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Power Taxonomy
Words: 1416 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5768602
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Power Taxonomy

French and aven's power taxonomy contains five different types of power. These are coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and informational power. These different forms of power might have some overlap but there are elements of mutual exclusivity in these forms as well.

Legitimate power is essentially formal power, which reflects social rules. This is where somebody has a position of formal power, and has the expectation that those people subordinate will obey his or her dictates (MindTools, 2014). This is where somebody is "the boss," or otherwise in a position where society grants authority, such as a parent, teacher, judge or other position where there is some formal power ascribed to the position. There are other types of legitimate power based on social norms, such as the power of reciprocity, where somebody might expect a gift on the basis of having given one in some societies (ChangingMinds, 2013). It…


Changing (2013). French and Raven's forms of power. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from 

Frost, T. & Moussavi, F. (2011). The relationship between leader and power base and influence: The moderating role of trust. Journal of Applied Business Research. Vol. 8 (4) 9-14.

Hofstede, G. (2014). Dimensions. The Hofstede Centre. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from 

Mind Tools. (2014). French and Raven's five forms of power. Retrieved March 6, 2014 from

James Michener's The Eagle and
Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87751992
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Sam Houston ended up being the Cherokee spokesman in Washington, and went on to lead Texas to independence. Santa Anna rose through the ranks of the Spanish army due to his heroism -- or at least his ability to draw attention to himself -- and managed to retain and even increase his power in an independent Mexico. It was the specific, individual personalities of these two men that allowed them to shape history in the way they did, and this concept is clear in the earliest details of their lives as told by Michener.

This is not to say that Michener describes the two men as the same. Though both were involved heavily in the political and military actions of their countries, they did so in different ways. Santa Anna is portrayed as power-hungry and very politically driven, changing sides when necessary and playing the game of politics to get…

Paradox of Confirmation
Words: 3003 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37663786
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Paradox of Confirmation

Paradoxes seem to form the essence of irrationality and to continuously prove that rationality has a limit and that rationally inducing a fact may in fact prove the fact wrong. What is in fact a paradox? If we follow one definition, a paradox is "a parody on proof. It begins with realistic premises, but the conclusion falsifies these premises." More so, however, a paradox "arises when a set of apparently incontrovertible premises gives unacceptable or contradictory results." (lackburn 1996, p. 276).

efore starting to analyze one of the most well-known paradoxes in philosophy, let us first have a look at three of the more important concepts of evidence, the classificatory concept, the comparative and the quantitative concept. Classificatory concepts are "those which serve for the classification of things or cases into two or a few mutually exclusive kinds." This concept helps divide a larger set into a…


1. Friedemann, L. Sara. Why Hempel's Paradox Isn't a Paradox (And What We Could Do If It Was). May 2003. On the Internet at 

2. Carnap, Rudolf. Logical Foundations of Probability. 1950. Can be found on the Internet at 


4. Mackie J.L. The paradox of Confirmation. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 13, 265-277. 1963.

Fiction The Fall of the House of
Words: 2721 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78478481
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"The Fall of The House of Usher" is a very interesting story. It talks of a man who received a letter from his friend Roderick Usher asking him to visit. The letter talks of the torture and torment Roderick was going through and is a plea for help. In the letter, Roderick explains his distress over his mental illness and the state that he is suffering from. The man was a good friend to Roderick when they were young boys and so he decides to visit his friend. He decides to visit Roderick despite the fact that they had grown apart over the years, and had not communicated for a while. On arrival, he describes the house as "mansion of gloom" that aroused mixed feelings of joy and sadness (Poe p. 5). The narrator finds his friend in very bad shape. He suffers from severe mental disorder. He also…

Work Cited

Mu-ller, Bianca. The Fallen Narrator in 'the Fall of the House of Usher'. Mu-nchen: GRIN

Verlag, 2009. Internet resource

Schlegel, Christian. Edgar Allan Poe: the Raven - an Analysis. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH,

2007. Internet resource.

Poe's Assertion That the Ultimate
Words: 2548 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53160978
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The death of a beautiful heroine always leaves someone behind, or the device simply would not work. Poe's narrator laments his loneliness as much as he laments Lenore's death. Poe writes, "Leave my loneliness unbroken! -- quit the bust above my door! / Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!" (Poe). Poe may have had very personal reasons for including the death in his poem, too. Kopley and Hayes continue, "The impetus for the poem doubtless arose, at least in part, from Poe's loss of his mother - and of others whom he had loved" (Kopley, and Hayes 194). Thus, while the literary device worked effectively, Poe's own haunting memories of his mother and lost loves may have contributed their own unique blend of sadness, longing, and loneliness to the poem that help give it an even more poignant and melancholy quality.…


Hayes, Kevin J., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Kopley, Richard, and Kevin J. Hayes. "12 Two Verse Masterworks: 'The Raven' and 'Ulalume.'" The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Ed. Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 191-203.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Raven." Personal Web Site. 7 Oct. 2005. 10 Oct. 2005.

Death Explored in Thanatopsis and
Words: 1518 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79863904
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hile "The Raven" is a powerful poem, it reads more like a story and therefore seems less serious and effective than "Thanatopsis." In their uniqueness, each poem realizes the human condition in that we can and are affected by death in different ways. In short, every individual will handle death and the thoughts of death in his or her own way.

orks Cited

Bryant, illiam Cullen. "Thanatopsis." Masterpieces of American Poetry. Van Doren, Mark, ed. New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc. 1936.

Eddings, Dennis. "Theme and Parody in 'The Raven.'" Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. 1990. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008.

Gado, Frank. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 250: Antebellum riters in New York. 2001. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Raven." The Complete Tales of Mystery and Imagination. Minneapolis: Amaranth Press. 1981.


Works Cited

Bryant, William Cullen. "Thanatopsis." Masterpieces of American Poetry. Van Doren, Mark, ed. New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc. 1936.

Eddings, Dennis. "Theme and Parody in 'The Raven.'" Poe and His Times: The Artist and His Milieu. 1990. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008. 

Gado, Frank. Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 250: Antebellum Writers in New York. 2001. Gale Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 08, 2008.

Edgar Allen Poe the Life
Words: 2250 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13218556
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The Raven

Poe's famous poem, "The Raven," to most readers is a straightforward yet haunting, chilling tale of the loss of someone loved, and the troubling emotions and inner sensations that go along with a loss, no matter how the loss occurred. In this case, the "rare and radiant maiden whom the angels named Lenore..." is the one lost. hy did an angel name Lenore, one has to wonder? Is there something associated with death or the afterlife in this image?

In fact Poe builds up the beauty of "lost Lenore" in sharp contrast to him saying that it was a "bleak December," and "each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor" and adds that when he awoke from his nap, and looked out his chamber door, there was only darkness "and nothing more."

So the poet is giving a narrator's identity as a person who hears a…

Works Cited

Cervo, Nathan. "Poe's 'The Cask of Amontillado.'" The Explicator 51.3 (1993): 155-157.

Delaney, Bill. "Poe's 'The Cask of Amontillado.'" The Explicator 64.1 (2005): 33-36.

Graham, John Stott. "Poe's 'The Cask of Amontillado.'" The Explicator 62.2 (2004): 85-89.

