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Rational Theory and Charlotte NC

Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20088648



It is methodological individualism which makes up the group, creating problems for the ational Theories which tout individualism as the driving force in motivation. Some say that the actions of individuals results in an unintended consequence when done in a group (Scott, p. 30).

If you look long enough for the secret of society you will find it in plain sight: the secret of society is that it was made by men, and there is nothing in society but what men put there'" (Homans, p. 385).

Captain David Poston, head of the CMPD Property Crimes Unit, who spoke to the problem of this rash of burglaries within the metropolitan area in November, 2007, said that "while citywide, burglaries were down nearly 5% last year compared to 2006, we have seen an increase in the past couple of weeks" (Charlotte, p. 1).

He admits that over the month preceding, detectives saw…… [Read More]

References

Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Dept. (2008). Recent spike in home break-ins: suspects & Methods. Crime in Charlotte, NC. Retrieved January 26, 2008 at  http://www.crimeincharlotte.com/ .

Homans, G. (1961). Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Scott, John. (2000). Rational Choice Theory. Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Boston: Sage Publications.
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Rational Xde Modeling Tool

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73816690

ational XDE modeling tool

We recently received the ational XDE modeling tool for use in class and luckily I had some previous practice using it. "XDE Professional, originally released in February, is a tool that allows software developers to "model" -- or create graphical representations of -- their software, so they need to write less code to build applications." (Wong, 2002) This report aims to describe my understanding of XDE and gives some back ground to its potential for both modeling and drawing. In theory and in most cases ational XDE makes design and development faster by allowing the designer to work on two different aspects of software creation in one environment. ational as an organization also created the Unified Modeling Language or UML tool ational ose which is still a pretty well used modeling tool for Internet and object oriented design projects. "The original version of XDE for .Net…… [Read More]

References

Wong, Wylie (2002). Rational rethinks modeling tool for .Net. CNET News.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2005, from  http://news.com.com/Rational+rethinks+modeling+tool+for+.Net/2100-1001_3-954425.html
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Rational Business Decision

Words: 488 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77345501

Rational Business Decision

Poor Decision Making

One of the most difficult things to admit is when one has made a mistake. In retrospect, the decision not to promote Ms. X, given her sterling performance for our competitors, is one such a poor decision on my part.

However, I have learned from my mistake. I realize that I should not have rejected her request for a promotion, and the added responsibilities that such a position entailed out of hand.

At first, deploying what is known as Recognition Primed Decision Making, under the stressful situation of her immediate prompting, I bridled at the idea of paying her more, because I knew that the department was financially strapped.

However, she requested an audience with me. Still, I rejected her request again, deploying the Explanation-Based Model of decision making, when a decision maker such as myself "will attempt to create a full story from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Khan, Larry. (2004) Decision Making Models. MIT Website. Retrieved on June 15, 2004 at http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/1285/decision.html

Scholl, Richard. (1999) Decision Making Models Summary. Retrieved on June 15, 2004 at http://www.cba.uri.edu/Scholl/Notes/Decision_Making_Models.htm
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People Make Tough Choices by

Words: 1648 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5498587

His checklist includes:

1. ecognize that there is an ethical issue.

2. Determine the actor, i.e. whose issue it is.

3. Gather the relevant facts.

4. Test for right vs. wrong - if it is, then this is not an ethical issue, but a moral one.

5. Test for right vs. right paradigms.

6. Apply the three decision-making frameworks.

7. Investigate "trilemma" options, in which one seeks a creative resolution which satisfies all values at stake.

8. Make the decision.

evisit and reflect on the decision later (Kidder, 1995, pgs. 183-186).

A decision maker who uses these tools will have a better chance of correctly analyzing the problem, and coming up with a workable solution. As Kidder clearly illustrates in the book, some decisions are compromises, and some are simply ethically sound from the beginning. Each problem is unique, and so is each solution. Managers must be able to recognize…… [Read More]

References

Kidder, Rushworth M. (1996). How Good People Make Tough Choices. New York: William and Morrow, Company.
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Usefulness of Rational Decision-Making for Managers When Making Strategic Choices

Words: 2232 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77478288

Management

"Critically evaluate the usefulness of rational decision-making for managers when making strategic choices"

Characteristics of strategic decisions

Long-term survival of the organization

Scope of organization activities

esources and competences / Competitive advantage

Then strategy is concerned with the strategic fit to the external environment

Stakeholders' expectations

Power in the organization - The expectations and worth of powerful agents in and around the company

Strategy as ational decision making

Set objectives

Understand problem

Determine options

Evaluate options

Improvement in strategic decision making

Involvement of different stakeholders

Organization should have focus and flexibility

Organization should learn the strategy

eferences

Introduction

Strategic management is the process of determining clear objectives of the company, and evaluation of internal and external environment in order to form a strategy solution, implement it, assess the progression, and make adjustments accordingly. In this report we will discuss the usefulness of rationale decision making for managers while making…… [Read More]

References

Bazer. M 2006, 'Judgement in Managerial decision making', Ed. 6th, New York, Publisher, Wiley.

Bontempo, R., Lobel, S. & Triandis. H 1990, 'Compliance and value internalization in Brazil & the U.S. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology', 20, pp., 200-213

Cooke, S & Slack, N 1991, 'Making Management Decisions', Ed. 2nd, Publisher, Prentice Hall.

David Hunger & Thoman L.Wheelen 2010, 'Strategic Management and business policy' Ed.12th, Saint Peterburg, Florida, Publisher, Prentice Hall.
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Role of Rational Reasoning in

Words: 764 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60156103

Thus, I was faced with a situation, which involved an opportunity cost irrespective of the choice made.

This realization finally led me to exercising my critical thinking ability. In other words, I followed a process of compiling and organizing relevant data and thoughts, which I felt would enable logical thinking and a well thought out decision. On completion of this exercise, I realized that I would necessarily have to seek further guidance in solving my problem since the alternatives I faced continued to be equally attractive.

It was at this point in time that I realized the need for a good decision making model. With this knowledge, I set out to research various decision making models, finally settling for the rational model, which seemed to be most appropriate to the situation I faced. Indeed, I found the rational model to be highly effective since it is based on an economic…… [Read More]

References

Hardman, D., & Harries, C. (2002, Feb). How Rational Are We? The Psychologist.

