary Society of Jose Gautier Benitez, which was later renamed the Nationalist Youth ("Juan Antonio Correjter"). By eighth grade, Corretjer had more fully assimilated the beliefs of his family and was already demonstrating the beginnings of his career as a political activist; he organized a student protest against American authority in his town (Wikipedia). As result, Corretjer was expelled from school. In fact, Corretjer was not permitted to attend any schools in his municipality. Instead, he had to go to school in Vega Baja.
Corretjer, Juan Antonio. "Boricua en la luna." Poemas. 2003. Patriagrande.net. 23 Apr. 2005
Corretjer, Juan Antonio. "Oubao-moin." Poemas. 2003. Patriagrande.net. 23 Apr. 2005
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Lipton Tea Can Do That
Term Marketing Project on Lipton Iced Tea
Lipton Iced Tea
Lipton Iced Tea is a beverage launched by Lipton in collaboration with Pepsico. Lipton is an established brand in the tea market while Pepsico has a prominent presence in the soft drink industry.
Ever since the popularity of tea started to grow in the West, particularly in the United States of America, the tea market has evolved through various stages. In order to dominate the market, major tea producers like Lipton, Tetley and Nestea have kept on coming up with innovative varieties of tea. Lipton, which has the reputation of being the most original brand in terms of variety launched cold beverage, Lipton Iced Tea, thus adding a new dimension to the tea market. Lipton Iced Tea enjoys even more popularity after the recent researches stated the healthy benefits of consuming tea. Moreover, the iced…
Anonymous. (n.d.) A Marketing Plan for Lipton Ice Tea. Retrieved from www.*****/samples/Marketing_Plan.pdf
Anonymous. (1993, October). The many facades of tea. Entrepreneur.
Thefind. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.thefind.com/food/browse-lipton-iced-tea
Lipton. (2010). Rainforest Alliance. Retrieved from http://www.liptont.com/tea_experts/sustainability/index.aspx
Huaorani of Ecuador are a fascinating group of people that have recently been uprooted from their traditional nomadic way of life and placed in social and political constraints. Inhabiting the Napo, Orellana, and Pastaza Provinces of Amazonian Ecuador, the Huaorani have been traditionally very isolated from the modern world. Even the Huaorani language is an artifact of isolation: it bears no resemblance to any other language known to exist in the world. The Huaorani currently number about 1,370 with an astounding 55% of the population under the age of sixteen, due to recent changes in social organization (Rival, 2000). hile the Huaorani still rely on the bountiful Amazonian rainforest for food, medicines, and shelter, they no longer roam freely and set up camp at will. Due to illegal deforestation and oil exploitation in the Ecuadorian Amazon, the Huaorani have been forces to establish permanent settlements in areas that are still…
Aviles, Mayra D. Narratives of Resistance: An Ethnographic View of the Emergence of the Huaorani Women's Association in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Thesis. University of Florida, 2008. Print.
Rival, Laura M. "Marginality with a Difference, or How the Huaorani Preserve Their Sharing Relations and Naturalize Outside Powers." Ed. Peter P. Schweitzer, Megan Biesele, and Robert K. Hitchcock. Hunters and Gatherers in the Modern World: Conflict, Resistance, and Self-determination. New York: Berghahn, 2000. Print.
Rival, Laura M. Trekking through History: the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. New York: Columbia UP, 2002. Print.
Wiessner, Siegfried. "Rights and Status of Indigenous Peoples: A Global Comparative and International Legal Analysis." Harvard Human Rights Journal 12 (1999): 83-88. Print.
Dole and Chiquita - Organic Bananas
Going (Organic) Bananas
When it comes to bananas, Dole has long been at a disadvantage. Dole is association for most Americans with pineapples and with various shady dealings in Hawai'i. If you want to go bananas, you go to Chiquita.
This paper examines the marketing strategy currently employed by Dole Bananas, asking how well this company is doing against others in the banana business as well as asking from what other directions Dole might face competition in the future and how well it is prepared to meet those challenges.
Chiquita is indeed Dole's major competitor at least in terms of banana sales (it is not a significant competitor in terms of pineapples, for example) and the two companies have clearly tried in recent years to differentiate themselves from each other so as to grab a larger share of the market. This is…
Roche, J. (1999). The international banana trade. New York: CRC Press.
A www.chiquita.com www.dole.com www.headlinewatch.com www.europe.cnn.com www.mindfully.org www.yale.edu
finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…
Altman, E.I., ed. The High-Yield Debt Market: Investment Performance and Economic Impact, 41-57. 1990.
