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I support recycling. There are a number of arguments in favor of recycling and very few reasonable ones against. This paper will outline the balance of the arguments. ecycling in this context refers to materials such as glass, plastic and paper being sent to depots for gathering and subsequent processing. This processing essentially breaks down the material from its final consumer form to a more basic form. At that point, it is rebuilt back into consumer material and re-used.
Support for ecycling
One of the biggest arguments in favor of recycling is that materials typically sent out for recycling are finite. This is especially true of plastic, which is made from molecules found in hydrocarbons -- oil and gas, so non-renewable resources that are better used for energy than plastic bags anyway. ecycling allows us to use less of our finite resources, because every extraction contributes to multiple product…
EPA.gov. (2014). Waste management options. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.epa.gov/osw/homeland/options.htm
Kinnon, S. (2008). Plastic pros and cons. Alive. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.alive.com/articles/view/21832/plastic_pros_and_cons
Recycling: How it Improves Our Environment
Most individuals in today's society know that recycling plays an important role in managing the waste generated in homes and businesses, and that it reduces the need for landfills and incinerators. In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency reports, "in the year 2000, the United States recycled over 66,600,000 tons of materials" (USEPA, 2000). However, many people are not aware of all the materials that can be recycled, or of how the recycling of those materials aids in helping the environment. Recycling is far more than a local waste management strategy; it is also an important strategy for reducing the environmental impacts of industrial production.
There has been a problem of waste from man's earliest time. Even as far back as 1388, when the English Parliament banned dumping of waste in ditches and public waterways, there have been issues with how waste is removed, and…
Barbalace, R.C. The History of Municipal Waste. (2001). http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/environmental/wastehistory.html
Compton. "Recycling," Compton's Complete Reference Collection. New York: The Learning Company. 2000.
Los Angeles Smart Business Recycling Program. "Waste reduction Tips," Manufacturing Industry Recycling Newsletter, Vol. 5 (Spring 2001). 3-5. http://ladpw.org/epd/brtap/recyclingsite/pdf/Manufactrg.pdf
Northeast Recycling Council. "Recycling and the Environment: Facts about recycling in Connecticut," NERC Bulletin, August 1999.
ecycling and Trash Collection in Modern Countries
Garbage becomes a community problem in many countries. The household contributes a big part of the national municipal solid waste, but indeed the bigger part comes from the industry and business operations. For the U.S., this waste product has hit a very astonishing count. Goldstein, N. And Madtes, C. (2000) claimed that the states had produced around 409,029,000 tons of municipal solid waste in 2000.
Trash stacks travel through several paths, addressing mostly to their final destination in local landfills or recycling centers. Although there are different methods applied and researched properly, the field execution differs in each country. Many countries have implemented different policies depending on the amount of garbage piling in concentrated location, open landfill availability, and at the same time, they also work on developing certain infrastructures to suffice the landfill location shortage, environmental concern and also the applicable funding…
Cooper, M.H. 1988. The Economic of Recycling. CQ Researcher March 1998. p. 269-282.
Facing America's Trash: What Next for Municipal Solid Waste? 1989. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. 380 pp.
Goldstein, N. And Madtes, C. The State of Garbage in America. 2000. BioCycle Journal of Composting & Organics Recycling November 2000. p. 40.
Hanley, S.B. (2001). Advanced Public Sanitation in 17-19th Century Japan. Journal of Japanese Trade and Industry. January/February edition.
As of now, there are significant "barriers" in place preventing millions of Americans from having access to convenient recycling (American Beverage Association).
The warrants substantiating the claims are straightforward. For one, America is in the midst of an economic recession. Many Americans have lost their jobs and can barely afford to pay for their rent, food, and medical bills. If it will cost Americans money to recycle items like televisions, then Americans are simply going to rebel. Second, Americans cannot be expected to sort their garbage. The process is dirty, it takes up too much time out of the day, and it requires Americans to actually read the packages they are buying. Americans need a simpler solution, but none has been found yet. In one locality, a custodian was "left sifting through waste, trying to pull out recyclables and garbage mixed in the wrong bins," (Carberry). This shows that recycling…
American Beverage Association. "Independent Survey of Communities Shows Recycling Access Widespread With Room for Growth." 30 Oct. 2009. Retrieved online; http://www.ameribev.org/minisites/recycling/news-and-resources/readmore.php?id=174
Carberry, Libby. "Taking out the trash: New recycling initiative tackles lack of enviornmental action at South." The Lion's Roar. Retrieved online: http://thelionsroar.com/news/3476/
Granger, Trey. "To Electronics Questions." Earth911. Retrieved online: http://earth911.com/news/2010/03/29/your-top-electronics-questions/
Harlow, Rosie. Garbage and Recycling. Kingfisher.
The largest component of these appliances is white goods and that constitutes 43% of the total waste. (Electrical and electronic equipment recycling information sheet)
The next largest component is it equipment and that is 39% of the total. Most of the it equipment that is being discarded is computers which become obsolete vary rapidly. There are also a large number of TV sets which are thrown away every year and the annual figure is now around 2 million. As per the figures of 1998, there was a discard of 6 million tons of electrical equipment and along with this equipment there was a loss of 2.4 million tons of ferrous metal, 1.2 million tons of plastic; 652,000 tons of copper; 336,000 tons of aluminum and 336,000 tons of glass. (Electrical and electronic equipment recycling information sheet) the process of enforcement of the European Union rules has led to a situation…
Best Buy Expects to Collect Hundreds of Thousands of Pounds of Old Electronics at Third Annual Electronics Recycling Event in Richfield (press release). (2005) Retrieved at http://www.newstarget.com/008739.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Commission Decision of 11 March, 2004. (2004) Retrieved at http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2004/l_078/l_07820040316en00560059.pdf. Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Disposable Lighting. Retrieved from www.dcdisposablelighting.co.uk. Accessed on 28 June, 2005
Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. Retrieved at http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc-smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32002L0095&model=guichettAccessed on 28 June, 2005
Mobile phones, computers, and similar electronics are now recyclable and people need to find means of sending such materials to be recycled properly.
Batteries are among the most damaging materials for the environment as they are made out of metals, acids, and other materials which are very polluting. Most countries have recycling bins for objects with a high rate of pollution within the reach of mainly all of their people. Poorer countries however lack such means of recycling and very harmful waste is being produced in those areas. There are communities which refrain from collecting hard-to-recycle materials for the fact that they do not possess the appropriate methods of recycling such substances. There are frequent cases of materials being gathered for recycling to be eventually thrown away as waste.
Rubber from tires is being collected all around the world in large piles without anyone caring about the damage that those…
Dorneanu, Lucian. "Plasma Can Recycle Tyres." (2007). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from So ftpediaWebsite: http://news.softpedia.com/news/Plasma-Can-Recycle-Tyres-55867.shtml
Grabianowksi, Ed. "How recycling works." Retrieved February 18, 2009, from Ad Council Web site: http://science.howstuffworks.com/recycling.htm
Solid Waste Disposal." (2008). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from King County Web site: http://www.metrokc.gov/dnrp/measures/indicators/rc-solid-waste.aspx
(2010). Starbuck Everywhere. etrieved from http://www.
Why bamboo? (2010). EcoDesignz. etrieved from http://www.ecodesignz.com/page/ED/
ecycling & reducing waste. (2010). Starbucks Corporation. etrieved from http://www.starbucks.com / responsibility/environment/recycling.
Imhoff, D. (2002, Winter). Thinking outside of the box: A systems view of packaging. Whole Earth, p. 8.
ecycling. (2010). Starbucks Corporation. etrieved from http://www.starbucks.com/responsibility/learn-more/goals-and-progress/recycling.
Imhoff, p. 9.
ecycling in New York City. (2010). New York City Department of Sanitation. etrieved from http://www. nyc.gov/html/dsny/html/collection/recycling.shtml.