Retrieved Sept. 28, 2004:  http://www.fortunecity.com/emachines/e11/86/decision.html 

Lahti, R.K. (1996). Group Decision Making within the Organization: Can Models

Help? Center for the Study of Work Teams, University of North Texas. Retrieved September 19, 2004: http://www.workteams.unt.edu/reports/lahti.htm
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Management the Usefulness of Rational

Words: 1988 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72806881

This also includes making sure that bias is not an influence in the decision making process.

Conclusion

Change is often brought about by internal and external factors. The desired change in any organization cannot be brought about without implementing organizational change strategies. The entire process requires assessing, planning, implementing, benchmarking and keeping an eye on the goals and objectives of the organization. To bring about the preferred changes a strong, secure and motivated leader is necessary. In this fast paced world where each and every company fights to survive and grow, the leader must be able to expand vision and unite the organization. Adjusting to new competitive and market demands is a significant instrument for both organizational and personal survival. To bring about a desired change in an organization careful formulation of organization change strategy in order to address the key variables that affect the change outcome is required (Strategies…… [Read More]

References

Allwood, C, & Salo, I 2012, 'Decision-making styles and stress', International Journal of Stress Management, 19, 1, pp. 34-47, viewed 21 March 2012.

By, R 2005, 'Organisational Change Management: A Critical Review', Journal of Change Management, 5, 4, pp. 369-380, viewed 21 March 2012.

Decision Making Confidence. 2012. A Variety of Rational Decision Making Models. [ONLINE] Available at:  http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/rational-decision-making-models.html . [Accessed 21 March 12].

National Defense University. n.d. Strategic Leadership and Decision Making. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt1ch4.html. [Accessed 21 March 12].
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What Are the Differences Between the Rational and the Carnegie Approaches to Decision Making

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14100198

quantum and incremental technological change? Why are these types of change important to organizations?

Quantum and incremental technological changes are distinguished as two separate forces in terms of their impact upon organizations. Quantum changes are conceptualized as technological changes that result "in the innovation of new kinds of goods and services, such as development of the Internet and the development of genetic engineering" (Promoting innovation, 2014,-Page Out). Quantum changes thus generate the necessity for new business models. A good example of this is the creation of Netflix as a way of disseminating movies and television shows vs. The old model of Blockbuster which sold items via brick-and-mortar stores. Blockbuster's model quickly became defunct because of quantum changes in technology. In contrast, "incremental technological change is change that refines existing technology and leads to gradual improvements or refinements in products over time, such as Intel's incremental improvements to its original microprocessor"…… [Read More]

References

Promoting innovation, product development, and entrepreneurship. (2014). Page Out. Retrieved:

http://www.pageout.net/user/www/i/c/icpm/ms1%202nd/Ch1-8_review.pdf

Organizational decision-making. (2014). Management 481. Retrieved from:

http://faculty.wiu.edu/E-Solymossy/Presentations/MGT%20481/Organizational%20Decision-Making.pdf
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William Styron's Sophie's Choice

Words: 2631 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24658395

William Styron's novel Sophie's Choice presents an almost unimaginably terrible moral dilemma to the reader. In the novel, the character Sophie and her two children are taken to the Nazi death camp Auschwitz-irkenau during the Nazi purge of the Jews. When entering the camp and being examined by an SS officer that is also a doctor, she tells the doctor that there has been a mistake, that she is not Jewish, but Catholic, and that she should be spared. Allegedly sympathizing with her, the doctor then allows Sophie a "reward," and her reward is to be able to save one of her children -- but she must choose which one is to be saved and which one is to die right there on the spot. There are several ways that one could ultimately view Sophie's decision to save Jan, her elder boy, such as using a Kantian, a utilitarian, or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Honderich, Ted, ed. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. New York: Oxford UP, 1995.

Styron, William. Sophie's Choice. New York: Random House, 1999.
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Body Armor Policy Rational for

Words: 782 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93759542

12% of the departments reported their officers are not fitted for body armor, other than receiving a size that approximates their body size. Given the importance of fit to the proper functioning of body armor, this percentage is of some concern. 90% of the reporting agencies do not conduct inspections to ensure that officers' body armor fits well and/or is maintained properly. Of the few agencies that do conduct these inspections, most frequently, inspections for fit are conducted only once a year or less. 78% of law enforcement agencies surveyed do not have a database or automated record system for a body armor replacement schedule and nearly one-quarter of agencies have no policy concerning replacement of body armor so it's difficult to ascertain how often they actually replace their armor (Police Executive esearch Forum, 2009).

Discussion

Zakhary and Carnes (2007) report gaining acceptance of concealable body armor has been difficult.…… [Read More]

References

Police Executive Research Forum (2009). The BJA/PERF body armor national survey: Protecting the nation's law enforcement officers. Retrieved August 20, 2010, from:  http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/pdf/PERF_BodyArmor.pdf 

U.S. Department of Justice (1998, October). Selection and application guide to policde body armor, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Guide 100-98. Retrieved August 20, 2010, from:  http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/169587.pdf 

Zakhary, Y.A., & Carnes, P. (2007, December ). Baiiistic body armor: a chief's refreasher course. The police Chief, Vol.74, No.12. Retrieved August 20, 2010, from:  http://policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=1340&issue_id=122007
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Humans Have Been Contemplating Their

Words: 1076 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94761475

g. stealing bread in Les miserable), and allowing the nature of punishment be focused more on the crimes that tend to hurt society the most.

Part 2 -- Developmental Theories and Understanding of Criminal Behavior - the basic idea of development theories of crime have at their core the idea that humans are actually either inherently good (more Locke) or more of a blank slate in which society/culture leaves its mark. Any antisocial behaviors must develop over time and are the result of some sort of underlying behavior or condition that occurs and is amplified during life's processes and activities. Circumstances, not an inherent bent on being deviant, is what makes this theory work.

