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Television: the ever evolving medium:
Television's growth as an edutainment medium has been phenomenal. In societies that are more developed, TV adores the living room of almost every household. TV viewing has been the leading recreational activity for majority of population with U.S. household reported to be glued to their TV sets for almost seven hours daily on an average. Even though TV ownership in Asia and Latin America are low compared to U.S., these continents and Africa as well has been targeted as the important regions of growth of global TV industry during the 21st century. In the public domain, TV has come to occupy a venue for political debate, religious evangelism and the exchange of 'news' as also an important medium for entertainment. In the household sphere, TV has been considered as the quasi-altar during the single channel regime around which the family used to converge…
Casey, Bernadette; Casey, Neil, et. al. Television Studies: The Key Concepts. Routledge,
Davies, Maire Messenger. Fake, Fact, and Fantasy: Children's interpretation of Television
Reality. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Fishman, Mark; Cavender, Gary. Entertaining Crime: Television Reality Program. Aldine De
Disclosure and familiarity between the audience and program in reality TV
With the prevalence of reality television programming, mass media has become more intrusive and real to the audience: what with the inclusion of so-called 'ordinary people,' audiences have become more acquainted with the rudiments of TV program creation and dynamics. Indeed, the most appealing quality of reality TV programs is that audiences are able to realize the possibility that they can also be included in what seemed to be the most accessible, yet non-reactive and -- interactive communication medium -- the television.
In this paper, focus is given on the appeal of reality TV because it bridges the gap between the sender and receiver -- that is, it brings together into an interactive relationship the program (its actors, staff, and other elements, including the TV as mass medium) and audiences (the receiver of messages and information from…
Bagley, G. (2001). "A mixed bag: Negotiating claims in MTV's the real world." Journal of Film and Video, 53 (2/3).
Gardyn, R. (2001). "The tribe has spoken." American Demographics, 23 (9).
Sardar, Z. (2000). "The rise of the voyeur." New Statesman, 129 (4511).
Then, a fourth reason is that reality shows can sometimes reveal situations of success, which in turn inspire and motivate the audiences to change their lives for the better. Examples of such shows include Dr. 90210, in which plastic surgeons operate on patients, change their appearance and as such increase their self-esteem, or the several shows revealing people fighting, and beating, obesity (Goodman). These types of reality shows set the example that something can be done, and how it can be done, in order to achieve one's personal goals. Additionally, they can be used to send political messages. An example in this sense is the Dove campaign, which sends the message that "For too long, beauty has been defined by narrow, stifling stereotypes […] it's time to change all that" (Daum).
The money or other non-financial rewards involved in the television show make up for the fifth reason as to…
Goodman, W.C., 1995, One Picture is Worth a Thousand Diets, chapter from book the Invisible Woman: Confronting Weight Prejudice in America, Gurze Books
Daum, M., August 2, 2005, Those Unnerving Ads Using "Real" Women, Los Angeles Times
Hirschorn, M., 2007, the Case for Reality TV, the Atlantic, http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200705/reality-tv last accessed on October 7, 2009
McDuffee, K., 2008, Reality TV: What it Is, Who Watches it and Why it Exists, TV Squad, http://www.tvsquad.com/2008/07/09/reality-tv-what-it-is-who-watches-it-and-why-it-exists / last accessed on October 7, 2009
Individuals watching these types of rejections receive guilty pleasure from something they feel that they shouldn't be watching (Reality television). Also, relating to characters on reality shows helps people to feel better about their own lives and problems (DeWall, 2009).
Yes, according to another survey, the ongoing popularity of reality television is due to these shows, unlike other shows such as news programs or sitcoms, allowing the viewers to imagine themselves as actual participants (de Vries, 2005). Some types of people "find a certain fascination in contrasting what they think they would do in a given situation to the actions taken by the "real" participants -- a group of individuals they perceive as their peers" (de Vries, 2005). The author states that the use of ordinary people competing in exotic locales or engaging in common activities such as dating or home redecorating gives viewers the chance to compare and contrast…
de Vries, L. (2005, August 17). Why do we tune in to reality tv? CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/08/17/health/webmd/main783814.shtml
DeWall, C.N. (2009, January 27). Reality TV: Harmless entertainment or bloodsport? Psychology Today. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/connections/200901/reality-tv-harmless-entertainment-or-bloodsport
Reality television. http://www.zonalatina.com/Zldata302.htm
Reiss, S. And Wiltz, J. (2001, September 1). Why America loves reality TV. Psychology Today. http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200109/why-america-loves-reality-tv
Some shows are more palatable than others. The contest shows such as "America's Top Model," or "American Idol" are in general less about interpersonal problems and more about the competition. However, shows like "Nanny 911" or the various wife-swapping shows depict so much screaming and shouting that they fail to be enjoyable to watch. "Survivor" and "The Amazing Race" include a lot of bickering and most likely the editors of those shows do not include scores of footage of the participants getting along because those scenes would be boring and the networks would lose viewers. Some of the situations reality television shows depict are realistic in the sense that everyone argues and occasionally harbors ill will against others, especially in competitive situations. On the other hand, the shows fail to reveal positive aspects of human nature that are equally as realistic. By focusing on negativity, reality shows sometimes send dangerous…
It is true that reality television programs have effectively grabbed the public, including the kids attentions. While interest groups do not believe that violence and sex in television programs have any effect on the public, especially kids, the research has shown that the programming contents are highly effective in influencing the behavior of kids. For example, in watching Springer show, many children think that shouting, disrespecting, abusing is common, and some, if not guided by their parents or guardians, misbehave in front of public. Second, as the content of sexual contents and violence is increasing, a large part of American culture is becoming less tolerant and civilized because reality television programs usually expose the weak behavior not the strong behavior of the people (Palmer, 56)
esearch has shown that kids that watch shows with violence without parental advice are less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others; more fearful…
Doyle, a. Cops: Television Policing as Policing Reality. In Mark Fishman and Gray Cavender (Eds.) Entertaining Crime: Television Reality Programs. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. pp.. 95-116, 1998.
Glynn, K. Tabloid Culture. Trash Taste, Popular Power, and the Transformation of American Television. Durham and London: Duke Univ. Press, 2000.
Liebert, R.M. The Early Window: Effects of Television on Children and Youth. New York: Pergamon, 1988.
Palmer, E.L. Television and America's Children: A Crisis of Neglect. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
eality Television: A Media Psychological Literature eview
The research will examine and study aspects of reality television programming from a media psychological perspective and with media psychological methods. The following literature review serves as a context within which the reader and the research will consider the topics. The aim is to outline current and relevant knowledge of the affects of psychological affects of reality television program upon viewers/consumers. Through the literature review, areas where there is a lack of research will be named and explored with the hopes that the areas I intend to research have not received a substantial amount of attention at this time. Using the information from the literature review, I will further narrow and hone the scope of my topic, research question(s) and hypotheses. By the conclusion of the review, the proposal will have justified a rationale for my research in media psychology and…
Bruth, L. (2009) Publicized Intimacies on Reality Television: An Analysis of Voyeuristic Content and Its Contribution to the Appeal of Reality Programming. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(2), 190 -- 210.
Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology: Chapter 14 -- Audience Participation and Reality TV. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: Mahwah, NJ.
Hall, A. (2009) Perceptions of the Authenticity of Reality Programs and Their Relationships to Audience Involvement, Enjoyment, and Perceived Learning. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53(4), 515 -- 531.
Nabi, R.L., Biely, E.N., Morgan, S.J. & Stitt, C.R. (2003) Reality-Based Television Programming and the Psychology of Its Appeal. Media Psychology, 5, 303- 330.
controversy regarding reality television and the way that it portrays society. As a social scientist, one needs to acknowledge that reality television is largely providing the masses with a fabricated version of the real world. Even with the fact that individuals shown on such programs appear to live their lives as if no one is actually watching them, the truth is that they are significantly influenced by the fact that they are filmed and they are thus inclined to put across behaviors they would not perform otherwise.
Reality television was especially effective from a sociological point-of-view during its early years, taking into account that it portrayed individuals in natural environments. PBS' 1973 show An American Family is a positive example of reality television because of how it documented the life of the Loud family. The show actually managed to provide viewers with important information concerning the family and concerning particular…
eality television shows about Amish lifestyle and culture reveal an eerily ironic fascination of one of the only ethnic groups in the United States to deliberately eschew technology. The use of technology to capture ethnographic data on the Amish communities in America is therefore as problematic as the reality television shows are at trying to capture Amish life using the very tools the Amish shun. In "esearching the 'Un-Digital' Amish community: methodological and ethical reconsiderations for human subjects research," Tabetha Adkins claims that ethnographers and anthropologists need to develop and implement more flexible methodologies that are not only more ethical, but also more accurate.
The author establishes her biases as a self-declared "technophile" who originally imposed technological tools upon Amish subjects in a sort of active display of colonialism or cultural imperialism (Adkins, 2011, p. 39). Adkins (2011) claims that researchers have become dependent on their technological tools for…
Adkins, T. (2011). "The English Effect' on Amish language and literacy practices." Community Literacy Journal 5(2): 25-45
Adkins, T. (2011). "Researching the 'Un-Digital' Amish community: methodological and ethical reconsiderations for human subjects research." Community Literacy Journal 6(1): 39-53.
However, the ability to criticize and gain depth into a subject was the key factors involved in qualitative research. In order for qualitative research methods to be applied to qualitative research, these methods had to undergo some form of transformation to make them acceptable to the empirical mindset. ainwright argues that in order to achieve this, qualitative methods had to sacrifice some of their critical elements in favor of validity and reliability. He argues that one cannot have criticism and validity at the same time.
However, this is a difficult viewpoint to accept and if one examines the method to be employed in this research, the presence of validity and controls does not limit the ability to criticize the results. Increasing validity and reliability in the qualitative research means the development of criteria on the data collection. This may be a hindrance in the traditional sociological setting, such as field…
Beattie, G. 2002. Head Counts. Guardian Unlimited. May 28, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/universityguide/story/0,721013,00.html .
Dehnart, a. 2001. Celebrating Classic Sociology: Pioneers of British Qualitative Research. A symposium organized by Qualidata and held on 5-6 July 2001 at the University of Essex. Aug. 6, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2007 at http://www.esds.ac.uk/qualidata/news/symposium.asp
Fielding, N. 1993. Ethnography. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life. London: Sage.
Hammersley, M. 1992. What's wrong with ethnography? London: Routledge.
Social Identity on Television
Keeping up with the Karashians is a reality television program that illustrates several different aspects of social identity as it is conceived of and witnessed in the United States today. One of the most salient factors of social identity that is regularly evinced on this particular television show pertains to notions of class. In fact, one can posit the notion that the very premise of the show is that it allows viewers to literally watch the life and times of those who are exceedingly rich. Social identity is represented in Keeping up with the Karashians as wealth and fame, as the most eminent members of this show inadvertently are.
From the show's inception, as well as the inception of many of its more notorious characters, wealth and fame have featured fairly prominently in its depiction of reality. Almost all of the major characters have enjoyed wealth…
Hill, A. (2005). Reality TV. London: Routledge.
Mills, N. (2004). Dissent. Retrieved from ***
Values Portrayed eality TV
The modern day media has recently found out that profits can be higher if reality TV shows are produced. Based on these reasons, there is a long list of reality TV shows that are being produced. Not all of these shows are successful, but the one that are successful have achieved great deal of profits, cultural prominence and popularity. The question that arises here is that if these shows should be produced or should they be aired for the audience.
Many definitions have been given for reality TV but one of the most important definitions is a show that showcases situations that have actually happened. Apparently, there is no scripting in these shows as in the case of dramas and serials. A small group of people are showcased in these shows who are not trained actors but these are chosen as they face unusual situations.
Deery, J. (2004). Reality TV as Advertainment. Popular Communication: The International Journal of Media and Culture 2, pp. 1-20.
Murray, S., and Ouellette, L. (2009). Reality TV: Remaking Television Culture. Edition 2. NYU Press.
Olivera, M.B. (1994). Portrayals of crime, race, and aggression in "reality-based" police shows: A content analysis. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 38, pp. 179-192.
Papacharissi, Z., & Mendelson, L.A. (2007). An Exploratory Study of Reality Appeal: Uses and Gratifications of Reality TV Shows. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 51, pp. 355-370.
(Hill 83; Javors 35)
e are not alone in this. In China, often accused of attempting to mimic estern culture, the producers of an RTV show "Ying Zai Zhongguo," or translated somehow as "in" in English draw a similar conclusion:
their hope that the program would encourage more people in China to start their own businesses. Song enming...hoped the show would introduce the "positive power" of entrepreneurship. Ms. Zhou said she hoped potential entrepreneurs would learn the importance of both perseverance and passion. There was much more in the same vein. (Fallows)
Perhaps there is some altruism at the end of the tunnel when considering the cultural benefit of RTV. But the preponderance of the evidence seems to suggest that there is something deeply missing in the American psyche that needs to be healed. Is RTV the cure or part of the problem? This is the conundrum that researchers face.…
Breyer, Richard. "Reality TV: More Mirror Than Window." World and I Jan. 2004: 100.
Fallows, James. "Win in China! A Reality-TV Show Is Teaching the Chinese How to Succeed in Business." The Atlantic Monthly Apr. 2007: 72-84.
Hill, Annette. Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Javors, Irene Rosenberg. "Reality TV Escape from Reality?." Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 7.1 (2004): 35.
The Content Dominance of Reality TV
Few forces have emerged with greater dominance or less artistic appeal than that of reality television, which has largely defined primetime content for the last decade. hat at one time appeared to be a fad, or a phenomenon at worst, ultimately reached a crescendo as the best path to high ratings, bid advertising dollars and household names. This is the pattern of media content which perhaps best reflects certain cultural qualities distinct to our time and place. Indeed, our collective embrace of this form of television, which allegedly depicts real individuals living real lives or facing real problems in front of national viewing audiences, suggests both a desire to see ourselves on the screen and, simultaneously, a desire to feel better about ourselves by observing the lurid, embarrassing and pathetic moments experienced by the 'stars' of reality television.