Population. (2010). New York City Department of Planning. etrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html / census/popcur.shtml.
Starbucks in New York City. (2010). Starbuck Everywhere. etrieved from http://www.starbuckseverywhere.net / NewYorkCity.htm.
Santos, M.A. (2009). Achieving sustainable competitive advantage through the implementation of the societal marketing concept by a major retailer in South Africa. Journal of Global Business and Technology, 5(2), p. 39.
Why bamboo? (2010). EcoDesignz. etrieved from http://www.ecodesignz.com/page/ED/CTGY/whybamboo/.
Natural alternatives to cotton. (2007, April). New Internationalist, 399, p. 16.
Imhoff, p. 9.
Bamboo -- the perfect renewable resource. (2009). Green-Ecoliving.com. Retrieved from http://
Belger, M. (2007, November 5). The wonders of bamboo. Green is Universal. Retrieved from http://www.greenisuniversal.com/blog/home-energy/the-wonders-of-bamboo.php.
Imhoff, D. (2002, Winter). Thinking outside of the box: A systems view of packaging. Whole Earth, 8-9.
The standards include recycling C & D. debris. The Chicago Center for Green Technology got an award for its building (Grzeskowiak, 2006). Our city could do the same. Tallahassee, Florida recently renovated their Solid Waste Administration building to conform to green standards (Grzeskowiak, 2006). A successful "green" building has been built in New York City -- the first green high-rise residential building in the United States. The designers set up a wastewater treatment system that sends flushwater to all the toilets in the building and to an adjacent building (Zavoda, 2006).
In all of this, the city makes the rules and sets the standards. Our city needs to require recycling of construction and demolition debris, too, and encourage green building.
Another thing the City could do -- a smaller, but effective and very visible program -- would be to place recycling bins on the street for pedestrian use. Presently, pedestrians…
Grzeskowiak, J. (2006). Laying the groundwork. Waste Age, 37 (10), 60, 62-64, 66.
Recycling goes public (2006). Waste Age, 37 (2), 26.
Ursery, S. (2005). Tackling C & D. waste. Waste Age, 36 (12), 6, 8.
Zavoda, M.A. (2006). "Green" building gets the gold. Public Works, 137 (1), 46-48.
The list of questions I want to ask about the company's recycling program include the following:
What types of plastic (identifiable by numbers) are eligible for recycling on -- site?
For the types of plastic that are not eligible for recycling on-site, what alternative brands or products can be used so that the company does not generate any excess unnecessary waste?
What changes to the company's operations do you recommend, so that less waste is generated?
For recycling electronics, what are the best procedures and practices you recommend?
To answer these questions, I interviewed the waste management commissioner of the city. Commissioner Eleanor Tubman has been working in waste management services for fifteen years, and heads the city's recycling departments. Most of the recycling in the city is done by a private service.
First I asked Commissioner Tubman what she thought were the greatest steps our company could take…
On December 14, 2004, Germany was told it must "introduce a system that allows drinks makers, including beer and soft drinks producers, to do business fairly across Europe. Germany must giver drinks makers a longer period to prepare their businesses for complying with the new system, and to make sure consumers can recover their deposits in a far wider variety of drop-off points (unknown)."
Recycling Around the orld
The United States is not the only country currently involved in recycling programs. The United Kingdom has a program known as "aste atch, which is the leading national organization promoting and encouraging action on the 3Rs - waste reduction, reuse and recycling. They work with community organizations, local and national government encouraging the environmental benefits of waste minimization and recycling, while also highlighting the positive impact on the economy and wider society
There is a recycling organization know as BIR, which is…
America Recycles 2004. (Accessed 15 December, 2004). www.americarecyclesday.org/).
Denison, Richard a. And John F. Ruston. "Recycling is not garbage." Technology Review.
1997): 01 October.
Horrigan, Alice and Jim Motavalli. "Talking trash. (recycling)." E. Magazine.
Magnum's closed-loop recycling technology eliminates the greenhouse gases produced by old-fashioned recycling processes, removing the steel mesh and fiber from the scrap tires and converting them into purified high-grade tire crumb. The company has collaborated with Sekhar esearch Innovations that has granted it exclusive North American rights to a unique activation and devulcanization process that imparts to recycled rubber the same elasticity and resilience as virgin rubber and allows for the creation of new custom compounds.
The next step in the research process is to test the hypotheses. In this study independent test results validate that Magnum SI's rubber-activated compounds possess all the properties of natural rubber compounds, meeting all technical and performance parameters needed for value-added applications. Magnum's entry into the market comes at a time when rubber manufacturers have been squeezed between recessionary forces and higher fuel and operating costs, hurting margins and driving up product prices.
Criteria for Research. (2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010, from Standards Site Web site:
Curtis, Chad. (2010). Recycling Sidebar: Tire-to-Tire Recycling. Retrieved April 24, 2010, from Solid Waste & Recycling Web site:
Meanwhile Porter points out that in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 2002, the city was collecting 11,586 tons of recyclables materials a year (roughly two-thirds of a pound per person per day) and those numbers added up to an impressive benefit: a savings to the city of $324,000 a year (143). Not only that, but costs of solid wastes are avoided, and Ann Arbor no longer operates its own landfill; instead it pays $28 a ton for non-recyclables to be hauled to a private landfill, Porter explains.
Like Porter, author Don Fullerton is not shy about exposing the fiscal reality of recycling from the market perspective; he even suggests that cities perhaps have launched curbside recycling programs with "incomplete information" (Fullerton, 2002, p. 161). Once local and state policy makers discover how expensive it is for a municipality to put a curbside recycling program in place, Fullerton suggests some city recycling…
Fullerton, Don. The Economics of Household Garbage and Recycling Behavior. Northampton,
MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002.
Kwak, Seung-Jun, Yoo, Seung-Hoon, and Kim, Chan-Jun. "Measuring the economic benefits of recycling: the case of the waste agricultural film in Korea." Applied Economics, 36.13,
recycling should be made mandatory. The first part of the paper presents a thesis statement after which three pieces of evidence have been provided to support my thesis statement. In conclusion, I have summarized my whole argument emphasizing on the thesis statement.
Yes, recycling should be made an obligation. ecycling is an imperative necessity of the time. In the modern-day, it has turned out to be a valuable and suggestive process as it ensures environmental benefits including landfill reduction, energy saving and conservation of natural resources ("ecycling").
For the past several years, the central form of recycling comprised of direct recycling by the producers or firms of excess, flawed or out of order materials. Throughout the 1990s, on the other hand, indirect recycling also turned out to be a main form of recycling. Indirect recycling is, in actual fact, the recycling of materials after their utilization by the consumers. It…
"Forget the Myths, Recycling IS Vital."South Wales Echo [Cardiff] 15 Nov. 2007: 38. Questia. Web. 21 Jan. 2013. .
Hershkowitz, A. "In Defense of Recycling." Social Research 65.1 (1998): 141-218. Print.
Marciano, T.A.. "Recycling Sustainability in the 21st Century" - Buffalo Rising."Buffalo Rising | Your Guide to Buffalo NY News, Arts, Events & Buffalo Restaurants. BUFFALO RISING, 22 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. .
"Recycling from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.." Questia, Your Online Research Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2013. .
The first citywide curbside recycling starts in University City, Missouri (for newspapers).
The esource Conservation and ecovery Act is created, which focuses on recycling.
The Comprehensive Environmental esponse Compensation and Liability Act (Superfund) was passed.
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments passed.
Superfund Amendments and eauthorization Act passed. hode Island is the first state to pass mandatory recycling laws for cans, glass, newspapers and plastic.
Ocean Dumping Ban passed. The Plastic Bottle Institute develops a material identification code system for plastic bottle manufacturers (#1-6).
McDonalds stops using Styrofoam packaging due to protests. Coca-Cola and Pepsi announce they will use recycled PET bottles made of about 25% recycled plastic resin.
The federal recycling order is signed.
U.N. Earth Summit promotes sustainable development.
Those who are against the idea of recycling the products and resources being used cite several issues for the basis of their beliefs. The first issue is the belief…
Talking trash. (recycling) (Waste Not, part 1)
E; 3/1/1997; Motavalli, Jim
Recycling: a policy dilemma for American states?
Policy Studies Journal; 6/22/1993; Khator, Renu
Some facts about the actual costs of recycling vs. traditional disposal expenses is presented by this article, and is certainly worthy of examination: a) a well-run curbside recycling program costs between $50 and $150 per ton; b) typically a trash collection and disposal program costs between $70 to $200 per ton. hen New York City discovered that it was losing money on its recycling program in 2002, it eliminated glass and plastic recycling. But then its landfills were full and closed, and out-of-state landfills raised prices so high it made sense for New York to begin recycling glass and plastic again, and today it is "an economically viable" alternative to hauling truckloads of plastic and glass to other states to ham their landfills.
EarthTalk. "hy Is Recycling Not Mandatory in All U.S. Cities?" About.com. Retrieved June
18, 2011, from http://environment.about.com. 2011.
In answer to the above-referenced question from…
Works Cited (in addition to the annotated bibliography)
Chertow, Marian. "The Ecology of Recycling." United Nations. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from http://www.un.org .
Granger, Trey. "Start a Work Recycling Program." Earth911. Retrieved June 18, 2011, from http://earth911.com/news/2010/05/31/start-a-work-recycling-program/ .
World Health Organization. "Reducing your Carbon Footprint can be Good for your Health."
Retrieved June 18, 2011, from http://www.who.int/en .
Government Policy of ecycling on Campus
A cyclical process, as the word itself indicates, the relevance of recycling cannot be overstated. Most importantly, recycling not only helps save energy, but also plays a critical role in the reduction of pollution -- thus helping slow down global climate changes. As a campus policy, recycling makes great sense -- both environmentally and economically. The government should force recycling on campus because it is good for secondary utilization of resources.
ecycling Policy on Campus: What We Ought to Do
With a recycling policy in place, there is a lot campuses can do that is good for secondary utilization of resources. To expound on this assertion further, it would be prudent to look into the areas in which campuses can seek to responsibly manage waste. These areas include turning various items including, but not limited to, plastic, cans, glass, paper, etc. into resources.
Jones, V. (2008). Working Together for a Green New Deal. Retrieved from http://www.thenation.com/article/working-together-green-new-deal
Raworth, K. (2012). A Safe and Just Space for Humanity: Can we live Within the Doughnut? Retrieved from http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/dp-a-safe-and-just-space-for-humanity-130212-en.pdf
Solution for ecycling in Households
Providing Convenient and Accessible Solutions to ecycling, Identifying what Motivates People to ecycle and Policies that May Stifle ecycling
ecycling has become an important aspect of environmental protection. When people use material that has been recycled it reduces energy and resources spent on deriving products from raw materials. This is especially true of aluminum and paper. Most modern countries have taken a step to increase recycling. Some more so than others. For example, Japan makes household recycling mandatory while some states in the United States like New York require it as well but not as stringent as in Japan. Household recycling while still in its initial stages of implementation in Austrailia, can and has reduced waste products and provided recyclable materials for businesses, enabling higher rates of environmental conservation. This essay is meant to show how recycling in households has progressed and ways to increase…
Beck, M., Rivers, N., Wigle, R., & Yonezawa, H. (2015). Carbon tax and revenue recycling: Impacts on households in British Columbia. Resource And Energy Economics, 41, 40-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2015.04.005
Bernstad, A., la Cour Jansen, J., & Aspegren, A. (2013). Door-stepping as a strategy for improved food waste recycling behaviour -- Evaluation of a full-scale experiment. Resources, Conservation And Recycling, 73, 94-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2012.12.012
Czajkowski, M., Hanley, N., & Nyborg, K. (2015). Social Norms, Morals and Self-interest as Determinants of Pro-environment Behaviours: The Case of Household Recycling. Environmental And Resource Economics, 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10640-015-9964-3
Halvorsen, B. (2012). Effects of norms and policy incentives on household recycling: An international comparison. Resources, Conservation And Recycling, 67, 18-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2012.06.008
Recycling Should Be Mandatory
Every year, the United States generates an estimated 200 million tons of solid waste. Much of this waste falls under four main waste items -- yard trimmings, corrugated boxes, newspapers and glass containers. Most of the items in this group could be recycled. Instead, majority of them are simply disposed (Lober).
Currently, the residents of the United States recycle only 20% of their generated solid waste. This translates to 180 million tons of garbage being sent to landfills, which are growing fuller and scarcer every day. Recycling rates in the United States ranks among the lowest among industrialized nations (Bowden 44).
One of the chief causes of this high amount of solid waste and low recycling rates is the lack of a national legislated definition of recycling. Currently, recycling laws exist only on city and state levels, making recycling rates uneven across the country. Thus, many…
Bowden, Rob. Waste, Recycling and Reuse. Austin and New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughan Publishers, 2002.
Cardwell, Diane. "City Council to Offer a Plan To Keep Recycling Program." New York Times. April 6, 2002: B.3+. ProQuest Database.
Carless, Jennifer. "Taking Out the Trash." In Pollution: Current Controversies. Charles P. Cozic, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1994.
Hershkowitz, Allen. "Critics Willing to Throw Away Success." In The Environment: Opposing Viewpoints. William Dudley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001.
recycling company which will located in every apple store worldwide. In this essay please answer the question below according to this project.
Consider the goals (to open a stand in every apple store for people to recycle their products) that you and your team have established as a result of your research project thus far, and define a set of metrics to reflect either LCA or measuerable goals of your venture:
Our objective is defining a set of metrics to measure the measurable goals of our organization.
The aim of our organization is to recycle e-waste. E-waste is all things connected to computer and electronics such as printing material, DVD, apps, cellular phones, and so forth. There is a huge amount of e-waste that occurs and that ruins the environment. What we would like to do is to make the public aware of this problem and set up a program…
The new business is a marketer of a new technology for recycling plastic bottles. The business is primarily design and sales of new technologies. The target market is any recycling operation. The potential is huge, given the size of the plastics recycling business globally, and sales forecasts range between $2-5 million the first year, and upward of $10 million the second year. Profit is expected to be $100,000 in the first year, and $1 million the second year. It will cost $1.5 million to start the business, plus $500,000 in working capital for the first year. The OI on this would then be 6.7% in the first year, 67% the second year. There is a significant amount of risk both political and technological.
The new business is an innovative way to recycle plastic bottles that eliminates the need for sorting through different types of plastic. The…
AccountingCoach.com (2013). Cash flow statement. Accounting Coach.com. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www.accountingcoach.com/online-accounting-course/06Xpg01.html
APR. (2013). The voice of plastic recycling. Association of Plastic Recyclers. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www.plasticsrecycling.org
BPF. (2013). Plastics recycling. British Plastics Federation. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www.bpf.co.uk/sustainability/plastics_recycling.aspx
Clean Air Council. (2013). Waste and recycling facts. Clean Air Council. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www.cleanair.org/Waste/wasteFacts.html
DEP, the Governor's Center for Local Government Services, the Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors, or PSATS, and the Solid Waste Association of North America or SWANA have formed a sort of training partnership for Pennsylvania local governments that have shown interest in achieving higher recycling rates. (About the recycling Technical Assistance Program)
Pennsylvania boasts land recycling as well, and this means the recycling and re-development of old industrial sites. The Program has managed to set an example by setting standards within the law, so that human health and the environment are protected completely, both today, and for tomorrow. Potential developers are provided with clear clean up standards that are based on risk, and it must be noted that the Land ecycling Program in Pennsylvania is a veritable model to other states that wish to implement a program of this kind in their hometowns. For example, Pennsylvania has, since 1995,…
About the recycling Technical Assistance Program. Retrieved at http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/airwaste/wm/RECYCLE/Tech_Rpts/Proj_Sum.htm. Accessed 10 August, 2006
Lucia, R. Decision maker's Guide to Solid Waste management.
DIANE Publishing. 2001.
Municipal Solid Waste. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved at http://www.epa.gov/msw/recycle.htm . Accessed 10 August, 2006
Apparently, the strength of the concrete is also holding up (pun intended). Tests have been conducted to compare 100% virgin aggregate and varied percentages of recycled materials. The results are that some recycled materials are equal to or, in some mixes, even superior to 100% virgin aggregate. According to recycling specialists, recycling of concrete is a relatively simple process. It consists of breaking, removing, and crushing existing concrete into a material with a specified size and quality. It is overall agreed upon that when natural sand is used, as much as 30% of natural crushed coarse aggregate can be replaced with coarse recycled aggregate without significantly impacting any of the mechanical properties of the concrete. However, replacing higher amounts will result in increased drying shrinkage, while strength and freeze-thaw resistance are not significantly affected.
Credit also goes to the company who backed this concept. Recycled Materials Co. (RMC) of Arvada,…
This growth rate will be influenced by several factors: droughts; stringent EPA regulations on waste and potable water; growing public awareness; and "upcoming replacements of current wastewater systems."
Industry News. "Don't Throw Out the Bathwater." Pollution Engineering 38.4 (2006): 8-8.
Marshall, Jessica. "From Coffee Cup to Compost." New Scientist. 193.2598 (2007): 9-9.
Reilly, Michael. "Recycled plastic to get clean bill of health." Scientist. 194.2603 (2007): 58-58.
Schussler, Stefan. "Recycling Fluorescent Bulbs Now Cool." Canada.com. (2007). Retrieved December 5, 2007, at http://www.canada.com.
ashington Post. "Paper or Plastic?" Arts & Living. Retrieved December 5, 2007, at http://www.washingtonpost.com.
Zlomek, Erin. "Dysart field trip a lesson in recycling." The Arizona Republic. (2007). Retrieved December 5, 2007, at http://azcentral.com.
ONE: Introduction recycling isn't new; corporate America is now pushing "green" but there needs to be public information so citizens become more well-informed
TO: Literature review a) Both paper and plastic are hard…
Industry News. "Don't Throw Out the Bathwater." Pollution Engineering 38.4 (2006): 8-8.
Marshall, Jessica. "From Coffee Cup to Compost." New Scientist. 193.2598 (2007): 9-9.
Reilly, Michael. "Recycled plastic to get clean bill of health." Scientist. 194.2603 (2007): 58-58.
Schussler, Stefan. "Recycling Fluorescent Bulbs Now Cool." Canada.com. (2007). Retrieved December 5, 2007, at http://www.canada.com .
Economical and Ethical Issues in Recycling
There is a general agreement that the U.S. should be undertaking more recycling, with only 34.3% of current waste recycled. The rate is increasing, and while there have been legislative moves, it may be argued that the ethical awareness and economic factors have had a greater impact. The research proposal argues that the dualistic approach to recycling seen in the anthropocentric model can be used to show how and why the take up has been restrained, as there is a need for economic motivations to support the practice. These are now occurring, but there is still room for improvement. By undertaking quantitative research with businesses and consumers the paper proposes the gathering of information that can be statistically analysed to identify the most efficient policy approaches to improve recycling.
The level of waste generated in increasing; it is estimated that in…
The purpose of this lab was to be mindful of my disposal habits and how much I throw away that could be recycled at the local recycling plant. A log was kept over a 24-hour period, beginning at 2 pm on the 20th and ending at 2 pm on the 21st, indicating the various items that I throw away and whether they are recyclable. The log serves as an indication of how much waste is added to the junk yard that could actually be recycled in an effort to help the environment.
Methods and Materials
The materials needed for this lab were a simple log used for recording data and a recording instrument (pen, paper, or computer). I used a computer to record my disposal habits in the log. Anytime I threw away something over the 24-hour period, I made a note of it on the log that I…
With the depletion of the ozone, there results global warming and also the ultraviolet rays affect the skin and eyes.
There is money in recycling waste. Within BC, homes, hospitals and many other institutions there are bound to be some items that are left to lie without use for years. These might just one day end up in the dumpsites. Cell phones, ink cartridges, broken refrigerators, broken down cars etc. could earn one money if taken for recycling (Midwest Fiber, 2009).
ecycling also creates jobs. There are many stages through which an aluminum can will go through. From collection from the recycle bins in BC, the driver, the carriers, the off loaders, the recycle plant operators, etc. all benefit from the recycling process. So as the environment will be conserved, there will be no loss of jobs at the same time.
ecycling also helps in building a strong economy. When…
Ackerman & Frank. (1997). Why Do We Recycle?: Markets, Values, and Public Policy.
Washington, DC: Island Press.
Baird & Colin (2004). Environmental Chemistry (3rd ed.) New York: W.H. Freeman.
Midwest Fiber, (2009). Recycling Financial Benefits. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from www.midwest-fiber.com/resource.../recycling-financial-benefits.html
Environmental Issues in eusing Cleaning Solvents
Solvent recycling depicts the process of taking dirty and used solvents, cleaning them to return a pure form of the solvent or any other acceptable form. It encompasses fractionating and distillation of the used solvents placed in a solvent recycler (Shen, 2013). Nationwide pollution prevention program have focused on reducing solvent wastes. The use of solvents occurs as a vital element in water and air pollution, making it a prominent contributor of hazardous waste. Depletion of the ozone layer has depicted the impact of chlorinated solvents. Increased awareness and calls for environmental protection have stimulated the adoption of ways in reducing solvent wastes.
Environmental conservation and cost reduction emanate as the significant benefits of this technique. Organizations can take advantage of the recovery of solvents through the distillation processes. Solvent recycling also poses various disadvantages that include required capital for purchasing recycling equipment and…
Boodhoo, K. & Harvey, A. (2013). Process Intensification Technologies for Green Chemistry: Engineering Solutions for Sustainable Chemical Processing. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Shen, T. (2013). Industrial Pollution Prevention. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Recycling in Apartments
Date Here (Day, Month, Year)
Providing Better Facilities for Recycling to Apartment Dwellers
Recycling is highly beneficial to the natural environment as it plays a vital role in preserving natural resources. Recycling caters with the benefit of reducing the amount of material entering landfills. Moreover, recycling can save money for building owner. It costs less to recycle discards than to throw them away (Rankin, 11). The process of making new products from raw materials costs a great deal in comparison to making them through recycled products. This paper highlights the challenges encountered by people living in apartments or multi-family building in terms of recycling materials. It also explains the current practices in this regard and recommends prospects solutions for improving recycling facilities for apartment dwellers.
Recycling Challenges Faced by Apartment Dwellers
The physical structure, environment and management of multi-family complexes give birth to varying systems and approaches…
Ando, Amy W., "Recycling in Multifamily Dwellings: Does Convenience Matter?" Economic
Enquiry, 43(2005), 426 -- 438, 5 October, 2012,
ecycling, educing, eusing
The items I identified as being recyclable during the week under consideration include: plastic bottles, steel cans, and paper cups. The total population of the community/subdivision currently stands at 2,000 people. This effectively means that if every member of the community in which I live recycles an exact amount of trash as I did for only 7 days, my area would be able to recycle 34,000 (17*2000) plastic bottles, 36,000 (18*2000) steel cans, and 28,000 (14*2000) paper cups. Assuming that each year has a total of 52 weeks, this means that the community would save 1,768,000 (34,000*52) plastic bottles, 1,872,000 (36,000*52) steel cans, and 1,456,000 (28,000*52) paper cups per annum.
In my opinion, my community does not recycle enough. This is particularly the case given that the recycling program in place is not as efficient as it ought to be. There are various ways through which the…
McKinney, M.L. & Schoch, R.M. (2003). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
State of West Virginia. (2013). Recycle Infrastructure and Market Development in other States. Retrieved from http://www.state.wv.us/swmb/RMDP/2013StatePlan/2013%20Plan%20-%20Appendix%20E.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency -- EPA. (2014). Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Recycling Basics. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/recycle/recycling-basics
Trash recycling programs are tremendously beneficial to society. In addition to decreasing pollution and helping to preserve the ecosystem, recycling trash saves money and also reinforces citizens' sense of civic responsibility. The fact that we live increasingly in a "disposable society" increases the importance of recycling because the amount of space available to dispose of our trash is limited. That means that whether or not we emphasize recycling of trash sooner or later, there is no question that it will eventually be an absolute necessity. Many of our synthetic products are not biodegradable, meaning that they will continue to exist in the exact form in which they are disposed for thousands of years. Some of them contain chemicals that are damaging to the environment, including to natural resources such as the water table upon which our communities depend.
Recycling trash is obviously a good way to contribute to the alleviation…
Business & ociety Questions
Business & the Environment
The UP Green Fleet
A United Parcel ervice (UP) store is located in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The company has established a number of initiatives that are environmentally friendly, not the least of which is the conversion of a portion of their fleet to hybrid electric vehicles. In fact, as of February 2011, the UP delivery fleet using alternative fuel and technology had driven 200 million miles since the alternative fuel vehicle fleet (AFV) was established. That's the equivalent of circling the globe more than 8,600 times or the equivalent of nearly three round trips to Mars. At the time the 200 million mark was accomplished, UP had more than 1,900 AFV vehicles and had placed an order for an additional 62 vehicles. All things being equal, UP believes the AFV will accomplish another 200 million miles mark by the year 2017. The UP…
Sources: http://www.advfn.com/nyse/StockNews.asp?stocknews=RAI&article=44382553&headline=us-judge-holds-hearing-on-how-to-implement-tobacco-restrictions http://www.altria.com/en/cms/Responsibility/tobacco-product-issues/strategy-approach/default.aspx?src=top_nav
Domestic Waste Production
The production and disposal of waste has a dramatic environmental impact. There are three main sectors of waste generation in the UK, including commercial and industrial, construction and demolition, and local authority collected or municipal waste (including household waste) (1). Household waste generation in the UK has decreased in recent years, while recycling behaviors have increased (1). Behaviors and drivers associated with waste generation among households are explored in the following discussion.
There are many sources from which waste can arise, including households, business, construction, agriculture, mining, and sewage (4). Strategies for dealing with these various types of waste can be conceptualized in a hierarchy that indicateds which methods of waste management should be considered given the environmental impact of each type of waste (4). This framework entails waste prevention through reducing use resources, then the reusing of products, and finally recycling of materials (4). This framework…
1. Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2011, Waste data overview (June 2011), viewed 11 March, 2012, http://www.defra.gov.uk/statistics/files/20110617-waste-data-overview.pdf.
2. Department of Environmental Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 2012. Local authority collected waste for England -- annual statistics (2011), viewed 11 March, 2012, http://defra.gov.uk/statistics/environment/waste/wrfg23-wrmsannual/ .
3. Eurostat 2012, Environmental data centre on waste (2012), viewed 11 March 2012, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/waste/data/sectors/municipal_waste .
4. UK National Statistics 2012, Waste and recycling (2012), viewed 11 March, 2012, http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/agriculture-environment/environment/waste-and-recycling.
installation of environmentally sustainable bins in a recycling bins project. The recycling bins will be installed across the University in order to remove the need for individual desk bins and sending clear visual and physical signals on what waste belongs in what bin.
It has been determined that there will be a need for approximately 2000 individual recycling bins on campus and 500 in halls. The bins will be one of two sizes including small bins (50 liters) and large recycling bins (180 liter) No more than 100 recycling stations will be needed. Each large bin will cost £300 and each small bin costs £50. Included in the price is integrated signage, accompanying communications materials, delivery and installation. The estimated price for the establishment of sites to manage waste segregation, storage, disposal and collection is £30,000. This includes all the necessary work needed to convert the sites to the…
1. What is e-waste? What is so dangerous about e-waste? Many well-meaning individuals thought that recycling was the answer to the e-waste problem. But why hasn't e-waste recycling yielded the results hoped for?
E-waste (electronic waste) refers to the discarded electronic or electrical devices that are no longer being used, are unwanted, non-working, and obsolete. All used electronics that are destined for resale, reuse, recycling, salvage, or disposal are also considered to be e-waste. E-waste affects nearly every system in the human body mainly because they contain a plethora of toxic components like lead, calcium, mercury, barium, lithium, cadmium, polybrominated and flame retardants (Cucchiella, D’Adamo, Koh, & Rosa, 2015). Recycling of e-waste is still the answer to the e-waste problem, but recycling has to be carried out in a laid-out manner and not just anyone should be allowed to recycle e-waste. Recycling of e-waste is labor intensive and recycling employees…
Transform Unsustainable Organization Into Sustainable One
Land and water management
Energy, carbon and transport management
Supply chain management
Waste, pollution, recycling management
Sustainability performance indicators
Long-term sustainability vision
The final report is prepared in conjunction with the ANW Construction Ltd. The report prepared to demonstrate the level of sustainability is effective in highlighting the key features that the business has implemented in its operations. The following sections are focused to the differences that a sustainable organization can have in comparison with the unsustainable business. The recommendations are made based on the academic and professional literature. The notable areas for sustainability in a business are addressed as land, water management, energy, carbon, transport management, supply chain management, waste, pollution, and recycling management. Furthermore the report also provides insight on the sustainability performance indicators, social sustainability, and long-term sustainability vision for businesses.
According to Bell, and Morse (2008)…
Alcamo, J., & Olesen, J.E. (2012). Life in Europe under climate change. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2008). Sustainability indicators: measuring the immeasurable?. USA: Earthscan.
Chang, C.M. (2010). Service Systems Management and Engineering: Creating Strategic Differentiation and Operational Excellence. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Evans, N., Campbell, D., & Stonehouse, G. (2003). Strategic management for travel and tourism. USA: Routledge.
The waste group contains 3 items:
AS1 -- Storing of Recyclable Household aste and Non-recyclable aste
AS2 -- Building Location aste Management
AS3 -- Composting
Household Recycling facilities
here the following recycling
services are given:
• 3 internal storage bins for recyclable waste with -- min total capacity of 60 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller than 15 ltr
-- all of the bins in a devoted position that is accessible to disabled people
here full recycling facilities
• 3 internal storage bins with -- min total capacity of 30 ltr
-- no individual bin smaller
than 7 ltr
-- all bins in a dedicated position that is accessible to disabled people
• a Local Authority collection scheme for recyclable materials covering at least three streams of waste with sufficient space for…
Agyeman, J., & Evans, B. (2004). 'Just sustainability': The emerging discourse of environmental justice in Britain? The Geographical Journal, 170, 155-164.
Apitz, S.E. (2010). Waste or resource? classifying and scoring dredged material management strategies in terms of the waste hierarchy. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10(8), 1657-1668.
Babin, R., & Nicholson, B. (2011). How green is my outsourcer? Measuring sustainability in global it outsourcing. Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, 4(1), 47-66.
Ball, S., & Abou Taleb, M. (2011). Benchmarking waste disposal in the Egyptian hotel industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(1), 1-18.
Protection against Abuse (deterrence)
Deterrence and the legal system
The notion of deterrence plays a significant role in the present system. In most cases, laws are put in place to ensure those who break the laws do not escape unpunished but also to discourage potential offenders from committing the offenses. This is the reason the state has opted to pass laws that ensure citizens sort their trash to enable recycling of the wastes to be much easier. The objective of the regulation is not to punish offenders, but to prevent them from disposing recyclable material inappropriately.
Sorting out of waste disposal
Different households produce different wastes, and this becomes a problem to dispose the wastes especially in urban areas. In instances that piles of garbage are left unattended in residential areas and offices, they become a nuisance. This is because of their biological as well as chemical decomposition that produce…
Paul, J.A.J., & Daniel, T., (January 01, 2008). Standardization of Sampling Method for Physical
Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5, 1, 95-98.
Wilcox, C. (2009). Earth-friendly waste management. Minneapolis, Minn: Lerner.
Curious young astronomers who ask, "what are stars made of?" And "Why do astronauts float in space?" will find answers here. A brief survey of the universe in a question and answers format.
Reading level: Ages 4-8
Paperback: 28 pages
Tayleur, K. Excuses! Survive and Succeed by David Montimore Baxter. (Mankato, MN) Stone Arch Books: 2007
Young David Mortimore Baxter, who knows how to stay out of trouble, shares excuses for avoiding chores, bullies, homework, and vegetarian dinners. David experiences his fifteen minutes of fame and the impacts it has on his friends and family.
Reading level: 9-12
Paperback: 80 pages
Williams, M. The Velveteen Rabbit. Square Fish: 2008.
By the time the velveteen rabbit is dirty, worn out, and about to be burned, he has almost given up hope of ever finding the magic of love. The original "Toy Story."
Reading level: Ages…
Thompson & Martin (2010) brings about the significance of external as well as internal analysis of a business empire as they point out the manner in which they can improve a number of intensive as well as effective strategies. Based on their argument, it is without doubt that both external as well as internal analysis reflects on the most fundamentals for the organization with the aim of taking care of situations for instance, intensive market competition among others. Based on the above statement, it is therefore important to bring about the strategic analysis of Signarama Company which on the other hand can be called PESTLE. The concentration will be on the external aspect analysis and vision of the company and further project on whether the company's current strategic position is the preferred one for it. It is also important that this analysis brings out the effectiveness…
Resources and Services for International Marketing and Advertising: A Global Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved on April, 16 2014 http://customwritingtips.com/component/k2/item/15466-international-advertisement.html
Crawford, R. 2008. But Wait, There's More...: A History of Australian Advertising, 1900-2000. Melbourne Univ. Publishing. Retrieved on April 16, 2014 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/236288813_Truth_in_Advertising_The_Beginning_of_Advertising_Ethics_in_Australia
Thompson, J.L. And Martin, F. 2010. Strategic Management: Awareness & Change. Cengage Learning EMEA. Retrieved on April 16, 2014 http://*****/blog/?id=334
Turner, G. 2002. Nation, Culture, Text: Australian Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. Retrieved on April 16, 2014 http:/ / eprints.qut.edu.au
The role of the non-profit organization has transformed in many ways as society and the values inherent within that society also change and transform. The ability to create an organization with purpose and a sense of a greater duty is what makes the non-profit sector of exchange such a unique and important facet within the constructs of our society. The purpose of this essay is to address a situation where a recommendation is needed to determine the best route of approach for raising funds for a hypothetical nonprofit agency.
The background of this case deals with selecting between two options of fundraising method to improve and increase community services. This general situation is encountered by most nonprofit organizations and provides a solid background for discussing the ideas and principles inherent within the public sector. The first option imposes a user fee for individuals who currently request assistance. The second…
Association of Fundraising Professionals (nd). Donor Bill of Rights. Viewed 29 Sep 2014. Retrieved from http://www.afpnet.org/Ethics/EnforcementDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=3359
Bennet, J. (2012). The New Price of American Politics. The Atlantic, Oct 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/10/the/309086/
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace?. Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-275.
Funkhouser, M. (2014). The Failure and the Promise of Public Participation. Governing, 6 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/funkhouser/col-failure-promise-public-participation-government.html
It not only recycles, but unlike Universal Studios it donates electronics, furniture, and office supplies to community organizations, so that the products will be put to good use. Like Universal Studios, the alt Disney Company is committed to purchasing recycled-content products, and uses packaging materials that can be reused or recycled. It tries to buy in bulk to minimize packaging waste ("aste Minimization: The alt Disney Company," 2007, the alt Disney Company ebsite). In a unique program that is not present at Universal Studios, the company educates Disney employees both in company policies regarding environmentally sound living and encourages and instructs employees to engage in such practices in their own homes.
Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day
Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf
Go Metro Specials."…
Bernards, Kori. (21 Apr 2006). "Film studios maintain healthy recycling rate: Earth Day
Report Shows Studios' Continued Commitment to the Environment." Motion Picture Association of America: Press Release. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mpaa.org/press_releases/2006_04_21.pdf
Go Metro Specials." (2007). MTA. Retrieved 17 Apr 2007 at http://www.mta.net/riding_metro/special_offer/monthly_specials.htm#P8_776
Waste Minimization: The Walt Disney Company" (2007). The Walt Disney Company
landscape studies pioneer, John rinckerhoff Jackson, studied the contemporary landscape - common, everyday places where we live, work and play - for the clues it provides to American culture.
In 1964, the American Congress passed the Wilderness Act, thereby protecting over 100 million acres of public land from development. Wilderness was "recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." Wilderness must remain "in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape." Finally, Wilderness is "an untamed natural realm,"..."that's ideally"..."unpeopled.."
People should stay back, as if in front of a picture, admire and enjoy it but they are not allowed to trespass it. The landscape has to remain untouched. As I was reading the above mentioned fragments from the Wilderness Act, a question popped up: "Why?"
1. John Brinckerhoff Jackson Obituary, available on the www.brinckerhoff.org/JBJsite/
2. Thoreau, Henry David, Walden Contents - next Section of Chapter One available on the www.eserver.org/thoreau/walden1a.html
3. McDonough, William, Design, Ecology, Ethics and the Making of Things, available on the www.mcdonough.com/Sermon.pdf
4. Luke, W. Timothy, Generating Green Governmentality: A Cultural Critique of Environmental Studies as a Power/Knowledge Formation, available on the www.cddc.vt.edu/tim/tims/Tim514a.PDF
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
By understanding the political systems better, I can better understand the role of the policymakers. One day, I aspire to be a policymaker myself. It has been said that a good doctor can save 100 people but a bad policymaker can destroy the lives of thousands. Given that in my country, few study Political Science, I feel that my studies in the subject can help me to be the sort of good policymaker we need.
2. I feel that life is full of accomplishments which, when added up, can amount to a tremendous benefit to society. I am not able to work in the United States due to the terms of my student visa, but I am proud of my accomplishments in Hong Kong. I help my family business when I am at home. We are in the plastic recycling business and I have helped at all levels. Even based…
Corporate Social esponsibility
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility in the Workplace and the World
Key stakeholders within the PharmaCare scenario
Stakeholders play a significant role in influencing the performance and the realization of goals and objectives of the organization. They make corporate decisions about the ways in which the organization should carry out its operations meeting the demands of the customers and the legal requirements. The stakeholders of the PharmaCare Company are varied and have varying characteristics. Among the stakeholders, include the employees, customers, investors, and the creditors of the company. The performance of the PharmaCare Company relies largely on the hard work of the employees, the managers, and the members of its board. As such, it implies that the company should provide a variety of services to its employees such as compensation packages to retain and ensure their satisfaction with their job. In addition, the company provides regular training opportunities…
Cragg, W. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Hunnicutt, S. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Kao, R.W. (2010). Sustainable economy corporate, social, and environmental responsibility. Singapore: World Scientific.
McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. (n.d.). McSpotlight on the Pharmaceutical Industry. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from http://www.mcspotlight.org/beyond/drugs.html
In other industrialized countries, however, like Germany, Italy and Japan, the main concern of governments today is that not enough children are being born to even reach the level of the replacement rate. This is almost certainly a mistake since reduction of population should be the main goal in order to save the planet, and additional middle-class consumers in Western nations are the greatest burden on the environment.
Encouragement of voluntary euthanasia will be another method of reducing the excess population. Today many billions of dollars are spent on the last thirty days of life and 65% of physicians and nurses in one survey admitted that had provided unnecessary treatments for the terminally ill. That statistic was mentioned frequently in the debates over health care reform, with the implication that those dollars would be better spent on medical care for younger and healthier people at the start of their productive…
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
" (fom Wold envionmental news, Intenet edition)
Besides developing flexible legislation that will distibute the functions of ecycling between manufactues and municipal sevices thee has to be a definite and developed pogam that would specialize on the optimal and the most exhaust utilization of electonic waste, eduction of e-waste landfills and incineation. Recycling pogam should not be limited to the ecycling of CRT monitos, as thei ownes ae moe likely to bing the whole obsolete compute system to the ecycling, not just compute monitos.
The benefit of integal pogam of ecycling is that it allows using a vaiety of mateials used in the electonics manufactuing like pecious metals, semi-pecious metals, and some electonic items in the euse.
The most impotant pat of the e-waste management is seach of the most appopiate and qualified patnes in the technical o pactical pat of the poblem solution. This poblem is of the essential…
reference: being reused repaired and modernized; being recycled and the most ecologically disadvantageous solution is simply being land filled. But the realization of these practices faces a lot of obstacles mainly of financial character. All of them are quite expensive and do not bring desired return.
That's why scientists and economists agree in the following: recycling of e-waste has to be the concern of electronics manufacturers. Loop industry is the most optimal solution to the problem as the manufacturer becomes responsible for the recycling of the products he makes. Introduction of such practices has the negative outcomes of course. Because technological process becomes more complicated and intensive, requires involvement of additional equipment and facilities on the hand with new labour the net value of the production increases and so the customers would have to pay more for electronics.
Another direction in the solution of e-waste problem is export of e-waste to the developing countries, where the process of recycling is cheaper and the possibility of e-waste to be reused, repaired and modernized is higher. Moreover some third world countries use unpopulated territories for e-waste. Anyways, this kind of solution is not appropriate again, because most of these practices somehow avoid law regulations of these countries and cannot have a mass character. It only creates additional problem which would have to be solved in close future.
As most of experts agree that recycling of e-waste has to be the problem of e-products manufacturers they have to develop different effective strategies and technologies for the most optimal solution of this problem: starting form transportation of e-waste from customer to the process of recycling. At this point global environmental community has to cooperate and share new practices and approaches in solving this problem. It refers both to technology and legislative regulation of the problem.
And in developing own strategy for e-waste management the officials of different countries have to work together and adopt practices of each other that are being effective. Countries of European Union had already made the first steps to the solution of this problem, making manufactures to be responsible for the waste caused by their products. The United Sates and Canada should start to introduce these practices as well, if they want to achieve ecological balance and safe coexistence of scientific and technological progress with health of humanity.
turned into other products. Generally, this includes various types of cardboard and paper products. Not all waste paper is created equal, and there are three different categories of paper that are recycled in order to create more paper products. These categories are mill broke, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste (Waite 2013).
When paper is manufactured, there are ends, pieces, and scraps that are removed from it in the mill (Best & Kneip 2011). These are the mill broke pieces of waste paper that can be recycled. They are generally taken straight from the paper mill to the recycling plant. If the plant has its own recycling area, these mill broke pieces are simply recycled internally and reused in the continued paper production (Best & Kneip 2011). Most plants have these types of recycling facilities, but they may not all offer that option. For plants that do not have their…
Best, H., & Kneip, T. 2011. 'The impact of attitudes and behavioral costs on environmental behavior: A natural experiment on household waste recycling.' Social Science Research, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 917-930.
Blanco, A., Miranda, R., & Monte, M.C. 2013. 'Extending the limits of paper recycling-improvements along the paper value chain.' Forest Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 471-483.
Hubbe, M.A. 2014. 'Recycling Paper Recycling.' BioResources, vol. 9, no. 2.
Laurijssen, J., Marsidi, M., Westenbroek, A., Worrell, E., & Faaij, A. 2010. 'Paper and biomass for energy?: The impact of paper recycling on energy and CO2 emissions.' Resources, conservation and recycling, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1208-1218.
" (Ware, 35) The PHB is a high weight polymer that is used for energy storage and carbon storage by a large number of microorganisms. PHB is synthesized and degraded by a lot of organisms and is said to be the most economic alternative to petrochemical plastics. The commercial production of PHB is on and in the brand name Bipol. The attractive feature is that the polymer degrades into carbon dioxide and water without harmful residues. PHAs are biosynthesized polyesters and are thermoplastics thus can be melted and molded and ideal for consumer products. There are over ninety varieties of hydroxyalkanotic acids that are the constituent of the monomer constituents of biosynthetic PHA. (Ware, 35)
Plastic waste is a problem of great magnitude. ecycling the waste is found to be the better solution. In the actual consideration we have to divide the plastic waste into many categories and decide…
Azapagic, Adisa; Emsley, Alan; Hamerton, Ian. Polymers: the environment and sustainable development. John Wiley and Sons, 2003.
Mantia, Francesco Paolo La. Recycling of PVC and mixed plastic waste.
ChemTec Publishing, 1996.
Martin, L. Plastic bags evil? Think again, some scientists say.
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…
Ackermannn, T., Soder, L. (2000). Wind energy technology and current status: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(4): 315-374.
Boyle, G. (2012). Renewable Energy: Power for a Sustainable Future. UK: Oxford.
City of Tampa. (2013). Solid Waste Recycling. Tampagov.net. Retrieved from http://www.tampagov.net/solid-waste/programs/automated-recycling
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among
inverted pyramid approach for the research, beginning with broad concepts and general themes and increasingly focusing on how rubbish is being used to generate value and reduce the need for new raw materials in commercial societies. The general outline used to collect the relevant data for the essay is as follows:
This section was used to provide an overview of the topic under consideration and provide the reader with an idea concerning what would follow.
This section was used to deliver a review of the relevant literature following the inverted pyramid approach described above.
Finally, this section was used to summarize the research and provide a recapitulation of important findings that emerged from the relevant literature.
The Value of ubbish in a Consumer Society
The adage that "one man's trash is another man's treasure" has never been more relevant than today. Around the world, developed and emerging nations alike…
Curlee, T.R., Schexnayder, S.M., Vogt, D.P., Wolfe, A.K., Kelsay, M.P. & Feldman, D.L.
(1999). Waste-to-energy in the United States: A social and economic assessment.
Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
George, R.M. (1998). Burning down the house: Recycling domesticity. Boulder, CO: Westview
Software is needed in order to reduce the need to execute slow, manual communications via phone, fax, courier and alike means. These tools are needed to automate processes such as asking for information from government entities, which frequently requires wide-ranging but redundant paperwork. By hastening communications, software permits title companies to serve consumers more competently and, in turn, serve more consumers without adding staff. In some instances, the software allows title companies to access real-time HUD information completely online, with no need for hard copy paperwork, using web-based interfaces that access the necessary databases distantly (Austin, 2012).
Another area that could be very helpful is that of placing online orders with vendors. The kind of system captures information entered by hand and applies the information automatically to a variety of documents, getting rid of time-consuming and superfluous work. The software automates document preparation for processes at dissimilar stages of the…
Austin, S.N. (2012). Software for Title Companies. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_6705247_software-title-companies.html
Environmental Benefits: Reuse & Recycling Ink and Toner Cartridges. (2009). Retrieved
Klein, M. (2010). 6 Business Benefits for Recycling the Big 5. Retrieved from http://blog.greennurture.com/2010/11/transforming-your-waste-stream-into-a-recycle-stream/
The WITE initiative was a collaborative approach that drew upon industry, state, local governments as well as the EPA's isk eduction Engineering Laboratory with the overall goal of developing more effective pollution prevention technologies that could assist the electronics manufacturing industry in developing a "crade to grave" approach to managing these products (appaport, 1999).