The theory changes the position of how we view criminal activity in that some actions increase the possibility of deviance, while others decrease crime. It is not, however, as simple as nature vs. nurture. People who…… [Read More]

References Taken From:

Cullen, F. & Agnew, R. (2011). Criminological Theory: Past to Present. New York:

Stafford, M. & Warr, M. (2011). Reconceptualizing Deterrence Theory. In Cullen & Agnew. Criminological Theory: Past to Present. New York:

Oxford University Press, pages 394-99.
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Public Policy Analysis There Is a Sense

Words: 2694 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93362737

Public Policy Analysis

There is a sense that politics operates on a continuum scale whose extremes are rationality and irrationality. Politicians make laws that can be seen from both perspectives depending on the particular position of the person judging whether the particular statute is good or bad. Public policy can be judged by either rational choice theory or the converse of that. The difference in the two can be seen in how crimes are litigated. A rational person can make the choice whether an act is right or wrong and has specific knowledge of how society will view that act. An irrational person is one who, for some reason, is not deemed competent to understand that what they have done is criminal in nature. Irrationality is the reason that individuals below a certain age cutoff are generally not treated with the same deterrent stance as adults, why people with metal…… [Read More]

References

Dye, T.R. (2012). Understanding public policy. Upper Saddle river, NJ: Pearson Education, Ltd.

Keel, R. (2005). Rational choice and deterrence theory. Retrieved from  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/ratchoc.html 

Kelling, G.L. & Bratton, W.J. (1998). Declining crime rates: Insiders' views if the New York City story. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 88(4), 1217-1229.

Nordin, M., Pauleen, D.J., & Gorman, G.E. (2009). Investigating KM antecedents: KM in the criminal justice system. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2): 4-20. Retrieved from http://lpis.csd.auth.gr/mtpx/km/material/JKM-13-2a.pdf
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Free Will vs Determinism Making

Words: 313 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86587208

However, a determinist theorist could argue that given the wage inequity between the genders, women who turn to prostitution may do so due to the lack of professions that pay good wages for female employees.

Drug use is another issue that generates much debate. Rational choice theorists often follow the "Just say no" route, and that drug addicts should be penalized for violating the law. Determinists, on the other hand, point out that laws vary by society, and that the laws prohibiting marijuana use only reflect the values of a select elite.

Rational choice theorists may also condemn people who commit euthanasia, whether or not the act was committed with a patient's consent. However, determinists would look more into the situation. Was the patient terminally ill and in pain? Was there consent? These questions will help a determinist in evaluating whether or not a crime has occurred.… [Read More]

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Portrayed in Sequential Arts Us

Words: 4281 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54235491

Consequences of these choices only compound his deep-seated insecurities. (Zushi)

Both Ben and Miko are Japanese-Americans, and their shared ethnic background impacts on their lives in significantly different ways. Miko is proactive and politicised -- she is the assistant organiser of a film festival showcasing Asian-American talent. Ben, meanwhile, is a depressive manager of a local cinema, seemingly content in his life of slow-burning frustration and -- not surprisingly -- covert masturbation.

Sexual stereotyping is at the heart of the story. The title itself is a reference to Ben's feeling of inadequacy in the trousers department (underneath the dust jacket, the book cover bears a life-size image of a ruler). At one point, Ben recalls a "stupid joke": "hat's the difference between Asian men and Caucasian men?" The punchline -- "the cauc" -- is both funny and deeply uncomfortable. "I actually heard a girl tell that joke in college! I…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 16 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/66/.

The Comic-Book Heroes with a Touch of Genius." The Daily Mail (London, England) 22 Dec. 2006: 64. Questia. 15 Jan. 2008  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018563927 .

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107528075

Dunford, Richard. "Chapter 4 Developing a Research Proposal." Surviving Your Thesis. Ed. Suzan Burton and Peter Steane. New York: Routledge, 2004. 46-58. Questia. 15 Jan. 2008  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107528130 .
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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]

References

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Boudon 2001 and Eskensberger 2001

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 66240861

Their anticipated and desired results for their education, personal or practical, may vary widely in unpredictable ways. The attitudes towards educational processes may differ due to the greater and more diverse social and life experiences that color perceptions of classroom life, even more so than the raw educational materials used in the classroom. The teacher must balance addressing individual needs through conferences, personal contacts, and allowing for more independent research, yet also strive even harder to create a coherent class dynamic and unity between individuals with different schedules and belief structures. This may require greater management on a technical level as well as greater personal finesse than might be expected by an educator with experience only teaching undergraduates.

Eskensberger (2001) on the subject of "Action Theory" provides some interesting supporting evidence to address the difficulties posed by a mixed classroom of old and young learners, or adult learners of diverse…… [Read More]

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Street Level Hispanic Drug Gangs

Words: 2051 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6980434

There are many factors that are not dealt with within the ambit of the theory; for example the extent to which the Hispanic culture has become a part of the mainstream culture. Therefore there are many critics of this theory who believe that it is an oversimplification of the reality on the ground. "Many scholars of criminology, however, believe the alien conspiracy theory is an oversimplification of the very complex and multi-ethnic nature of crime..." (Historical interpretations on Prohibition and organized crime)

3. Conclusion

In the final analysis Hispanic street gangs are a phenomenon that is strongly related to ethnic and social factors and to the way that the individual perceives of him or herself in relation to the larger society. While both ational Choice Theory and Alien Conspiracy Theory can explain aspects of the Hispanic gang phenomenon, they often do not account for all the factors affecting Hispanic street…… [Read More]

References

Arfaniarromo, A. (2001). Toward a Psychosocial and Sociocultural Understanding of Achievement Motivation among Latino Gang Members in U.S. Schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28(3), 123. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000891430 

Boose, D.W. (2003). Rethinking the Korean War. Parameters, 33(4), 175+. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002573236 

Coughlin, B.C., & Venkatesh, S.A. (2003). The Urban Street Gang after 1970. 41+.

Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S.E. (Eds.). (2004). Teen Gangs: A Global View. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107029652
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Seeking the Ramifications in Cognitive Theory

Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93811635

Criminology

Application of Schools of Criminal Thought

Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.

Theoretical Criminology Frameworks

Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems…… [Read More]

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Criminology One of the Most

Words: 2099 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84688714

In this particular case, it appears that at least two elements of Ms. Stewart's arrest and her subsequent sentencing can be related to consensus theory.

Berle's theory of public consensus focuses on conditions within a civil society, where the consensus of the public forms a continuous although informal check on the powers of decision making held by managers (Moore and eberioux, 2010, p. 1113). In other words, managers and other powerful entities within corporations are subject to the public eye, which should serve as a deterrent for corporate crime. In a more formal way, this public consensus is legalized within guidelines and rules implemented by entities such as the SEC and other government agencies governing business ethics.