Atkinson, T.R. Trends in Corporate Bond Quality. Hardingson, 1967.
Goodfriend, Marvin; Parthemos; James, Summers, Bruce J. Recent financial innovations: courses, consequences for the payments system, and implications for monetary control, Economic Review, March 14-27, 1980
Schneider, S.H. Laboratory Earth: The Planetary Gamble We Can't Afford to Lose. Basic Books New York, NY. 1997.
history documentary, part 1 was very interesting and well thought out. The CGI placing Europe's landmarks and buildings amidst ancient forest, desert, and ocean were well done. The most interesting part began during the rainforest era, 300 million years ago. This era was the most fascinating to me because of the all the giant bugs like the 3 meter long millipede and one of the world's earliest amphibians. That section also had giant ferns that were later identified throughout the ages thanks to the perfectly encased imprints they left behind. All these forests and fauna that existed back then laid the ground work for the coal that Europe had and has now.
They discussed specifically in the segment how 10 meters of forest became 1 meter of coal. Coal was one of the most important sources of energy for quite some time. They pointed to Europe being one of the…
"BBC Europe A Natural History 1 Genesis." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Dec. 2011. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. .
Lindahl, Kai. Europe, a natural history. New York: Random House, 1964. Print.
"Global air temperatures have been rising at a steady trend rate of 0.5 degrees Centigrade per century since about 1750, as the world recovers from the little ice age." (Evans, Global Research, 2009
Global temperatures cooled off from 1940 through the late 1970's, which refutes the casual relationship earlier defined by scientists between rises in CO2 levels and global warming. Tsonis also points to a Washington Post article from 1922 that reports Greenland glaciers to be fast disappearing and arctic seals not engaging their warmer waters. Subsequently the period from the 1980's to 2000 showed an aggressive rise in temperature. Tsonis does agree to an element of human activity and greenhouse gas that contributes to the MDO cycle but does not believe in predictions of catastrophe associated with Global Warming. He further states that we may see reports of an on setting ice age by the early 2030's, as the…
Environmentalists 'exaggerated' threat to tropical rainforests from global warming. David Derbyshire. November 10, 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1328853/Environmentalists-exaggerated-threat-tropical-rainforests-global-warming.html
Global warming or global cooling? S. Anklesaria Aiyari. India Times. February 27, 2005. Retrieved from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/sunday-toi/all-that-matters/Global-warming-or-global-cooling/articleshow/1034077.cms
Global Warming or Global Cooling? A New Trend in Climate Alarmism. Dr. David Evans. Centre for Research on Globalization -- GlobalResearch.ca. July 23, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=14504
Skeptics on Human Climate Impact Seize on Cold Spell. Andrew C. Revin. The New York Times -- Science. March 2, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/02/science/02cold.html?_r=3&ex=1362114000&en=ac4d3adc9cb328c1&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&oref=slogin&oref=slogin
Spiegel & Velga (2010) report that a new international effort is underway to regulate the diffusion of mercury into the environments contextualizing mining operations. According to Spiegel & Velga, the world community has recently developed a set of International Guidelines on Mercury Management in Small-Scale Gold Mining. As Spiegel & Velga report, "commissioned by the United Nations Global Mercury Project, the purpose of the guidelines is to assist policymakers, practitioners, researchers, miners and the public in developing strategies for reducing mercury use, eliminating major pollution point sources and reducing risks." (p. 375)
This points to the worldwide interests that are implicated by the current conflict between miners and environmental advocates in Colombia, which over the course of the country's gold-mining boom, has become a template-setter for how national and world governments must balance mounting economic opportunity with the threat of environmental destruction.
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle,…
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle, a First in Eco Gold. The Independent.
Angenent, M. (2010). Artisanal Gold Mining in Colombia Co-Creating a Sustainable Future. Fair Jewelry Action.
Associated Press (AP). (2010). Colombia Shuts 18 Gold Mines. Straits Times.
Colombian Solidarity Campaign (CSC). (2007). Gold Mining in Colombia; Cauca Assembly in Resistance. Colombia Solidarity.
The word layer is a figurative one in this case, as layers generally refer to more concrete items as in layers of cake or clothing. Similarly, the question about where the tree house landed is also an abstract one. The author never spells out exactly where the tree house landed. That information must be inferred from the text and places an extra burden on the ELL. Ms. Smith asks Elsa why the chapter is titled "Yikes!" when "Yikes!" is a slang word that is rarely used in the spoken language.