Besides these earlier efforts, in more recent years, increasingly rigorous laws and regulations have been implemented by the EPA with the goal of minimizing the impact of electronics and electrical device waste on the environment have began to make a major difference in recovering these toxic substances before they ever have a chance to become waste. For instance, pursuant to the above-mentioned esource Conservation and ecovery Act, it is now illegal for companies in the United States to simply discard hazardous waste, including electronics and electrical devices, in normal trash receptacles (The importance of recycling computers,…
Brown, V.J. (2004). Electronics, lead and landfills. Environmental Health Perspectives,
Gaba, J.M. (2008). Rethinking recycling. Environmental Law, 38(4), 1053-1054.
Gebrewold, F. (1999). Current hazardous waste management and disposal practices among small quantity generators. Journal of Environmental Health, 57(2), 11.
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Environmental Studies Level: Grades 6-8 Duration: 2 hours
Today, recycling is one of the most important topics in the environmental conservation agenda. From trash and dysfunctional electronic gadgets to plastic materials, wrappers, and packaging materials, we generate tons of waste every day. This waste increasingly poses a significant threat to the natural environment. For instance, oceans and other natural water bodies are now filled with substantial amounts of plastics, posing a threat to water life. Similarly, when deposited in landfills, our trash emits gases that are harmful to the environment. The gases harm the environment by destroying the ozone layer, consequently creating negative effects such as global warming. The situation is likely to get worse in the future given that the human population is growing at an unprecedented rate. Greater human population will mean more consumption, more creation of waste, and hence more harm to the environment.…
The net effect of these trends on the environment is mixed. According to Kohler and Erdmann (2004), the expanded use of ICT applications will ultimately result in both benefits to the environment, as well as some new problems associated with their use. The extent to which the negative effects are mitigated will ultimately depend on the foresight that is used today to develop long-term energy and waste management policies that will control the development of ICT infrastructures and how they are used in the future (Kohler & Erdmann, 2004).
According to Lan and Thomas (2009), there is no escaping the fact that information and communication technologies are fundamentally changing the nature of commerce and hold important promise for economic development in the future. These authors are quick at add, though, that proceeding with these technologies is a complex enterprise and there are still a number of unknowns involved concerning how…
Cyr, C. (2007, April/May). E-waste not. Plenty, 31.
Daly, J. (2005, June). ICT and ensuring environmental sustainability. Communication Initiative.
Retrieved from http://www.comminit.com/redirect.cgi?m=7e7425fe10109533767cb66
Less need for more landfill space reduces the cost and resources needed to secure new landfill space. "Composting also extends municipal landfill life by diverting organic materials from landfills and provides a less costly alternative to conventional methods of remediating… contaminated soil." (EPA, 2008)
It is evident that the advantages and benefits of composting are quite substantial, and arguably outweigh the disadvantages or issues involved with the process. Nevertheless, the previously discussed issues can be impeding to achieving the full benefits of composting, and thereby need to be dealt with suitably. For a government intending to implement a mandatory composting regulation, it would be necessary for them to also ensure that all residents within the region are properly educated on the procedure. Also, the government would need to make appropriate arrangements for residents living in apartments, business owners who are not in charge of their building's waste management, and…
Brown, Sally. "ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS of COMPOST USE." BioCycle. June 2007 http://www.jgpress.com/archives/_free/001355.html .
CBS Broadcasting. "SF Mandatory Compost Law Is Food for Thought." CBS. 2 August 2009 http://cbs5.com/food/recycling.composting.sf.2.1039894.html .
Coker, Craig. "Environmental remediation by composting." BioCycle. December 2006 http://www.jgpress.com/archives/_free/001206.html .
Environment Canterbury. "Types of Composting Systems." New Zealand Government. 2 August 2009 http://www.ecan.govt.nz/Our+Environment/Waste/ReuseRecycleRethink/Composting/CompostingTypes.htm .
Cox Communications Telecommunications Innovation
Status of the Sustainability Movement
The telecommunications industry, supported by the United Nations and the International Telecommunications Union, launched a formal cooperative effort to promote sustainable business practices and technology in June 2001. The Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) was officially launched on World Environment Day with the vision "to help improve the global environment and to enhance human and economic development, and thereby make a key contribution to a global sustainable future" (Thomsen, 2001).
This industry-wide initiative was significant in that its founders included some of the biggest global players: AT&T, British Telecommunications, Cable and Wireless, Deutsche Telekom, Ericsson, Lucent Technologies, Marconi, Telcordia Technologies, Telenor as, and the European Telecommunications Network Operators Association. Members implemented various programs to achieve environment-friendly business practices. For example, British Telecommunications calculated that employee use of audio and video conferencing contributed to saving over one million tons of CO2 emissions the…
AT&T investments in sustainability yield results in 2010. (2011) Fierce Telecom. Retrieved June 9, 2011 from http://www.fiercetelecom.com/press_releases/att-investments-sustainability-yield-results-2010
Adelman, T. (2010). For telecom industry, energy efficiency is only half the equation. . Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.environmentalleader.com/2010/11/08/for-telecom-industry-energy-efficiency-is-only-half-of-the-equation/
Bakrie Telecom is the pioneer of green business. 2011. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://bataviase.co.id/node/648347
Bardelline, J. (2011). ULE creates sustainability standard for cell phones. Greenbiz.com Web site. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from http://www.greenbiz.com/news/2011/01/06/ule-creates-sustainability-standard-mobile-phones
Most of the world's electronic trash -- especially old computers -- is dumped in the third world countries, resulting severe environmental problems and illnesses among residents. A latest news agency declares that about 80% of the world's electronic trash is imported to Asia every year, and about 90% of which ends up in China (Chandran, 2002). The large amount of electronic trash dumped in Chinese cities has created serious health hazards for residents living across these cities. Although Chinese authorities have listed Guangdong's towns of Guiyu, Longtang and Dali and other areas as the country's major collection and distribution centers for electronic trash, these areas now have become a health hazard. The health problems arise through cathode ray tubes (CTs), and any device that might hold them. CTs contain lead and other chemicals that leach from landfills into groundwater. The pollutants are released into the air during burning.
Bartholomew, Doug (2001). E-Business Commentary -- PC Makers: Haul Your Own Trash. Industry Week, August, pp.21-24.
Berger, Sandy (2004). Recycling Computers & Electronic Equipment. Compu-Kiss, pp. 1-2.
Chandran, Rina (2002). Trash e-trash. Business Line, April 10, pp. 4-5.
Markoff, John (2002). Technology's Toxic Trash Is Sent To Poor Nations. Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition, pp.7-8.
The same thing with our super-modern companies and school: although they have found sophisticated ways to conceal their garbage from people's eyes, the garbage still exists and is contaminating to the atmosphere. As is known, despite their tremendous care taken to avoid lethal gas emission, the landfill may still produce emission of methane gas that is produced by the decaying waste material and modern garbage, concealed thoguh it is by our institutions, produces the same results.
Recycling is still our only option. It has a superior effect on reducing lethal emissions since it reduces the amount of energy used by the industry most of which produces fossil fuels like gasoline, diesel and coals that transform themselves into carbon dioxide, methane, and other toxic greenhouse effects. In this way, recycling acts as preventative rather than as implementation after matter (Morris, 1996). Incinerators and landfills used in recycling projects also produce reduced…
Pennsylvania. Department of environmental protection. Recycling saves our environment.
Rogers H (2002) Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage USA: New Press
San Luis Obispo County (2004) Comparison of environmental burdens. San Luis Obispo County Integrated Waste Management Authority San Luis Obispo, California