In the light of the above, one might therefore state that Martha Stewart's arrest for insider trading is the result of legal and public consensus regarding her guilt. She was found guilty according…… [Read More]

References

Leone, M. (2004, Jun. 4). Martha Stewart Arrested. Retrieved from:  http://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/3009528 

Moore, M.T. And Reberioux, a. (2010). Corporate Power in the Public Eye: Reassessing the Implications of Berle's Public Consensus Theory. Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 33. No. 4. Retrieved from:  http://digitalcommons.law.seattleu.edu 

PBS NewsHour. (2004, Jul 16). Martha Stewart Sentenced. Retrieved from:  http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec04/stewart_7-16.html
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IR Theory in International Relations Theory Realists

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74298761

IR Theory

In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.

Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.

McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.

Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
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Tension Between Theory and Practice

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79413681



International Social Science eview, 85(1-2), 62-63.

Halachmi, a. & Bouckaert, G. (1996). Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

3.

How has congressional agenda setting changed over time?

The agenda of the U.S. Congress has been closely aligned with its role as the legislative branch of the U.S. government. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1991), "The first Congress under the Constitution met on March 4, 1789 in the Federal Hall in New York City" (p. 301). Indeed, the creation of the U.S. Congress coincided with the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. In this regard, Black's (1991) adds that, the U.S. Congress was created pursuant to Article I, Section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787 providing that "all legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Colker, R. (2007). The mythic 43 million Americans with disabilities. William and Mary Law

Review, 49(1), 1-3.

Vile, J.R. (1994). Constitutional change in the United States: A comparative study of the role of constitutional amendments, judicial interpretations, and legislative and executive actions. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Economics Why Do Consumers Make Irrational Decisions

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64561960

Economics

Why Do Consumers Make Irrational, Decisions?

In economics there is usually the underlying assumption that people who make choices will act in a rational manner, weighing up the costs and the benefits and determining a course of action dependent which choice provides them with the greatest benefit. The assumption may appeal to logic, and is seen in rational choice theory, but the reality is many consumers will not act in a rational manner, making choices that result disadvantages or costs rather than benefits. There are a number of influences which may explain how and why consumers do not always make the rational or optimal choices in economic terms.

One of the key aspects of rational choice theory, which dictates individuals will make rational choices are the underlying assumption that individuals making the choices will be in possession of perfect information regarding the choices and the potential outcomes, and that…… [Read More]

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Management and Decision Sciences From

Words: 25680 Length: 90 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55501983

76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…… [Read More]

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Swarovski's Customer in the Digital

Words: 5507 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 43047950



Based on the attributes of luxury brand, the luxury brand requires special marketing strategy to achieve brand objectives. The strategy assists in developing global brand reputation as well as forming brand awareness within the global competitive environment. (Moore and Birtwistle 2005).

In the contemporary marketing environment, experiential marketing has become a cornerstone of marketing, and retailing for luxury brand. Experiential marketing is the technique of viewing consumer as an emotional and rational being who aims to achieve pleasurable experiences. (Atwal et al. 2008). Typically, experiential marketing offers customer memorable experiences in order to achieve customer satisfaction and competitive market advantages. The experiential marketing uses different tools to create the memorable experiences for customers. For example, experiential marketing organizes entertainment for customers in order to educate them, allow them to escape the reality, as well as giving them aesthetic objects or places to see. Experiential marketers use different tools to create…… [Read More]

References

Atkin, D. (2004). The Culting of Brands: When Customers Become True Believers. New York: Portfolio.

Atwal, G. & Williams, a. (2008). Luxury brand marketing -- the experience is everything! Brand Management .16 (5/6):338 -- 346.

Belch, G.E. & Belch, M.A. (2003). Advertising and Promotion, an Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective (Sixth Edition). The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Bruce, M . And Kratz, C .(2007). Competitive Marketing Strategies in Luxury Fashion Companies. in: T. Hines and M. Bruce (eds.) Fashion Marketing: Contemporary Issues, 2nd edn., New York: Elsevier / Butterworth-Heinemann.
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Enlightenment

Words: 942 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70781686

17th century and our contemporary world began with an early, optimistic outlook of hope and promise of a better future, exemplified by movements like the Enlightenment, the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions, culminating in the Information Age, environmental awareness and globalisation. It is during this period that a paradigm shift from faith (religion) to reason as the principal source of legitimacy and authority occurred (Badger). The shift occurred against the backdrop of ideals such as science, tolerance, liberty, democracy, secularism, free will and humanism. However, the period is also scared with false starts and failures, violent schisms, world wars, imperialism, terrorism, irrational nationalism, extreme religious war, information overload, pollution and the threat of nuclear annihilation that indicate failure of the rational model promised by the Enlightenment. On the premise of this dichotomy of hope and failure, this essay critically demonstrates the failure of the Enlightenment project, especially from a social and…… [Read More]

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Death Penalty Capital Punishment Is a Controversial

Words: 1495 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86325395

Death Penalty

Capital punishment is a controversial topic because it involves the taking of a human life as a punishment. Traditionally, Judeo-Christian and other mainstream religions strictly prohibit killing because they regard the matter of giving and taking of human life as exclusively within the jurisdiction of God and never something that is appropriately executed by the operation of human decisions or judicial determination.

In modern times, secular society has recognized several other equally important conceptual objections to relying on capital punishment within the framework of crime control and punishment.

Specifically, there may be good reason to believe that the death penalty has, historically, been applied unequally to offenders of minority communities and to members of society who lack the necessary means to secure their legal rights to their fullest extent by virtue of poverty. Moreover, despite the often-cited proposed justification that the death penalty provides an effective deterrent to…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Bantam Books.

Kaveny, C. "Justice or vengeance: is the death penalty cruel and unusual?"