To foster Elsa's overall literacy development, Ms. Smith should consider the specific issues raised by this case study. A text like this one using past participle verb forms should be read aloud for better comprehension. Ms. Smith might also consider the advice offered by Lucas et al. (2008) to emphasize "communicative competence over formal accuracy." Because Elsa thrives in social…
Lucas, T., Villegas, A., & Freedson, M. (2008). Linguistically responsive teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education. 59(4). P. 1-9.
9% of total GDP in Colombia (U.S.$3,524 million) and generates 386,000 direct jobs, equivalent to 1.8% of total employment in the country (Tourism Industry in Colombia).
The Composition of Tourism in Colombia
With 3,208 km of coastline (1,760 km on Caribbean Sea and 1,448 km on Pacific Ocean),
and 400 km of Amazon forest and Andean mountains, Colombia has a vast array of possible tourist destinations.
Some of the reasons tourists are interested in visiting Colombia would be its privileged location on the continent. All the environments of the tropics are present: glaciers, beaches, plains, rainforests, and deserts, which all add to its desirability (Where to go?).
Colombia also has countless tourist destinations offering a wide array of activities. Even the most jaded traveler can't help but be swept up by the magic of Cartagena, steeped in history and gentle people. Oozing romance, the old city is a warren of…
"1995-2000 Tourism-Sector Development Program." 2000. Mexico's Tourism Policy. 16 Apr 2009 .
"About Mexico." n.d. visitmexico. 15 Apr 2009 .
"Colombia Tourism." 1988. Geographic org. 16 Apr 2009 .
"Costa Rica has something for everybody." n.d. Costa Rica Tourism and Travel Bureau . 15 Apr 2009 .
Much oil is also used for heating, especially during winter. Therefore, new commitments toward researching, developing, and making available, on a large scale, alternative sources of heating must be made, and this time kept, as well.
To try seriously, however, to identify and describe one core "solution" to oil dependency; that is both untested and would nevertheless work, in this author's opinion, is (and especially given even the current extent of research and understanding into the gnarly depth of the problem and its myriad continuing causes) not only a fruitless exercise, but extremely naive. Instead, the answer lies in not one solution but combinations of many: starting with will; and continuing (perhaps indefinitely) with persistence, patience, personal and public sacrifice; and a loss of national hedonism; self-centeredness; arrogance, and a sense of personal and national entitlement. All of this, in combination, albeit gradually, could still, if the will were…
Bush, George W. State of the Union Speech, January 31, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:
eBXy3XnVdAMJ: www.whitehouse.gov/stateoftheunion/+bush%27s+oil+ dependency+speech&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=1.html>
Gulf War." Wikipedia. December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: .
Hybrid Vehicle." November 28, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle.html
In addition many researchers point out that having a consistent vision and strong, defensible unique value proposition are also critical for the continued viability of a restaurant.
elationship marketing and the ability to build and sustain a loyal customer base are just as critical as the ability to manage a restaurant financially. The immediacy and trust that customers develop over time with a restaurant becomes an integral part of its brand, and the continual reinforcing of this trust-experience-loyalty triad is critical for the growth of any independent or franchised restaurant.
Additional factors that positively affect long-term restaurant viability are having a distinctive and highly differentiated concept that is defensible even in areas where there is high restaurant density. The core concepts of Differentiation, cost leadership, and focus have been suggested as competitive advantages for coping with competition (Porter, 1980, 1985). A firm can achieve profitability over a rival in two…
Bayou and Benett - Profitability Analysis for Table Service Restaurants. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly. April 1992.Pgs. 44-59
BB&T Capital Markets - CEC Entertainment Profile. BB&T Capital Markets Report. July 26, 2006. Barry Stouffer CFA, CPA
Bruderl & Schussler -, "Organizational Mortality: The Liabilities of Newness and Adolescence," Administrative Science Quarterly 35 (1990): 530-447.
Domino's (2005) - From the 2005 Analyst Day Presentation downloaded from the Internet on November 26, 2006:
The determination was that energy absorption into the clouds and the production of forestation varied by the year. The conclusion was that the rainforests in the Amazon are sensitive to El Nino and the plants that grew, producing carbon flux varied as much as 21% and 18%. (2000 American Geophysical Union) (Koren 1342).
Information obtained via satellite is shared with environmental protection agencies. Created by a Stanford scientist to study the depletion of the Amazon rainforest, this method of satellite detection of aerosols could help fight against illegal logging (ang 2004).