Griswold, Rufus Wilmot. "Death of Edgar Allan Poe." (New York Daily Tribune). Edgar

Leverage in Negotiations Power and
Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 91670054
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It is not uncommon for parties to negotiate with each other, with individuals of high functional authority acting as negotiators. The authority that the individual wields is by itself already a leverage in negotiations.

Further extending these sources of power, French and aven developed a more comprehensive outline of main sources of power. According to them, power has five main sources, identified as follows: (1) eward, (2) Punishment/Coercive, (3) Legitimacy, (4) Expertise, and (5) eference (Podsakoff and Schriesheim, 1985:389-91). In French and aven's version of sources of power, focus is on the negotiator's persona and tangible/intangible resources that could be gained from negotiations. The first two (2) main sources, eward and Punishment, looks at power as a function of what the negotiator could offer or refuse from the other party. A more negotiator-centric source of power is Legitimacy, Expertise and eference. These sources of power Legitimacy looks at the negotiator's…


"Leverage, Definition of." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Accessed 29 April 2011. Available at: 

Lewicki, R. (2001). Essentials of Negotiation. NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Podsakoff, P. And C. Schriesheim. (1985). "Field studies of French and Raven's Bases of Power: Critique, Reanalysis, and Suggestions for Future Research." Psychological Bulletin, (97)3.

"Power, Definition of." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Accessed 29 April 2011. Available at:

Assigned Readings
Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65022383
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American Literature

Listen to Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God preached. Discuss in the discussion group.

Jonathan Edwards gives us a perfect example of the Calvinist beliefs of the Puritan settlers in early New England. Edwards studied theology at Yale University -- where today there is still a dormitory named after him -- but then became a noteworthy preacher in the Great Awakening, which exhorted an entire generation to renew their Christian faith. Edwards' skill in preaching lies in using literary imagery to get across abstract theological concepts. Calvinist theology believes in "total depravity" -- in other words, because of Adam and Eve eating the apple, human beings are fallen, and stained with "original sin." The most memorable image in Edwards' sermon -- the image of the spider being held over a fiery pit -- is meant to be a metaphor to enable the listener to imagine how…

Leadership in the 1992 Adaptation of the
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95226824
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In the 1992 adaptation of The Last of the Mohicans, Hawkeye, played by Daniel Day-Lewis is forced to become a leader as he attempts to provide safe passage for Alice and Cora Munro and the daughters of Colonel Edmund Munro, a British officer during the Seven Years' War, and Major Duncan Heyward, who was originally tasked with escorting the sisters to safety.

Two of the theories that can be applied to Hawkeye's leadership and managerial style are the Path-Goal Theory and the Leader-Member Exchange Theory. Moreover, aspects of French and Raven's Five Bases of Power can also be attributed to Hawkeye's successes and failures as a leader. The Path-Goal Theory maintains that followers' satisfaction, motivation, and performance is dependent on a leader's behavior. As such, the leader is forced to adapt to his or her followers' needs with such adaptations and behavioral modifications made with the purpose of fulfilling…

Schools of Inductivism and Deductivism
Words: 3275 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14580771
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However, would deductivism be true from a normative perspective?

This is a question that relates with the fundamental question that a principle would be justifiable from a deductivist perspective: if H - hypothesis is the best explanation for the fact or facts that are to be explained, is it reasonable to accept H. As being valid? We will not go into a discussion on what reasonable might mean and what can actually be considered being reasonable. However, in my opinion the answer to such a question could be 'no'. We can accept H. As being reasonable, but I don't think we can accept H. As being valid. On the other hand, deductivism in scientific methodology does not necessarily propose 100% valid statements and hypothesis, but hypothesis that can be worked with.

Is this enough for a scientific hypothesis? Again, this is a difficult question to answer. On a highly likely…


1. Govier (1987). From Godden, David M. Deductivism as an interpretive strategy: a reply to Groarke's recent defense of reconstructive deductivism.

2. Ratzsch, Del the Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate. InterVarsity Press. 1996.

3. The Scientific Method. January 2007. On the Internet at retrieved on July 17, 2008

4. Peter Godfrey-Smith. Theory and Reality. 2003

Construct of Social Persuasion
Words: 1938 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68706552
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Measurement of Social Persuasion

Social Persuasion Defined

The term 'social persuasion' has been defined differently by various researchers and scholars in different fields of study. For purposes of this text, however, Kaptein's (2012) definition and scope will be adopted. Thus, social persuasion is defined as the symbolic ability "to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue, through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice" (Kaptein, 2012, p. 1). In other words, it is the art of getting a target to change their attitude or opinion about something, and to consequently adopt a different viewpoint.

This conceptualization draws from the early works of Cartwright (1959) and Kurt ewin (1951), both of whom hold the view that an individual's behavior/attitude is the product of a range of forces or tensions within their life space, and their ability/inability to resist the same. Towards this…

Liu, O.L. & Wilson M. (2010). Sources of Self-Efficacy Belief: Development and Validation of Two Scales. Journal of Applied Measurement, 11(1), 24-37.

Schwenk, G. (2009). Evaluating Social Influence Relations: An Item-Response Modeling Approach. Metodoloski Zvezki, 6(1), 27-50

Swasy, J.L. (1979). Measuring the Bases of Social Power. In William L. William & M. Ann Abor: Association for Consumer Research Vol. 6. (pp.340-346).

Flight to Canada Death of a Salesman Flight
Words: 747 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43572705
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Flight to Canada/Death of a Salesman

Flight to Canada, written in 1976 by Ishmael Reed, is sort of an atypical slave narrative taking place in the antebellum south (however, this is an antebellum south where airplanes already exists and Lincoln's assassination is seen on television) and depicting Raven Quickskill's and his fellow fugitive's escape from their master Arthur Swille. The entire plot revolves around the relentless search for Raven who is on his way to "Camelot" (i.e, Canada) while his fellow fugitives, Stray Leechfield and 40's go to whatever lengths possible in order to find their own freedom. However, what Reed illustrates in the story is that one cannot so easily escape slavery because slavery exists everywhere and some forms are harder to escape than others, but some bring on slavery themselves. In Arthur Miller's play, Death of a Salesman, Willie Loman also believes in a sort of Camelot --…

9th Grade I Asked the Class to
Words: 852 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1662408
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9th Grade

I asked the class to find biographies and research on the life of Edgar Allan Poe over the weekend. oday, I want four groups of 5 students each to take 5 minutes in groups and list problems that Poe may have had in his life. One student from each group will respond to my excerpts from reading of "he Raven"; look for words that might explain Poe's life and mental condition in 1845, and anything pertaining to America in 1845 that offers clues to his writing.

eacher reading: "Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary…"

Group 1: Poe was an orphan after his father ran away and his mother died of B. He may have been affected his whole life by the sadness

eacher reading: "Ah distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December, and each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon…

The critical thinking skills we worked on together involved being able first to fully grasp the problem or the issue to be worked on. From the perspective of "The Raven" we will use the analysis and problem-solving opportunities within the poem itself as the artifact. Instead of just reading the poem and providing student input in the form of 9th grade analysis, we go deeper into the era when it was written, the personal problems the poet went through in his life, the amazing skills juxtaposed with the depression and alcoholism. The teacher will play on the classroom TV screen slow-motion videos of ravens flying, tearing into the flesh of a dead mouse, attacking other birds that are in its way as it forages.