Commonwealth, (February 18, 2008).
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Geniuses History Will Never Even Be Aware

Words: 2692 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74847366

geniuses, history will never even be aware that most people even lived at all, much less that their lives had any real purpose, meaning or worth. All ideas of human equality and natural rights are just pious little myths and fables, since only a handful will ever have the talent and intelligence to be recognized as standing out from the anonymous masses. This world is a very cruel and Darwinian place in which only a handful achieve success and recognition, at least by the material and monetary standards that the capitalist system values so highly. In short, the majority of people who ever lived have simple been drones and worker bees, and if they have any talents or worth, few will ever notice them outside of their narrow little spheres of existence. Many people may have certain natural talents but make little effort to develop them, and through bad luck…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Boss, Judith. Perspective on Ethics, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2002

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP).  http://plato.stanford.edu/
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CO2 Emissions the Willingness of

Words: 3440 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75656363



People have been unmotivated to offset the cabon dioxide emissions of automobiles due to a pesonal attachment to thei cas. Howeve, they have also been moe willing to implement pocedues and poducts in thei home that ae moe enegy efficient. One notable example of this concens electicity and light fixtues. In ecent yeas, lighting that is moe enegy efficient has become incedibly popula, and it has been shown that people ae even willing to pay geate sums of money to puchase lighting systems that ae moe enegy efficient (Stall-Meadows, Hebet, 2001). Such behavio stands in stak contast with consume habits with egad to automobiles, and this is pehaps attibutable to the fact that electicity is viewed as being moe utilitaian and less of a status symbol. It may also be a esult of the fact that cas ae moe public while electicity is featued in the pivacy of one's own…… [Read More]

references: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77, 45-72.

Longo, a., Hoyos, D., & Markandya, a. (2012). Willingness to pay for ancillary benefits of climate change mitigation. Environmental and Resource Economics, 51(1), 119-140.

Nolan, J.M. (2010). "An Inconvenient Truth" increases knowledge, concern, and willingness to reduce greenhouse gases. Environment and Behavior, 42(5), 643-658.

Peters, G.P., et al. China's growing CO2 emissions -- a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(17), 5939-5944.

Reiner, D.M., et al. (2006). American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming. Environmental Science Technology, 40(7), 2093-2098.
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Justice Has Been Explained by

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6773329



Rawls sets out to propose a new theory, which he does by formulating two principles and "to show that the two principles of justice provide a better understanding of the claims of freedom and equality in a democratic society than the first principles associated with the traditional doctrines of utilitarianism, with perfectionism, or with institutionalism" (Rawls, Political Liberalism 292).

Nozick suggests an entitlement theory of justice that might seem to reflect the categorical imperative but which actually counters Kant's theory of property. John Rawls offered a revision of Kantian theory so it could be used as a grounding in ethical theory. Nozick also shows a strong commitment to prepolitical individual rights. He also recognizes that there are forces, including past injustices, which shape our holdings in society in various ways, raising the question of what ought to be done to rectify these injustices:

The general outlines of the theory of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.

Nozick, Robert. "The Entitlement Theory." In Morality and Moral Controversies, John Arthur (ed.), 253-259. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

Olen Jeffrey and Vincent Barry. Applying Ethics. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, 1996.

Rawls, John. Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
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Individual Named Carl Is Presented With Specific

Words: 1573 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 84183430

individual named Carl is presented with specific problems that require specific solutions within a specified timeframe. Alternatives and solutions for the problems Carl must address are presented along with recommendations for Carl.

In early April, Carl Robins, the new campus recruiter for AC, Inc., successfully recruited several new hires in spite of having been at his new job for only six months; this was his first recruitment effort. He hired 15 new trainees to work for Monica Carrolls, the Operations Supervisor. He scheduled a new hire orientation to take place June 15, hoping to have all new hires working by July. On May 15, Monica contacted Carl about the training schedule, orientation, manuals, policy booklets, physicals, drug tests, and a host of other issues, which Carl would coordinate for the new hires. Carl assured Monica that everything would be arranged in time.

After Memorial Day, Carl was at his office…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Center for Organizational Management (2012) Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making for Project Managers. Retrieved from:  http://www.coe-partners.com/Products/PSDM.pdf 

Jonnassen, David H. (2010) Research Issues in Problem Solving. The 11th International Conference on Education Research. New Educational Paradigm for Learning and Instruction. September 29 -- October 1, 2010. Retrieved from:  http://aect.org/publications/whitepapers/2010/JonassenICER.pdf
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Risk Tolerance and the Prisoner's

Words: 3024 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 42745036



. Research Design Rationale

1. Question format: In order to allow the research study to become embedded in the field of economics, the research question will use an applied question format. The purpose of the study is to develop a predictive method regarding player choices in the Prisoner's dilemma. It will explore the association of risk and cooperation or defection in the Prisoner's

Dilemma.

2. Research design: The research will use a deductive approach where the theory will be presented and tested through the methodology. The research will use quantitative research methods, which are suited for research where the information can be reduced to a numerical format. This is the case in the proposed study as both risk tolerance and the decisions made in the Prisoner's Dilemma can be reduced to numerical data and standard statistical methods applied.

III. Data/Information from Previous research

A. Literature Review

The literature review for…… [Read More]

Bibliography (Preliminary)

Agarwal, J. & Feils, D. (2007). Political Risk and the Internationalization of Firms: an Empirical

Study of Canadian-based Export and Fdi Firms. Canadian Journal of Administrative

Sciences. 24 (3): 165+. Questia Database.

Ansell, C. & Gash, a. (2008). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 18 (4): 543+. Questia Database.
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Emotional Intelligence Humans Are Living

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Hypothesis Paper #: 97628165

62).

Being dismissed coldly by a partner can be a bit like having a partner die, haram writes on page 62. And when you go through the grief of losing a sweetheart who has been with you for years, "being present in the emotion is the best way forward" even though it "just doesn't feel" right at the time.

Conclusion

Emotional intelligence can be implemented into any situation, especially a situation where death is involved. and, as this paper pointed out through the literature, emotional intelligence helps the sufferer understand why it is necessary to "cry…scream or get angry" when the shock of sudden loss hits. In the end, the emotionally intelligent person will be thankful that he or she did not ignore the emotions. hether or not omens appear in dreams, when the loved one is near death, the steps that are taken to deal effectively with the situation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berta, Peter. (2007). Omens. Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Retrieved March 1, 2011, from http://www.deathreference.com/nu-pu/omens.html.

Goleman, Daniel. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Random House

Digital, Inc.

McBride, Patricia, and Maitland, Susan. (2001). The EI Advantage: Putting Emotional
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Articles by Julie Nelson Gabrielle

Words: 2174 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80226703



Feminist economists can broaden our understanding of economic processes and institutions by exploring the ways in which people's economic opportunities, choices and constraints are influenced by their multiple and often contradictory social locations. Examining the ways in which ostensibly universal categories are constituted by oppositional dualisms can reveal the ways that false universalism naturalized and reproduces social hierarchy and inequality. Finally, taking gender seriously, as well as other significant dimensions of collective identity, will result in less partial and less distorted accounts of people's actual lives in all their many varieties. This can lead to economic theorizing that illuminates economic realities and facilities socially progressive policy analyzes (Burnett, 1999).