Thus the satellites have a large affect on the rain forests and could have more in the future, in determining how much water will be needed, how the land may be saved from deforestation, how water affects the phenology (plant life) of the forests, and whether there will be enough rainfall for the forest to survive.
Asner, G.P., Townsend, a.R. And Brasswell, B.H. "Satellite observation of El Nino effects on Amazon forest phenomenology and productivity" American Geophysical Union. 1974. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1323649
Earth Observatory." NASA News Archive, September 13, 2005. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NasaNews/2005/2005091320344.html
EUMETSAT Services Overview, 2006. Website found at http://www.eumetsat.int/Home/Main/Access_to_Data/index.htm?l=en
Kidder, Stanley Q. And Vonder Haar, Thomas H. Satellite Meteorology: An Introduction. San Diego: Academic Press. 1995
Starbucks and Gloria Jeans in Singapore. The focus will be on the marketing elements of these two stores. For Starbucks, the store visited was in Raffles City. The Gloria Jeans was in Suntec City Galleria. The focus of the report will be on describing the elements of the marketing mix, including product, price and promotion. A table will be presented, and then there will be descriptions of the findings. Last, an analysis and conclusions will be presented about the marketing traits of these two coffee shop chains.
Starbucks. Exit the MRT and the Starbucks is visible right away. There is a counter in front and a large store with indoor seating area, and a door to the outside. This is a busy area, and there are a lot of customers both European and Asian. The colours have a lot of browns, and some bland, background art on the…
Gloria Jean's Singapore website. Retrieved April 25, 2012 from http://www.gloriajeans.com.sg
NetMBA. (2010). The marketing mix (the 4 Ps of marketing). NetMBA. Retrieved April 25, 2012 from http://www.netmba.com/marketing/mix/
Starbucks Singapore, website. Retrieved April 25, 2012 from http://www.starbucks.com.sg/index.html
Mbuti Pygmies of the Ituri Forest
The Mbuti pygmies are a nomadic tribe who inhabit the southern and central portions of the Ituri forest, in the epublic of Congo. They are an ethnocentric and homogenous society whose traditions, gender relations, kinship, social organization have remained unchanged until the last fifty years. The Mbuti tribe is divided into two sub-groups, the Efe and the Mbuti. Currently there are between 20,000 and 50,000 Mbuti people in the Congo (Ojo, 1996). The Mbuti pygmies are hunter-gatherers and have practiced hunting and foraging for thousands of years. Many of the foods they find in hunting and foraging expeditions, especially meat and wild honey, are used as trade items with neighboring tribes like the Bila or Bira people. The Mbuti pygmies are primarily net hunters while the Efe sub-groups of the Mbuti tribe use the bow and arrow. According to Denslow and Padoch (1988) in…
(Bayrock E 20110517 Comparison of kinship systems) Bayrock, E. (n.d.). Comparison of kinship systems. Retrieved May 17, 2011, from http://www.2cyberwhelm.org/archive/diversity/commun/htm/compare.htm
(Denslow J. Padoch C. 1988 People of the tropical rainforest) Denslow, J., & Padoch, C. (Eds.). (1988). People of the tropical rainforest. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.
(Ichikawa M. 1999 Mbuti of northern congo) Ichikawa, M. (1999). The Mbuti of northern Congo. In R.Lee & R. Daly (Eds.), The Cambridge enclyclopedia of hunters and gatherers (pp. 201-215). Cmbridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
(Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures 1999 Effe and Mbuti) Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia Of World Cultures. (1999). Effe and Mbuti. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://find.galegroup.com/gps/start.do?prodId=IPS&userGroupName=alamco_main
The Amazon also produces industrial products of latex, resins, timber, oil, and other minerals. Wildlife in the Amazon consists of monkeys, sloths, toucans, river dolphins, anacondas, and numerous bird species.
Ecuador is similar to other countries, such as Africa, in respects to religious features, such as ancestor worship. The various cultures demonstrate similar worldview and logic in religious practices. In some religions, the female body symbolizes supernatural beings with social and ritual roles.
Entertainment activities, such as surfing, hiking, horseback riding, and wildlife watching are similar to countries, such as the United States, except the wildlife has different animals than the United States that contain deer, elk, bear, etc. Hiking in Ecuador is different than the United States because the Andes have the tropical climate and are usually muddy where U.S. Mountains are mostly dry areas.
Ecuador's coastal areas are similar in popular activities, such as surfing, but are different…
Introducing Ecuador. (2013). Retrieved from lonelyplanet.com: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/ecuador
Raymond, J. & . (2003). Archaeaology of Formative Ecuador. Retrieved from Doaks.org: http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaks-...ations/pre-columbian-studies/ecuador/ecuador09.pdf
Regions. (2004). Retrieved from Ecuador Travel.org: http://ecuador-travel-guide.org/regions.htm
Fostering Awareness through Cross-Cultural Comparison
Business -- Crossing Cultures
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Geert Hofstede is most known for his cultural dimensions theory. There is a system and a method of assessment that stems from this theory. The world of the 21st century is increasingly both local and global. In these times, there is more international and intercultural communication, business, and travel. For those who conduct international business affairs, differentiation and awareness of cultural behaviors is essential. One cannot conduct successful business transactions and retain a superficial understanding of another culture. Lack of cultural awareness makes for miscommunications and decreased likelihood of sustained business (or other) relationships. In these ways, we may comprehend the necessity and utility of Hofstede's theories. The paper will focus upon Japan, Brazil, Iceland, and India for the comparative and analytical purposes of the exercise. The paper will…
The Architecture of the Maya
Deep in the tangled rainforests of Guatemala and the Yucatan, the Maya made some of the greatest contributions to world architecture. Their stone cities complete with temples, palaces, tombs, and ball courts are fitting monuments to the complex, and highly sophisticated civilization that existed in these regions many centuries before the arrival of the Spanish. Mayan priest-astronomers made elaborate calculations to catalog the passage of time. Great warrior kings immortalized themselves and their deeds on stelae, recording for future generations the contributions they had made toward maintaining the cosmic order. The Maya were the only Pre-Columbian people to ever have invented a complete system of writing. Their glyphs, only recently translated, reveal a people concerned above all with the maintenance of a grand cosmic order. It was an order that was based upon cycles of time - the reason for the…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=91864073"Baldwin, Neil. Legends of the Plumed Serpent: Biography of a Mexican God. New York: PublicAffairs, 1998.
Carter, Milton. Mayan Religion. Unicoi, TN: University of East Tennessee: 26 April 1996 www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=97622794"Gossen, Gary H., ed. South and Meso-American Native Spirituality: From the Cult of the Feathered Serpent to the Theology of Liberation. New York: Crossroad, 1993.
Gowen, Sir Lawrence, Ed. A History of Art. Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England: Andromeda Oxford, Ltd., 1995.
Inomata, Takeshi, and Houston, Stephen D. Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000. Kowalski, Jeff Karl, ed. Mesoamerican Architecture as a Cultural Symbol. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Kuru Sorcery in New Guinea
Introduction to Shirley indenbaum
The author of Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands, Shirley indenbaum, is a cultural anthropologist and professor in the Ph.D. Program in the Department of Anthropology at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. In addition to her ground-breaking research in Papua New Guinea - studying the prion ailment called "kuru" (explored in depth in this paper) and linking cannibalism to kuru - indenbaum has conducted extensive research (and published books and scholarly articles) on cholera in Bangladesh, and on AIDS and HIV in the U.S. And elsewhere. She also has published books titled The Education of Women and the Mortality of Children in Bangladesh, and Knowledge, Power and Practice: the Anthropology of Medicine and Everyday ife, according to her bibliography in the City University of New York Web pages for faculty members (www.gc.cuny.edu/anthropology/fac_lindenbaum.html).
Lindenbaum, Shirley. Kuru Sorcery: Disease and Danger in the New Guinea Highlands.
Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1979.
Nutrition Health Review. "Kuru, a Meat-Eating Disease that affects Cannibals." (2003)
Breaking into the Asian Market:
The Marketing Strategies of the Body Shop and Its Competitors
e live in a global world. Technology, in particular television and the Internet, link together different peoples. They cross the barriers of oceans, mountains, and political frontiers. The decisions that governments make, the actions of environmental activists, and the marketing campaigns of large corporations affect hundreds of millions across the Planet. Time was when a retail operation consisted of a privately-run neighborhood store. The storeowner knew, and interacted with his customers. Goods and services were provided locally. Only rare or unusual objects needed to be imported from far away. The high costs of transportation and communication guaranteed that the horizons of our daily lives extended little further than the distances traversed by long familiar roads and byways.
Today, however, a fashion retailer can manufacture a man's suit in Malaysia or Thailand; ship it to…
Barth, Karen, et al. "Global Retailing: Tempting Trouble." The McKinsey Quarterly (1996): 117+.