Incorporating history is a tool a teacher can use which makes a poem or a poet come to life in the context of the times. Why, for example, does almost every line in The Raven offer a clue as to why Poe wrote it, or what Poe's mentality was during that era? And what was going on in American when he wrote it?

The class can learn juxtaposition and irony in this lesson; a raven is a scavenger, and when Poe was down and out he scavenged to survive. In 1845 in America darkness was a constant theme because there was slavery, especially in the south, but there were people like Frederick Douglass who were leading the movement to free the slaves. There was hope but juxtaposed was anger and threats, and slaves in many cases were beaten by their masters, which got into the newspapers in New England. Alcohol was widely used and many believed that alcohol could actually cure the sick and make the elderly lively. In 1845 tuberculosis was very common and there were no medical remedies for TB. Critics and scholars know a lot about the artifact in this instance but students will use critical thinking, problem solving and they will put their performance skills to good use in their groups to complete the project.

Edger Allan Poe and Lewis Carroll
Words: 3647 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25392313
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Edgar Allen Poe and Lewis Carroll: Unhealthy and Healthy Relationships With Women

Edgar Allan Poe and Lewis Carroll are two writers where their relationships with women, and especially with young children have been questioned. The main issue with Poe is his marriage to his 13-year-old cousin Virginia. For Carroll, the issue is the strong relationships he had with young girls. For both writers, suggestions have been made that their relationships with young women are perverse. To consider these claims it is necessary to look at the types of relationships each writer had with young women and the reasoning for these relationships. A consideration of this will show that Edgar Allan Poe does have unhealthy relationships with women, while Lewis Carroll has healthy relationships with women.

Edgar Allan Poe has a history of choosing inappropriate relationships. This began when Poe was attending private school, when he fell in love with a…


Carroll, Lewis. 1991. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Bridlington: Priory Books.

Kamm, Antony. 1993. Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers.

Moore, Edwin & Moore, Fiona Mackenzie. 1993. Concise Dictionary of Art & Literature. London: Tiger Books International.

Poe, Edgar Allan. 1991. Alone. In The Raven and Other Favorite Poems, 44. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Tube Technoculture One of the
Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64768532
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However, most people who are looking for verifiable information are not going to sift through the detritus of YouTube, but will instead go to reliable sources: books, journals, studies, and reports that present verifiable facts and information. There is a place for YouTube as an entertainment medium, but that is perhaps its limits -- at this point in time. Peter Levinson (1999, p. 146) sums up YouTube when (speaking of the internet) he says:

"In other words, in terms of our understanding of media, the biggest contribution of the personal computer revolution and the Internet may be the light they shed on television as they render it, incredible as it may seem to our television age sensibilities, into an art form."

The art form meaning that we can rely upon television news media in a journalistic way, and as one that saves us from suffering hours upon hours of amateur…


Blue Man Group and Venus Hum, I Feel Love. YouTube 2010, viewed 11

May 2010, .

Matt Damon Absolutely Shreds Sarah Palin. YouTube 2010, viewed 10 May

2010, .

Edgar Allen Poe Romanticism of
Words: 1927 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11954279
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While Poe relates these as true stories, as opposed to the works of his own imagination, one can't but read them also as the fantastical longing of husband wanting to deny death's ability to separate him from his beloved wife.

After Virginia died, Poe went on a frenzied search for a female replacement. Not that any woman could have truly replaced Virginia in his eyes, but only that he found himself quite incapable of maintaining himself without a woman's influence. Poe pursued and was briefly engaged to poetess Sarah Helen Whitman, however the engagement dissolved largely due to Poe's growing reputation as a drunk. After Whitman, Poe passionately pursued Annie ichmond, though for her marriage to another man, their relations remained platonic. At the same time Poe was writing impassioned love letters to ichmond, he formed yet further platonic bonds with Sarah Anne Lewis, and poetess Susan Archer Talley. Finally,…


Bio. True Story. (2010). Edgar Allen Poe Biography. Retrieved December 11, 2010, from 

Bloom, H. (1985). Edgar Allen Poe: Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House


Poe, E.A. (1983). The Unabridged Edgar Allen Poe. Philadelphia: Running Press.

Organizational Theory the Theoretical and
Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69415961
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Further, coercive and reward power are often highly distributed through the more agile organizations and as a result must be applied immediately to behavior to be effective.

In the context of Dr. Edgar Schein's (1983) analysis and presentation of results in his working papers referenced in this document, an industry's growth and culture is well defined in the following quote. In the working papers, Schein (1983) writes:

For an organizational culture to exist, there must be a definable organization in the sense of a number of people interacting with each other for the purpose of accomplishing some goal in their defined environment. The founder of an organization simultaneously creates such a group and, by force of his or her personality, begins to shape the culture of that group. But the culture of that new group is not there until the group has had its own history of overcoming various crises…


Azize Ergeneli, Guler Sag, Iam Ari, Selin Metin. 2006. Psychological empowerment and its relationship to trust in immediate managers. Journal of Business Research 60, no. 1 (December 1): 41. (Accessed December 6, 2007).

French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H., 1959. The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Geert Hofstede, 2006 - Summary of Ideas about Cultural Differences. From Geert Hofstede's personal website: Accessed on December 7, 2007:

Technology in Learning of Elementary
Words: 10688 Length: 39 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41639691
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For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.

Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.

Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.

This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…


Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).

Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).

Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).

Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at

Organizing Function of Management Microsoft
Words: 1592 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38099487
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When employees have a high level of ownership regarding an initiative, product or strategy they feel a higher level of control, and commit themselves at a more personal level to its success (Spector 1986). Microsoft's it department, in striving to be a responsive resource to the rest of the company, often relies on these internal reviews of new applications from the company to find new approaches to delivering higher levels of effectiveness throughout the organization. It learns from software development what could potentially assist internal departments to be more effective in their use of systems, software and processes, becoming a more efficient and responsive internal resource in the process.


Microsoft's unique culture is based on the need to be continually innovating new software applications and solutions to an increasingly wide breadth of markets globally. For Microsoft to continually be competitive in both their Human esources and it organizations, the…


French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Schein, E. (1983). "The Role of the Founder in the Creation of Organizational Culture" MIT Sloan Working Papers. Accessed from the Internet on October 13, 2007 

Spector, Paul (1986) Perceived Control by Employees - a Meta-Analysis of Studies Concerning Autonomy and Participation at Work. Human Relations Volume 39, Number 11 Pages 1005-1016.

Edgar Allen Poe the Controversial
Words: 2753 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87049968
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Such evidence as there is can be taken up at a later time. But of one thing we can be sure. If Virginia was the prototype of Eleonora she was not the model for Morella or Berenice or Ligeia."(Quinn, 255)

These feelings can also be inferred from Poe's letters to Mrs. Clemm, Virginia's mother:

I am blinded with tears while writing this letter-- I have no wish to live another hour. Amid sorrow, and the deepest anxiety your letter reached -- and you well know how little I am able to bear up under the pressure of grief -- My bitterest enemy would pity me could he now read my heart -- My last my only hold on life is cruelly torn away -- I have no desire to live and will not but let my duty be done. I love, you know I love Virginia passionately devotedly. I cannot…

Works Cited

Felman, Shoshana. "On Reading Poetry: Reflections on the Limits and Possibilities of Psychoanalytical Approaches." In Edgar Allan Poe: Modern Critical Views, edited by Harold Bloom, pp. 119-39. New York: Chelsea House, 1985.

Hayes, Kevin J. The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Hoffman, Daniel. "O! Nothing Earthly...' / the Poems." In Poe, Poe, Poe, Poe, Poe, Poe, Poe. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972.

Kaplan, Louise J. "The Perverse Strategy in 'The Fall of the House of Usher'," in New Essays on Poe's Major Tales, ed. Kenneth Silverman, Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 45-64.

Jpk Management Leadership Understanding Roles of Management
Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21926763
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JPK Management Leadership

Understanding Roles of Management and Leadership


Managerial roles are primarily reactive and based on getting results or fixing a problem. The situation often dictates the role a manager takes on. However the employees, the organizational culture including skillsets and character makeup of the workforce, as well as the needs of the client or customer all play a part in the manager's influence and success. The need to restructure an organization to meet market demands often causes changes in the cultural makeup which in turn require an adjustment in the managerial style or role. During the industrial revolution and up to the 1990s, for example, the authoritarian management role, based on control was the primary mode of the majority of organizations. Today, management is often based on empowerment and teams working together. The role of managers is often given to those with technical expertise who then coordinate…

Expert Leadership

The first leadership role is based on expert power this is identified by intelligence, proficiency, skill and knowledge of a person. Someone with the aptitude to share a command of subject matter as a result of advanced experience and ability. This person is able to achieve results or teach others to reach superior standards due to their capabilities and have gained the respect and recognition of others according to French (French & Raven 1960).

For example when JPKenny assigns a mentor to work with a person newly hired in a position. Though the newly hired person is qualified, they have not yet reached their full potential in accordance with JPKenny processes and therefore need the support and direction of a mentor. In this case the mentor has trained several of his team members who have gone on to support other departments. The mentor is called on by managers to train their new people due to his experience and ability to share knowledge in a

Behavior Prejudice and Social Psychology Gender-Based Stereotypes
Words: 1930 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51784301
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Prejudice and social psychology

Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society

Cultural impact of host cultures

The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.




Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.

Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.

Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).

Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.

Position on the Concept of Sustainability
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sustainability and reviews the implications and impact of various sustainability modes, all of which appear to be positive. To begin this review requires coming to an understanding of what sustainability is. As the Interface (2008) website describes it, "Sustainability can be many different things -- a motto, an ideal, a way to do business, a way to live your life or a call to action." Because this seems an appropriate way to view the many aspects of sustainability, this paper adopts this viewpoint as well.

Raven (2002) discusses how we got to this point facing the difficult challenges of human sustainability. Over the course of 400 generations, or about 10,000 years, the human population has grown from several million to over 6 billion. Humans continue to depend on a series of ancient, genetically and socially determined habits and attitudes which seem dysfunctionally inappropriate for modern society. As a consequence then,…

United Nations. 1987. Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from 

What is Sustainability. 2008. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from 

Whiteman, G. 1999. Sustainability for the planet: a marketing perspective. Conservation Ecology 3(1): 13. Retrieved on May 5, 2011 from::

First Contact of America and European Creation Myths vs Those of the Native Americans
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New Lands? Old Ideas

The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries were the great age of European exploration in the New World. Spain concerned itself with South America and the Caribbean, while countries such as France and England turned northward to the great, unknown vastness of the North American continent. Men such as Verrazzano, Hariot, and Champlain arrived to explore and to record their experiences of this mysterious land. Strange new plants and animals, curious native customs, and assessments of natural resources all appear in the pages of their respective accounts. Yet their visions of this New World were colored by the expectations of the old. European dreams of hidden riches, and Spanish discoveries of gold and silver enliven their observations. These earliest of descriptions of North America are as much commentaries on contemporary European society and its aspirations, as they are catalogs of new things and new places.

The earliest…


Doughty, Arthur G. "Samuel de Champlain." The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1999.

Hariot, Thomas. "A Brief and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia." 1588. From The Heritage Education Program - National Park Service - Cape Hatteras. (No date) 

Wroth, I., Ed. S. Tarrow, Trans. The Voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano. 1970.

Feminist Art
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Feminist Art as Evolution Rather Than as a Movement

Feminist art as a named movement evolved in the context of the late 1960's early 1970's political climate. The movement contextually cannot be separated from larger civil rights movements and specifically those relating to women; like the sexual revolution, the women's liberation movement, and the formation and growth of groups like the National Organization for omen. Strictly speaking there can be no real separation of the feminist art movement from the civil rights movements in its context because so much of art of the era acted as the voice and vision of the messages of the movements as a whole. Though there are of coarse exceptions to this rule art as a whole during this period was a demonstrative agent for social change.

In this analysis of both feminist art and its contextual school of thought, during the civil rights era…

Works Cited

Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard eds., The Power of Feminist Art, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1994)

Lucy R. Lippard, The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Feminist Essays on Art, (New York: The New Press, 1995)

Ana Mendieta "Siluetta" 1976 series Photograph by artist of site specific work in Mexico seen in Lucy R. Lippard, The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Feminist Essays on Art, (New York: The New Press, 1995) 56.

Cindy Nemser, Art Talk: Conversations with 15 Women Artists, Revised ed. (New York: IconEditions, 1995).

History and holocaust'studies
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Holocaust Studies

Main characters in Schindler's List

Oskar Schindler

During the Holocaust, Oskar Schindler who is a womanizer, war profiteer, and a Nazi member becomes the unexpected savior and hero of approximately 1,100 Polish Jews. He is a swindler and a moderately successful businessman who takes advantage of wartime to gain financial success. His business includes buying an enamelware factory previously owned by a Jew and using ingratiation and bribery to get contracts to make war supplies. At first, he was apathetic to the Jews, thinking that their situation was just a result of the war. He is a playboy who habitually cheats on his wife. He joined the Nazi party because he believes that it will help him make more money, and not for any ideological reason. According to the movie Schindler's List (2016), even though Oscar Schindler buys the factory that has been confiscated from Jewish owners and…


Keneally, T. (1993). Schindler's List. New York: Serpentine Publishing Company.

Raven, G. (1994). 'Schindler's List:' A review. Retrieved from The Journal of Historical Review: 

Schindler's List. (2016 ). Retrieved from Spark Notes: 

SLE. (2013). Accuracies. Retrieved from SCHINDLER'S LIST:

Popper's Logic of Science
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Response to Karl Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery
How the Reading Has Affected What I Believe about the Nature of Science and What It Can Tell Us about the World
Popper (2005) rejects the notion that inductive reasoning can lead to the identification of universals, and he uses the white swan as an example: “no matter how many instances of white swans we may have observed, this does not justify the conclusion that all swans are white” (p. 4)—no, and nor should it. However, one could legitimately analyze the swan still further, identify its species and thus conclude that this species of swan is always going to be white. White is one of the characteristics of this type of swan—so why should it not be viewed as a universal characteristic of this specific species? Popper’s approach to the nature of science is rooted in the empirical analysis—in deduction rather…

Classic Airlines and Marketing Classic
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Assessing Classic Airlines' Loyalty Marketing

As the financial analysis of Classic Airlines shows, the focus on pricing and off of relationships is causing the company to lose more ticket sales and growth than it enables. The customer loyalty programs also indicate how rapidly Classic is losing customers as well. All of these factors point to how dissatisfied their customers are with their service. Customer loyalty programs have an amplification effect; when relationships are good the programs soar and when relationships are bad, they come plummeting down (Dekay, Toh, aven,.2009). What Classic must do is turn around the perception of their service as being below the expectations of customers, and embrace choose to begin auditing their performance to see where the shortcomings are (Dekay, Toh, aven,.2009). Only by doing this can they attain a roadmap to recovery for the most loyal customer bases they have.


Like many service businesses, Classic…


Dekay, F., Toh, R., & Raven, P.. (2009). Loyalty Programs: Airlines Outdo Hotels. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 50(3), 371.

John C. Driver. (2001). Airline marketing in regulatory context. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(2), 125-135.

Jordan L. Le Bel. (2005). Beyond the friendly skies: an integrative framework for managing the air travel experience. Managing Service Quality, 15(5), 437-451.

AVM Oliveira. (2003). Simulating revenue management in an airline market with demand segmentation and strategic interaction. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 1(4)

Schindler's List -- Historical Accuracy
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As with any production coming from Hollywood, the audience expects Schindler's list to present numerous false facts only because the director wants to add continuity to the film's plot. There are several cliches meant to captivate the audience and reach their hearts. The scene where Schindler watches the little girl dressed in red running through the crowd is clearly an act of fiction. Also, the episode in which the German soldier plays the piano while all the hiding Jewish people are being murdered is invented. In spite of the fact that historians might not enjoy the movie, and, believe that it has a sugary script, they would have to consider the fact that it a movie in its essence. Movies are meant to have fiction involved in them so that the audience would not be fed up with the boring historical facts.

Oskar Schindler certainly deserves to be remembered through…

Works cited:

1. Raven, Greg. (1994). 'Schindler's List:' A review.. The Journal for Historical Review. 14(3). 7.

2. Smith, Dinitia. (2004, November 24). Oskar Schlindler's Legend Explored In Recent Biography. The New York Times.

Alaskan Language Project the Continuance
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The main thesis is that the Yupik tales will have a number of similarities with stories from other cultures, which show the generalities among human cultures regardless of where they are worldwide. In addition, the tales will include differences that detail specific themes that are only indicative of the Yupik culture and make it unique.


Avagalria, M.K. (2006). Yupik Eskimo Fairy Tales. New York: Vantage Press.

Greymorning, S. (1997). Going beyond words: The Arapaho immersion program. In J. eyhner (Ed.), Teaching indigenous languages (pp. 22-30). Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University. (EIC Document eproduction Service No. ED 415-061)

Greymorning, S. (1999). unning the gauntlet of an indigenous language program. In J. eyhner, G. Cantoni, .N. St. Clair, & E.P. Yazzie (Eds.), evitalizing indigenous languages. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University. (EIC Document eproduction Service No. ED 428-924)

Jacobson, a.W. (1998). Yup'ik Stories ead Aloud = Yugcetun Qulirat Naaqumalriit Erinairissuutmun. With Transcriptions and Word-by-Word…


Avagalria, M.K. (2006). Yupik Eskimo Fairy Tales. New York: Vantage Press.

Greymorning, S. (1997). Going beyond words: The Arapaho immersion program. In J. Reyhner (Ed.), Teaching indigenous languages (pp. 22-30). Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 415-061)

Greymorning, S. (1999). Running the gauntlet of an indigenous language program. In J. Reyhner, G. Cantoni, R.N. St. Clair, & E.P. Yazzie (Eds.), Revitalizing indigenous languages. Flagstaff: Northern Arizona University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 428-924)

Jacobson, a.W. (1998). Yup'ik Stories Read Aloud = Yugcetun Qulirat Naaqumalriit Erinairissuutmun. With Transcriptions and Word-by-Word Translations. Alaska Native Language Center: University of Alaska Fairbanks

Management Empowerment and Performance of Middle Management
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Empowerment and Performance of Middle Management

The empowerment of middle managers is a paradox that is not easily solved. As this strata or level of management is often given responsibility for making sure goals are achieved yet often they have little actual authority to demand results or use legitimate power (French, aven, 1960). Empowerment from senior management is one potential approach to augmenting the effectiveness of this level of management yet the context of empowerment is just as critical as the support given (Bartunek, Spreitzer, 2006). This paper will analyze the approaches for middle managers to be more effective in their roles, with empowerment being an enabler, not the foundation, of long-term change. For middle managers to achieve that, they must also continually improve and transform themselves from supporters of the status quo (as managers often do) to being transformational leaders in their own right (Jackson, 1991).

Empowering the…


Jean M. Bartunek, and Gretchen M. Spreitzer. 2006. The Interdisciplinary Career of a Popular Construct Used in Management: Empowerment in the Late 20th Century. Journal of Management Inquiry 15, no. 3, (September 1): 255-273.

David Collins. 1996. Whither democracy? Lost debates in management empowerment. Empowerment in Organizations 4, no. 1, (January 1): 12-24.

Eisenbeiss, S., and S. Boerner. 2010. Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management 19, no. 4, (December 1): 364-372.

French, J.P.R. Jr., and Raven, B. (1960). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright and A. Zander (eds.), Group dynamics (pp. 607-623). New York: Harper and Row.

Induction Problem of Induction the
Words: 847 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62592880
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However saying that'd knows P. But doesn't believe it to be true under all conditions and in all time periods would be a more appropriate and rational way of putting it. We must mention here the principle of Induction which states that: "Unobserved cases and merely possible cases are likely to resemble observed cases" (Bonjour: 57). However when a person refuses to accept this, he is refuting inductive claims. For example, a person might say that all observed cases of grass indicate that it was green in color but there is a chance it might not be so in unobserved cases. Such a person knows something but chooses not to believe it. In such cases, the person would be separately a from B. i.e. cause from result. For example if every time a person touches a hot object, he would feel pain. This means that he knows that touching something…


Bonjour, Lance. Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002.

Hume, David. Enquiries concerning human understanding and concerning the principals of morals. 3rd ed. With text revised and notes by P.H. Nidditch. Clarendon Press. Oxford.

Capturing the Anguish and Agony Which Consumes
Words: 1403 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1347581
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Capturing the anguish and agony which consumes those caring for loved ones at the end of life is an exceedingly difficult task, but essayists Katy Butler and Rachel Riederer have harnessed their unique literary abilities in vastly different ways to achieve the same ambitious objective. Published within the 2011 edition of the annual anthology of American creative nonfiction The Best American Essays, Butler's haunting elegy hat Broke My Mother's Heart and Riederer's visceral portrayal of her own injurious accident Patient each deploy disparate rhetorical styles to impart a shared premise. ith the rancorous debate over health care and its most efficient and effective form of delivery currently embroiling the nation's political, private and public sectors, penning a polemic railing against the medical industry hardly represents an exercise in intellectual courage, which is why the contributions made by Butler and Reiderer are refreshing in their candid and emotionally honest approach to…

Works Cited

Butler, Katy. "What Broke My Father's Heart." The Best American Essays 2011.

Edward Danticat and Robert Atwan. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Publishing Company, 2011. 12-24. Print.

French, John and Raven, Bertram. "The Bases of Social Power." In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies

Power Influences People the Most David A
Words: 2662 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87094263
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power influences people the most?

David A. Hilton, M Ed., MBA


Which type of power influences people most?

Strategic management -- theory vs. practice

In theory, strategic management is a very straightforward process. It involves defining a mission and establishing the tactical goals necessary to achieve the mission objectives. Establishing the tactical plan involves analyzing the internal and external company environment and defining a vision, business model, and appropriate strategy that aligns strengths and weaknesses to the corresponding environmental opportunities and threats (Maxwell, 2007). Key performance metrics are determined and monitored to ensure progress along the intended track and that the organizational structure and systems continually adapt in response to emerging or changing challenges.

In principle, the strategic leader prepares organizations for change and establishes a methodology for responding to changes (Kotter, 2001). In practice, weaknesses in strategic management are typically attributable to lack of skill on the part…


Benfari, R.C., Wilkinson, H.E., & Orth, C.D., (1986). The effective use of power. Business Horizons (May-June), 12-16.

Boyatzis, R.E. (1971). Leadership: the effective use of power. Management of Personnel Quarterly, 10 (3), 28-36.

Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

French, J.R.P., & Raven, B.H. (1959). The basis of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power, (pp. 150-167). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research.

Decision Making & Creativity Power and Influence
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Decision Making & Creativity, Power and Influence in the Workplace, and Leadership in Organizations

Creating a platform for leadership that is agile enough to respond quickly to unforeseen events, yet stable enough to ensure team and group solidary is one of the most challenging aspects of any leader's long-term growth. Coupled with the need for having a solid foundation of leadership skills including Emotional Intelligence (EI), situational awareness and transformational leadership (Purvanova, Bono, 2009) is the need for leaders to thoroughly understand power and influence not just in their departments but across their entire organization as well. The five dominant forms of organizational power, ranging from coercive, to reward, legitimate, referent expert and informational power, all must be orchestrated successfully by a manager if challenging, often time-constrained objectives are to be attained (Drea, Bruner, Hensel, 1993). This self-reflection analysis includes insights into specific types of power from the context of…


Drea, J.T., Bruner, Gordon C.,II, & Hensel, P.J. (1993). Comparing alternative measures of the French and Raven power bases. The Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 13(4), 73.

McShane, S., & Von Glinow, M.A. (2010). Organizational behavior. (sixth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Purvanova, R.K., & Bono, J.E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343

Reintroduction of Wolves Into Idaho
Words: 3733 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42147399
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Reintroduction of wolves in Idaho started in 1995. Classified as endangered species, the government had the leeway in the process of reintroducing the grey wolf pack in Idaho. The process sparked off battles between stakeholders in the state. In 1966 when the idea was introduced to congress, the main concern was the critically high elk population in the region and this was because of the eradication of the wolves by the residents. For decades, the elk population grew tremendously because there were no predators in Yellow Park causing ecosystem instability. Soon after, other species disappeared such as the aspen because of the huge population of elks. The coyotes could not manage the large ungulate population; moreover, the large coyote population diminished the red fox. The government struggled with the wolf issue from the 1974 when a wolf recovery team was established. The general public has been engulfed in the wolf…


ABC News. "Court Rules Yellowstone Wolves Can Stay." ABC News, January 14, 2000.

Cockerham, Sean. "Idaho Gov. Otter to feds: Pony up more cash for wolves." March 8, 2012. (accessed April 7, 2012).

Duffield, J. "An economic analysis of wolf recovery in Yellowstone: Park visitor attitudes and values." Report for Yellowstone National Park, 1992.

Duffield, John, Chris Neher, and David Patterson. "Wolf Recovery in Yellowstone: Park Visitor

Market Driven Management
Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…


Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.

Science Fiction in Multicultural America Black Speculative Fiction
Words: 1310 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23746861
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Delany Neveryon

Samuel R. Delany's novel, Tales of Neveryon depicts a society where the monetary system is highly eroticized. Slavery is eroticized, and human sexuality becomes a commodity that can be bought and sold with the purchase of a slave. The story of the Rublyn culture reveals that inter-gender and inter-class relationships are closely impacted by a change from the barter to a monetary system, as women begin to choose males with money, rather than choosing males with which they can live harmoniously. Eroticizing slavery, class relations, and economic exchange has an important impact on society, as shown within Tales of Neveryon. In Delany's book, sexuality becomes intimately tied to ownership and economics, and individuals lose the ability to love freely.

Tales of Neveryon is part of a larger series, which includes the titles Tales of Neveryon, Neveryona, Flight from Neveryon, Return to Neveryon, and The Bridge of Lost Desire.…

Works Cited

Delany, Samuel R. 1993. Tales of Neveryon. Wesleyan/New England University Press

Fate of Carbon in a
Words: 4902 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 48440011
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The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).

Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)



Tot. NPP1

% of Total

% of Total

106 km2

gC m-2 y-1

X106mTC y-1



Marine System:

Open Ocean




Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.

Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.

Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.

Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.

Human-Powered Flight the Latest Advances
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56742975
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It was unstable and you couldn't see forward very well. You wouldn't want to design another like it. But it changed the world by being a catalyst for thinking about aviation" (Malnic 2007).

MacCready received his grant from the Royal Aeronautical Society, which has, since 1959, offered its Kremer Prizes for advances in human-powered flight. MacCready is widely praised as the Kremer Prize's most innovative recipient, as he created vehicles most similar to those Icarus-style vehicles of art of ages past. Another recipient, Bill Brooks, created human-propelled vehicles styled to look like hang gliders with small engines. His hang glider "when launched from the side of a hill, can be used to ride thermal currents and achieve some altitude. Then, with a set of pedals linked to a small prop at the rear, he can pedal it along to another thermal" ("The Birdmen," the Economist, 2010).

As strange and fantastic…

Works Cited

"The Birdmen." The Economist. September 2010. February 14, 2011. 

Malnic, Eric. Paul B. MacCready. The L.A. Times. August 20, 2007. February 14, 2011.

CEO of a Company Has
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 82626345
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In response, the leader may decide to institute an employee stock plan that links shareholder value with long-term rewards for its employees so that they can share in the benefits of growth and appreciate the connection between their individual performance and the retailer's performance (oulgarides and Cohen, 2001). This is an involvement tactic which comes from the leader's reward power. In this instance, ownership through stock has a good chance of success because people have a tendency to work and fight much harder for things that they own (oulgarides and Cohen, 2001).

The last example is an organization that wants to become more socially responsible. It would like its workers to contribute to this effort and the leader has asked the employees to join the company's Make a Difference program as a volunteer, explaining why it is important to give back to the community. This is an enlistment tactic. ecause…


Boulgarides, J.D. And Cohen, W.A. (2001, Spring). Leadership style vs. leadership tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Enrepreneurship Vol. 6, No. 1pp. 59-73.

French, J.R.P., and Raven, B. (1959). 'The bases of social power, in D. Cartwright (ed.) Studies in Social Power. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press

Montana, P.J., and Charnov, Bruce H. Management. 4th Ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's, 2008.

Carpal Instability Is Any Mal-Alignment
Words: 5543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72024643
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When using open reduction of dorsal displaced fractures of the radius to restore congruency and extra-articular anatomy, the authors recommended the use of their double-plating method. This method is reliable in providing stable internal fixation and in allowing early function. It is, however, and as earlier mentioned, a demanding technique, as ot requires careful; attention to detail.

Carter, P.. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of one and Joint Surgery: ritish Editorial Society of one and Joint Surgery, September 2000

Only one surgeon performed all the operations on a total of 37 patients for pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and decreased rotation of the forearm. The authors reported that most of the tested patients were better after the operation, although a significant number had some pain. Relief from pain could not be guaranteed and that residual pain associated…


Atkinson, Larry S. et al. Scapholunate Dissociation. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians, June 1994

Berdia, Sunjay and Shin, Alexander Y. Carpal Ligament Instability. Orthopedic Surgery. WebMD. eMedicine.Com, Inc., November 22, 2005.

Bozentka, David J. Scapholunate Instability. UPOJ. Vol 12, Spring 1999

Carter, P.B. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, September 2000

Sociology Aboriginal Social Work Why Are Outcomes
Words: 717 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91223247
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Aboriginal Social Work

Why are outcomes for Aboriginal children who are transracially adopted described as poor?

The outcomes for Aboriginal children who are transracially adopted are often not good due to a number of different factors. One factor is that transracial children frequently find it hard to adjust to the new culture in which they find themselves and thus have a hard time figuring out their identity. Another factor is that they are often victims of racism which makes it very difficult for them to have successful experiences in their new homes. These kids never feel like they really fit into the new place that they are and they do not have a good support system to help them adjust thus their outcomes do not turnout to be good.

After reading Sinclair's research on transracial adoptions, how does this information challenge, change or confirm your views on Aboriginal children…


Sinclair, Raven. (2007). Identity lost and found: Lessons from the sixties scoop. First Peoples

Child & Family Review, 3(1), pp. 65-82.

Sterling-Collins, Rona. (2007). A Holistic Approach to Supporting Children with Special Needs.

In Bruyere, Gord, Hart, Michael Anthony & Sinclair, Raven (Eds.), Wicihitowin.

Nature in Troilus and Cressida Both Troilus
Words: 2026 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1250739
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Nature in Troilus and Cressida

Both Troilus and Cressida and The inter's Tale deal with nature as an allegory for human nature. Many kinds of metaphors are used, from the classically romantic, to the dirty joke, to positive and negative portrayals of personalities. Many of the most powerful metaphors are in the initial portion of the play.

In Act I, Scene I, of Troilus and Cressida, Troilus compares being observed by his father and Hector to "as when the sun doth light a storm" (line 31). Presumably his inner turmoil over his love for Cressida is the storm, and his false good humor is the light in the storm. This implies that nature can be false, as well. Later in the same discussion, Troilus says his hopes are drowned, again using the depths of the ocean as an expression of his emotions (line 37). Later he compares Cressida to a…

Works Cited

Rubinstein, F. (1995). A Dictionary of Shakespeare's Sexual Puns and Their Significance. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Blackest Bird by Joel Rose
Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 41173477
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Blackest Bird opens on July 26, 1841 at midnight. A man, somewhat reluctantly and with a twinge of guilt, dumps Mary's dead body into the Hudson River. The killer audibly cries out, teeming with guilt as he wonders what have I done? "Oh Mary!" (Rose 11). Therefore, the killer knows Mary, and was likely either in love with her or a close companion. He could even be her relative.

Detective Jacob Hays is sixty-nine years old and in no mood to retire. He has long served the city of New York, as high constable. Known as Old Hays, he is obsessed with crime, and especially solving them. The murder of the as-of-yet unknown Mary captures his attention. hen he realizes that the body belongs not just to any Mary, but to Mary Rogers, Old Hays knows he's got a huge story on his hands. Mary Rogers is the locally famous…

Works Cited

Rose, Joel. The Blackest Bird. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.

"Who Killed Mary Rogers?" Retrieved online:

Compare Edgar Allen Poe and Hannibal Lecter
Words: 1502 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93413902
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Edgar Allan Poe and Hannibal

Edgar Allan Poe was more than a horror storywriter. He was a person that delved into the human psyche and created a psychological thriller that haunted the reader's mind well after the conclusion was made.

Poe has delved into the human spirit at a time when the idea of the unconscious mind had probably either not evolved, or had just been described and was not commonly known. In his stories of horror, Poe explored in depth the human psyche. Poe was a critic of rationalism but at the same time he was a master in the art of constructing, logically, the irrational 'rationale' for crime committed by his characters. Poe lived a difficult and rather impoverished life, and was himself often given to alcoholism in his private life and the narrator's fears and contradictions that the author describes are something he might have experienced himself.…


DeNuccio, Jerome, History, narrative, and authority: Poe's "Metzengerstein.' (Edgar Allan Poe's novel "Metzengerstein"). Vol. 24, College Literature, 06-01-1997, pp 71(11).

Arthur H. Quinn Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography by (1941)

Author not available, Hannibal Lecter, Superstar., The Toronto Star, 06-20-1999.

THOMPSON Douglas, Moral with a twist., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), 03-29-1998, pp 5.

Cocoa the Cacao Tree Theobroma Cacao What
Words: 10319 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61772106
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State of the At of Cocoa

Is Cocoa good fo you?

Buden of Poof





Chocolate Caving

F. Migaine

G. Toxicity

H. Immune Function


J. Othe Disodes

K. Behavio

L. Antioxidants

M. Caffeine

N. Dental Caies

O. Migaines

P. Obesity

Seum Cholesteol

K. Heat Health

Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…

references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.

Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.

Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.

Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.

Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.

1 A Comparison Between the Flood Myths
Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5894060
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The Biblical story of the Flood as found in the Book of Genesis contains many similarities to the Mesopotamian myth known as the Epic of Gilgamesh; in fact, it appears that the Biblical account as related by Noah, ca. 1400-1200 B..E., may have been entirely derived from the Epic of Gilgamesh, written some six hundred years earlier in 2000 B..E. when the so-called Flood Myths had their origins.
Among these similarities between the two ancient accounts is that the Gods were very displeased with how their creation, being Man, was behaving on Earth which served as the main impetus for destroying every living thing that breathed, swam or walked. In Genesis, chapter 6, verses 5-7, we find "And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every…

Clough, Brenda W. A Short Discussion on the Influence of the Gilgamesh Epic on the Bible. Internet. July 3, 1999. Accessed March 5, 2003.
Kovacs, Maureen G. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Connecticut: Stanford University Press, 1989.
Magill, Frank N., Ed. Masterplots. Vol. 4. New York: Salem Press, 1964.
Mendelsohn, Isaac. Religions of the Ancient Near East. New York: Library of Religion, 1955: 100-06.
The Holy Bible. Authorized King James Version. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960.

Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal and How Teachers Rate Their Principals
Words: 14019 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37659084
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Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal

It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.

The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.

Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…


Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.

Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.

Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446

Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.

Moltmann vs Pannenberg
Words: 1017 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8783219
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Theology of Hope

There is basically no limit to the amount of perspectives and theories about theology in general and drilling down to Christianity does not change this. One particular subset of Christian theology is the theology of hope. This report will focus on two of the greater minds that have debated this topic through literature, those being Moltmann and Pannenberg. Both of these people have weighed in significantly on the theology of hope and there will be a compare and contrast of their viewpoints in this report. While the two authors are noticeably different in some respects, they are also similar in other ways.

When speaking directly about the theology of hope, Jurgen Moltmann was very direct about the topic. Within its pages, he stated that hope is the "central category of Biblical faith." He also notes that it is not a "private" hope but instead should be typified…


Diglotting. (2012, February 1). A Comparison between Pannenberg and Moltmann.

Diglotting. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from

Dual Ravens. (2014, October 5). A Discussion of The Coming of God, In the End is the Beginning by Jurgen Moltmann. A Discussion of the Coming of God by Moltmann. Retrieved October 5, 2014, from 

Gaustad, E.S. (2006). Dissent in American religion (Rev. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Behaviors a Principal Should Look
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23459608
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ather, it is essential to convey the fact that walk-throughs are merely a means for instructors to learn about how to better their performance, and subsequently increase the knowledge and retention levels of their students. The important thing is to not make instructors feel defensive or overly-scrutinized, but to view the entire walk-through process in a positive means in which they can refine and improve their prowess as a pedagogue.

In terms of communicating the findings or the results from the walk-through to a particular teacher, it is important to do so in a manner that is encouraging and in which both professionals, -- the principal and the teacher -- are at ease. One of the ways to do so would be during a 'lunch and learn', informal lunchtime setting. It is probably best if the principal has some sort of written documentation delineating bot the positives and areas of…


Ellis, R. (2003). Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Raven, R. (2010). "The sandwich technique." Bright Hub Project Management. Retrieved from 

Woodward, J.R. (2010). "Taking Learning to Task by Jane Vella: A Proactive Report." Retrieved from .

Analyzing Lesson Plan Questions
Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13880981
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Learning Objectives and Rigor

The common core learning standards in grade 8 English for the mentioned lesson were set as the determination of a theme or central idea of the text and analysis of its development over the text course. It also included its relationship to the characters, setting and plot; determination of the meaning of words and phrases as the area used in the text, in addition to figurative and connotative meanings along with the analysis of the specific words' impact on meaning and tone. Effective engagement in a range of collaborative discussions with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts so that building on ideas and creating expressions become easy for the students was another common core learning standard addressed. As the lesson objectives indicate that word choice in the poetry is essential to express what the poet is feeling about, the word meanings and their usage…

What Does Ligeia Represent for the Reader
Words: 1448 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42158073
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Ligeia and the Theme of Reincarnation

That the narrator of "Ligeia" is one who is frequently called "unreliable" by critics is nothing new (Sweet, Blythe), as he is an admitted opium addict, often susceptible to hallucinations in which he would imagine the lost Ligeia. Like the maddened narrator of "The Raven" sorrowing for his "lost Lenore," the unreliable narrator of "Ligeia" tempts the reader to doubt the transformation of Rowena into the narrator's lost love by reason of his habit of indulgence in the opium drug. Indeed, the night of his vigil is not without his cup of mind-altering elixir; therefore, the literal minded critic would suggest that it cannot be stated with any certainty whether the Ligeia whom he sees in Rowena is real, hallucinatory, or a result of reincarnation. There is, however, plenty of evidence to suggest that a close reading of the text gives enough clues for…

Works Cited

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick. NY: Barnes Nobles, 2008. Print.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "Ligeia." Web. 5 Feb 2016.

Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Raven." Bartleby. Web. 5 Feb 2016.

Sweet, Charlie; Blythe, Hal. "Teaching the Unreliable Narrator in Ligeia." Eureka

the association between depression and eating disorders
Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 80932587
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ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:

To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.

A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…


Allen, K., Mori, T., Beilin, L., Byrne, S., Hickling, S., & Oddy, W. (2012). Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 459 - 469.

Christina, B., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., . . . Rosenbaeur, J. (2015). Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early - Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control. PLoS ONE.

Costa, J., Maroco, J., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, Self-Criticism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Depression in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 315 - 328.

Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Dempfle, A., Konrad, K., Klasen, F., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 675 - 684.

Public Health Concepts for the Uninsured
Words: 2256 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64866328
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Public Health Concepts for the Uninsured

Pediatrics is an area of study for Doctors of Nursing Practice that provides wide-ranging and extensive healthcare from the time of birth through the period of adolescence by evaluation, diagnosis, management and evaluation of care. A key healthcare problem faced in pediatrics is mental health problems amongst children and adolescents. In recent periods, the public health significance of mental health conditions amongst children and adolescents has been of progressively increasing concern. This prevalence of mental health issues in addition to their major influence on well-being and functioning indicates the necessity for early prevention (avens-Sieberer et al., 2008). Statistics indicate that just about one in five children across the world go through mental health issues. This encumbrance instigated by mental health problems may be progressively increasing. Several social changes have taken place in the 21st century that could have an adverse impact on mental health…


Al-Abri, R., & Al-Balushi, A. (2014). Patient satisfaction survey as a tool towards quality improvement. Oman medical journal, 29(1), 3.

Bor, W., Dean, A. J., Najman, J., & Hayatbakhsh, R. (2014). Are child and adolescent mental health problems increasing in the 21st century? A systematic review. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 48(7), 606-616.

Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., & Landsverk, J. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(8), 960-970.

Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of general psychiatry, 60(8), 837-844.

Using Group Dynamics Perspecitve
Words: 2203 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 36565551
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ise and Fall of Peoples Temple From a Group Dynamics Perspective

The paper will cover the concept of group dynamics by analyzing power, status, role, and authority with an aim to establish what was actually happening to the individuals who joined the Peoples Temple. Following Jim Jones as their leader will also be analyzed in an attempt to understand why they were willing to follow him to the grave. This paper will attempt to answer the question that most people have when they hear or remember the events that took place in Guyana. This topic is vital because it allows us to have a concrete understanding of how groups form, and how they are influenced, which would explain some of the events that have taken place in the past relating to groups and their followers.

The Peoples Temple was a religious movement that was founded by Jim Jones in 1955…


Coleman, J. A. (2013). Authority, power, leadership: Sociological understandings. New Theology Review, 10(3).

French, J. R., Raven, B., & Cartwright, D. (1959). The bases of social power. Classics of organization theory, 7.

Hofmann, D. C., & Dawson, L. L. (2014). The neglected role of charismatic authority in the study of terrorist groups and radicalization. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 37(4), 348-368.

Lin, N. (1999). Social networks and status attainment. Annual review of sociology, 25(1), 467-487.