Value is the most important word to understand an economic and non-economic context. The word means to be strong or worthy. In purely economic terms is refers to the amount of some commodity, medium or exchange which is considered to be…… [Read More]

References

Baden, Sally. (1999.). Gender, Governance and the 'Feminization of Poverty'. Retrieved

October 3, 2009, from Web site:

http://mirror.undp.org/magnet/events/gender/india/Badefeb2.htm

Burnett, Nancy J. (1999). Commonwealth of Australia. New York: New York Press.
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Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task

Words: 13216 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93148396

" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)

The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at  http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf 

ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at  http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm 

Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.

Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Criminal Theory

Words: 2293 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96623247

Criminology

The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.

Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…… [Read More]

References

"Dr. John Bradford won't work Magnotta case because of PTSD," (2014). CBC. Mar 13, 2014. Retrieved online:  http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/dr-john-bradford-won-t-work-magnotta-case-because-of-ptsd-1.2571463 

Fifth Estate (2010). The Confession. [Video documentary].

Friscolanti, M. (2014). Russell Williams's wife knew he was a predator: victim. Maclean's. Retrieved online:  http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/russell-williamss-wife-knew-he-was-a-predator-victim/ 

La Salle, L. (2013). Colonel Russell Williams where have you been? I've been to London to fly the queen and back to collect artifacts. All Things Crime. Dec 11, 2013. Retrieved online:  http://www.allthingscrimeblog.com/2013/12/11/colonel-russell-williams-where-have-you-been-ive-been-to-london-to-fly-the-queen-and-back-to-collect-artifacts/
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Compliance Gaining of Employees the

Words: 4564 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16737291

" (1997) According to McAdams, rational choice theorists in the 1980s "in various disciplines began to study norms." (1997) Specifically the work of Land and Cooter attempt to explain what it is that in areas of Asia, "ethnic minorities tended to dominate the middleman position in many industries." (McAdams, 1997) the conclusions of Landa and Cooter were that the "ethnically homogenous middlemen groups" are successful in nations that have no stable and reliable enforcement of legal contracts "because the groups' social connectedness gives their members a unique means of sanctioning contract breaches by other groups members" although be it means that are informal in nature. During this same time, Ellickson investigated how Stansta County, California ranchers go about settle disputes concerning property and concluded that "these ranchers enforce informal norm-based rules for disputes involving cattle trespass and boundary fences and thus resolve certain conflicts without the legal regime." (McAdams, 1997)…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Game Theory (2008) Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Online available at  http://www.iep.utm.edu/g/game-th.htm 

Li, Xiangyang (nd) Comments on > by Michael Hechter. Online available at  http://www.som.yale.edu/faculty/Sunder/Phdaccountingcontrol/HechterReviewLi.doc 

McAdams, Richard H. (1997)the Origin, Development and Regulation of Norms. Michigan Law Review 1 Nov 1997.

McAdams, Richard H. (1996) Group Norms, Gossip and Blackmail. 1 May 1996. University of Pennsylvania Law Review.
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Rationalist Theories of International Relations Despite the

Words: 3525 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 568783

Rationalist Theories of International Relations

Despite the name, rationalist theories of international relations are anything but, limited as they are by both an almost childlike understanding of human behavior and a catastrophic lack of imagination. Rationalist theories of international relations, like the Objectivism which developed in the same post-orld ar II period, rely on a number of assumptions which have since been shown to be empirically false. Rationalism assumes that the most important, and in fact, the only entities dictating international relations are nation states, and that these nation states are engaged in a zero-sum game of diplomacy and war, in which the goals of every nation state is eventual dominance above all others, so that international relations are dictated almost exclusively through violence or coercion, with diplomacy essentially reduced to the well-spoken threat of force. Thus, rationalist theories of international relations are not only incorrect, but altogether dangerous, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Art, Robert, and Kenneth Waltz. The use of force: military power and international politics.

Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 2009.

Baylis, John, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Blatter, Joachim. "Performing Symbolic Politics and International Environmental Regulation:
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African Americans in Oil & Gas Industry

Words: 3999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40023298

Lecturer:

I have two observations- one small but interesting and one for which I would like a response.

The first- you have transposed the authors names as Ingram and Schneider- in deed this is small but important - you will want to cite them as Schneider and Ingram going forward- as I said - small but important

Next I think you can develop your response to item 3 regarding your research interest.(my research interest is African-American women in the gas and oil field and how minority set aside programs fail them)

You have made a few claims that public policy is weak and that public policy fails- What is the weakness you have identified? How are you understanding failure? What kind of policies are you including in these statements and what is the connection to your research? I ask that you spend a bit more time on this section and…… [Read More]

References

Auer, M. R. (2014). Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms: The Principled

Optimism of Elinor Ostrom. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 6(4), 265-

271. Retrieved from  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19390459.2014.941177 ?

Baytop, C. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Programs to Improve Educational
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Violent Juvenile Offenders the Innocent

Words: 2799 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 69323110

Though these factors can be an influence on the juvenile's choice to commit a crime, the ultimate cause of the crime was the juvenile's own cost-benefit analysis, according to this model.

A practical exploration of this model can be done using Jacob Ind, one of the five Colorado teenagers sentenced to life in prison without parole in Frontline's documentary, "Kids Who Get Life" (Bikel 2007). Ind was convicted of killing his mother and stepfather after years of sexual abuse. Ind defended himself saying that he did not understand the permanency of murder and just wanted the abuse to end (Bikel 2007). While other models may suggest that the cause of Ind's violent offense was his abuse and his misunderstanding of the consequences of murder, ational Choice Theory would contend that the abuse and misunderstandings influenced his behavior, although they did not cause it. What caused his behavior, the theory would…… [Read More]

References

Boehnke, Klaus and Dagmar Bergs-Winkels. (2002). Juvenile Delinquency Under Conditions of Rapid Social Change. Sociological Forum. 17 (1), 57-79.

Bikel, Ofra. (2007). When Kids Get Life. [Frontline]. Boston: Washington

Educational Foundation.

