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graduate experience thus far has exceeded my expectations. I was prepared to do a considerable amount of reading and feared that I might find too much of it to be overly theoretical and dry. I was surprised and pleased to find that much of the reading will apply directly to my work in the field of teaching. The most enjoyable aspect of the graduate experience has been the discussion and collaboration with other students. People vary in age and with respect to personal and professional experience. Everyone brings a unique view to the course work and we are all in pursuit of a common goal. It has been helpful to see other perspectives besides my own.
The lesson planning activities have been rewarding, as well as a tremendous amount of work. I have gained greater insight into the process because of the detail with which we approached the task. I…
Vacca, R.T., Vacca, J.L., and Mraz, M. (2011). Content area reading: Literacy and learning across the curriculum. 10th ed. Boston: Pearson.
There is also the question of what approach should be used in a given setting. For instance, Lewis-Moreno points out that, "A great deal of energy is expended selecting and defending the model used: Should it be late- or early-exit bilingual, dual language, or English immersion?" (2007, p. 773). Although complex problems require complex solutions, a common theme that runs through the relevant literature concerns the need to use what resources are available to their maximum advantage. As Lewis-Moreno points out, "Often, too little attention is paid to improving the quality of what is available: Are personnel, resources, and facilities used in the best possible way? If not, what can be done differently?" (2007, p. 773)
The importance of using learning strategies, or the moment-by-moment techniques that we employ to solve problems posed by second language input and output, in order to become a successful English language learner cannot be…
American Educational Research Association. (2004). English language learners: Boosting academic achievement. Research Points, 2(1), 14. Retrieved from http://www.aera.net / uploadedFiles/Journals_and_Publications/.
Batagiannis, S.C. (2011). Promise and possibility for aspiring principals: an emerging leadership identity through learning to do action research. The Qualitative Report, 16(5),
Bird, L. (2009). Action research: A tool for enacting change at all levels. Advanced Leadership
accurately depicts all learning strategies?
Why not compose a song about how to plan accordingly?
Can you see a possible solution to decision making processes being simplified by prior proper planning?
If you had access to all resources how would you deal with explaining spatial intelligence ?
Why don't you devise your own way to deal with multiple intelligences ?
What would happen if short-term planning was ignored?
How many ways can you integrate long and short-term planning?
Can you create new and unusual uses for daily planning sessions?
Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish?
Can you develop a proposal which would summarize goals and objective planning?
Is there a better solution to objective vs. subjective learning?
Judge the value of a student's aptitude requires deep insight
Can you defend your position about the subjective manner in which individuals learn and think?
Do you think…
Studying an individual child helped me to better understand some problems of the struggling reader because it allowed me to see a real world example of how difficult it can be for the learner and to see some of the unique obstacles to learning that the student encountered. It is one thing to read about it on paper, but it is quite another to actually experience it in real life. In real life, there is more than just the intellectual impact of having to deal with this issue, which is typically all that you experience in a case study in a book. In real life, there are other effects as well: there is an emotional effect, because you really feel for the child struggling; there is a self-doubt effect, because you begin to question yourself as a teacher, wondering if you are taking the right steps or if you are…
Reschly, D. “Identification and assessment of students with disabilities.” Special Education for Students with Disabilities, 6, 1, 1996: 40-53.
Sioux Falls Public Schools Education Foundation. (2011). Paired Oral Reading Washington High School [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80dH1qhHXO8
One counterargument to the practice of teaching vocabulary is that children learn the meanings of many words by experiencing those words in the actual world and in text without explicit instruction. Unfortunately, such incidental learning is filled with possible problems. The definitions learned range from richly contextualized and more than sufficient, to incomplete to wrong. Children do develop knowledge of vocabulary through incidental contact with new words they read. This is one of the many reasons to challenge students to read incessantly.
There is considerable evidence that readers who possess prior knowledge about the topic of a reading often comprehend the reading better than classmates with no, or lower prior knowledge. Nevertheless, even when students have knowledge relevant to the information they are reading they do not always relate their world knowledge to the content of a text. Unless inferences are absolutely necessary to make sense of the…
Armbruster, B.B. & Osborn, J., (2001) Put reading first: The building blocks for teaching chilren to read. National Institute or Literacy, Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: www.nifl.gov
Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., & McKeown, M.G., (1982) Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 506-521.
Cordon, L.A., & Day, J.D. (1996) Stategy use on standardized reading comprehension tests. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 288-521.
Nation, K. & Snowling, M.J., (1998) Individual differences in contextual facilitation: Evedence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension. Child Development, V. 69 No. 4, p.996- 1011. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from: http://C:UsersOwnerDesktop
eading is a fundamental part of a child's education. Many techniques have been utilized in an effort to make learning to read and reading comprehension easier for students (McCray 2001). One such technique is Sustained Silent eading (SS). The purpose of this discussion is to investigate Sustained Silent eading as it relates to reluctant middle school aged children. Let us begin our investigation by discussing the theoretical framework of Sustained Silent eading.
Sustained Silent eading (SS)
Jenson & Jenson (2002) report that The Uninterrupted Sustained Silent eading program (USS) was first implemented by Lyman Hunt at the University of Vermont during the 1960's (Jensen & Jensen 2002). By the 1970's the program was implemented into the American public school system (Jensen & Jensen 2002). Forty years after its initial inception this same program has an array of aliases including: Motivation in Middle Schools (MIMS), High Intensity Practice (HIP), Free Voluntary…
Broughton, M.A., & Fairbanks, C.M. (2003). In the Middle of the Middle: Seventh-Grade Girls' Literacy and Identity Development Here Is a Look at the Ways in Which a Group of Girls Perceived Themselves and How Their Perceptions and Behaviors Changed as They Moved from the Sixth Grade to the Seventh Grade: The Middle of Middle School. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 426
Brozo, W.G., & Hargis, C.H. (2003). Taking Seriously the Idea of Reform: One High School's Efforts to Make Reading More Responsive to All Students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(1), 14
Crawford P.C.2004. Using Graphic Novels to Attract Reluctant Readers. Library Media Connection
Graham, S., & Taylor, A.Z. (1998). Exploring Achievement Values Among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 606-620.
That can get them into a lot of trouble.
In short, uncertainty is always going to be there in the business world. Nothing is one hundred percent certain when a person is owning and operating a business. During a time when economic uncertainty is higher than normal, there is even more uncertainty that has to be addressed. Overall, though, most uncertainty falls into levels one and two. By the time it has gotten to level three the economy and industry are both struggling and it may be better not to make any exotic or unexpected changes during that time. In level four, there is no need to start creating strategy. It is simply too dangerous to consider, because it offers too large of a range of choices to be seen. When it is completely impossible to address or even determine ever reasonable option or outcome that could occur, it is…
Home Depot is a "category killer" retailer, selling supplies for home and garden. Home Depot operates with a cost leadership strategy, as it seeks to use its buying power in particular to offer customers a low price. Home Depot also incorporates a service element to its business model, something it hopes will give it a competitive advantage. Home Depot is currently undergoing a change in terms of its structure and culture, and this has caused some disruption. That said, Home Depot is the second-largest retailer in America behind Wal-Mart and has experienced strong sales improvements during the Nardelli years.
The competitive situation is intense. Home Depot is a dominant competitor in the industry, but faces strong competition from Lowe's, which is almost the same size. These two competitors operate as something of a duopoly, although in other businesses there are specialist firms that are strong competitors.…
Please title Case 4 I attached Previous 3 Papers (Case1-3) Explain process strategy mapping relates performance management establishing propositions. You discuss theoretically Glacier Inn case study presented Armitage Scholey (2009) document readings serve integrating ideas.
Strategy mapping, performance management and establishing value propositions
Virtually all organizations today have some sort of defined 'strategy' which they are ostensibly attempting to put into action -- but merely articulating strategy is not enough. Executing the strategy is the critical often-forgotten element. Following through, organizations often face roadblocks, both internal and external. A strategy map sets "appropriate overriding objectives in a corporate setting" and is intent upon "establishing a dominant value proposition that will set the direction for achieving those objectives, and "using that proposition to guide the selection of critical financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth strategies" (Armitage & Scholey 2006: 4).
Although strategy mapping shares many similarities…
Armitage, H., Scholey, C., (2006). Using strategy maps to drive performance. Society of Mgt.
Accountants of Canada. Retrieved from:
In addition to the need to have organizational structures that are agile enough to quickly form interrelationships to solve emerging customer problems there is a corresponding need to also have a goal-based diagnosis methodology in place. According to the Criteria for Performance Excellence (2007) there are seven categories that form the basis for 18 criteria items, distributed throughout the areas of Leadership, Strategic Planning, Customer and Market Focus, Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management, Workforce Focus, Process Management, and esults. While the point has been made earlier that an entirely new approach to managing the tracking of these variables requires high degrees of process and system integration, there is also the need to completely modify how the universities operate in response to the demands placed on their it departments. It is not simply a strategy of selecting these 18 specific criteria and working to create high scores on each.…
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available on the Internet, accessed on March 29, 2007:
Criteria for Performance Excellence (2007) - Baldrige national Quality Program. NIST. Published January 2007. Guidelines for Baldrige National Quality program. www.Baldrige.nist.gov
Managing Change is it Directors' Toughest Job (2002) - Computer Weekly Magazine. Page 8. June 27, 2002
Strategy Mapping & the Learning and Growth Perspective
Learning and growth is the fourth category of the balanced scorecard, which makes up the basis of any strategy. In this perspective, there is establishment of the employee capabilities, skills, technology, and a corporate environment to support a strategy. There are several objectives identified by Cattaraugus ehabilitation Center Mission (CCM) in an attempt to improve their learning and growth. These include (i) recruit, orient, manage, develop and retain personnel, (ii) Utilize technology to progress the organization's information systems and (iii) Promote, train and practice the organization's culture (Kaplan and Norton, 1992).
ecruit, orient, manage, develop and retain personnel
The turnover rates
Attract the best employees in an attempt to achieve sustainability
Develop a motivated and satisfied employee
Utilize technology to improve and progress the organization's information systems
The number of staff who successfully complete training
Incorporation of technology…
Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance.
Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71-79.
Martello, M., Watson, G.J., & Fischer, J.M. (2008). Implementing a balanced scorecard in a not-for-profit organization. Journal of business & economics research, 6(9), 67-80.
In 2004, it established its operations in Mexico to cash in on the high rate of diabetes in this country. Diabetes is responsible for 13 out of every 100 deaths in Mexico and Novo Nordisk expanded into this Latin American market. It also encompassed Mexico as part of its global campaign and its representatives went to schools and villages to spread awareness about the disease and the ways and means to cope with it.
The H system that was implemented in Mexico was different from the one that existed in Denmark and this was mainly due to the differences in culture, work attitude of the people and national factors that have a profound impact on the employment benefits of the workers. For example, in Denmark, every worker gets to participate in the decision making process. This is a part of the Danish culture and comes from the long-standing democracy and…
Shields, John. 2007. Managing employee performance and reward: concepts, practices and strategies. Boston: Cambridge University Press.
Bratton, John. 2001. Strategic Human Resource Management. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan .
Bamberger, Peter; Meshoulam, Ilan. 2000. Human Resource Strategy: Formulation, Implementation and Impact. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
No Author. No date. Human Resources UC Berkeley. UC Berkeley. [Online]. Available at: http://hrweb.berkeley.edu/guides/managing-hr/interaction/diversity/resources
The claim that a board member familiar with forensic accounting would have been able to uncover such a fraud holds little water given that it took a team of experts working in secret many months to uncover the fraud. However, the argument generally holds that better board composition, and more engaged board members, would have prevented such a fraud. Nadler (2004) argues that better boards are less important for preventing frauds as they are for driving better performance. This then shifts the emphasis of the board away from governance and towards performance enhancement.
Nadler's argument supports Nohria's claims about the relative irrelevance of strong corporate governance. No matter whether the boards take a strict shareholder approach or the expanded stakeholder approach proposed by Post et al. (2002), there are limits as the impact that they can have over a company's performance, no matter how well-composed the board is. If the…
Bowden, P. & Smythe, V. (2008). Theories on teaching & training in ethics. Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organizational Studies. Vol. 13 (2) 19-26.
Nadler, D. (2004). Building better boards. Harvard Business Review. May 2004, 102-111.
Nohria, N. (2004). What really matters. Harvard Business School. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from http://info.umuc.edu/mba/HBS/realmathi/presentation/title/start.html#play
Post, J.; Preston, L. & Sachs, S. (2002). Managing the extended enterprise: The new stakeholder view. California Management Review. Vol. 45 (1) 6-28.
The primary aspect of Billy's scenario is that he has the propensity to be disruptive. I believe that this tendency of his is due to the fact that he is able to complete his work relatively quickly, the work is easy for him to accomplish, and then he becomes bored. The larger issue involved here is the fact that he evidently needs to be on an advanced track for learning, and is involved in a school in which homogenous learning occurs.
That said, Billy is one of the primary candidates to benefit from community-building -- mostly because it will allow him to apply his considerable intellect to some other aspect of academics that he has not already mastered. There are several facets of his character that make him perfect to become involved in perspective taking. He is naturally gregarious, so the essential concept of community-building is already ingrained within him.…
Hardin, C.J. (2012). Building Community. In C.J. Hardin, Effective Classroom Management: Models and Strategies for Today's Classroom (3rd ed., pp. 139-154). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Jankowski, K.A. (2002). "Community building: A positive approach to discipline in schools." Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED475324.pdf
Kohn. (1997). I BELIEVE YOU HAVE THIS RESOURCE -- it CAME FROM YOUR PARAGRAPH
McFarland-Piazza, L., Lord, a., Smith, M., Downey, B. (2012). "The role of community-based playgroups in building relationships between pre-service teachers, families and the community." Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 37 (2): 34-41.
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
This is the goal of struggling readers. A dependent reader takes only a peripheral interest in the text. He gives it the minimum of his attention and approaches it only because he is forced. It is as though he is reading against his will and fighting all the way.
Beers provides an anticipation guide, but I don't necessarily agree that such a guide is very constructive or helpful. It deals solely with crass generalizations, and whether attitudes held before reading the text are still ascribed to after reading the text. For the most part, students' attitudes are going to be superficial and having them partake in an exercise of superficiality is likely to be counterproductive.
Beers argues that performing such activities will help to encourage students to become more involved with the reading. It will help them to engage their prior knowledge and challenge them to think. Beers recommends making…
However, it is possible to write in a way that reveals an understanding of what a person reads or what they hear during lecture. Lecture in the classroom provides an ideal opportunity for learners to reflect on what they have learned in previous sessions and to decide how they will use that knowledge to further their understanding, or to help them make decisions related to the content they have learned.
As I plan to become a history teacher I now realize how important reading and writing skills are to the student's comprehension of the content covered in lecture and in class. Students learn in many different ways. One reason that Nathan may not be doing well in both reading and in writing is because he simply does not understand the content or the context in which information is presented in the classroom. While he may not understand much from lectures,…
Freeman, F., Ghiso, M.P. & Hamayan, E. (2006). Authentic Accountability for ELL's Reading and Writing Development. Available: http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/resabout/research/ira06_freeman.pdf
Dramatic eading for ESL
Differentiated eading with 10th Grade EFL Students
ESL literature is replete with studies focused on optimal learning environments and enhancements to student motivation (Lazaraton, 1886). Some of this literature parallels earlier work by linguists, psychologists (Harter, 1981), and educators (ichards & odgers, 2001), and early childhood researchers (Vygotsky, 1986) who specialize in language acquisition. Indeed, there is a plethora of anecdotal information about how to use visuals, games, music, and drama to increase ESL students' engagement in their learning. However, formal research about the effectiveness of drama as context for teaching English as a second language is not readily found in the literature.
This case study offers a discussion of the use of drama as part of a differentiated reading strategy to teach literature to 10th grade ESL students. Although the highlighted strategy is generally applicable, the literature used in this exercise is Of Mice and…
Baxter, J. (1999). A message from the old world to the new: Teaching classic fiction through drama. English Journal, 89(2), 119-124.
Berlinger, M.R. (2000). Encouraging English expression through script-based improvisations. The Internet TESL Journal, VI (4), April 2000. Retrieved February 25, 2011. from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Berlinger-ScriptImprov.html
Boulton, M. (1968). The anatomy of drama (3rd ed.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.
Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rded.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).
The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…
Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: http://arareading.org/doc/Susan_Abram_Reading_Fluency_Action_Research.pdf
Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.
Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.
Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/ch3.pdf
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
The study focused on an urban middle school and two particular classes of 34 learning disabled students. esearchers broke the two classes down into two groups, the intervention group and the comparison group. The intervention group was introduced to the strategic lesson plans and collaborative techniques found in the computer administered CACS. This program consisted of lessons on how to use the program and also informed students how to then implement those lessons in order to learn better reading strategies. The comparison group was instructed with typical language arts lesson plans. Both groups were then tested and those scores were analyzed for results using ANCOVA.
esults of the research showed that the intervention, or experiment group, not only significantly improved their reading comprehension, but also that they scored much higher than the control group. Furthermore, the study showed that many of the students involved in the experiment group believed that…
Kim, Ae-Hwa, Vaughn, Sharon, & Klinger, Janette K. 2006. Improving the reading comprehension of middle school students with disabilities through Computer-Assisted Collaborative Strategic Reading. Remedial and Special Education. 27. pp. 235-256.
By attaching visual elements to specific words and even to specific sounds within those words, many learners that might struggle with simple auditory approaches attached only to visuals of the letter might be better able to commit letter/phoneme associations to memory (Fox, 2011). The use of pictures also seems more interactive and engaging with the learners than simply showing visuals of letters associated with sounds, as it speaks to the imagination of the learners and gives them something to respond to in addition to the simple reading facts being presented. In this way, both the educator and the learners can be drawn into the lesson more fully, it would seem, and there is definite evidence that pictures make both the lessons and the material more memorable when they are properly used (Fox, 2003).
Other issues raised on these two DVDs such as synthetic phonics are also fairly controversial, and seem…
Elam, S. (2010). Phonics primer. Accessed 19 March 2012.
Fox, B. (2011). Word identification strategies. Toronto: Lavoisier.
vocabulary acquisition for a child, especially one that is not a native English speaker, who is trying to learn to read. The author mentions four "areas of instruction that teachers…demonstrated: comprehension, vocabulary, text structures and text features" (Kesler, 2010). The author relates that his test group for different reading approaches was from an urban elementary school at which 21% of the student population was ESL students. Four shared reading approaches -- possible sentences, using context clues, repeated readings, and using our bodies -- were compared as to effectiveness with this population. The remainder of the article was used to describe and evaluate the four different approaches.
The goal of using possible sentences is to help students understand how sentences can be built from an individual word or group of words. The author used a shared reading context to help the students think of ways that the words could be used.…
Graves, M.F., Juel, C., Graves, B.B., & Dewitz, P. (2011). Word recognition, in Teaching reading in the 21st century: Motivating all readers. New York: Pearson.
Kesler, T. (2010). Shared reading to build vocabulary and comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 64(4), 272-277.
Ontario. (2003). A guide to effective instruction in reading: Kindergarten to grade 3. Ontario Early Reading Strategy. Ontario: Ministry of Education.
Pinnell, G.S., & Fountas, I.C. (2007). Shared and performance reading, in The continuum of literacy learning, grades K-8: Behaviors and understandings to notice, teach, and support. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Overall, this type of reading lesson on the part of the teacher may inspire students to explore other types of reading material, thus expanding their reading horizons and their ability to think creatively.
esides having the teacher read aloud passages from a text, one reading project which undoubtedly would benefit everyone involved would be to have the class read the text aloud, either as individuals or as Zullo suggests, as a whole class reading with the text enlarged to poster size on a screen which would enable the teacher to include comments on the text by the students. In this way, all of the students would be encouraged to verbalize their thoughts on the text, make new connections between one passage and another, listen and appreciate different perspectives on certain passages and come to a more fuller understanding of the text. In addition, this method would benefit those…
Zullo, Rebecca L. (2004). Literacy for Learning: Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum. Canton, OH: Communicate Institute.
Integration of music and reading may help parents prepare their children for school. On the surface, music and literacy seem opposite of each other both in meaning and delivery. However, the two forms of learning go hand in hand. For example, lyrics and literacy are similar because lyrics are the words sung in a song. Often, they are poetic and can be understood as poetry that sometimes tells a story.
Many singer songwriters are also storytellers, weaving intricate and powerful stories into their songs. If one examines a music soundtrack and a story line/plot, one can see how music is used to help tell the story as much as the narrative itself. As technology advances, music is becoming readily interweaved with reading comprehension. One study examined the use of multimodal e-books that combined text with animation, images, and sounds. Children made academic gains in reading from using multimodal e-books (Morgan,…
Cauchard, F., Cane, J. E., & Weger, U. W. (2011). Influence of Background Speech and Music in Interrupted Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(3), 381-390. doi:10.1002/acp.1837
Chang, A. C., & Millett, S. (2015). Improving reading rates and comprehension through audio-assisted extensive reading for beginner learners. System, 52, 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.system.2015.05.003
Cogo-Moreira, H., Andriolo, R. B., Yazigi, L., Brandao de Avila, C. R., & Mari, J. (2012). Music education for improving reading skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009133
Cohn, N., Jackendoff, R., Holcomb, P. J., & Kuperberg, G. R. (2014). The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension. Neuropsychologia, 64, 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.09.018
81). Ambrose and Corn (1997) further define "functional vision" as vision that can be used to derive input for planning and performing tasks; the extent to which one uses his or her available vision is referred to as "visual efficiency."
eading Skills. According to Carver (2002), "reading usually means to attempt to comprehend language in the form of printed words"; therefore, for the purposes of this study, the term "reading skills" will refer to an individual's ability to comprehend language in the form of printed words.
This chapter provided an introduction to the study, including the background and a statement of the problem of vision impairment on students' academic performance; a discussion of the purpose and significance of the study was followed by a description of the research questions that will guide the research process. An assessment of the study's limitations and delimitations was followed by a delineation…
Ambrose, G.V. & Corn, a.L. (1997). Impact of Low Vision on Orientation: an Exploratory Study. RE:view, 29(2), 81.
Balota, D.A., D'Arcais, G.B. & Rayner, K. (Eds.). (1990). Comprehension processes in reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Becker, C.A. (1980). Semantic context effects in visual word recognition. An analysis of semantic strategies. Memory & Cognition, 8, 493-512.
Blachman, B.A. (1997). Foundations of reading acquisition and dyslexia: Implications for early intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Learning to read and write are complementary skills. While in the younger years, writing depends on reading skills, by middle and high school, they are complementary skills: reading is necessary to do writing assignments, while writing about what has read increases comprehension of the reading materials. For this reason, separating reading and writing instruction from content areas is arbitrary and will eventually interfere with the students' progress in those content areas.
From the day children are born, parents are told by doctors, teachers and other experts to read to them, and to read to them every day. They are told to do this because hearing language that contains story lines, rich language and vivid imagery facilitates language development and develops a desire to read. From "The Poky Little Puppy" to Rudyard Kipling, children's literature exists that uses language in exciting and colorful ways. Good children's literature doesn't sound the same…
Erickson, Lawrence.Jan. 11, 1998. "Informational literacy in the middle grades." The Clearing House.
Foley, Regina M. Winter, 2001. "Academic Charateristics of incarcerated youth and correctional educational programs: a literature review." Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
Gardill, M. Cathleen, and Jitendra, Asha K.April 15, 1999. "Advanced Story Map Instruction: Effects on the Reading Comprehension of Students with Learning Disabilities." Journal of Special Education: Vol.33.
Nourie, Barbara; Livingston, Lenski, and Davis, Susan.July 17, 1998. "The (in)effectiveness of content area literacy instruction for secondary preservice teachers." The Clearing House: 71: 372-375.
Children Should Be equired to ead More
Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart. This is why parents spend a lot of their time in trying to search for the best schools for their children and expect the teachers to be exceptionally outstanding. However, they forget the fact that their own attitudes and habits have a great effect on the personality of a child. Thus, the parents must realize that by making books an essential part of their children's lives, they can heighten the wisdom and learning potential of their child more than a school teacher can help to increase ("Early Moments sharing the gift of reading").
It is not by an accident, brainwave, infection or encouragement that children learn to read. They learn to read when they are taught to do so. eading cannot…
Copperman, Paul. Taking Books to Heart: How to Develop a Love of Reading in Your Child. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1986. 223-226. Web. 4 Nov 2011.
Strategic positioning means offering different goods and services from rivals or offering goods and services in a unique way.
The company must provide a unique product or service, in contrast to its rivals.
This might include offering a relatively narrow range of services to a broad range of customers or serving the many needs of a targeted niche market.
The reverse is also true: a company can serve broad needs for a narrow market and narrow needs for a niche market.
Strategy requires trade-offs: no company can do everything well and be all things to all people.
There must be a good 'fit' between disparate company activities to achieve organizational efficiency.
Operational effectiveness (OE) means performing certain actions better than competitors such as improving quality and speed.
A. OE has received increasing emphasis in management literature in recent decades.
B. Maximizing the productivity frontier to improve organizational efficiency is…
Porter, M. (1996). What is strategy? Harvard Business Review, 2-18.
The sudden resurgence experienced by the Primm Valley Casino Resorts is based entirely on the recreation firm's response to natural market behavior. As its own executives reveal in the article by Medina (2011), it was only when they observed the rising popularity of the casino with a growing Hispanic population that the Casino decided to go all-in on a strategy of Latino courtship. By responding to natural market behavior rather than attempting to shoehorn the casino to fit expected demographic responses -- as had been done somewhat unsuccessfully with country music fans and retirees -- the casino town has seen a natural response of interest by this inherent target group.
This kind of responsiveness is surely at the base of the firm's success. Moreover, the change in strategy represents a departure from conventional logic in the industry. As the article by Medina reports, "People have always said things…
Medina, J. (2011) Casino Town Puts Its Money On Hispanic Market. The New York Times.
Yet, according to the article, former Yugoslav republics continue in their failure to arrest and hand over inductees, or to investigate and prosecute the war crimes in question. Clearly the counseling provided by the ICTY has been far from adequate, or the countries involved are simply not yet ready to take over the responsibility of prosecution.
The article also cites Amnesty International in a statement that war crime legislation on the domestic level in these countries are frequently not in line with international legislation, and that victim and witness protection programs are far from adequate. Apparently these issues have not been thoroughly investigated before implementing the phases of the completion strategy.
A further flaw in the completion strategy is consensus, or the lack thereof. According to the ecurity Council Report (2007), the various countries are in disagreement on how to proceed after December 2010. There are also differences regarding the…
Bellinger, John B. 2008, Nov. 14. U.S. Perspectives on International Criminal Justice. http://www.state.gov/s/l/rls/111859.htm
Belczyk, Jaclyn. 2008, Dec. 19. ICTY may have to remain open two more years: prosecutor. Paper Chase Newsburst. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2008/12/icty-may-have-to-remain-open-two-more.php
Citizens for Global Solutions. 2008. International Criminal Court: An Overview. http://www.globalsolutions.org/issues/international_criminal_court
Coalition for the International Criminal Court. 2008. http://www.iccnow.org/
Business Operations in Your Organization: Strategies for Achieving Competitive Advantage
The company I have chosen to examine is Walmart Stores, Inc. Walmart Store Inc. became originally established in the year 1945 and is in the present day undertaking its operations in retail stores in over twenty seven countries. The company is split into three key segments. These are Walmart International, Walmart United States and Sam's Club. The business undertaken by Walmart as a company encompasses restaurants, superstores, retail stores and also warehouse clubs. The company also undertakes e-commerce through its website Walmart.com. In terms of retail products, the merchandises being sold in Walmart's retail stores include baby products, healthcare products, household goods, electronics, books, automotive products, clothing, furnishings and decor, alcohol, grocery, paper products and so much more. Walmart is a United States global retailing corporation that operates chains of massive discount department and warehouse stores (Walmart Website,…
CompuCo Corporation is a corporation that was started in the year 2004 by Pierre Durand and Girard, who are brothers. The corporation begun as a computer retail outlet and expanded to printing of computer manual for distribution of consumer software. The company started in France and spread to other countries globally, including the United States of America, Spain, Belgium, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The corporation faced numerous challenges as it struggles to achieve its desired competitiveness. This study analyzes some of the changes that are recommendable for the corporation to adopt to enable it achieve its desired international Global Product Development strategy alongside giving some of the steps it will adopt to implement the changes. The essay also identifies of the key reasons as to why the corporation wants to expand its market to the U.S. market.
The changes I would ecommend Dr. Durand to make in the…
CompuCo Corporation (2011). Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage through Global Innovation. Paris: CompuCo Corporation
Strategic Mapping & the Learning and Growth Perspective
The execution of a strategy in an effective manner is a crucial factor to success and survival of organization and businesses. Despite of the significance of effective implementation of strategy, very few companies and businesses are actually successful in executing their own strategies. Generally, many companies continue to fall short of their own expectations and those of others when executing their strategies. One of the major reasons for the relative poor execution of strategies is the seeming inability by organizational leaders to communicate their vision in a manner that others can participate and contribute to its achievement. Even though many companies have clearly defined procedures for developing strategic plans, there is usually a major disconnect between formulation and implementation stages of strategy. This paper will mainly focus on explaining the strategy mapping process and its link to performance management and the development…
Armitage, H.M. & Scholey, C. (2006, March). Using Strategy Maps to Drive Performance.
Retrieved December 29, 2013, from http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/Tech_MAG_Strategy_Mapping_March07.pdf
DiCenso, C. (2004, June). Build Your Strategy Map and Balanced Scorecard. Retrieved December 29, 2013, from http://www.growthstrategypartners.com/about/balancedscorecard-july04.htm
Murby, L. & Gould, S. (2005, July). Effective Performance Management with the Balanced
Improve Mathematic Performance for Children With Learning Difficulties and Their Effectiveness
Students with learning disabilities face several problems. More often than not, these students advanced approximately one academic year for every two academic years they attended school. Strategies employed by teachers can have a major impact on enhancing this particular performance in all levels of schooling. The lack of comprehensive strategies and interventions students with mathematics disabilities end up considerably lagging behind compared to their peers. Statistics indicated that approximately 25% to 35% of students experience difficulty with math knowledge and application skills. Moreover, 5 to 8% of all students in school have such considerable deficits that influence their capability to solve computation problems (Sayeski and Paulsen, 2010). In accordance to Hott et al. (2014), strategy training has been beneficial to students with learning disability when learning math conceptions and practices. As presented in the article one of the strategies…
de Boer, H., Donker-Bergstra, A. S., & Konstons, D. D. N. M. (2012). Effective strategies for self-regulated learning: A meta-analysis. Gronings Instituut voor Onderzoek van Onderwijs, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Groningen.
Hott, B. L., Isbell, L., & Oettinger, T. (2014). Strategies and Interventions to Support Students with Mathematics Disabilities. Council for Learning Disabilities.
Maag, J. W., Reid, R., & DiGangi, S. A. (1993). DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF SELF-MONITORING ATTENTION, ACCURACY, AND PRODUCTIVITY. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(3), 329-344.
Mercer, C. D., Mercer, A. R., & Pullen, P. C. (2011). Teaching students with learning problems (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
ay Kroc paying particular attention to leadership qualities. It has 6 sources.
Business strategy implemented in a particular market determines the success that an organization would have. In a highly competitive world, business strategy is vital to success and as demonstrated by some individuals an ordinary business can be converted into a massive chain of outlets on an international scale. An example of this kind of success is ay Kroc's McDonald's, which developed from a relatively small fast-food company into a fast-food chain with outlets in nearly every corner of the world.
ay Kroc's strategy is the key that changed the manner in which things were being conducted at the McDonald brothers' fast-food. At first he gained franchising rights from the owners, and then founded McDonald's Corporation in 1955. Six years later, Kroc bought the McDonald brothers for a sum of $2.7 million. From then on, Kroc implemented strategies of…
Avolio, Bruce J. & Bernard M. Bass. (1999). "Re-examining the Components of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire." Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 72(4), 441-462.
Barnes, Donelle M. (1996). "An Analysis of the Grounded Theory Method and the Concept of Culture." Qualitative Health Research, 6(3), 429-441.
Ciulla, Joanne B. (1995) "Leadership Ethics: Mapping the Territory."
Business Ethics Quarterly, v. 5, 5-24.
Small Business Growth
Achieving the desired organizational growth is a dream most organizations aspire to realize. Organizational growth entails an increase in the total productivity, sustainability, and competitiveness in the marketplace. Organizational behaviors such as the adoption of the desired culture, leadership style, and effective management of the employees ensure the realization of the desired organizational growth. However, environmental factors such as the adoption of the new technology, constantly changing consumer demands, and stiff competition make the realization process a challenge. Despite these, adoption of the most effective interventions often enables organizations to achieve their objectives (Neale & McElroy, 2004). Therefore, this research paper analyzes a case that involves a small business owner (Kelly) who plans to expand her business.
Kelly should take some steps while organizing and prioritizing her business growth strategies. Mrs. Kelly should consider involving the employees of her business in the planning and prioritization of…
Arriola, L.R. (2012). Multi-ethnic coalitions in Africa: Business financing of opposition election campaigns. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cinnamon, R., & Helweg-Larsen, B. (2006). How to understand business finance. London: Kogan Page.
Dlabay, L.R., & Burrow, J. (2007). Business finance. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
Neale, B., & McElroy, T. (2004). Business finance: A value-based approach. Harlow [u.a.: Prentice Hall.
Strategic HM Analysis
Human resources management has been undergoing a shift for the past several decades that is meant to instill a system that is more consistent with the departments actual role in the business. "Strategic HM began to emerge approximately twenty-five years ago, and since then it has evolved to include several streams of theory and empirical investigations" (Schuler & Jackson, 2005). These theoretical variants have all proposed that HM is not the same as it was when the practice was developed more than a century ago. Although upper management is content to use the H department in the same way that they always have, this does not utilize it in such a way as it can be to help the company grow.
The practice has undergone a pretty thorough vetting among the research community because of its seeming efficacy in relation to the overall business model. "HM researchers…
Alcazar, F.M., Fernandez, P.M.R., & Gardey, G.S., (2005). Researching on SHRM: An analysis over the role played by human resources in firm success. Management Revue, 16(2), 213-224.
Bhatnagar, J., Puri, R., & Jha, H.M., (2004). Managing innovative strategic HRM: The balanced scorecard performance management system at ITC hotels. South Asian Journal of Management, 11(4), 92-203.
Cunningham, J.B., & Kempling, J., (2011). Promoting organizational fit in strategic HRM: Applying the HR scorecard in public service organizations. Public Personnel Management, 40(3), 193-207.
Hogan, P., Moxham, L., & Dwyer, T. (2007). Human resource management strategies for the retention of nurses in acute care settings in hospitals in Australia. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, 24(2), 189-197.
A website for Current Nursing touts a health promotion model as espoused by Nola J. Pender, a former professor of nursing at the University of Michigan. The model's focus is on three areas: 1) individual characteristics and experiences, 2) behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and 3) behavioral outcomes (Current Nursing, 2011). Additionally, the model touts the fact that each individual has unique personal characteristics and experiences that will affect their actions and their health. Employing the Pender health promotion model concerning obesity will necessarily entail understanding each individual's motivation for participating in the study, and gearing the study towards those motivations.
It might be a simple matter to understand the motivating factors an obese person will be feeling regarding participation in the study, but to prepare an individualized course of action for each individual would likely entail a lot more time and expense than developing a more broad based approach…
Aitlhadj, L.; Avila, D.S.; Benedetto, A.; Aschner, M.; Sturzenbaum, S.R.; (2010) Environmental exposure, obesity, and Parkinson's disease: Lessons from fat and old worms, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 119, Issue 1, pp. 20 -- 28
Cliff, D.P.; Okely, A.D.; Morgan, P.J.; Jones, R.A.; Steele, J.R.; (2010) The impact of child and adolescent obesity treatment interventions on physical activity: A systematic review, Obesity Reviews, Vol. 11, Issue 7, pp. 516 -- 530
Current Nursing (2011) Health Promotion Models, accessed on August 1, 2011 at: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/health_promotion_model.html ,
Davin, S.A. & Taylor, N.M.; (2009) Comprehensive review of obesity and psychological considerations for treatment, Psychology, Health & Medicine, Vol. 14, Issue 6, pp. 716-725
Describe How the Effectiveness of Your Organizational Change Will Be Determined Once It Is Implemented
Data analysis will be used to check the effectiveness of the change. In order to guarantee the validity of the utilization management program, accurate and estimated savings on cost computations must be derived from consistent and accurate analysis of data. Achieving such a feat means that a standard must be set up to determine the cost of pharmaceutical provision savings on cost as a result of the implemented program. It should also be determined early whether indirect costs including devices, price changes and general drug prices, inflation, labor cost and volume changes should be factored in the computations. Scientific evidence and conventional standards of practice should inform such determination. The analysis should also consider the pharmaceutical equivalence based on specific class drugs. The common approach for comparing drugs in a specific class would be…
ASHP Expert Panel on Medication Cost Management. (2008). ASHP guidelines on medication cost management strategies for hospitals and health systems. American journal of health-system pharmacy: AJHP: official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 65(14), 1368.
Looke, D., & Duguid, M. (2011). Measuring the performance of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Australian Hopsitals.
Process and Outcomes Evaluation. (2016, May 4). Retrieved November 11, 2016, from http://www.samhsa.gov/capt/applying-strategic-prevention-framework/step5-evaluation/process-outcomes-evaluation
WHO. (2000). Outcome Evaluations. Retrieved November 11, 2016, from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/66584/8/WHO_MSD_MSB_00.2h.pdf
Hourly Nurse ounds
The main objective of dissemination is sharing the information that has been produced from the evaluation with other parties. The specific audience towards which the information is focused and bound for, may determine the dissemination technique. It is imperative to communicate and share the evaluation results in a manner that is reliable and clear for certain audiences (Myers & Barnes, 2004)
Strategy for disseminating results of project to key stakeholders
The main strategy to be employed in disseminating results of the project to the key stakeholders will be formal reports. Formal reports ought to be a fundamental component of strategies employed by evaluators as well as program managers for communicating and sharing findings (Diane McNally Forsyth, 2010).
One of the ways that the project can employ this strategy is, by making available a yearly evaluation report in addition to providing an in-depth summary report of a longer…
Diane McNally Forsyth, T. L. W. (2010). Disseminating Evidence-Based Practice Projects: Poster Design and Evaluation. Clinical Scholars Review, 3(1), 14-21. http://doi.org/10.1891/1939-2095.3.1.14
Myers, P., & Barnes, J. (2004, December). Sharing Evaluation Findings: Disseminating the Evidence. National Evaluation of Sure Start, 30.
Health Services for Vulnerable Population
Beyrer, C., Malinowska-Sempruch, K., Kamarulzaman, A., & Strathdee, S. A. (2010). 12 Myths About HIV / AIDS And People Who Use Drugs. Lancet, 376(9737), 208-211. Doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61005-7
This article explores on the misconceptions that have rocked the existence of the phenomena in HIV and ADIs in many parts of the world. The article looks at different interpretations people have on HIV and AIDs, with the outcome or the decisions these people take like using certain drugs based on their stereotypical understanding. The authors of the article have noted that the misconceptions include the statements that HIV and AIDs people who make use of drugs and not compliant in that they have a negative response to the antiretroviral drugs just like those who do not have the disease (Beyrer et al. 2010). Further, the article claims that these people have a very poor rate of retention of…
Beyrer, C., Malinowska-Sempruch, K., Kamarulzaman, A., & Strathdee, S. A. (2010). 12 Myths About HIV / AIDS and People Who Use Drugs. Lancet, 376(9737), 208-211. Doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61005-7
Chepngeno-Langat, G., Falkingham, J. C., Madise, N. J., & Evandrou, M. (2012). Concern about HIV and AIDS among Older People in the Slums of Nairobi, Kenya. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 32(9), 1512-1523. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01765.x
Surgevil, O., & Akyol, E. M. (2011). Discrimination against People Living With HIV / AIDS in The Workplace: Turkey Context. Equality, Diversity & Inclusion, 30(6), 463-481. Doi:10.1108/02610151111157693
Communication Skills Needed for Effective Collaboration
Communication is the process of relaying information from the source to the recipient. The essential elements in a communication process include the message, channel, encoder and the decoder. The message is the intended information that is passed by the communicator to the listener. From the source, the message is made meaningful through the encoder. Once the message reaches the other end of the communication channel, it gets meaning to the recipient when has passed through the decoder stage (Agarwal, 2010). This also means that the message can be made use of once the message passes through all these stages.
The audience cannot make much out of the communication because of a breakdown. The reasons for these include inappropriate message, wrong medium used as well as presence of detractors in the channel of communication.
The audience has a difficulty following the communication…
Agarwal, O. (2010). Effective communication (Rev. ed.). Mumbai [India: Himalaya Pub. House.
Decker, B. (2007). How to communicate effectively. London: Kogan Page
Mambert, W. (2013). The elements of effective communication; idea, power, tactics. Washington: Acropolis Books.
McQuail, D. (2011). Communication. London: Longman.
Employ for Successful Distance Learning
In some ways, distance learning and learning in the traditional classroom rely upon the same basic academic skills and study habits. A quality educator, strong classroom materials, and the background education necessary to understand new materials all contribute to student success. However, the distance learning environment offers unique opportunities and challenges for students. Distance learning removes some of the obstacles to the traditional classroom by allowing students to attend classes when they have the time available, increasing learner flexibility. They also provide students with the opportunity to review material as it is being taught, without delaying other learners in the classroom. However, distance learning also injects four primary challenges for the student: planning, time management, communication and technology use. Fortunately, with proper planning, a student can ensure that these challenges, which have the potential of derailing a distance-learning student, can actually become advantages.
Walden University. (n.d.). Technical tips for learning at Walden. Walden e-Guide. Retrieved Walden University. (n.d.). 10 tips for being a successful online learner. Walden e-Guide.
Cost Leadership / Differentiation / Best-Cost
Cost leadership creates a low cost for a given level of quality (Porter's Generic Strategies). Products get sold at industry average to earn a higher profit than rivals or below industry average to gain market share. By producing a cheaper price, the firm stays profitable for longer periods targeting a broad market. It is useful for improving processes, lowering material costs, making decisions, and efforts of eliminating some costs. It is also used to create barriers to entry. Differentiation is developing products that have unique attributes that give value competitor products do not have. It creates a competitive advantage with products and may allow for premium pricing to cover all associated costs. Best cost combines cost leadership with differentiation to create value added products for the least cost for the level of quality, which in turn, creates a bigger competitive advantage.
Balanced Scorecard Basics. 2013. webpage retrieved from http://www.balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/tabid/55/Default.aspx . 1 Oct 2013.
Change Management. nd. webpage retrieved from http://zeepedia.com/read-php-prospectors_a..._management_change_management&b=41&c=24 . 1 Oct 2013.
Hambrick, Donald C., & Fredrickson, James W. Strategy Diamond. 2013. article retrieved from http://provenmodels.com/598/strategy-diamond/donald-c.-hambrick -- james-w.-fredrickson/. 1 Oct 2013.
Porter's Generic Strategies. 2010. webpage retrieved from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml . 2 Oct 2013.
Strategy to Implementation and Action Plans
Business Strategy Implementation
From Strategy to Implementation
The development of action plans is a process of putting the wheels on a strategic plan. Action plan development is crucial to implementation success as it outlines an overarching and a detailed map for achieving the goals and objectives outlined in the strategic plan. It is important for action plans to be comprehensive, providing both a macro and a micro approach. For example, action plans should address resource allocation, goal setting and the performance measures to determine if goals and objectives are being met -- in both formative and summative manner -- and the interlocking functions of operations, finances, marketing, and sales.
Turning Great Strategy into Great Performance
Companies that are looking for a roadmap to help them achieve their strategic performance benchmarks and move their business beyond the quality levels described in their strategic…
Moss Kanter, R. (2009, September 14). Inside Proctor & Gamble's New Values-Based Strategy. HBR Blog Network. Retrieved http://blogs.hbr.org/2009/09/fall-like-a-lehman-rise-like-a/
Strategy and SWOT Analysis
Key Concepts in Business Strategy and SWOT Analysis
Creating a competitive business advantage is a complex endeavor. Various techniques have been developed to guide the self-analysis process practiced by business enterprises. Traditional strategic planning engages a company in both internal and external analysis. In order to conduct a strategic analysis that makes niche or unique opportunities salient, it is necessary to have a robust view of the competitive landscape. Alternately, a thorough analysis of operations and position requires a penetrating look at the internal capacity of the company. A SWOT analysis promotes a clear-eyed look at the external and internal dimensions of a business that have the potential to impinge on the development of an effective strategic plan for the company.
A SWOT analysis takes the participants through a systematic process of examining the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are aspects of a company's business.…
Chen, J. (2013). 2013, The Year of Starbucks. Retreived http://seekingalpha.com/article/1103821-2013-the-year-of-starbucks
Starbucks (2013).Investor overview. Retreived http://investor.starbucks.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=99518&p=irol-irhome
Interbrand (2013). Best Global Brands 2012. Retreived http://www.interbrand.com/en/best-global-brands/2012/Best-Global-Brands-2012.aspx
Strategy Concepts -- From Planning Through Analysis and Implementation
The Concept of Strategy
Strategy is about change and response to change. Competitive strategy cannot stand still (Eisenhardt, 2002). Competitive strategy must establish differentiation (Kim & Mauborgne, 2004). Strategy appears most difficult from the inside of a business as perspective taking is based on what the competition is doing, might do, might do in response to what other businesses do, and so forth (Kim & Mauborgne, 2004). The critical distance needed to truly conceive and implement efficacious strategy is not easily achieved from inside a company -- a factor that has contributed significantly to the financial success of consulting businesses like Bain Consulting, Boston Consulting Group, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, and McKinsey and Company.
Businesses face market conditions that are in a continual state of flux, challenging them to construct strategies that are agile, effective, and relevant ("HB SWOT,"…
Eisenhardt, K.M. (2002). Has strategy changed? MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(2), 88-91. Cambridge, MA: MIT Sloan Management Review.
Halligan, B. (2006, September). HubSpot. Blue Ocean Strategy: A Small Business Case Study. Retrieved http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/54/Blue-Ocean-Strategy-A-Small-Business-Case-Study.aspx
Johnson, M.W., Christensen, C.M., & Kagermann, H. (2007, December) Harvard Business Review. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. [Reprint.]
Kaplan, R.S. (2007, January). What to ask the person in the mirror. Harvard Business Review. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. [Reprint.]
Furthermore, the strategy still relies on the fact that the country is set to get a transition beyond the war on terror activities. This comes so early that the nation will not be ready to abandon some of the activities being done to counter terrorist attacks. Nonetheless, the U.S. is still experiencing numerous serious threats from its enemies like the al-Qaeda and other terrorist actors in the world. The strategy will serve as a good idea but a serious threat to the general existence of peace and stability in the country. The basic mechanisms of counterterrorism will be eradicated when the nation is facing serious certainties of attacks from the wounded enemies.
Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia
After the Second World War, the United States has been at a forefront in ensuring the security of its allies and commodities found in China. The interests bestowed…
Berman, I. (1/05/2012). Reading the Tea Leaves on Obama's New Military Strategy. Forbes.
Retrieved on 30 Jan. 13 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ilanberman/2012/01/05/reading-the-tea-leaves-on-obamas-new-military-strategy/
Mahnken, T. G et al. (June 04, 2012). Asia in the balance: Transforming U.S. military strategy in Asia. American Enterprise Institute. Retrieved on 30 Jan. 13 from http://www.aei.org/papers/foreign-and-defense-policy/regional/asia/asia-in-the-balance-transforming-us-military-strategy-in-asia/
curriculum content that implements strategies and methods that enhance language acquisition. This is done in light of the relevant theories that surround the proper development of linguistics in kindergarten children from vast socio-cultural backgrounds.
The teaching of linguistics to Kindergarten children is indicated by Ellis and McCartney (2011) to be quite a challenge. This is more dominant for the wide range of linguistic diversity as well as literacy development that exists within the 21st century classroom setting (p.44). This challenge is most common among pre-service teachers and the diversity in linguistics is noted to transcend continents as in never limited to the United States (Gerald and Hussar,2003). The diversity is noted to be present in other places that bear the same demographic trends as noted by Portes and umabaut (2001).In this paper we develop a curriculum content that implements strategies and methods that enhance language acquisition.
Strategies and methods
Strategies to achieve a competitive advantage in the marketplace
Organizations thrive by providing a level of value or services for their customers that their competitors cannot. Mountain Bank currently has a strong retail banking business, but it wishes to expand its outreach into the more lucrative business banking sector. It wishes to expand into retail and corporate banking. To do so, it desires to better use its tellers to convince current private banking account holders to open up corporate accounts.
Tellers are the 'face' of Mountain Bank. They are a critical asset, because one of the main reasons consumers desire to use a bank beyond basic 'nuts and bolts' needs is the confident and concerned image presented by the teller. Of course, more and more banking is being done online today. However, many consumers are frustrated by this, and often it is when a…
Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta,
GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved: http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.htm
Porter's five forces. (2011). Quick MBA. Retrieved:
Patience is required, and that is also difficult for many people.
By building well-researched insight into a business, a leader can come up with tactics that will help that business. From that point, the leader can also come up with strategies that allow the company to address the tactics. That sounds easy, but it is a difficult process that will take time. However, when it is done correctly it is one of the best things a business can ever do in an effort to move forward. Successful businesses understand that strategy is vital, and they have also taken the time to figure out how strategy works and how they can make it apply to their business. Companies that are not successful also work with strategy, but they do not work with it in the right way. They focus on what they want to see the business do, but not how…
Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson
Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education
Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.
Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.
About the Concept:
There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…
Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection: https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11
Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/
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Entrepreneurship is a risky business and requires a certain type of personality to really succeed at this lifestyle. Every and any business or idea will certainly end when the time is right and it is important for those wishing to exploit profits when to get out of the business. The purpose of this essay is to explore the options that entrepreneurs and investors have to recoup their investments and continue on to the next stage in life. This essay will explore exit strategy options and the considerations that must be taken into account before performing these actions. Ultimately this essay will describe how exiting a business venture is just as important as any other component of the process.
Why Get Out?
There are many reasons why anyone would want to change something up in their lives, but when it comes to venture capitalism it is important to understand…
Anonymous. (2006, July 24). For Small-Biz Owners, It's Tough To Let Go. Business Week, 3994. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_30/b3994407.htm .
Burrows, P. (2010, February 15). Hot tech companies like Yelp are bypassing IPOs. Business Week Online, 4166, 23. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/10_07/b4166023271880.htm?chan=ma gazine+channel_new+business.
Faust, D. (2008, May 26). The perils of going public. Business Week, 085. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_21/b4085064750402.htm .
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The first strategy is to promote the spa at the atermark Hotel. The spa is a key strength and competitive advantage of the hotel. Many new hotels have spas in them, but few hotels have exceptional spas, something the atermark has. A great spa can help attract both business travellers looking for a break after a hard day at work, and recreational travellers looking to relax (Minnini, 2007).
Spas, like hotels, are differentiated by their branding. Customers identify with the branding of a spa and will seek out this branding when they travel (Borgman, 2011). This means there are two options for the spa at the atermark. The company can continue with its current branding, which is linked to the hotel, or it can find a spa branding partner, which has an international name in the industry. Such a deal would allow the atermark to license the spa…
Borgman, P. (2011). New thinking on private branding for spas. American Spa/Spatrade.com. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from http://www.spatrade.com/spa-business/new-thinking-on-private-branding-spas
Minnini, T. (2007) The latest marketing strategy in the hospitality industry: Spas. Marketing Profs. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from http://www.mpdailyfix.com/the-latest-marketing-strategy-in-the-hospitality-industry-spas/
No author. (2012). Buyer behavior -- the decision-making process. Tutor2U.net. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from http://tutor2u.net/business/marketing/buying_decision_process.asp
NW Star. (2012). Isa passengers increase 10%. North West Star. Retrieved May 8, 2012 from www.northweststar.com.au/news/local/news/general/isa-airport-passengers-increase-10/2547664.aspx
" (Ying-Feng, 2006)
As mention earlier, the leadership at GE was able to pull of years of having the best leadership; for instance, in eptember 7, 2001, when 44-year-old Jeff Immelt was picked as being the company's twelfth leader after Edison, he faced an intimidating challenge. Not only would he be guiding a $130 billion global company managing businesses from lighting to aircraft engines to monetary services, nonetheless he would do so following Jack Welch, a legendary CEO who, over two decades, had generated an average annual total return to shareholders of more than 23%.
As Immelt took on one of the biggest management jobs in the world, some wondered whether GE's vaunted management development process had prepared him to lead such a complex organization. But for the new CEO, the bigger question was, how could he ensure that GE's talent machine kept developing executives who could continue driving the…
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Team Plan Strategy for Program Implementation
Success University (SU) a medium sized undergraduate institution located Southern California. SU offers Associates Bachelors programs Business, Psychology Education San Moreno campus online. SU decided launch programs Fall.
Strategies for as unified team
The members of the task force team will be selected internally to maintain the university culture and ensure that the team does not need training on the values, mission and vision of the university.
Strategies for as unified team
Including an already existing employee base will also boost their morale and ensure commitment to projects needs. The need for recruiting internally is because the ability of the faculty members is known and one can easily target them for an ideal position. The proposed members of staff to form the task force will also go through a vetting process from their colleagues. This will further go to advice the leader on the…
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Barney J.B., & Hesely W.S. (2008). strategic management and competitive advantage concepts and cases second eds. upper saddle river: pearson prentice-hall.
Lorenzen M. (2006). Strategic Planning for Academic Library Instructional Programming. Illinois West Publishing.
Michael A., & Jude K. (2005). Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations. Second Edition. . Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
market orientation strategies affect the acceptability of their products and services among their customers. Even though banks -- above all -- are utilizing old-style approaches of endorsing their financial services and products; their marketing strategies have mainly been controlled by relationship marketing, digital marketing, rivals' strategies, and complete industry behavior. The entire attention of their marketing orientation stratagems is to appeal to new customers in addition to keep the present customers by proposing the most inexpensive and consistent banking services and products at the most reasonably priced fees. As a result, there is a huge necessity to recognize how these marketing orientation strategies truly influence the level of suitability of the general consumers. In order to gather the information a phenomenological study will be used because it is one that focuses on descriptions of what individuals are experiencing and how it is that they experience what they are experiencing. Interviews…
Mike Chen-Ho Chao, & Spillan, J.E. (2010). The journey from market orientation to firm performance. Management Research Review, 33(5), 472-483.
Rojas-Mendez, J.,I., & Michel, R. (2013). Chilean wine producer market orientation: Comparing MKTOR vs. MARKOR. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 25(1), 27-49.
Zolfagharian, M.A., & Cortes, A. (2010). Linking market orientation to strategy through segmentation complexity. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8(9), 79-91.
Internet Marketing Strategy of Argos
The purpose of this essay is to examine the Internet marketing strategy of Argos. Argos is a home retail group and market leader in retail sales of home and general merchandise. Argos reports that it is a "unique multi-channel retailer recognized for choice, value, and convenience." (Argos Website, 2011)
Argos and the Online Market: Size and Growth
Argos customer base is approximately 130 million and reports state that 26% of Argos sales are via the internet channel with approximately 4 million customers placing orders by phone or online. The Argos website is touted as the website visited the most among high street retail websites in the United Kingdom in 2008. (Argos, Website, paraphrased) Argos is environmental conscious and caters to customers with disabilities. Argos was named the 'Online Toy Retailer of the Year 2009' by the ritish Toys & Hobbies Association (THA). (Argos Website, 2011)…
Argos Boost Sales with Award-Winning User Generated Content (2011) eCircle. Retrieved from: http://www.ecircle.com/uploads/tx_csrportfolio/ecircle-case-Argos-en.pdf
Argos Online and Mobile Sales Hit Nearly Half of Total Revenue (2011) CIO. 21 Apr 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.cio.co.uk/news/3275741/argos-online-and-mobile-sales-hit-nearly-half-of-total-revenue/
Burnett, John (2008) Core Concepts of Marketing. Global Text. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0. Retrieved from: http://globaltext.terry.uga.edu/userfiles/pdf/Core%20Concepts%20of%20Marketing.pdfhttp://globaltext.terry.uga.edu/userfiles/pdf/Core%20Concepts%20of%20Marketing.pdf
Charlton, Graham (2010) Multichannel Accounts for 43% of Argos Sales. Econsultancy Digital Marketers United. 4 May 2010. Retrieved from: http://econsultancy.com/us/blog/5850-multichannel-accounts-for-43-of-argos-sales
STARBUCK'S STRATEGY AND INTERNAL INITIATIVES FOR PROFITABLE GROWTH
Stabuck's Stategy and Intenal Initiatives to Retun to Pofitable Gowth
Stabuck's Stategy and Intenal Initiatives to Retun to Pofitable Gowth
Michael Pote's 5 Foces Model
Theat of New Entants
Buye's Bagaining Powe
Bagaining Powe of Supplies
Fomulate Stategic Maketing
Impove Standing of Stock Maket
Stabuck's Stategy and Intenal Initiatives to Retun to Pofitable Gowth
As Stabucks was expanding, anothe emphasis was set on hiing talented leadeship in managing the huge momentum of the oganization. Significant amount of esouces was geaed towads developing an oganizational infastuctue, which would satisfactoy suppot the expected pospective size of Stabucks. Schultz accepted that numeous business visionaies failed by not making the coect systems and pocesses to guaantee a suitable establishment fo thei entepeneuial divisions to be actualized. Togethe with his patnes, he made the planning, legal logistics, accounting and financial impotant…
references are continually evolving. Subsequently economic situations likewise change. In this setting, Starbucks neglected to stay abreast of the changing market positions and consumer behavior. In the most recent months, Starbucks' performance is going on a downtrend. It is essential that the explanations for this downtrend must be recognized, and remedies must be invested. The remedies also need to be permanent and not just short-term.
Whilst transient activities are required to address strategic progressions, it is more imperative to set a strategic objective, or if fundamental, reform the present strategic objective to fit in with to the conditions in today's business environment and the future business. Hence, it was suggested that Starbucks might also concentrate on marketing while upgrading its operational adequacy. Marketing has been the missing segment in the Starbucks practice as of late. It is consequently imperative to emphasize on this area.
Thompson, A. & Shah, A. (2010). Starbuck's strategy and internal initiative to return to profitable growth. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.