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IRI ADMINISTRATIONIRI AdministrationThe Childs BackgroundMT is a 7-year-old girl in 2nd grade. The initials MT are hypothetical and have been used to protect the confidentiality/privacy of the child. The child attends .. In her class, there are a total of 19 learners. It would be prudent to note that MT could be deemed a normal learner owing to the fact that she has not been diagnosed with any learning disability. MT comes from a single-mom household. She has never met her father. Her mother is an investment advisor at a leading investment bank. She has two siblings an 11-year-old brother who is in junior high school and a 2-year-old sister. MTs mother is not actively involved in her learning owing to the demands of her job. It should, however, be noted that MTs aunt who moved in with them approximately 1 year ago (after losing her job as a…
Braun, H. (2019). The Big Book of Reading Comprehension Activities. ZEPHYROS Press.
One counterargument to the practice of teaching vocabulary is that children learn the meanings of many words by experiencing those words in the actual world and in text without explicit instruction. Unfortunately, such incidental learning is filled with possible problems. The definitions learned range from richly contextualized and more than sufficient, to incomplete to wrong. Children do develop knowledge of vocabulary through incidental contact with new words they read. This is one of the many reasons to challenge students to read incessantly.
There is considerable evidence that readers who possess prior knowledge about the topic of a reading often comprehend the reading better than classmates with no, or lower prior knowledge. Nevertheless, even when students have knowledge relevant to the information they are reading they do not always relate their world knowledge to the content of a text. Unless inferences are absolutely necessary to make sense of the…
Armbruster, B.B. & Osborn, J., (2001) Put reading first: The building blocks for teaching chilren to read. National Institute or Literacy, Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: www.nifl.gov
Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., & McKeown, M.G., (1982) Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506-521.
Cordon, L.A., & Day, J.D. (1996) Stategy use on standardized reading comprehension tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 288-521.
Nation, K. & Snowling, M.J., (1998) Individual differences in contextual facilitation: Evedence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension. Child Development, V. 69 No. 4, p.996- 1011. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: http://C:UsersOwnerDesktop
The use of the word MY also suggests that the speaker feels a sense of possession towards the assistant, thus the assistant's departure is seen as a loss of control, not merely a setback to the project as he says.
7. it's an animal urge, Puff. it's nothing to be ashamed of (65)
The word Puff suggests an animal, even if Puff is not an animal -- Puff is being assured that acting like an animal is natural, and not worthy of shame, despite Puff's feelings to the contrary and the ambiguous quality of Puff's name.
8. Remember, when in doubt: don't ever do what you really want to do (69)
This statement goes against the assurances of the naturalness of human behavior and impulses -- go against one's human or animal nature, it suggests, and repress and resist gut instincts. Instead, follow societal dictates and one's own superego.
ecent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). esults of the research point to programs that focus on corrective or accelerated learning have a positive consequence on student learning. There is significant evidence that summer school can help bring many struggling students up to grade level and prevents loss of learning with many others (Denton, 2001; Harrington-Lueker, 2000). While additional time is important, what is more important is what teachers accomplish with that time.
High-quality research-based curriculum and instruction
With a 90 minute block of time for reading instruction, teachers need to focus on the five essential elements of reading identified by The National eading Panel, (2001) as critical to successful reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is vital to define each of these important processes of reading using definitions from eading ockets…
Allington, R. 2002.What I've Learned About Effective Reading Instruction from a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers (Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 83, No. 10 (June 2002): 740-747)
Bond, Linda A. (1996). Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research
Evaluation, 5(2). Retrieved at http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=2.
Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
The study focused on an urban middle school and two particular classes of 34 learning disabled students. esearchers broke the two classes down into two groups, the intervention group and the comparison group. The intervention group was introduced to the strategic lesson plans and collaborative techniques found in the computer administered CACS. This program consisted of lessons on how to use the program and also informed students how to then implement those lessons in order to learn better reading strategies. The comparison group was instructed with typical language arts lesson plans. Both groups were then tested and those scores were analyzed for results using ANCOVA.
esults of the research showed that the intervention, or experiment group, not only significantly improved their reading comprehension, but also that they scored much higher than the control group. Furthermore, the study showed that many of the students involved in the experiment group believed that…
Kim, Ae-Hwa, Vaughn, Sharon, & Klinger, Janette K. 2006. Improving the reading comprehension of middle school students with disabilities through Computer-Assisted Collaborative Strategic Reading. Remedial and Special Education. 27. pp. 235-256.
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Technology-Based Teacher Training and Teacher-Led Classroom Implementation on Learning Reading Comprehension Strategies
Summary of Article and Meaning
This study was done to examine the efficiency of an expertly advanced comprehensive reading comprehension strategies program. The purpose was to compare it to the traditional reading comprehension instruction which was offered to over 800 fourth and fifth graders. The study was done using 34 classrooms in the United States. Also, the treatment involved a strong, technology-founded teacher training component in addition to extremely encouraging materials that would be used for 53 classroom-delivered student instructions. The study utilized a research design which was a randomized trial performed at the classroom level. It was done with classes unsystematically apportioned to either the treatment which (classroom n=16) or the control made up of (classroom n=17) circumstances. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was executed on student success statistics, nested inside classrooms within treatment situations, for the classes that…
Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: eading Comprehension and Written Expression
eading Comprehension and Written Expression subtests can be used to provide a composite score for Written Language.
Describe the age range: Ages 5-21
State the purpose of the instrument: The purpose is to provision an individual comprehensive measurement of writing and reading language skills for children.
Describe the examiner qualifications: Examiners need experience in "psycho-educational assessments for children" (de Fur, 2014)
List the types of scores (such as standard scores, percentile rank, etc.) that are available:
aw scores are convertible to standard scores for percentile ranks, confidence intervals and grade scores. There are also composite scores.
6. List the instrument's technical data regarding validity, reliability and standardization / normative process: Standardization data was based on 2,123 English speaking students aged 5-21. This data was gleaned from 31 states in all of the regions of the major regions of…
References (provide APA formatted reference based on test review found in the MMY)
Here is a sample of a correct APA reference for a pretend test review in the MMY
Smith. J. & Jones, A. (20xx). Review of the Something Achievement Test. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: #.
De Fur, S. H., Ward, S. (2014). Review of The Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition: Reading Comprehension and Written Expression. Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: 19.
Diagnosing the Problem
As Palardy (2015) shows, first grade is where the achievement gap begins to develop among students. Ferrer et al. (2015) show that the achievement gap begins in first grade and persists well into adolescence: in order to address the achievement gap, the best step is to take preventive measures. This action research study plans to address the problem of the achievement gap by getting first graders to focus on reading and get them interested in reading by following the recommendation of Moses and Kelly (2018), which is to condition young learners to love reading by continuously promoting it in a favorable and positive light. In other words, by socializing reading and using child-centered teaching methods (Kikas, Pakarinen, Soodla, Peets & Lerkkanen, 2017; Moses & Kelly, 2018), first grade teachers can help to close the achievement gap.
The study setting is my first grade classroom. This setting was…
Effective Teaching of eading Comprehension
Just like writing and speaking, reading comprehension is a language skill that needs to be developed in order to enhance understanding of various types of texts. For a long time, teachers have employed different strategies in an attempt to assist their students catch a glimpse of their focus. However, some of these strategies have been applied haphazardly, most often out of ignorance. As a result, most students ended up having trouble in comprehending even basic text. Nevertheless, recent years have seen language experts coming up with techniques that have proven to be effective in solving some of these reading comprehension challenges. The following presentation explores some techniques a teacher can employ to make a reading exercise a successful adventure.
Duke and Pearson (2004) recommend a number of tested instructional strategies for assisting students acquire effective comprehension skills. Despite the existence of…
Block, C.C. & Israel, S.E. (2004). The ABCs of Performing Highly Effective Think-aloud. The Reading Teacher vol. 58(2): 1-14
Duke, N. K, & Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective Practices for Developing Reading Comprehension. International Reading Association, pp1-27
Hassan, S and Fatemeh, N, (2012). The Effect of Learner Constructed, Fill in the Map Concept Map Technique, and Summarizing Strategy on Iranian Pre-university Students' Reading Comprehension. English Language Teaching, vol. 5(9):78-87
Stevenson, G. (2000). Concepts in Reading Comprehension. Advanced Learner Journal, vol. 3(4): 12-13
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.
Reading Profile of a Student
The student I selected is a 10-year-old 4th grade student who is a self-described “lover of books.” She views herself as a great reader and she is always carrying a book with her. I ask her if she thinks everyone should read more, and she says most emphatically, “Yes!” She maintains a very positive attitude toward reading—“Even when you don’t care for what you’re reading?” I ask. She says that she always finds something to like, no matter what she is reading. She says if someone took the time to write it, she can take the time to find something nice about it. “Sometimes I have to stop and think about what I read or I’ll think about a story for days wondering what I just read.” I ask what stories do that for her and she answers, “Poe! That guy is crazy!” I am…
Having guided oral reading instruction by using reading centers where students can listen and use aural media, creating echoed reading exercises, and allowing students to work in pairs as silent readers on the same text and then ask questions of one another reinforces critical concepts, the process of reading, and can act as vocabulary-building exercises (Busy Teacher's Cafe, 2007, "Improving reading fluency in young readers"). If available, resource aids can act as support for uncertain readers and help them make the critical transition to fluency: "Provide support for your nonfluent readers by asking tutors -- instructional aides, parent volunteers, or older students -- to help. The tutor and the student can read a preselected text aloud simultaneously" (Blau 2007).
Giving students opportunities to practice and perform is also critical, through activities like combining whole group and small group activities and independent silent reading followed by question and answer sessions aloud.…
Blau, Lisa. (2007). "5 Surefire strategies for developing reading fluency." Scholastic.com Retrieved 1 May 2008 at http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=4367
Busy Teacher's Cafe (2007). "Improving reading fluency in young readers." Retrieved May 2008 at http://www.busyteacherscafe.com/units/fluency.htm
However, it is possible to write in a way that reveals an understanding of what a person reads or what they hear during lecture. Lecture in the classroom provides an ideal opportunity for learners to reflect on what they have learned in previous sessions and to decide how they will use that knowledge to further their understanding, or to help them make decisions related to the content they have learned.
As I plan to become a history teacher I now realize how important reading and writing skills are to the student's comprehension of the content covered in lecture and in class. Students learn in many different ways. One reason that Nathan may not be doing well in both reading and in writing is because he simply does not understand the content or the context in which information is presented in the classroom. While he may not understand much from lectures,…
Freeman, F., Ghiso, M.P. & Hamayan, E. (2006). Authentic Accountability for ELL's Reading and Writing Development. Available: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/resabout/research/ira06_freeman.pdf
Learning to read and write in English has been one of my most treasured accomplishments in the recent past. To begin with, learning to read and write in English is in my opinion the very first step towards becoming a fluent speaker of one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. In that regard therefore, I am convinced that fluency in English is a plus as I pursue my career of choice. Given that English is one of the most common languages, corporations and most organizations would ordinarily hire individuals who can relate well with their customers and clients. Being able to read, write, and speak English will therefore give me a distinct advantage in my future job seeking endeavors. It is also important to note that fully aware that the world is increasingly becoming interconnected; the relevance of learning an additional language cannot be overstated. It is…
Baldwin, James. Sonny's Blues. Stuttgart: Klett Sprachen, 2009. Print.
Brinton, Margaret. 100 Little Reading Comprehension Lessons. New York: Lorenz Educational Press, 2004. Print.
Cusipag, Maria, et al. Critical Thinking through Reading and Writing. Philippines: De La Salle University Press, 2007. Print.
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
subtests (e.g. learning areas): Fluency, Rate, Accuracy, Oral Reading Index, Comprehension.
Describe the age range: Ages 6 through 23.
State the purpose of the instrument: This test is created to denote the strengths and weaknesses for readers, as well as to diagnose any disabilities and to chart the progress of those who have trouble with reading.
Describe the examiner qualifications: There are no explicit requirements for examiners, other than the ability to read and implement the test's instructions. However, experience in scoring, interpretation and testing administration helps.
List the types of scores (such as standard scores, percentile rank, etc.) that are available: There are raw scores, scaled sores, percentages, and an Oral Reading index score.
List the instrument's technical data regarding validity, reliability and standardization/normative process: There is a standard error of measurement that is at 1.00 for the scaled scores for test takers. Additionally, the normative group of 2,556…
If anything, Jessica's apparent equating of reading speed as an indication of reading well undermines her comprehension more than technical difficulty.
Jessica understood the main idea, in general but possibility too literally: she retitled the story "What Comes Around Goes Around," and incorrectly attributed a direct cause-and- effect relationship to Leonard's charity and Riley's fate. Instead of characterizing events as an unfortunate but coincidental relationship between a genuine act of charity and an accident,
Jessica apparently assumed that Riley's misfortune might have been related to Leonard's revenge.
Jessica reads and comprehends well above her grade level. This is likely a function of her enjoyment of reading. Jessica clearly enjoys reading about subjects of interest but is comparatively easily frustrated by assigned reading outside her intrinsic interests. Jessica possesses good reading mechanics that enable her to deduce pronunciation and contextual meaning of unfamiliar words, but her ability to make…
While motivated students may exceed expectations based on their IQ, the greater relevance of the relationship between motivation and reading development is that poor motivation often results in unexpectedly low reading skill development relative to higher IQ scores.
To isolate instances of motivation-based poor reading performance in the study group, I intend to design an investigation using elements of hands-on, active learning study programs, such as the Full Option Science System (FOSS). While FOSS is not specifically designed as a diagnostic reading program, incorporating one or more of the learning exercises will help identify students whose unsatisfactory reading performance scores relate to motivational issues, rather than issues addressable by merely providing intensified reading instruction. Though science-based, the FOSS teaching materials use post-lesson tests that also measure module subject matter comprehension and lesson retention. I intend to administer grade-appropriate science lessons, because the nature of the FOSS materials relies more on…
In order to build an age-appropriate vocabulary in the English language, ESL students must learn words at a faster rate than normal (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005; Drucker 2003). This results in a widening gap between the reading and comprehension levels of ESL and non-ESL students if the needs of ESL students are not addressed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005).
Some ESL students come from a native language that poses more difficulties than others. For example, ussian and Arabic have alphabets that look very different from the English alphabet. Children must learn an entirely new coding system in order to proceed (Lipka, Siegel, & Vukovic, 2005). Even when the alphabet is similar, the English language is difficult to learn due to the many inconsistencies in tense and individual word use. Because they may not be conversationally fluent, subtleties of the English language may take some time to master (Palmer, El_Ashry,…
Abu-Rabia, a., and Maroun, L. (2005). The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community. Dyslexia, 11, 1-21.
Davis, G.N., Lindo, E.J., and Compton, D.L. (2007). Children at risk for reading failureL Constructing an early screening measure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(5), 32-37.
Drucker, M.J. (2003). What reading teachers should know about ESL learners. The Reading Teacher, 57, 22-29.
Hudson, R.F., High, L., and Al Otaiba, S. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us? The Reading Teacher, 60, 506-515.
Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's
English as a Second Language Learner
The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…
Alper, L. & Hyerle, D (2006). Thinking Maps: A language for leadership. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps.Inc.
Anderson, S., Yilmaz, D., & Washburn-Moses, L. (2004). Middle and high school students with learning disabilities: Practical academic interventions for general education teachers -- A review of the literature. American Secondary Education, 32(2), 19-38.
Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advances organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272
Bahr, G.S. & Dansereau, D.F (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education 73(2), 101-118
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).
The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…
Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: http://arareading.org/doc/Susan_Abram_Reading_Fluency_Action_Research.pdf
Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.
Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.
Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/ch3.pdf
Ketch asserts that it is through this natural process that students comprehend and become critical thinkers. Likewise, Pinnell seems to share similar beliefs about natural processes and educators allowing children to explore these processes. The author asserts that
"Concentration on skills draws attention away from the normal and self-reinforcing uses of language, and instruction often unnecessarily makes a natural everyday activity seem foreign and stilted. Language studies suggest that efforts should be redirected to take advantage of nature's most powerful incentive for developing facility with language -- the child's intention to communicate meaning to other people, the use of language for a variety of purposes (Pinnell."
Both of these assertions support the importance of oral language. Ketch encourages this by explaining the importance on conversation is developing critical thinking skills. Likewise Pinnell enforces this by explaining the importance of language use among children.
The purpose of this discussion was…
Ketch, a (2005). Conversation: The comprehension connection. The Reading Teacher, 59(1) 8-13.
Pinnell, G.S. (1975. Language in primary classrooms. Theory into Practice, 14(5), 318-327.
Attitude-Influence model of reading involves teaching good attitudes about reading in an effort to influence how children feel about the reading experience. Attitude was chosen as the most important component of the model because it plays such a strong role in research done on a psychological level. However, attitude can be hard to measure, because it is very subjective and can fluctuate wildly. That is one of the cons of the attitude-influence model, and one of the cons of attempting to address attitude in general when it comes to research. However, in this model, attitude is not all that is considered. Influence is also very important. Influence means how a person is influenced to read and how he or she sees reading. If a person's attitude is good but there is no influence, reading might not take place. The same is true if the attitude is bad but there is…
standardized tests and there is math association with the results. On the other hand informal reading assessments do not have the same formal data requirements and is based more on performance. These two kinds of assessments will be critiqued in this paper.
Formal Reading Assessments
Parents should know and understand not only why their children are being accessed, but through which process the assessment is being conducted. The more parents are involved in the education of their children, the closer parents will be to opportunities to participate and contribute to those important years of education. Brenda eaver writes in Scholastic magazine that first of all, whether it is informal or formal, assessments need to match up with the purpose of assessing any particular student. Formal assessments are generally used to assess "overall achievement" and to "compare a student's performance with others at their age or grade."
Parents should be informed…
Nilsson, Nina L. (2008). A Critical Analysis of Eight Informal Reading Inventories. The Reading Teacher, 61(7), 526-536.
Ogle, Laurence T. (2007). The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): a description. Center for Public Education. Retrieved June 13, 2012, from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org.
Rosado, Luis A. (2006). TExES (103) Bilingual Generalist, EC-4 (REA) -- The Best Test Prep /
Best Test Preparation and Review Course Series. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education
Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans have on literacy development in elementary students
Impact of qualitative reading inventories and subsequent educational intervention plans on literacy development in elementary students
eading inventories are frequently used both to assess students who are struggling and to identify strategies that are helpful in supporting reading success for the larger student body. "Procedurally, [informal reading inventories] IIs assess a student's instructional level in reading using sets of passages that are written or selected to be representative of the difficulty level of texts at different grade levels, and in different schools and reading programs" (Specter 2005: 595). "By charting and analyzing patterns in oral reading error types, educators identify whether students rely on one cueing system & #8230; to the exclusion of the others, as beginning readers typically do, or if they use a balance of strategies, as mature readers at…
McIntyre, E., Petrosko, J., Jones, D., Powell, R., & al, e. (2005). Supplemental instruction in early reading: Does it matter for struggling readers? The Journal of Educational
Research, 99(2), 99-107,128.
Nilsson, N.L. (2008). A critical analysis of eight informal reading inventories. The Reading
Teacher, 61: 526 -- 536. doi: 10.1598/RT.61.7.2
epeated eading Instruction a Powerful and Effective Alternative Teaching Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities?
This paper discusses how repeated reading instruction is a powerful and effective alternative for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities. When asked about reasonable adaptations that teachers can make to support learning from instructional materials, some of the most frequently cited adaptations are those involving peer support such as cooperative learning groups, student pairing. Studies show that students like working in small groups or being paired with a partner and appreciate it when teachers provide structure in teaching students how to work together and learn from each other. Teachers have utilized the phonics reading method and incorporated the Whole Language technique, but there are many educators in support of using the repeated reading technique as the favored instruction for students who have various learning disabilities.
It is the function of reading instruction to teach…
Boudah, D. & Weiss, M. (2002). Learning disabilities overview. (ERIC Document (Reproduction Service No. ED. 462808).
Cromwell, S. (1997). Whole language and phonics: Can they work together? Education World.
Accessed March 2, 2003 at www.educationworld.com.
Fitzsimmons, M. (1998). Beginning reading. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED.
learning how to read, and the development of language as well as language skills. Much of the book is descriptive and historical in nature, though ample space is also provided to contemporary empirical research and its findings concerning reading development and current issues being faced in teaching beginning readers. The conclusions in this regard are that the teaching of phonics is inconsistent both in terms of what is considered to fall under the umbrella of "phonics" and in the specific methodologies and perspectives brought to bear in trying to provide phonics instruction to beginning readers. The focus on mechanical understanding rather than critical understanding in later readers and budding writers is also discussed, with direct implications for beginning readers and on beginning reading instruction.
The research findings suggest that other modes of instruction and greater consistency and clarity in certain methodologies are necessary in order to achieve more effective beginning…
Integration of music and reading may help parents prepare their children for school. On the surface, music and literacy seem opposite of each other both in meaning and delivery. However, the two forms of learning go hand in hand. For example, lyrics and literacy are similar because lyrics are the words sung in a song. Often, they are poetic and can be understood as poetry that sometimes tells a story.
Many singer songwriters are also storytellers, weaving intricate and powerful stories into their songs. If one examines a music soundtrack and a story line/plot, one can see how music is used to help tell the story as much as the narrative itself. As technology advances, music is becoming readily interweaved with reading comprehension. One study examined the use of multimodal e-books that combined text with animation, images, and sounds. Children made academic gains in reading from using multimodal e-books (Morgan,…
Cauchard, F., Cane, J. E., & Weger, U. W. (2011). Influence of Background Speech and Music in Interrupted Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(3), 381-390. doi:10.1002/acp.1837
Chang, A. C., & Millett, S. (2015). Improving reading rates and comprehension through audio-assisted extensive reading for beginner learners. System, 52, 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.system.2015.05.003
Cogo-Moreira, H., Andriolo, R. B., Yazigi, L., Brandao de Avila, C. R., & Mari, J. (2012). Music education for improving reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009133
Cohn, N., Jackendoff, R., Holcomb, P. J., & Kuperberg, G. R. (2014). The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension. Neuropsychologia, 64, 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.018
Comprehension and Deafness
Language and vocabulary development and therefore reading comprehension, among deaf and hard of hearing children is challenged due to several factors. These factors relate to inherent differences between children with normal hearing and those with hearing difficulties. However, efforts and innovation have been put into practice to facilitate language and reading development among deaf and hard of hearing students in order to achieve successful comprehension despite their inabilities to learn through conventional methods. It is important that reading development is maintained at a high level to ensure hard of hearing students are able to maintain comprehension and age appropriate and grade appropriate levels. The following discussion outlines some issues and challenges faced by children with hearing difficulties and how these problems can be overcome in order to achieve effective levels of language, vocabulary, and text comprehension.
Vocabulary comprehension is encouraged and promoted through the activity of reading…
Cannon, J.E., Fredrick, L.D., Easterbrooks, S.R. (2010). Vocabulary instruction through books read in American sign language for English-language learners with hearing loss. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 31(2), 98-112.
Kelly, L.P. (2003). Considerations for designing practice for deaf readers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(2), 171-86.
Luetke-Stahlman, B., Nielsen, D.C. (2003). The contribution of phonological awareness and receptive and expressive English to the reading ability of deaf students with varying degrees of exposure to accurate English. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(4), 464-84.
Mayer, C., Akamatsu, C.T. (2000). Deaf children creating written texts: contributions of American sign language and signed forms of English. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(5), 394-403.
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
fluency comprehension? Locate a current journal article related fluency connection comprehension. Your personal interests guide choice topic. It focus a grade level, an approach teaching fluency find interesting, fluency special students, helping English Language Learners develop fluency.
Fluency represents the ability to read text rapidly, correctly, and with the right expression. Veda Neumann, Dorothy Ross, and Anita Slaboch's article "INCREASING READING COMPREHENSION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS THROUGH FLUENCY-BASED INTERVENTIONS" provides a complex understanding of how fluency can be used with the purpose to assist students in getting a more complex understanding of texts they came across. The study determined that students who had problems reading text rapidly, correctly, and with the right expression were also unable to have a proper comprehension of these respective texts.
In order o determine if they could use fluency-related strategies in order to help students get a better understanding of the texts they read, researchers got…
Neumann, V.S., Ross, D.K., & Slaboch, A.F. "INCREASING READING COMPREHENSION OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS THROUGH FLUENCY-BASED INTERVENTIONS," Retrieved April 19, 2015, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500847.pdf
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.
From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…
Erickson, Lawrence.Jan. 11, 1998. "Informational literacy in the middle grades." The Clearing House.
Foley, Regina M. Winter, 2001. "Academic Charateristics of incarcerated youth and correctional educational programs: a literature review." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Gardill, M. Cathleen, and Jitendra, Asha K.April 15, 1999. "Advanced Story Map Instruction: Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities." Journal of Special Education: Vol.33.
Nourie, Barbara; Livingston, Lenski, and Davis, Susan.July 17, 1998. "The (in)effectiveness of content area literacy instruction for secondary preservice teachers." The Clearing House: 71: 372-375.
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin to lay the outlines if this thesis for a Master's degree.
I see the wonder in a child's eyes as he imagines a world unfolding in a grain of sand as I read a story to him; an hour reading in a class of children translates into infinity as the children in that class become readers themselves, changing the hours into infinity as they develop the habit of infinite reading.
Voluntary in-school free reading program - elementary level" is the subject of this thesis proposal, and the objective is to prove that voluntary in-school free reading programs result in positive effects on elementary students' attitudes toward reading.
Statement of the Problem
To be able to identify the strengths and…
Durrell, Donald. D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (New Edition).
Kottmeyer, William. Evaluation Handbook: Levels in English. Webster.
Kottmeyer, William. Guide for Remedial Reading. Webster Strang, Ruth, et. al. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Mc GrawHill.
Steiger, Ralph. New Directions in Reading. New York: Bantam Books.
Trade Books and Content Literacy
The content are is English.
Tools to read
Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author's message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
(A) establish purposes for reading selected texts based upon own or others' desired outcome to enhance comprehension;
(B) ask literal, interpretive, evaluative, and universal questions of text;
(C) reflect on understanding to monitor comprehension (e.g., summarizing and synthesizing; making textual, personal, and world connections; creating sensory images);
(D) make complex inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding;
(E) summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts; and make connections…
Custom Lesson Plan to Create a Positive Classroom Environment
Secondary Teaching -- English -- 7th-12th Grades
Close eading Lesson Plan
eader and Task Considerations
Close eading Lesson Plan
The modern educational environment, and society in general, is continuously becoming more complex. Students have more information available to them than any other previous generation. The internet has become ubiquitous in most parts of society and students can now research nearly any subject on their own. However, self-study requires discipline and a certain skill set to be effective. One of the skills that is necessary for truly comprehending information that a student might encounter is known as close reading. Close reading challenges students to not only comprehend the information that is being presented, but also to use critical thinking to put this information in a context that can provide insight. Close reading can…
ASCD. (2013, January). Closing in on Close Reading. Retrieved from ASCD: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/dec12/vol70/num04/Closing-in-on-Close-Reading.aspx
Burke, B. (N.d.). A Close Look at Close Reading. Retrieved from NIE Online: http://nieonline.com/tbtimes/downloads/CCSS_reading.pdf
Gardner, H. (2006). The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Psychology and the Real World, 122-130.
In "Emergent Literacy," uth Wilson claims that formal reading instruction "especially if introduced too early…can actually interfere with emergent literacy," (p. 1). The author bases her claim on personal observation with her own children, as well as on empirical evidence related to early childhood literacy education. Using a combination of anecdotal and empirical evidence strengthens the author's stance, and offers a rich opportunity for personal reflection. Wilson does not disparage structured or formal literacy training in early childhood. Instead, she calls for a more organic approach that stresses parental engagement.
Wilson cites evidence from a number of sources showing that literacy emerges in many different settings, and is not dependent on print. Folk practices, including playing with sounds and simply engaging children with words, can be as effective if not more, in helping immerse the child in a literate universe. Finally, Wilson emphasizes the importance of the home…
Wilson, R.A. (n.d.). Emergent literacy. Early Childhood News. Retrieved online: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=212
On the other hand, autistic individuals may use other senses differently. For example, she says that "Many autistic children like to smell things, and smell may provide more reliable information about their surroundings than either vision or hearing" (pg. 75). or, the children may only eat certain foods because of the texture or smell.
Chapter 5 on developing autistic talent was the most beneficial. It provided insights into how to take the strengths of the autistic child or adolescent and apply them to learning. As Grandin states (pg. 100): "Teachers need to help autistic children develop their talents. I think there is too much emphasis on deficits and not enough emphasis on developing abilities." For example, they may be encouraged to do more graphic arts, computer programming and engine repair. Similarly, employers must understand their autistic employees' strengths and weaknesses. Grandin relates a story about a man who excelled as…
Grandin, T. (1995) Thinking in Pictures. New York: Doubleday.
In an update to her book ( http://www.grandin.com/inc/visual.thinking.html ),Grandin says that she has since learned that there are actually three different types of specialized brains. Some individuals may be combinations of these categories. Visual thinkers, like Grandin, think in photographically specific images; Music and math thinkers think in patterns; and Verbal logic thinkers think in word details.
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…
Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11
Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/
Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:aLFi5i1eLl4J:www.melroseschools.com/lincoln/MPS_Writing_Curriculum_K_5.pdf+writing+curriculum+for+elementary&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShGXpwCDU3mdB2rQVO2e3Dav6AgQn-3Ng2vDjsDa_f50Pd5k8wDn4zmQH2cTwV3P7kAA2v9zu
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test: http://www.riversidepublishing.com/products/gmrtOnline/index.html
This is the goal of struggling readers. A dependent reader takes only a peripheral interest in the text. He gives it the minimum of his attention and approaches it only because he is forced. It is as though he is reading against his will and fighting all the way.
Beers provides an anticipation guide, but I don't necessarily agree that such a guide is very constructive or helpful. It deals solely with crass generalizations, and whether attitudes held before reading the text are still ascribed to after reading the text. For the most part, students' attitudes are going to be superficial and having them partake in an exercise of superficiality is likely to be counterproductive.
Beers argues that performing such activities will help to encourage students to become more involved with the reading. It will help them to engage their prior knowledge and challenge them to think. Beers recommends making…
By attaching visual elements to specific words and even to specific sounds within those words, many learners that might struggle with simple auditory approaches attached only to visuals of the letter might be better able to commit letter/phoneme associations to memory (Fox, 2011). The use of pictures also seems more interactive and engaging with the learners than simply showing visuals of letters associated with sounds, as it speaks to the imagination of the learners and gives them something to respond to in addition to the simple reading facts being presented. In this way, both the educator and the learners can be drawn into the lesson more fully, it would seem, and there is definite evidence that pictures make both the lessons and the material more memorable when they are properly used (Fox, 2003).
Other issues raised on these two DVDs such as synthetic phonics are also fairly controversial, and seem…
Elam, S. (2010). Phonics primer. Accessed 19 March 2012.
Fox, B. (2011). Word identification strategies. Toronto: Lavoisier.
The curriculum should be research-based. They can collaborate and share viewpoints with stakeholders to diversify their knowledge. They should pose as leaders in designing, implementing and assessing professional advancement programs.
eading specialists can uptake numerous responsibilities in schools, depending on the requirements of the student populace and instructors in any dispensation. The reading specialist's role is on a continuum, with various specialists operating in a teaching position with learners while others utilize the bulk of their working time in practicing expert development with classroom instructors in an official leadership position. Specialists despite their roles should involve themselves in boosting the work of the class instructor. eading specialists ought to enhance the reading plan so that it is effectual for every student. The main responsibilities of reading specialists, each of which adds to the development of student reading, are instructive, evaluation, and leadership (Bean, 2009). They all add on to improved…
Bean, R.M. (2009). The Reading Specialist, Second Edition: Leadership for the Classroom, School, and Community. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Carlson, C.L. (2007). An Examination of Secondary Reading Specialists: Demographic, Training, and Employment Characteristics. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.
Dagen, S., & Bean, R.M. (2011). Best Practices of Literacy Leaders: Keys to School Improvement. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Gambrell, L.B., & Morrow, L.M. (2011). Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, Fourth Edition. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Next door to where we live is a family with an 8-year-old boy who is in the third grade. He says that he does not like to read but that he has to for school and he hates it. “I don’t like reading in class. It’s hard to say the words and everybody laughs at me.” I asked him if there was anything he enjoyed about reading and he said, “Yeah, when we can stop.” I decided to try a different route to see if I could get his participation any better and introduced the topic of comic books. “Do you like Batman or Spiderman?” I asked. “Oh yeah!” So I offered him a few comic books to look at and he enjoyed them, but there was still the question of whether or not he was enjoying them because of the pictures or whether he was able to actually…
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
2000, the National eading Panel developed and publicized a report that included give critical areas that need to be addressed in order to provide effective reading instruction: 1) Phonemic awareness, 2) Phonics, 3) Fluency, 4) Vocabulary, and
Comprehension (National eading Panel, 2012). Too, we must realize that not all children become phonemically aware at the same age or grade level. Some preschool children can segment and even understand multi-syllabic words, which some even in 2nd grade cannot. However, using the 5 basic steps, it is possible to provide a standards-based program that logically defines and emphasizes basic reading skills (Neuman and Dickinson, 2006). We can think of each portion of the 5 steps as building blocks towards fluency, with one logically contributing to the other through a series of exercises, drills, and finally mastery of each level.
Phonemic Awareness -- Is the ability to notice and cognate discreet sounds in…
Boost Vocabulary and Spelling. (2012). Learnthat.org. Retrieved from: http://www.learnthat.org/
Teaching Phonics. (2012). A to Z. Phonics.com. Retrieved from: http://www.atozphonics.com/teaching-phonics.html
What are the Five Essential Elements of Reading? (2009). Literacy Collaborative at Lesley University. Retrieved from: http://www.nhpirc.org/files/Five%20elements%20of%20Reading%20Tip%20Sheet.pdf
Cunningham, P. (2008). Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing. Allyn And Bacon.
Dramatic eading for ESL
Differentiated eading with 10th Grade EFL Students
ESL literature is replete with studies focused on optimal learning environments and enhancements to student motivation (Lazaraton, 1886). Some of this literature parallels earlier work by linguists, psychologists (Harter, 1981), and educators (ichards & odgers, 2001), and early childhood researchers (Vygotsky, 1986) who specialize in language acquisition. Indeed, there is a plethora of anecdotal information about how to use visuals, games, music, and drama to increase ESL students' engagement in their learning. However, formal research about the effectiveness of drama as context for teaching English as a second language is not readily found in the literature.
This case study offers a discussion of the use of drama as part of a differentiated reading strategy to teach literature to 10th grade ESL students. Although the highlighted strategy is generally applicable, the literature used in this exercise is Of Mice and…
Baxter, J. (1999). A message from the old world to the new: Teaching classic fiction through drama. English Journal, 89(2), 119-124.
Berlinger, M.R. (2000). Encouraging English expression through script-based improvisations. The Internet TESL Journal, VI (4), April 2000. Retrieved February 25, 2011. from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Berlinger-ScriptImprov.html
Boulton, M. (1968). The anatomy of drama (3rd ed.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rded.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Overall, this type of reading lesson on the part of the teacher may inspire students to explore other types of reading material, thus expanding their reading horizons and their ability to think creatively.
esides having the teacher read aloud passages from a text, one reading project which undoubtedly would benefit everyone involved would be to have the class read the text aloud, either as individuals or as Zullo suggests, as a whole class reading with the text enlarged to poster size on a screen which would enable the teacher to include comments on the text by the students. In this way, all of the students would be encouraged to verbalize their thoughts on the text, make new connections between one passage and another, listen and appreciate different perspectives on certain passages and come to a more fuller understanding of the text. In addition, this method would benefit those…
Zullo, Rebecca L. (2004). Literacy for Learning: Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum. Canton, OH: Communicate Institute.
hat can be done about this, Newkirk wonders in this article, published in 2004. Boys see libraries as a place for girls to go; boys go home and their dads are reading the sports page in newspapers while mom may be reading a novel. And boys are not encouraged to read action and adventure books (even though it is usually their preference), but they are urged to read novels with deep plots and sophisticated character development. Boys spend more time on video games and in computers than girls, and much of what they experience in those genres is action-oriented, and yet in school, they are asked to change, and be quiet, and be serious, like the girls.
These traditions lead to cynicism on the part of boys, Newkirk explains. hat can a teacher try to do about this problem? One thing Newkirk did was to stop trying to get boys…
Folks, Victoria. (2004). Middle School Masculinity: The Rejection of Reading. California English, 9(3), 24-25.
Moss, Gemma. (2000). Raising Boys' Attainment in Reading: some principles for intervention.
Reading, 34(3), 101-106.
Newkirk, Thomas. (2004). The Quiet Crisis in Boys' Literacy. California English, 9(3), 13-16.
Positive Effects of Reading
Mark Twain, a notorious writer and traveler, once said, "The man who doesn't read good books has no advantage over the man who can't read them." This statement is true on so many levels. The benefits of reading are incredible. Through reading, a greater interest is developed in many subjects, comprehension and memory are dramatically improved, analytical and critical skills are focused and one's ability to come to a conclusion about the information that is read is enhanced.
Many people get so caught up in their hectic, daily schedules that they forget or never discover the joys of reading. In my opinion, this is a terrible shame, as reading brings so many positive elements into my life. In some ways, reading can be light, fun and surprising; in other ways, it can be serious and highly informative.
In today's society, there are so many choices for…
children learn how to read at the same pace. However, the parent does have some cause for concern. As Kelly & Campbell (n.d.) points out, "studies indicate that when students get off to a poor start in reading, they rarely catch up," (p. 1). Therefore, I would first thank and congratulate the parent on being concerned and seeking assistance. According to the Oxford Owl (n.d.), "the best thing to do if you are worried about your child is to talk to your child's class teacher." The first question I would ask would be how old the child is, and if the child is young, to direct the parent to the Oxford Owl website. This website includes a wide range of resources, games, and tools that parents can use with their children. I would also tell the parent, possibly later in our conversation, that a range of formal programs are available…
Kelly, C. & Campbell, L. (n.d.). Helping struggling readers. Johns Hopkins. Retrieved online: http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/strategies/topics/literacy/articles/helping-struggling-readers/
Oxford Owl (n.d.). Helping struggling readers. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordowl.co.uk/welcome/for-home/reading-owl/expert-help/helping-struggling-readers
Curriculum and Instruction
Compare and contrast the bottom-up curriculum and the top-down curriculum. Discuss instructional objectives, materials, learning environment, instructional strategies, and assessment.
The top-down belief system related to curriculum centers on reading for meaning. Teachers who hold this philosophy of reading instruction stress engaging language arts activities that students find relevant and interesting. Indeed, teacher with this top-down perspective of reading curriculum are likely to encourage students to select their own reading materials in order to optimize the students' enjoyment of reading. The shift in this approach is definitely away from a focus on individual words, letters, and phonetics. Although teachers who embrace the top-down belief system want students to be proficient readers with robust skills that enable them to enjoy their reading, these teachers tend to believe that what motivates students to work hard on their reading skills is a strong appetite for story. Accordingly, their instruction targets…
Vacca, J. Vacca, R. Gove, M. Burkey, L. Lenhart, L. McKeon, C. (2012). Reading and learning to read. (8th ed.) Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Basic Reading Inventory Reflection Paper
Part I: Findings
Upon administering the BRI to a struggler Reader, I undertook the process of reflection in order to consider the experience overall. The Reader’s name was Diana: she is 8 years old and enrolled in the third grade. Currently, she is one year behind her current reading grade level she should be in--i.e., she is reading at a 2nd grade reading level instead of a 3rd. She is attending Patricia DiChiaro in Yonkers, NY, and the BRI revealed quite a few things about her ability to read.
For the first part of the BRI, Diana had to read aloud a paragraph about dodge ball. Each line was analyzed according to miscues made by the student during the reading exercise. Miscues consisted of substitution (in which a wrong word was read instead of the word on the page), insertion (in which the reader inserts…
The five components of a reading program -- phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension -- build on one another to help students become readers. At a hypothetical all-African-American elementary school in Philadelphia's inner city, there would be similarities and differences in the way the five components would be taught in first grade, third grade, and fifth grade classrooms.
Phonemic awareness is the first stage in a comprehensive reading program. It is the foundation upon which other reading skills are built. The International eading Association (IA) defines phonemic awareness as "the ability to segment and manipulate the sounds of oral language" (2011). The IA points out research shows that a child's awareness of the sounds of spoken language are a strong predictor of success in learning to read. Language "play" helps children develop this awareness of sounds. ead-alouds, songs, riddles, poems, and rhyming activities are effective ways to…
Morris, D. (2011). Practicum training for teachers of struggling readers. Phi Delta Kappan 92(8),
Penner-Wilger, M. (2008). Reading fluency: A bridge from decoding to comprehension.
International Reading Association. Retrieved from http://eps.schoolspecialty.com
81). Ambrose and Corn (1997) further define "functional vision" as vision that can be used to derive input for planning and performing tasks; the extent to which one uses his or her available vision is referred to as "visual efficiency."
eading Skills. According to Carver (2002), "reading usually means to attempt to comprehend language in the form of printed words"; therefore, for the purposes of this study, the term "reading skills" will refer to an individual's ability to comprehend language in the form of printed words.
This chapter provided an introduction to the study, including the background and a statement of the problem of vision impairment on students' academic performance; a discussion of the purpose and significance of the study was followed by a description of the research questions that will guide the research process. An assessment of the study's limitations and delimitations was followed by a delineation…
Ambrose, G.V. & Corn, a.L. (1997). Impact of Low Vision on Orientation: an Exploratory Study. RE:view, 29(2), 81.
Balota, D.A., D'Arcais, G.B. & Rayner, K. (Eds.). (1990). Comprehension processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Becker, C.A. (1980). Semantic context effects in visual word recognition. An analysis of semantic strategies. Memory & Cognition, 8, 493-512.
Blachman, B.A. (1997). Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
vocabulary acquisition for a child, especially one that is not a native English speaker, who is trying to learn to read. The author mentions four "areas of instruction that teachers…demonstrated: comprehension, vocabulary, text structures and text features" (Kesler, 2010). The author relates that his test group for different reading approaches was from an urban elementary school at which 21% of the student population was ESL students. Four shared reading approaches -- possible sentences, using context clues, repeated readings, and using our bodies -- were compared as to effectiveness with this population. The remainder of the article was used to describe and evaluate the four different approaches.
The goal of using possible sentences is to help students understand how sentences can be built from an individual word or group of words. The author used a shared reading context to help the students think of ways that the words could be used.…
Graves, M.F., Juel, C., Graves, B.B., & Dewitz, P. (2011). Word recognition, in Teaching reading in the 21st century: Motivating all readers. New York: Pearson.
Kesler, T. (2010). Shared reading to build vocabulary and comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 64(4), 272-277.
Ontario. (2003). A guide to effective instruction in reading: Kindergarten to grade 3. Ontario Early Reading Strategy. Ontario: Ministry of Education.
Pinnell, G.S., & Fountas, I.C. (2007). Shared and performance reading, in The continuum of literacy learning, grades K-8: Behaviors and understandings to notice, teach, and support. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Grade Students with some Early Readers
What I did and what I would change
After a preview of the age-appropriate book selection, I highlighted words that might be challenging for the children. I did this ahead of time so that I would be prepared. I then called the group together, and we then did a walk-through focusing on the pictures. I mentally took note of which of the words were most challenging for the students. Next time, I would have tried writing these words down if they were different from the words I chose earlier. After the walk-through, each child was given a copy of the story. I told them that first they were going to read the story by themselves out loud, and then we were going to discuss what they read. As a prompt, I read the first sentence of the story with them before letting them continue…
It is anticipated that there may be diminishing returns during the sessions where students will show sign of fatigue. Games, token system of food and video games will be used to reinforce the willingness of the participants to continue participating in the program. (Goodloe, Mentavlos & ose-Baele,2004).
After the six-week learning program using the SuccessMaker, students will be evaluated on their reading skills, and the evaluation will be carried out using 30-minutes test to determine the benefits of SuccessMaker. To determine the benefits of the SuccessMaker, both the experimental and the control group will be allowed to participate in the 30-minute tests. Quantitative techniques will be used to record and publish the test scores. The test scores for the experiment group and the control group will be made available in form of tables and graphs.
esearch instruments will consist of desktop computers, SuccessMaker software and headphones. The computers…
Given, B.K. Wasserman, J.D. Chari, S.A. et al. (2008). Controlled study and a randomized of computer-based intervention in middle school struggling readers. Brain and Language. 106: 83 -- 97.
Goodloe, M.L. Mentavlos, M & Rose-Baele, J.S. (2004). Evaluation of the Year Two Results: Implementation and Effectiveness of SuccessMaker During 2002-2003. Evaluation Report Charleston County School District.
Trochim, W. & Donnely, J.P. (2007). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, (3rd Edition).Atomic Dog Publishing.USA.
common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.
There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.
Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…
Christie, J., Enz, B., Vukelich, C., & Roskos, K. (2013). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades, fifth edition. Pearson.
Reaction to the source
The authors presented a well developed and cohesive approach to analyzing the manner in which young people learn a foreign language.
Kartal, G. (2006). Working with an imperfect medium: Speech recognition technology in reading practice. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15(3), 303-305.
Description of the focus of the source
The focus of this study was the read-aloud behaviors of learners who were assigned an experimental computer-based program that used speech recognition software for reading practice that provided novice students with immediate feedback.
Usefulness of the source
The useful of this source was primarily for classroom ESOL teachers using speech-recognition applications.
Limitations of the source
Many ESOL classrooms may not feature speech-recognition software, making this study purely speculative for these educators.
Description of the intended audience
Primary school ESOL teachers.
Although speech-recognition software has become more accurate in its interpretation of speech, the technology…
Robert Francis was an American poet whose work is reminiscent of Robert Francis, his mentor. Francis' writing has often compared to other writers such as Frost, Emily Dickinson, and Henry David Thoreau. Although Francis's work has frequently been neglected and is "often excluded from major anthologies of American poetry," those that have read his work have praised him and his writing. In "Fair and Unfair," Francis comments on balance in nature and in society. Like Frost, Francis contends nature has the ability to provide guidance if only man is smart enough to observe it. In "Fair and Unfair," Francis is able to find balance through what is written and how it is written.
The poem is told from a first person, omniscient perspective and the narrator appears to be addressing the general public; it appears as though the narrator seeks to bring attention to how nature has become disregarded…
Francis, Robert. "Fair and Unfair." Web. 7 November 2012.
"Robert Francis." eNotes. Web. 7 November 2012.