Hemer, Karen. (1997). Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent
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Application of Criminology Theories Sociology

Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23733167

theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.

Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…… [Read More]

References

Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online:  http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/ 

Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online:  http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
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Behavioral Finance Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making Processes Impacting Financial Markets Information Processing

Words: 22258 Length: 81 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76441446

ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making

Processes Impacting Financial Markets

Understanding the Stock Market

Contrasting Financial Theories

Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis

Financial ubbles and Chaos

The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.

Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.

Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.

This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.

Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.

Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
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Differences Between Constitutional Models

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73228007

Constitutional Models and Political Parties

Constitutionalism and noble representative government are concepts and practices that have existed longer than the American epublic. The existence of these concepts provided the foundation for the formation of the American Democratic Experiment through acting as ingredients towards this process. Since the foundation of American epublic, there are various constitutional models that have been established. These different models have been established in attempts to respond to several governance issues that emerge from time to time. Actually, these different models have provided the foundation for governance models and practices for better governance of the society. Some examples of constitutional models include the 18th Century Madisonian and Hamiltonian constitutional models and Barker's normative democratic theory, which differ with regards to their major components.

Madisonian and Hamiltonian Models v. Normative Democratic Theory

The 18th Century constitutional models basically relied on principles introduced by Madison and Hamilton. Madisonian constitutional…… [Read More]

References

APSA Committee on Political Parties (1950). Towards a More Responsible Two-Party System.

Barker, E. (1942). Reflections on Government.

Garrison, A.H. (2008). Hamiltonian and Madisonian Democracy, The Rule of Law and Why the Courts Have a Role in the War on Terrorism. In Papers from the February 2008 conference: terrorism & justice -- The balance of civil liberties. Retrieved from https://www.ucmo.edu/cjinst/Issue8.pdf

Hamilton, A. (n.d.). The Presidency. The Federalist No.70.
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Education University Retrenchment & Downsizing

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 65789940

A means oriented strategy involves developing improved ways of managing resources while pursuing the organizations goals. Some approaches that are preferred are laying off faculty, decreasing faculty size, increasing budget control, and implementing energy conservation. Least preferred approaches include: laying off administrative staff, decreasing campus maintenance, decreasing salaries, and decreasing student recruitment. educing faculty size has particularly been effective because faculty salaries and fringe benefits usually represent an institutions' single largest expense. They often exceed 50% of the total budget. Because of this faculty retrenchment has become a major retrenchment strategy that is being used today (Budros, 2001, p.223)

When organization make retrenchment decisions it is important that they make rational choices. Classical models of organizational choice are made up of processes that are highly rational and involve the following four basic things: 1) they establishing organizational goals and objectives, 2) they search for alternative actions, 3) they assess the…… [Read More]

References

Appelbaum, Steven H. And Patton, Eric. (2002). Downsizing the university: bonne chance! The

International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2/3), p.126.

Asher, Hanna and Shapiro, Jonathon Z. (1990). Are Retrenchment Decisions Rational? The

Journal of Higher Education, 61(2), p. 121.
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Crime the Importance and Significance

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3336847

The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.

These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007.  http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof 

Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.

Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site.  http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html 

Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
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Law Enforcement and Theories of Crime and Criminals

Words: 1165 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27529104

Schools of Criminology

Schools of Thought

Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime

Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gul, S.K. (2009). An Evaluation of the Rational Choice Theory in Criminology. Sociology & Applied Science, 4(8), 36-44.

Tibbetts, S.G., and Hemmens, C. (2009). Criminology Theory: A Text/Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Vito, G., and Maahs, J. (2011). Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy. Burlington, MA:

Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
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Aristotle's Theory to a Decsion

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56925868

"(Eliot, 850) She cannot help but comply because she had been humiliated and wounded, and she feels morally guilty. Had Rosamond acted in abidance of Aristotle's Ethics, she would have received Dorothea but she would have done so as a result of her own determination. A person is good if he or she is able to deliberate virtuously, according to the context and the circumstances of a certain situation. Rosamond on the contrary feels compelled to act the way she does, simply because she is in a state of psychological bafflement but she does not actually see the truth of the situation and neither is she able to act virtuously. She merely receives the good Dorothea tensely, endeavoring to guess the reason of her visit.

Catharine's conversion to her own traditional religion is determined by a very different motivation. She determines to become faithful to her own culture because she…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. Trans. David Ross. Rev. By J.L. Ackrill and J.O. Urmson: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Eliot, George. Middlemarch. New York: Penguin, 1984.

McNickle, D'Arcy. The Surrounded. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1965.
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Biological Biosocial Classical Theories Biological

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1567850



Biological explanations, in contrast to fair and severe punishment as advocated by classical theorists, stress the need for institutionalization and psychological and medical treatment for the 'ill,' but they also offers what seems like a defeatist attitude towards the improvement of the criminal, as the criminal has no rational choice in his or her behavior. The presumption is that irrationally generated behavior cannot be conditioned out of the individual through incarceration, and criminality must be treated like an illness, although opinions differ as to the best way to go about treating the individual so the criminal is 'cured' of the crime, or if a cure is even possible.

However, biosocial theories suggest that society plays an important role in causing crime, such as social learning theory: "Some children are raised in families in which violence is used as a means to achieve desires. Abusive parents model to their children that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Greek, Cecil. (2005). "Criminological Theory." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/lectures.htm 

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Biological and Psychological Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/biotheor.html 

Keel, Robert. (12 Feb 2007). "Theories of Deviance." Retrieved 17 Dec 2007 at  http://www.umsl.edu/~keelr/200/devtheor.html
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Gun Trafficking and Straw Purchasing

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64736394

Gun Trafficking and Straw Purchasing

Traffic Jam: Straw Runners' Complicity

Rational choice theory is the theory of criminal behavior that posits that when people commit illicit acts, they generally tend to do so while considering their own self-interest. This theorem posits that criminals are well aware of the illegality of that which they are contemplating, and that they take into account a number of factors before first pursuing these actions. Such factors generally include what sort of benefits they will incur (as well as to what degree they will profit) from criminal behavior, which is typically weighed against the likelihood of their getting caught. Furthermore, this theory contends that people who commit crime also are cognizant of the nature and the degree of the punishment they may induce if they are apprehended for committing a crime. In view of all of these factors, when people decide to still commit a…… [Read More]

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Does the Fisher Ury Model Work

Words: 29882 Length: 120 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 38724917

Negotiation Skills

A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations

This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]

References

Allred, K., Mallozzi, J., Matsui, F., Raia, C. (1997). The influence of anger and compassion on negotiation performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 70(3): 175-187.