Ehrlich, Richard S. "Anita Roddick Calls Bush A War Criminal." Environmentalists Against War. 6 March 2004. URL: http://www.envirosagainstwar.org/edit/index.php?op=view&itemid=1186.
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
Education as Cultural Transmission
Education and societal inequality
Synthesis and Analysis
Education as cultural transmission
Although the precise purpose of education remains in debate, what is clear is that the life lessons needed by young people living in the Amazon rainforests are far different from those needed by young learners in developed nations, so it is reasonable to posit that education can be viewed as a means of cultural transmission that is intended to impart what is regarded as important and valuable to future generations (Harris & Graves, 2010). Young learners in the primitive regions of the Amazon, for instance, would need to know how to hunt and fish for the right types of game and which plants were edible and which should be avoided. These young people would have little or no need (which is not to say desire) for knowing how to design a…
Causarano, A. (2013, September 1). Literacy strategy journal: Planning literacy instruction in a liberal arts college. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(3), 111-117.
Cicero, A.M. & De La Cruz, Y. (1999, May). Teaching and learning creatively: Using children's narratives. Teaching Children Mathematics, 5(9), 544-551.
Georgiou, I. (2011, July). Sociocultural and historical elements in secondary mathematics. Mathematics Teaching, 223, 18-21.
Goldring, L. (2009, November-December). The power of school culture: Research show which traits of a school's culture most affect student achievement, and how schools can work toward positive change. Leadership, 32(2), 32-35.
As all these studies show, ethanol is not exactly the environmental darling that many seem to think it is. It is actually helping to raise food prices, it is adding to world hunger, and producing it may be actually adding to global pollution rather than easing it. Much more study needs to be done on all the aspects of biofuels, including ethanol, and Congress needs to take action and stop subsidizing ethanol and other biofuels until they have been much more heavily studied. Biofuels could be the answer to our transportation problems in the future, but for now, they have far too many problems associated with them to be so heavily subsidized and promoted in America.
Brown, L.. (2008, January 24). Why ethanol production will drive world food prices even higher in 2008. etrieved December 1, 2010, from Earth Policy Institute: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2008/update69.
Decesaro, J. (2006, June). Farming bio…
Brown, L.R. (2008, January 24). Why ethanol production will drive world food prices even higher in 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from Earth Policy Institute: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2008/update69 .
Decesaro, J. (2006, June). Farming bio fuels: Growing crops that can be converted into liquid fuels has come a new focus of America's farmers. State Legislatures, 32, 14+.
Gasoline and corn prices are linked. (2008, August). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 137, 14.
Goodell, J. (2007, August 9). The ethanol scam. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from One of America's biggest political boondoggles: http://www.rollingstone.com .
As they share a common bond in the underlying struggles and challenges that they are wrestling with. This is significant, because it shows how the ice age would force people to work together, to overcome the various weather related issues that are having an impact upon their lives. ("Paleolithic")
The use of various types of tools / technology would change the way humans would live their lives. This is because, the ice age would force everyone to utilize new survival techniques that were often not focused on. Prior to the ice age, most humans were considered to be hunter and gathers. This meant that they would often rely on killing various types of animals, as their way of providing food and clothing for themselves. At the same time, humans would often gather various fruits and berries to consume. Once the ice age began this would all change, as the total…
"Amblin to Alaska." Why Files, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2010
"Ice Ages." Science Clarified, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010
"Paleotlithic." Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2010
Frith, Naill. "Humans Survived the Ice Age by Sheltering. Daily Mail, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
The reality of modern life is that everything has a carbon footprint.
This is why it is important to offset it.
In Carbonica we don't believe in emission credits or permissible levels of carbon emissions.
We believe that the only acceptable level of emissions is zero.
We also believe that trees are the only true carbon offset and Nature's very efficient method of carbon capture.
We would like to help people like you make a difference, and with Carbonica you can become a zero footprint individual and make a positive contribution to the environment.
This mission statement exhibits the opposite problem from the earlier example; it is exhaustive, but it is neither brief nor efficient. It does make clear what services the organization gives (planting trees), but it does not specify how the organization accomplishes that objective until the sixth paragraph: "Our mission is to plant trees and fund multi-story…
Once the practice of Islamic worship the women of that region began to be subjected to stricter codes, from marriage to dress and the risk of honor becoming an even greater issue grew. The terrorization by the Mongols and Turks was quite different from the terror under Saddam. The Mongols and Turks utilized slavery, rape, beatings and murder. Saddam instead took on an entirely different approach. His first goal was fear coupled with violence to maintain the plans he made for the society and culture. He was less about Islam and more about self-promotion and the glorification of Iraq. This type of leader is most like Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union. One never knew when or why you might be targeted.
Following the fall of the Ba'th government, the population of women in Iraq was at approximately 60%. They are a definite majority and should be in a better…
"AEI - Post-Saddam Iraq Conference Series." Welcome to AEI. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Chesler, Phyliss. "Are Honor Killings Simply Domestic Violence?" The Phyllis Chesler Organization. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq | Foreign Affairs." Home | Foreign Affairs. Web. 7 July 2010. .
"Culture in Post-Saddam Iraq:: Middle East Quarterly." Middle East Forum. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Loans needed to buy the equipment and seeds create indebtedness to Western banks. Western professionals are needed to intervene and to manage. The productivity of monocrops (e.g., rice or maize) undermines other native crops. Routledge writes, "The project destabilized traditional farming methods, which further rationalized the use of new technologies from the West, and the displacement of traditional foodstuffs by the HYVs" (316). The whole agro-food system has damaged the soil fertility and made dependent the poorer nations, who are compelled to use the seeds of the manufacturers and their means of industrial growth (fertilizer, experts, credit, etc.). People are viewed as irrational and a hindrance to progress. State control over natural and financial resources consolidates the power of the national ruling party who serves the interests of transnational corporations. Routledge writes, "In the process, traditional subsistence economies and their associated cultures are being destroyed; people face displacement from their…
Johnson, R.J., Peter J. Taylor, and Michael J. Watts, eds. Geographies of Global Change: Remapping the World at the End of the Twentieth Century. 2nd edition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2002; reprint, 2007.
("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1970s-1980s").
President Regan's successor, President George H.. Bush, continued to adhere to the Mexico City Policy. In 1993, it was rescinded by President Clinton. President George . Bush reinstated the policy in 2001 by establishing conditions in the grants awarded to USAID. In addition, President George . Bush extended the policy to apply to any "voluntary population planning" assistance provided by the Department of State. (Obama).
Progress in family planning policy was made in other areas. The federal government recognized that special attention in providing family planning counseling should be paid to countries where overpopulation threatened biodiversity or endangered species. ("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1990s-2009").
In addition, the federal government, especially USAID, worked to use family planning policy to promote the awareness of HIV disease and to promote health practices that would restrict the spread of such diseases. In 2003, USAID established new guidelines…
Clinton Hillary. Foreign Policy Address at the Council on Foreign Relations, May 5, 2009. U.S. Department of State. Web. May 24, 2010.
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Jones K.A. "New Complexities and Approaches to Global Health Diplomacy: View from the U.S. Department of State." PLoS Med 7(5). Web. May 24, 2010
Obama, Barack. "Memorandum to the Secretary of State: Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning," January 23, 2009. Web. May 24, 2010.
In this regard, Green and her colleagues emphasize that, "The corporate wealth of logging giant Gunns, Ltd. (which controls over 85% of the state's logging, is the world's largest hardwood woodchip exporter, and is worth over one billion dollars) has not trickled down into the state's economy" (2007, p. 95).
Despite the enormous range of wood products, particularly its valuable hardwoods, that could be produced from Tasmania's forests, more than 90 per cent of the country's hardwood timber is simply processed into woodchips annually, representing 5,000,000 tons of Tasmanian native forest which are then marketed to paper mills in Asia, primarily in Japan but in South Korea and increasingly China as well, accounting for around 70 per cent of Tasmania's total woodchip export production (Green et al., 2007). The sustainment practices used by the forestry industry, though, have been insufficient to replenish what is being extracted.
Forestry Tasmania. The Board…
Australia. (2010). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html.
Brown, B. (2001). Revelations of a green senator. In H. Gee (ed.), for the forests: A history of the Tasmania Forest Campaigns. Hobart: The Wilderness Society, 2001, p. 334 in Owen
Carter, N. (2007). The Politics of the Environment. Ideas. Activism. Policy. 2nd Edn. Cambridge:
A version of this is already in existence in the 17-nation Major Economies Forum. This has been a model of decorum and progress compared with what the world saw unfold at the climate talks (Sarwar and Chesterman, 2009).
One country in particular that did not come away from Copenhagen 15 with any warm and fuzzy feelings was that of Canada. Canada's once good reputation as an international leader has been seriously damaged because of its repeated failure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). While many of the COP 15 countries have successfully managed to reduce emissions since 1990, Canada's GHG emissions have increased 26.2% over the same period (Elston, 2009). Canada has never before seen its international reputation sink so low, with environmental groups and officials from many countries accusing Canada of obstructing an urgently needed world treaty on climate change (Lalonde, 2009).
Most feel that Copenhagen 15 was a…
COP-15 Copenhagen Climate Conference. (2009). Retrieved January 23, 2010, from tcktcktck
Web site: http://tcktcktck.org/events/major-moments/cop-15-copenhagen-climate-conference
Decisions adopted by COP 15 and CMP 5. (2009). Retrieved January 23, 2010, from UNFCC
Web site: http://unfccc.int/meetings/cop_15/items/5257.php
The price point may be the highest in the region, but Kingbilli should be wary of charging too high a price for what essentially is a special bed-and-breakfast experience rather than a five-star international resort experience. The product needs to reflect the pricing. Amenities and facilities should be first rate, although guests should be made to understand not to expect a top of the line service experience, as Kingbilli simply does not have the staff to support that.
The promotion at present emphasizes the nature and animals at the estate, but it does not focus on the quality of the experience that the customer will have. The promotion, while maintaining the low-key feel of the present promotion, should going forward emphasize the customer experience. Consumers are willing to pay a premium price if they feel that they are receiving a premium experience. Kingbilli needs to understand that its marketing must…
Kingbilli Estate website. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from http://www.kingbilli.com.au
Ecotourism Australia website. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from http://www.ecotourism.org.au/
Hall, C. & Boyd, S. (2005) Nature-based tourism in peripheral areas: development or disaster? Channel View Publications.
Bricker, K. & Kerstetter, D. (2002). Ecotourists and ecotourism: Benefit segmentation and experience evaluation. West Virginia University. Retrieved January 14, 2010 from http://fama2.us.es:8080/turismo/turismonet1/economia%20del%20turismo/turismo%20y%20medio%20ambiente/ECOTOURISTS%20AND%20ECOTOURISM%20BENEFIT%20SEGMENTATION%20AND%20EXPERIENCE%20EVALUATION.PDF
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
Phyllis Jay briefly touches on the subject of primates swimming in the book Behavior of Nonhuman Primates; in discussing the habitat of African monkeys, Jay writes (Jay, 1965, p. 535) that the "…distribution of arboreal monkeys is restricted by open, relatively treeless areas" and "rivers are barriers to arboreal monkeys but not to terrestrial forms, many of which swim" (Jay, p. 535).
"Long-tailed macaques are excellent swimmers, and this may be a predator avoidance technique," writes the University of isconsin's Kristina Cawthon Lang in Primate Factsheet. If the long-tailed macaque is threatened by a feral dog, raptor, python, monitor lizard or large cat, the macaque simply drops into the water and swims to safety (Lang, 2006).
In its "Science & Nature: Animals" section, the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) published a story on the Long-tailed Macaque: "Long-tailed macaques swim well and jump into the water from nearby trees" (BBC).
Ankel-Simons, Friderun. (2007). Primate Anatomy: An Introduction. St. Louis:
British Broadcasting Company. (2007). Long-tailed macaque, crab-eating monkey, Java
Monkey, cynomolgus monkey. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/210.shtml.
The Bank has taken a proactive role worldwide. It has attempted to adopt a vocal role in addressing concerns of biodiversity, ozone depletion, narcotics, crime, corruption, and post-conflict reconstruction, particularly in the Balkans and est Bank.
The orld Bank has lent money to admittedly undemocratic, often brutal dictatorships, in the hopes that economic stability will lead to government reform. Yet "the public infrastructure projects funded by the IBRD have consistently been recognized as unmitigated disasters. Notably, Brazil's Polonoroeste road-building project set a significant portion of the Amazon rainforest on fire; the Sardar Sarovar dam project in India uprooted 240,000 Indians and was condemned by the orld Bank's own panel of investigators;...Internal reports suggest that one-third of orld Bank financed projects are failing" (eekes 2005)
There is a risk that the Bank may be duplicating the role of existing UN agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (eekes 2005). The UN…
About us." The World Bank. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,contentMDK:20653660~menuPK:72312~pagePK:51123644~piPK:329829~theSitePK:29708,00.html
Weekes, Rob. "World Bank: Success or Failure?" Ideabate.org. June 21, 2005.
March 10, 2009 at http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=173