This idea is…
Elite Daily. (2012). The Detrimental Effect Of Reality TV On Our Society. Elitedaily.com
Fahner, M. (2012). The real effects of reality TV. USA Today College.
Miller, A. (2013). Hook, Line and Sinker: Reality TV and Its Impact In Our Culture. In the Mix.
The creative ways in which the varied direct involvement aspect has been included by producers in the genre also has to do with technology. Programs where the audience participates in decision making, like when the audience chooses a winner in a program via voting on site or by cell phone text messages are common, as are other audience participation tactics, like on new themed game shows when the audience gives a hint to the contestant and the contestant can then view the percentages of answers. These are just a few examples of how the industry has answered the audience participation draw of the reality genre, though the same research derived study also found that voyeurism is a secondary and limited aspect of the draw to reality TV.
Papacharissi, and Mendelson 355)
Viewers valued the entertainment and habitual pass time motives over that of voyeurism, which was fairly surprising, considering that…
Davies, Maire Messenger. Fake, Fact, and Fantasy: Children's Interpretations of Television Reality. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Hill, Annette. Reality TV: Audiences and Popular Factual Television. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Leone, Ron, Wendy Chapman Peek, and Kimberly L. Bissell. "Reality Television and Third-Person Perception." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 50.2 (2006): 253.
Papacharissi, Zizi, and Andrew L. Mendelson. "An Exploratory Study of Reality Appeal: Uses and Gratifications of Reality TV Shows." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 51.2 (2007): 355.
Siegel paints a picture of modern television in America as childish and escapist, and controlled more often than not by capitalist influences that sponsor these shows and use them for profit. Significantly, most of the shows praised by Siegel are on for-pay television stations like HBO. True, with reality TV, there is some rough democracy in the way that celebrity is deglamorized, that everyone with talent can seemingly become a singing idol with enough votes. Reality TV also shows what aspirants to becoming a top model look like without their makeup. But ultimately by rendering inner experience in a superficial way, merely because the participants are supposedly 'real people,' reality is in fact subverted by reality TV. Unlike a drama that aspires to show the inner life of a character, reality TV shows only surfaces, but it presents the illusion that it is real, simply because the participants go by…
Siegel, Lee. "Reality in America." From Telling Stories, pp.173-175.
That relieves all the pent-up anxiety of a Trump wannabe. Therefore, such a viewer remains content with his or her current life, acquiescing to (and as a result reinforcing) current hegemonic power structures (i.e., the real power of big corporations, and corporate players like Trump, over all the rest of us)).
"The Apprentice" is especially successful at pro-hegemonic reinforcement, moreover, since it focuses on a subject we all (except for those born independently wealthy, or winners of huge lotteries) recognize and experience day-to-day: work. Hegemonic power of corporate workplaces, and, by association, a national government that allows, and encourages, corporate uses and abuses of power, are validated by "The Apprentice's" implicit suggestion that a high-powered corporate career, the higher paid and more prestigious the better [the stuff that makes the Ken Lays of the world tick], is exciting, fun, glamorous, where the winners are, and something to aspire to, rather…
"Dinsdag." November 30, 2004. Swerve Left. Retrieved May 11, 2005, from:
"Inkwell." Independent Women's Forum. Retrieved May 11, 2005, from:
Much has been said about the violence on television and its potentially harmful effects on children. Everything from cartoons to toy commercials depicts violence in some form, and it is understandable that parents may be frightened. However, television can be a valuable tool for children's social and academic education. Programs like Sesame Street have for years taught young children the basics of reading and math in a multicultural framework. Educational children's programming abounds, and each show has something unique to offer. By watching these shows, children are encouraged to be creative. Educational programming also includes shows on stations like the Discovery Channel and the History Network. Many of these shows can be watched by both adults and children and can therefore stimulate dialog within the home. Even entertainment television such as sitcoms can help children make sense of their world. An early exposure to popular culture can be…
(Fishman & Cavender, 1998) To some degree this, as well as the fictional license many "reality" and "reality based" programs take with technology applications put a great deal of pressure on real law enforcement and force public scrutiny that many find unwelcome. (Arcuril, 1977)
The challenge is then placed squarely on law enforcement as well as their support systems, like crime scene investigators (usually for legal reasons a completely separate entity), to resolve crime in hours rather than days, months or years. Most people who have been victims of crime are fundamentally aware that these images are functionally unrealistic, and yet they and others are still building a case, through viewership for the value and continued desire for such programming. The visual imagery, possible through technology has also challenged the public to learn to stomach, and even covet more and more Technicolor representations of "reality." Where Perry Mason utilized static…
Arcuril, A.F. (1977). You Can't Take Fingerprints Off Water: Police Officers' Views Toward "Cop" Television Shows. Human Relations, 30 (3), 237-247.
Fishman, M., & Cavender, G. (1998). Mark Fishman, Gray Cavender. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Surette, R., & Otto, C. (2002). Journal of Criminal Justice, 30 (5), 443-453.
Since the 1950s, television has become an increasingly vital part of life, providing both an escape from the pressures of everyday life as well as offering social commentary. Television shows that center on family life have historically been among some of the highest-rated shows. One of the reasons why these shows are among the most popular are that they reflect the realities of actual families and family problems yet do so in a unique and refreshing way. In order to understand the role of television in explaining family structures, it is necessary to compare television shows from the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s with contemporary television shows.
TELEVISION SHOWS COMPARED
There are numerous similarities and differences between television shows of the 1950s, 1970s, and 1980s that center on family life and television shows depicting contemporary families and family forms. In general, television shows have adapted to reflect changing…
Television and America
There have been many technological advances within the past sixty years that have fundamentally influenced the way that we live in the United States. Among the most influential is the invention and proliferation of the television.
Though there are other advances which, are equally important it is still the television that dominates the background noise of nearly every home. In fact most homes have more televisions than they have bathrooms. It is not unusual for television to be the single most used avenue for national and international information. "From its early position as a new medium for political coverage in the 1950s, television quickly supplanted radio and eventually newspapers to become by the early 1960s the major source of public information about politics."
This information includes political, social and popular issues that have helped shape the culture of America. It is through the influence of television and…
Lynda Lee Kaid. "Political Process and Television." 2003
Paul Schatzkin "Television is 75" 2002 http://www.philo75.com
Television viewing, today, is virtually an universal phenomenon with millions of households tuning in daily to their favorite programs. Indeed, no other communication channel, to date, can claim to have come close to the almost mesmerizing appeal that the medium of television holds. It is, therefore, not surprising that the high appeal of the medium has led to a great deal of debate on the influence it exercises in molding societal and cultural values. Social activists, for instance, believe that the imagery in television programming and commercials leads to the establishing of socially desirable stereotypes and lifestyles, which may be detrimental for population segments that are vulnerable. Such critics contend that television imagery evokes either negative self-imagery or an excessive desire to imitate an ideal, which can then lead to harmful actions such as the use of extreme slimming regimes, substance abuse, or excessive consumption of economically unaffordable goods. The…
Benetton. "Photo Gallery." Benetton Group Web site. Accessed Mar. 28, 2004:
Biocca, F.A. & Myers Jr., P.N. "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television
Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women." Journal of Communication. 1992. Vol. 42: 3, p. 108
The Contest" draws attention to the level of humor that pervades the lives of television show characters, especially characters on sitcoms. hile many people do enjoy hearty laughter and excitement with their friends on a regular basis, few in real life do so to the extent of the Seinfeld characters. It is possible that people who watch the show are attempting to discover ways to enliven their real-life friendships, to infuse more humor and outrageousness in them. hether through devising masturbation contests or not, individuals use ideas from shows like Seinfeld to add color and lightness to their often troubled lives. hen our relationships fall short of being as lighthearted as the relationships depicted on Seinfeld, we may be disappointed.
In the spirit of "The Contest," when we claim that we are "master of our domain," we are relying on Seinfeld to provide us with euphemisms related to sex. Seinfeld…
Crawley, Mark. "Favorite Seinfeld Episodes." Movieprop.com. Retrieved July 21, 2005 online at http://www.movieprop.com/tvandmovie/Seinfeld/favorite.htm
David, Larry. "The Contest." Dir. Tom Cherones. Starring: Jerry Seinfeld, Michael Richards, Jason Alexander, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Estelle Harris (as Mrs. Costanza), and Jane Leeves (as Marla). Broadcasted November 18, 1992. Script retrieved online July 21, 2005 at http://www.seinfeldscripts.com/TheContest.htm
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…
As far as reality TV is concerned, this is taking place by illustrating the tension and drama that everyone is experiencing. This gives the show an unscripted element. ("Not a ell Rounded Athlete") ("The Difference between Reality") (Gunkee)
A good example of this can be seen with Natalie and Nadiya having car trouble while in the process of reaching their objectives. This is similar to the everyday experiences many people have. The fact that viewers were able to ride along with them adds a sense of realism to the program. ("Not a ell Rounded Athlete") ("The Difference between Reality") (Gunkee)
Yet, at the same time, there are elements of a game show which are included. This is taking place through the rivalries the different teams are having with each other. These factors enhance the sense of competition and excitement with a team being eliminated each weak. ("Not a ell Rounded…
"The Difference between Reality." SF Gate, 2008. Web. 15 Feb. 2013
Gunkee, Alice. "Reality Game Shows." Yahoo Voices, 2009. Web. 15 Feb. 2013
"Not a Well Rounded Athlete." TV.com, 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2013
Boelcke, Allison. "Definition of Reality TV." E. How, 2012. Web. 15 Feb. 2013
Television has become a necessity in today's world. From news to entertainment, from gossips to drama, from cooking to adventure, everything is showcased on it and this grab the attention of everyone despite of the race, gender, age, ethnicity or nationality they belong to. Almost all the people consider TV as their friend and an essential part of their lives and scientists, theorists and researchers have proved that what is shown on TV changes the viewer's perceptions and attitudes over the period of time. As rightly pointed out by Hammermeister, Winterstein, and Page (2005) in their research, "aside from occupational duties and sleep, the American nation spends more time watching television than at any other activity." (p.253) They also highlighted the fact that a normal American spends around 3-4 hours daily on watching TV which makes it 7-10 years of watching TV by the time he turns 70.…
Aber.ac.uk (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/short/cultiv.html [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Fisherhouse.com (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.fisherhouse.com/courses/cultivation_theory.pdf [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Gulisano, L. (2013). Cultivation Theory. Retrieved from: http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Gulisano.htm [Accessed: 17 Nov 2013].
Hammermeister, J., Brock, B., Winterstein, D., Page, R. And Y (2005). Life without TV? Cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts. Health communication, 17 (3), pp. 253-264.
Conflict between the contestants and the management emerges as they are forced to compete and antagonize each other in order to win the prize. Thus, being a contest, conflict in "Survivor" is inevitable, and it is only through a successful power struggle that one will be able to win over the management, thereby winning $1 million. Among the Survivors, meanwhile, the initial conflict that happens is between groups or "tribes." As each contestant is eliminated, one tribe emerges as more dominant in terms of number, thereby necessitating a fusion of the two tribes. This fusion leads to a tension among each contestant, wherein everyone tries his/her best to remain in the contest; conflict now happens as contestants try to establish allegiances and affiliations with others, which, in the process, results to conflicts with other contestants.
However, the inherent presence of conflict in "Survivor" is mainly based on the daily interactions…
Renzetti, C. And D. Curran. (2000). Living Sociology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Newlyweds"- the Nightingales of the Nighttime Reality TV Airwaves? Or Nightmares? Or Something in Between?
It's easy to mock reality TV as a unified class of shows -- often, all reality TV seems to blend together in a blur absurd catchphrases like 'you're fired,' on "The Apprentice," with contrived situations like the tribal meetings of "Survivor." But while most of reality TV is hardly what one would call elevating entertainment for the mind and spirit, all reality TV is not created alike. Rather, "The Newlyweds" provide at least one crucial cultural function -- it demystifies the life of rock stars and demystifies the marriage of the attractive pop stars Jessica and Nick. The show suggests that even attractive and glamorous singers, as opposed to Ozzy Osborne, have problems in their daily lives -- and ordinary ones at that, unlike Osborne's struggles will illness and drugs.
Unlike "A Hard Day's Night,"…
Law Enforcement TV Shows
The mass media in the contemporary society and for the last few decades has seemed to be addicted to sensationalism. The masses appear to be particularly supportive of stories that have been exaggerated for the simple purpose of captivating viewers' attention. As a consequence, diverse media devices take advantage of the opportunity and produce a series of works specifically designed as a response to people's needs. TV police shows in particular are aimed at providing viewers with stories that are likely to impress them and in many cases certain aspects of these respective stories are fabricated.
Reality TV shows involving law enforcement officers catching criminals have become more and more common in recent years. Most of these shows display both the honorable and risky lifestyle of police officers and the ruthlessness of criminals. However, in many cases it is difficult for viewers not to feel…
Doyle, A. "Arresting Images: Crime and Policing in Front of the Television Camera," (University of Toronto Press, 2003)
The governments of China clearly believe that if they do not ban shows where the premise is based on the voting then it could lead their citizens to want the right to vote in the government on their own opinions. The influence that television has, in this case by indirectly helping Chinese citizens move in the direction of being slightly more "democratic," is seen as a threat- it is hard to believe that television could threaten the national security of a world super power.
The current influence that television has on individual's lives is only growing stronger as technology continues to develop. Recent developments have shown that television will now be in "three-dimensions," so that individuals who view TV can be full immersed in the movie or show they are watching ("ho Needs It"). But is that even necessary when nine out of ten homes have televisions in their homes…
Adams, Paul C. "Television as a Gathering Place." Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 82.1 (1992): n. page. Print.
"An Interactive Feature." Economist. 29 April 2010: n. page. Web. 18 Oct. 2011. .
Blockbuster Bankruptcy, . "Blockbuster Bankruptcy 2010." Blockbuster, 2011. Web. 18 Oct 2011. .
Chen, Jason. "Google TV Review: It's Kinda the Future." Gizmodo, 26 Oct 2010. Web. 18 Oct 2011. http://gizmodo.com/5672946/google-tv-review-its-kinda-the-future .
The dream of losing weight is a big one because losing weight is one of the most difficult things a person can do. Even on a ranch with nothing to worry about but losing weight, we see every week just how difficult it is. The capacity of the human is pushed to the limits and what everyone realizes is that they are capable of more than they know. This is one notion the trainers have drilled into the heads of every contestant who has graced the ranch. Too many times people are told to take it too easy and they push contestants to do 30 seconds more because they can.
Not all can be the biggest loser and, as mentioned earlier, the show is a game. The contestants who prove to be lacking in motivation are often eliminated from teams because everyone on teams must work together to have the…
Bennet, Jan. "The Obesity Epidemic." Long-Term Living. 2008. 57.4. June 28, 2010. EBSCO Resource Database.
Broadcasting and Cable. June 28, 2010. http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/110294-Primetime_Ratings_NBC_Wins_with_Biggest_Loser.php
television shows such as Dexter influence and/or desensitize people?
The aim of this particular thesis question was to understand the perception of the idea of 'attaining justice through any means'. Hence, this proposed thesis will mainly look to understand how a TV show like Dexter can influence the idea of justice as well as how and through what means justice can be implemented and achieved in reality.
eception Idea: Summary
eception concept is a variation of visitor feedback fictional idea that highlights the visitor's reception of a fictional content. It is usually called audience reception in the analysis of interactions designs. In fictional researches, reception idea stemmed from the job of Hans-obert Jauss in the 1960s. It was most prominent throughout the 1970s and very early 1980s in Germany and United States (Fortier 132), and amid some remarkable function in Western Europe. A type of reception idea has actually likewise…
Geiser-Getz, G. (1998). Chapter in Critical Approaches to Television (Berg, L.R.V., Wenner, L.A. And Gronbeck, B.E.). Houghton Mifflin Company. New York: Boston.
Real, M.R. (1996). Exploring Media Culture: A Guide. Communication and Human Values, Sage Publications. International Educational and Professional Publisher, Thousand Oaks, London.
television show onto the air in America is a difficult task. It requires a great investment of time and effort, and is often discouraging and disheartening. To get an idea to air, the an idea must be carefully nurtured through the complex processes of creating a script, getting the script read by someone in Hollywood, getting the script to pilot, and finally getting the pilot to air.
There are many important steps that must be undertaken to get an idea for a television show onto the air in America. The first and most important of these steps is to get a pilot episode made to show to networks that might pick up the show. A pilot episode is simply the first episode of your television show, and should showcase the show in the best possible light. Getting an idea to the stage of a pilot show is a difficult undertaking,…
Adventures in Hollywood, Scene 1. 18 February 2004.
Glatzer, Jenna. Interview With Lynn Barker. 18 February 2004.
Therefore there should be more in-depth research into the types of content that are associated with television addiction.
The analysis of this article and other sources also raises the important issue of whether one can or even should avoid the influence of television in the information age. Television and other related media have become part of our everyday world and the problem of possible television addiction should be dealt with in terms of a healthy balance in television viewing. ather than a carte blanche condemnation of television there should be a more intensive focus on the negative forms of content that may lead to forms of addiction and other problem areas.
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. etrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Brock, B.J. (1994). Recreation Programming for the '90S Family: Demographics and Discoveries. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65(6), 64+. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449752
Bryant, J. & Bryant, J.A. (Eds.). (2001). Television and the American Family. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449755 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704
Gambling Ads on TV Will Fuel Addiction'. (2007, August 10). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 1. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001238566
Television, the four powers of television are characterized as the power to entertain, the power to socialize and educate, the power to inform, and the power to create community and consensus. The four are not mutually exclusive and can be found operating in pairs or larger groupings on individual shows.
The power to entertain is understood by everyone and is the primary power for most people. The television networks have played to this power from the beginning, carrying over what they had been doing on radio into the new medium to create programs that would gather large audiences around comedies, dramas, variety shows, and the like. This primary power has continued into the cable era, with many cable networks imitating the broadcast networks in these terms by presenting movies, dramatic shows, and comedies or by shaping non-fictional programs so they entertain, seen in the many so-called reality shows that are…
television has brought irreversible damage to the American family in t least two ways, by corroding marks, and by making the 'good enough' family less likely to be 'good'.
There are, she says, three types of families: the 'spectacular' -- that which eats together with children, reads aloud to them, plays with them, is simply the uncommonly ideal family that you read about in books. To the other extreme is the failing family where the father may be an alcoholic, the mother may be depressed, the children are on the streets, and the family can barely function, if at all, as a unit. On the contrary, they function as a badly meshed unit. In the middle, is the 'good-enough' family which most of us are just trying to do our best and rear ourselves and our children in the best way whilst coping with the survival demands of the routine…
Dr Heller.com Parenting and marital advice Is Technology Destroying Family Life?
television shows Parks and ecreation and the American version of the Office deal with similar themes regarding the nature of the modern workplace and the relationships which populate it, but although both shows are shot in the same single-camera, mockumentary style, they end up saying very different things about their shared subject. This is ultimately a result of each particular show's setting; in The Office, the story follows the employees of a small paper company, but in Parks and ecreation, the story is about the public employees of the parks department in a small town. This difference is ultimately responsible for the different interpretations of similar themes seen both shows, and examining the ramifications of this distinction will serve to explicate the particular meaning of either show.
For much of its history The Office focuses on the ineptitude of management and the failure of the commercialized masculine ideal, implicitly critiquing…
Aronstein, A. (2011, May 05). The personal politics of parks and rec. Retrieved from http://splitsider.com/2011/05/the-personal-politics-of-parks-and-rec
Griffin, J. (2008). The americanization of the office: A comparison of the offbeat NBC sitcom and its british predecessor. Journal of Popular Film & Television, 35(4), 154-163.
In contrast, TV influences children in abandoning the theories they were taught and embrace other concepts, most related to violence. Also, after being exposed to TV violence children feel that it is perfectly natural for them to behave similar to the characters on TV (Langone, 1984, p. 48).
It is extremely important for a child to be assisted by an adult when watching TV. Studies have shown that children are influenced by the way adults perceive TV programs, meaning that a child is likely to gain a better understanding of right and wrong when he or she is supported by a mature individual. Even with that, TV violence can negatively influence children, as they will merely hide their aggression in the cases when they are assisted by an adult who disapproves of violent behavior in watching TV (Langone, 1984, p. 56).
Children are generally willing to do anything in ordered…
1. Barker, M. & Petley, J. (2001). Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. New York: Routledge.
2. Hoffman, A.M. (1996) Schools, Violence, and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Josephson, W.L. (1995). "Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages." Retrieved August 16, 2010, from the Media Awareness Network Web site: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/research_documents/reports/violence/tv_violence_child.cfm
4. Langone, J. (1984). Violence!: Our Fastest-Growing Public Health Problem. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown
If the medium is one requiring intellectual thought and inquiry, then the media is likely to be interpreted as such; likewise, in the case of television, the corollary holds true.
Donna Haraway takes the "medium as the message" statement a few steps further. There is no denying that she sees a powerful connection between the medium and the message. Perhaps, she takes this message a bit too far or a bit too fast (It may just be that I'm not willing to accept her cyborg theory since I'm just beginning to understand the meaning of a cyborg). Specifically, when Haraway wears the hat of media theorist, she sets forth the forward-thinking, modern, and somewhat controversial statement that human beings are so closely linked to the mediums of today that we are actually morphing into half cyborg-half human creatures given our interconnectedness with the medium of computers themselves and their intrustion…
Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies. London: J. Cape.
Haraway, Donna. "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century." Socialist Review . (1985): 150-166. Print.
Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, . New York, NY:
Routledge Press, 1991. Print.
TELEVISION'S ELATIIONSHIP TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Television's elationship to Science and Technology
Scientific knowledge has led to the development of machinery, and equipment among other provision of technology. Notably, computer technology is a product of scientific knowledge: the advancement of the science and the engineering knowledge has led to the increase in the practical application of knowledge. As a result, the technology has continued to advance leading innovation and modernization. Television is a product of scientific knowledge and thus led to the transmission of knowledge of science from one region to another. Television has had gradual improvement in different time. For example, in the ancient time, the transmission of news and entertainment was limited and only in the black and white. As seen in the modern society, television has advanced from black and white images to colored photographic images (Williams, 1974). The improvement in the mode of transmission of images…
Dick, P. K. (1982). Blade Runner. Random House LLC
Jonze, S., Kaufman, C., & Burwell, C. (1999). Being John Malkovich. Universal Studios.
Williams, R. (1974). "The Technology and Society" from "Television: Technology and Cultural Form." New York: Schocken, pp. 35-50
One study revealed Berry (2003) found that young children's retention of emotional information was greater in children viewing family sitcom than those who just watch an animated films or moppet program. This result justifies the fact that children are more likely to learn more due to the presence of human characters in family sitcoms as they find these characters more close to the reality than either cartoon or Muppet characters.
On investigating the type of family interaction shown in family sitcoms it was revealed that majority of family interactions were constructive or supportive in nature. Nonetheless, just about one fourth of these interactions were found to involve argument or negativity. Research shows that even though large amount of verbal and nonverbal interactions between siblings in family sitcoms were positive, nearly 40% of the examined behaviors were found to be negative (e.g., bullying, inappropriate remarks). (alma, Molen and Juliette, 171) As…
Berry, Gordon L., Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, ISSN 1099-9809, 11/2003, Volume 9, Issue 4, 2003, pp. 360-366
Bryant, J, A., Television and the American Family, Routledge, 2nd edition, 2000, 300- 350.
Corrigan, C, The impact of television viewing on young children, 2010, ISBN 9781124298979, 2010, 50- 70.
D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto. Attitudes toward TV advertising: A measure for children, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, 2009, Volume 30, Issue 4, 2009, pp. 409-418
movies atings television shows atings. Cuently aea numbe shows television potaying negative aspects ace, class gende. Fo, show "Family Guy" a show played "pimetime" mateials show "kid-fiendly.
Watching Toy Stoy is likely to influence many adults to believe that it would be wong fo them to allow thei childen to view the animated comedy. I believe that it is wong fo the Motion Pictue Association of Ameica film ating system to povide it with a G. ating, taking into account the violent scenes that the animation contains. Andy's next-doo neighbo, Sid, is a hoible peson and he is obsessed with mutilating toys. While it would be pefectly nomal fo childen to occasionally beak toys, an individual who wants to mutilate toys and who ceates mutant toys consequent to doing so is actually deanged.
Poviding childen with the image of a deanged individual is pobable to have a negative effect on…
references and profanity, but violence is practically absent and adolescents are shown in ways that are characteristic to teenagers in general.
This film has an inappropriate rating and it should have been provided with an R. rating or even with a PG-13 rating. By labeling it NC-17, the Motion Picture Association of America virtually fails to acknowledge that teenagers are capable of putting across behaviors that are not socially acceptable. The reality is that many teenagers are likely to identify with characters in the film and that the most activities shown are actually perfectly normal for teenagers.
The chart is meant to emphasize the rating that each film should be provided with when concerning particular aspects like violence, sexuality, and drug use:
2 stands for G -- general audience
4 stands for PG -- parental guidance suggested
Nudity in Television
Nudity is increasing in the television shows and movies with every passing day. More number of actresses and models agree to do nude shoots. As the technology is also advancing at a fast pace, even young children have access to such nude photo shoots and scenes by making use of the internet. It can be said that actresses and models are signing contracts for nude scenes and shoots because the benefit from the aforementioned actions can be two-fold. Firstly, the payment for the shoot increases with nudity and so does the popularity and rating of the actresses and models. However, what is important for us to analyze is the impact that this increasing trend of nudity and vulgarity is leaving on the entertainment industry with respect to the ethical dilemmas that it must face. Therefore, the main theme of this paper would be the identification of the…
Feminist Legal Theory. "Women in film and television: empowered or objectified?" 2012.
Gelt, Jessica. "The CW reins in steamy sex scene on 'Reign'." Show Tracker, 2013.
Gish, William. "10 Hottest Actresses Topless." Break Media, 2010.
Huff Post. "Nymphomaniac' Character Posters Showcase Shia LaBeouf, Uma Thurman In Salacious Moments (Slightly NSFW)." 2013.
presence of a television set in the home have a negative impact on children and the family unit as a whole? According to some researchers, this is exactly the case. Marie inn's article "Television: the Plug-In Drug" was published originally in 1977 and updated in 2002. At that time, televisions had been in homes for about three decades and the color television was taking hold. More and more programming was being designed for children and for every educational program like Sesame Street on the air, there were many cartoons without much educational value at all, if any. This was back when there were only a handful of television channels and people were just beginning to work on cable network systems. Even at that early stage, inn saw a negative impact on children who spent copious amounts of time watching television. I think inn makes an important point, that too much…
Winn, Marie. "Television: The Plug-In Drug." 2013. Retrieved from http://www.laquintahs.org/ourpages/auto/2012/5/8/44497687/TV%20The%20Plug%20in%20Drug.pdf
Quality TV generates interest about social problems
Quite often, fictional TV programs can raise national consciousness and awareness about social problems. Through fiction, viewers care about people far away because problems and issues are personalized and humanized. For example, the HBO program Oz about life in prison has generated compassion about the fate of incarcerated individuals and motivated calls for prison reform in a way that seeing someone in handcuffs on the nightly news cannot. The Sopranos was not simply a high-quality TV drama, its location in a suburban community also forced viewers to think more critically about their daily lives, like the lies, pain, and murder that lay behind the closed doors of affluent suburban New Jersey. The use of violence in these shows is designed to accurately depict life
Quality TV is cinematic
Violence has become part of the cinematic vocabulary, and modern television dramas with legitimate aspirations…
TV Series and the Society
The social set up in most communities in the world is indeed eroded with lots of images and teachings especially from the media. Among the major influences the lives of individuals in the society are affected by television programs and series. Most of the TV series that are relied to the individuals of a family in a particular setting basically influence the decision and the activities of the many individuals in either a negative or a positive manner. Indeed the most affected are the minor in the society, which are the children1.
From the healthcare providers' point-of-view, the media especially the television play a very important role in the escalation of the chances of teenage pregnancies and adolescent malpractices among the youths in America. These youth frequently use the media like television series, music movies and magazines in their plight for…
The Effects of Watching Television in Young Children
The current technological era has ensnared the young generation into a web of virtual reliance, making them dependent on various types of media outlets. The user – friendly components of media outlets have equipped the youngsters with the ability to customize any content into their own individual preferences. Young people are not limited to feeding but also they are able to design media materials which suit them. This situation is a far cry from what the older generation was inclined to while growing up, hence in most cases, this creates a generational conflict (Radesky, 2015).
The prevalence of technological and digital devices has created exposure among youngsters, with some being as young as 4 months. This is in comparison to children in the 1970s who became exposed to media such as the television from the age of 4 years. Research has shown…
Controlling TV Programmes:
The debate on whether or not to adopt stricter means of controlling television programmes arises from the impact of certain programmes on the viewers. This debate also emanates from the cultural and ethical concerns raised by various people regarding the suitability of certain television programmes. According to research on television, it has emerged that programme-makers and broadcasters sometime fail to draw the line when showing certain programmes. As a result, certain sections of the public has lost their degree of trust in television programming arguing that there should be stricter measures to control television programmes while others differ with them.
Arguments Supporting Stricter Control of TV Programmes:
The increased loss of trust and ethical concerns regarding television programming has resulted in various people supporting the adoption of stricter mechanisms of controlling TV programs. The proponents of such measures point at the following reasons & #8230;
Hayes, D.A. (n.d.). The Children's Hour Revisited: The Children's Television Act of 1990.
Retrieved from Indiana University website: http://www.law.indiana.edu/fclj/pubs/v46/no2/hayes.html
Kiisweko, O. (2011, August 19). The Dilemma of Children Hooked Onto TV. Retrieved August
31, 2011, from http://dailynews.co.tz/feature/?n=22940&cat=feature
For small amounts of viewing, achievement increased with viewing, but as viewing increased beyond a certain point, achievement decreased. That function was found for each of the 3 ages studied, but optimal viewing time -- the apex of the function - was different at each age and decreased with the age of the students. (Razel, 2001)
Research Showing Positive Effects on Children
On the other hand, there is some research that disagrees that television has a profound negative effect on a child's behavior, health and cognitive ability. This research does not support the hypothesis that television is bad for children. There is observation
Television and Children 7 research that shows that television can be a positive influence in a child's learning process. The television can inform, entertain, and educate children in many ways.
Even though there is an abundance of children's shows that promote violence and other generally un-educational topics,…
1. Comstock, George A., Eli A. Rubinstien, and John P. Murray. Television and Social Behavior: Television's Effects: Further Explorations. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1972.
2. Winn, Marie. The Plug-In Drug. New York, NY: Viking Penguin Press, 1985.
3. Children and the News Retreived July 26, 2006 at http://aacap.org/page.ww?name=Children+and+The+News§ion=Facts+for+Families
4. Razel, M. (2001). The complex model of television viewing and educational achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 94, 371-379.
omen in Television
In the late 1960s to early 1970s, as women burned their bras and took to the streets for equality, the female labor force grew three times more than that their male peers (Toossi), increasing numbers of educational opportunities made themselves available to the "fairer sex,"
and a cultural shift was taking place for women within the household and in society as a whole. As is frequently the case, television seized the moment and looked for ways to capitalize on this women's lib movement. As Fiske wrote, "Television often acts like a relay station: It rarely originates topics of public interest (though it may repress them); rather, what it does is give them high visibility, energize them, and direct or redirect their general orientation before relaying them out again into public circulation." Thus, Turner's MTM Enterprises introduced "That Girl" and followed it by the seven-year hit "Mary Tyler…
Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "Where have you gone, Mary Richards? Feminism's rise and fall in primetime television." Iris: A Journal About Women 12.28 (2004). 5 November 2010 http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-127160507/have-you-gone-mary.html
Bordo, Susan. The Male Body. A New Look at Men at Public and Private. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Douglas, Susan. Where the Girls Are. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1995.
Dow, Bonnie. Prime-Time Feminism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Race was not an issue in the shows I watched and I cannot imagine how race would ever been an issue or portrayed in a show where decorators and families decorate homes.
In one of the shows the homeowner left instructions that they wanted an African theme and they were an African-American family, but that was not the show moving the minds of the viewers, rather it was the homeowner's having a preference.
The subtle stereotypes were confined to watching Amy Winn handle all of the sewing work while the male carpenter was given the wood work projects to handle.
The most interesting thing about this show was the lack of stereotypes. It shows men hanging curtains, women moving furniture with no concern toward gender or race. I have never chosen to watch the show because I am not yet a homeowner so there was no need for me to…
Dexter (The television series)
There is an increase of interest in Hollywood movies and television series set to expand on crime investigation. There are arguments as to how realistic these representations on the screen are in regards to real life experiences and this is what we aim to discuss in this paper with a focus on the television series, ?Dexter, ? which is still running almost eight years after its first appearance on screen. We will be focusing on what appears more realistic in regards to how forensic science is presented in the series while also directing the focus on Hollywood's distinct trademark. We will also look at how such TV series may influence real life and affect people's expectations.
When ?Dexter, ? The television series, started airing in 2006, there already were a few other serial television shows that embedded forensic investigation. But, this time, there was something new…
Babiak, P., Folino, J., Hancock, J., Hare, R.D., Logan, M., Mayer, E., Meloy, J. (July 2012). Psychopathy An Important Forensic Concept for the 21st Century. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/july-2012/psychopathy-an-important-forensic-concept-for-the-21st-century
Salzberg. (2010, December 13). The Pseudo-Science of Dexter. [Web Log Post]. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/The_PseudoScience_of_Dexter.php
The TV series M*A*S*H holds a special place in the history of American popular culture. M*A*S*H ran for eleven seasons beginning in the autumn of 1972 with a total of two hundred and fifty-one episodes, and the series finale of M*A*S*H in 1981 remains the most watched series television episode of all time. Yet from the standpoint of critical analysis, there are a number of curious issues about the show and its popularity. For a start, what genre is it? The 1970 Robert Altman film upon which the series is based is usually described as a "black comedy," but the reality of the series is slightly stranger than that. Budd and Steinman, for example, define the genre as something they call "warmedy" -- "comedy overlaid with empathetic audience identification." This is an important concept as to how the show worked (and we will return to it later in discussion)…
Budd, Mike and Steinman, Clay. "M*A*S*H Mystified: Capitalization, Dematerialization, Idealization." Cultural Critique 10 (1988): 59-75. Print.
Diffrient, David Scott. M*A*S*H (TV Milestones). Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2008. Print.
Gelbart, Larry and Reynolds, Gene. M*A*S*H, Season 4, Episode 424, "The Interview." Original airdate 24 February 1976. DVD.
Wittebols, James H. Watching M*A*S*H, Watching America: A Social Analysis of the 1972-1983 Television Series. North Carolina: McFarland, 1998. Print.
lack Women on Early Television
African-American portrayals on television have been based on negative stereotypes that do not objectively or accurately portray reality... These stereotypes include, but are not limited to, the portrayal of African-Americans as inferior, lazy, dumb, dishonest, comical, unethical, and crooked (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1977). Dates (1990) was able to add to this list: insolent, bestial, brutish, power-hungry, money hungry and ignorant." (Rada)
The image of lack people on television has changed somewhat since the early era of television. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the roles that black women played in the early era of Television. We will discuss how the roles of lack women were limited to playing the role of mammies during the early era of television. The paper will also discuss roles for lack women that were labeled as being too white. In addition, our research will examine the…
Carroll, Diahann. Diahann! An Autobiography.1986
Ford, T.E. Effects of sexist humor on tolerance of sexist events. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 1094-1107(2000) http://condor.depaul.edu/~mwilson/extra/humor/steoaatv.html http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29237660
Giovanni, Nikki. Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources. Ed. Jessie Carney Smith. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001291049
Hamlet, Janice D. "Mammies No More: The Changing Image of Black Women on Stage and Screen." The Western Journal of Black Studies 23.2 (1999): 135. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15287542
Violent TV Effect on Kids
Effects of Violent TV Programming and How to Impose Limitations to Exposure
"Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?" By the American Psychological Association (APA) provides an introspective view into how violence on television affects children and presents an argument that exposure to violence should be monitored. Alternately, Tim Goodman provides an argument based upon personal opinions and observations in which he defends television programming and shifts the blame of exposure onto the individual. Both articles provide an insight into violence on television and what can be done to limit exposure to said violence.
In "Violence on Television -- What Do Children Learn? What Can Parents Do?," the American Psychological Association provides evidence that supports their claim that exposure to violence on television has a negative impact on children, provided these children are exposed to violent television programming. According to…
Even more interesting is how oseanne was treated as if she were somehow an anti-feminist because she wished to push her own agenda on the show, creating conflict with one of the producers. Interestingly enough, Barr observed, "I made the mistake of thinking Marcy was a powerful woman in her own right. I've come to learn that there are none in TV. There aren't powerful men, for that matter, either- unless they work for an ad company or a market-study group. Those are the people who decide what gets on the air and what doesn't" (Barr, 2011). What her comment makes clear is that, even while perceived as social commentary by others, oseanne perceives her show as commercial, leading one to wonder if it is possible to have a truly feminist television series in a society that struggles for post-feminism and worships capitalism.
Barr, . (2011, May 15). "And…
Barr, R. (2011, May 15). "And I should know." New York Magazine. Retrieved September 20,
2011 from NYmag.com website: http://nymag.com/arts/tv/upfronts/2011/roseanne-barr-2011-5/
Negra, D. (2004). "Quality postfeminism? Sex and the single girl on HBO." Genders OnLine
Journal, 39. Retrieved December 4, 2011 from http://www.genders.org/g39/g39_negra.html
FCC v. FOX TELEVISION STATIONS
Federal Communications Commission, et al.
Fox Television Stations, Inc., et al.
Monday, June 27, 2011 Term: 2010-20192011
Location: 40.714353, -74.005973
Facts of the Case
In 2004, the FCC said that TV stations were permitted to be fined for indecency violations in cases when a vulgarity was broadcast during a live program. That happened on Fox in 2002 and 2003 when Cher and Nicole Richie cursed during award shows and were not bleeped. The FCC never actually fined Fox, but the network took issue with the regulatory agency setting the stage for future fines and challenged the fleeting-expletive rules. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that the FCC's rules were "unconstitutionally vague" and had a "chilling effect."
Chicago.FCC v. FOX TELEVISION STATIONS. The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. 10…
Barron, J.A. (2011). Fcc v. fox television stations and the fcc's new fleeting expletive policy. Federal Communications Law Journal, 62, 567-586.
Hunt, K. (2007). Fcc complaint process and increasing public unease: Toward an apolitical broadcast indecency regime,. Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review, 223-243.
Levin, R.M. (2010). Hard look review, policy change, and fox television. University of Miami Law
Review, 65(555), 555-576.
movie television show .
Globalization is one of the most discussed topics in the contemporary society and it is very difficult and almost impossible for someone to claim that he or she has not been affected by the process. Even with this, most people have a limited understanding of this process and are unable to decide what would be the best attitude to employ with regard to it. The reality is that society in general is unable to devise perfect methods of dealing with this process. The saying "history repeats itself" might be true in some cases, but this is a whole different matter, taking into account that a series of cultures have come together in creating the present day social order.
Globalization has both positive and negative aspects, this is certainly incontestable. However, what is more difficult to determine is whether or not it is inevitable. Most individuals today…
Chapeyama, Mashell, "Globalization, Meaning and Scope: A collection of essays on Globalization and its Impact," (GRIN Verlag, 17.07.2012)
Jaffe, Eugene D., "Globalization and Development," (Infobase Publishing, 01.01.2006)
Velshi, Ali, and Romans, Christine, "How to Speak Money: The Language and Knowledge You Need Now," (John Wiley & Sons, 20.10.2011)
For example, before Newton, gravity was not considered a reality because the force of gravity itself cannot be perceived via the senses. The scientific method corrects for sensory shortcomings. However, philosophers must endeavor to think beyond that which the senses deliver.
Morality, Philosophy, and Technology
Discussion 1: Human/Robot Interface
Current robotics technologies depend on strong human controls; no android exists that can survive independently of a human being either for its creation or for its sustenance. No android can therefore be considered alive in any reasonable definition of the word. Therefore, robots are dependent on humans. Robots do not make decisions; humans make decisions and program robots to execute those decisions. In the same way that a human being operates an automatic weapon to kill another person, so too does a human being operate a robot to kill another person. Therefore, human beings are always responsible for the actions carried…
Alexie, Victor, Thomas and Tonto
Alexie's experiences as a boy compare to those of Victor and Thomas each. It is as though Victor and Thomas are two alternate projections of Alexie's character: Victor represents the unhappy Indian, who is dissatisfied with the way his family and the people on the reservation conduct themselves (they drink too much); he wants to think of himself as a proud, warrior Indian. Thomas on the other hand is far more sympathetic to Victor's family and sees good points in Victor's dad. He also reminds Victor that their tribe was not a warrior tribe but rather a fishing people -- which is a humorous reminder because it completely takes the wind out of Victor's prideful sails and returns him for a moment back to earth. This is essentially the push and pull that Alexie identifies in his own self going to the movies to the…