Andonova, E., Taylor, H. (2012). Nodding in dis/agreement: a tale of two cultures.

Cognitive Process, 13(Suppl 1): S79-S82.

Aristotle. (1889). The Nicomachean ethics of Aristotle. (Trans R.W. Browne).
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Criminal Pathology Extreme Pathologically Antisocial

Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35973881



The Argument for Environmental Influence

The modern fields of criminology and sociology have also established significant direct connections between the external environment and the behavior that develops in the individual (Schmalleger, 2008). egardless of the effects of physiology and biological processes, there is undoubtedly a tremendous influence in the experiences, formative relationships, and role models to which the individual is exposed (Schmalleger, 2008). Many forms of modern crime are largely products of the influence of social circumstances and the norms that prevail in local communities (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). With respect to criminally deviant individuals such as serial killers, there are specific types and patterns of formative experiences and psychological trauma that are known to be associated with those types of criminal deviance (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008; Innes, 2007),

The Argument for the ational Choice Theory

The modern approach to understanding criminal deviance also recognizes the importance of elements…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R. And Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Innes, B. (2007). Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London:

Quercus

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., and Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
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Policy Decision-Making

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46854823

Public Institutions

Professional ethics refer to the ethics that surround a particular profession. These are the ethical standards that surround the job, and they will typically encompass a range of job-specific ethics and basic ethical standards in general. Organizational ethics are the set of ethical standards by which the organization operates. Each organization has its own culture, and that culture will have a built-in set of ethics that may be different from those of similar organizations. Social ethics are the ethics of a society.

At their heart, each code of ethics reflects the standards by which the group of people agrees to operate. So a society, a firm and a professional body are three different groups of people, and each can therefore have their own set of ethical standards and guidelines. Ethical guidelines are part of an agreed structure for any group of people. When one belongs to a group,…… [Read More]

References

Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/ entries/ethics-business/

Johnson, P. (2005). Rational-comprehensive decision-making. Auburn University. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from  http://www.auburn.edu/~johnspm/gloss/rational-comprehensive
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Team Processes

Words: 1217 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34253792

Team Processes

Organizational success depends on an understanding of decision-making, creativity, teamwork, and organizational structure. Chapters 7, 8, and 13 in the text address these concepts fully. These concepts also fill the pages of Websites and readings devoted to helping future managers understand their role, and how they can thrive in any organization. Decision-making is crucial for strong leadership. There are several paradigms and theories that can be applied to the decision-making process. These paradigms and theories help people understand how their cognitive and emotional processes impact their decisions. Understanding the paradigms and theories of decision-making also help people avoid making mistakes, while also learning from past mistakes in order to make better choices for the future.

The rational choice paradigm of decision-making is one of the foremost paradigms that can be applied to the enterprise level. The rational choice paradigm of decision-making is essentially rooted in the utilitarian philosophies…… [Read More]

References

"Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm 

McShane, S.L., & Von Glinow, M.A. (2013). Organizational behavior (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
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Dupont Research in Its Purest Definition Quantitative

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 52186817

Dupont esearch

In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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Analyzing Week One Journal

Words: 1383 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20651499

deterrence perceptions had their biggest influence on the participants that were criminally prone. I think the research arrived at these results because the risk of being caught entail punishments (social and legal) that might come along are some of the aspects that deter criminal-prone individuals from taking part in criminal behaviors. Individuals will always take into consideration the benefits and accruals that they might incur along with the risks of being caught in the course of the criminal act (Wright et al., 2004). The terms associated with crime and criminology employed in this article are deterrence theory and criminal propensity. Basically, deterrence theory can be elucidated as a key element of classical and rational choice theories. In particular, this theory asserts that there is the capacity of controlling crime by employing punishments that mix suitable extents of conviction, harshness, and swiftness. On the other hand, I can define criminal propensity…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), 319-361.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Groff, E. R., Weisburd, D., & Yang, S. M. (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local "micro" level? a longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,26(1), 7-32.

Nagin, D. S. (2013). Deterrence in the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice, 42(1), 199-263.
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Analyzing Week One Journal

Words: 1383 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97360463

deterrence perceptions had their biggest influence on the participants that were criminally prone. I think the research arrived at these results because the risk of being caught entail punishments (social and legal) that might come along are some of the aspects that deter criminal-prone individuals from taking part in criminal behaviors. Individuals will always take into consideration the benefits and accruals that they might incur along with the risks of being caught in the course of the criminal act (Wright et al., 2004). The terms associated with crime and criminology employed in this article are deterrence theory and criminal propensity. Basically, deterrence theory can be elucidated as a key element of classical and rational choice theories. In particular, this theory asserts that there is the capacity of controlling crime by employing punishments that mix suitable extents of conviction, harshness, and swiftness. On the other hand, I can define criminal propensity…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 38(4), 319-361.

Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Groff, E. R., Weisburd, D., & Yang, S. M. (2010). Is it important to examine crime trends at a local "micro" level? a longitudinal analysis of street to street variability in crime trajectories. Journal of Quantitative Criminology,26(1), 7-32.

Nagin, D. S. (2013). Deterrence in the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice, 42(1), 199-263.
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Growth of Global and Regional

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13245571

When economists find that people can be made to act against their own self-interest, or politicians find that voters can be moved to action even if they won't benefit from it, or marketing analysts find that consumers' buying patterns can't be explained by rational choice models alone, it seems that there is something physical and emotional behind these dissonant events. Knowledge and rationality, while certainly important and perhaps even primary, is not entirely complete as an explanatory device for why people act. Knowledge is, it seems, necessary, but not sufficient, as a tool for making predictions about why people act. Ultimately, something else is required.

The view of Kotter and Cohen offers perhaps the most important piece of what that something else is: emotion is the driving force behind the rational, the unconscious mind behind the conscious mind. In order to get people to act on change needs within an…… [Read More]

References

Argyris, C. (1993). Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass)

Kotter, J., and Cohen D., (2002), The heart of change: real-life stories of how people change their organizations (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press)

Lawler, E., and Worley, C., (2006). Built to change: how to achieve sustained organizational effectiveness (San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons).