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Red Badge of Courage and Nabokov on "The Boy ho Cried olf"
One of the easiest ways to understand how literature can implicitly function as propaganda in the service of the powerful is to imagine Henry Fleming, the main character of Stephen Crane's novel The Red Badge of Courage, if he had chosen to return home following his desertion rather than stay with the military. Crane's novel is a shameless piece of propaganda glorifying war by actively maintaining the myth that refusing to engage in state-sanctioned murder is somehow ethically wrong. If Fleming had escaped battle and gone home to live in peace instead of buying into this myth, his story would have been progressive, disruptive, and would have ultimately served to elevate the American consciousness by celebrating a disavowal of war and violence. However, Crane chose to write a story that comfortably fit into the assumption that war is…
Aesop. Fables. London: Bibliolis, 2010. 80.
Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1896.
At first, he flees from battle, convinced that the charge he embarks upon is doomed to failure. He justifies his action by rationalizing that a single man leaving makes little difference to the whole mission.
However, Fleming learns that in fact the army won a victory, and begins to feel guilty. Worse yet, when he returns the men assume that he was wounded in battle, even though he only has an accidental injury. Fleming longs to be wounded, for a red badge of his courage. Eventually, Fleming becomes a capable soldier and leads the charge of his regiment. He proves worthy of the superficial wound that the other men previously assumed was due to his bravery, even though he was only wounded when he was running away. This is a symbol of how cowardice and fleeing one's fears is the real wound, not the wounds someone gets facing their fears.…
He listens to his friend who says not to recall such thoughts. And Henry looks at the world at him in a different way. He now thinks of himself as a "man" who has gone through something horrible and survived. He moves toward the ray of sun.
Not everyone agrees about the ending. Some think that it is positive, because Henry has been in war and learned how to accept it and be brave. Others feel that he is again lying to himself. He is telling himself that he was able to cope, when he really did not. Those who believe the second ending, say the world away from war is not sunny and carefree. Henry still is a young man living with his dreams. an he really forget the horrors and think he is a hero?
rane is saying that even living from day-to-day in the natural world is…
Crane was the first to write about what war was really like. The characters are not heroes and brave soldiers, but just men with guns who are fighting because they are afraid to die. Henry's mind is in the "tumult of agony and despair" like any person who sees death around him. That is why the Red Badge of Courage is not a "happy ever after" book like a fairy tale, but a sad story about the terrible things about war.
Red Badge of Courage. (1895). Retrieved from website on October 3, 2005. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/CRANE/title.html
.. It was a goddess, radiant, that bended its form with an imperious gesture to him. (Conrad 81)
Crane thus suggests how the heat of battle becomes focused on a symbol, in this case the flag, and soldiers emerge from battle with this new symbol clearly in mind. The imagery used makes an association between the flag and a goddess, thus indicating a sexual appeal at the same time.
Henry changes in the course of his experience, moving from the group of unseasoned soldiers toward the group that has been in battle and now knows the reaity of war:
He had rid himself of the red sickness of battle. The sultry nightmare was in the past. He had been an animal blistered and sweating in the heat and pain of war. (Conrad 100)
Again, Crane here recalls the idea of war as an animal activity, though the dedication of the…
Bradbury, Malcolm. The Modern American Novel. New York: Penguin, 1994.
Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. New York: Dover, 1990.
Howard, Leon. Literature and the American Tradition. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1960.
Johnson, Claudia Durst. Understanding the Red Badge of Courage: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Stephen Crane's Red Badge of Courage offers remarkable psychological insight into the experience of war. ith vivid detail sparing nothing, Crane shows the reader the brutality of war. More importantly Crane shows how one soldier confronts his own mortality and fear. Although Red Badge of Courage takes place during the Civil ar and the setting is striking, the novel centers on psychological conflict far more than social or political conflict.
hat is most remarkable about Red Badge of Courage is that the author omits mentioning the political issues behind the war. The novel is not about the Civil ar; it is about one man's character development. Although Henry fights for the Union, the author almost completely avoids any discussion about the political, economic, and social conditions that led up to the war and which surrounded it. The author keeps the political tone neutral, to allow all readers to…
Crane, Stephen. Red Badge of Courage. Digital version: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/73/73-h/73-h.htm
Red Badge of Courage and the Things They Carried both use the experience of war to highlight changes in the characters' self-perception and perception of the world. In both stories, the protagonists struggle with societal expectations and especially with normative masculinity, which is intimately linked with the experience of being in battle. Courage is a central theme in both stories, and becomes an elusive ideal for protagonists Lieutenant Cross and Henry Fleming. In O'Brian's title story "The Things They Carried," courage is shown to be every bit as false and fleeting as it is for Fleming in Red Badge of Courage. O'Brian and Crane rely heavily on symbolism to reveal the inner experiences of young men in battle. The authors deftly show how women represent an alternative to the patriarchal construct of perpetual war, and how men actively choose to keep up the faAade of masculine power through violence and…
Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. 2008 eBook retrieved online: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/73/73-h/73-h.htm
O'Brian, Tim. The Things They Carried. Houghton Mifflin, 1990.
Red Badge of Courage
Realism and naturalism are two separate but related literary terms. The former is a term which refers to any art form which endeavors to recreate a true-to-life sensibility even in a fictional work. Naturalism on the other hand refers to the natural laws which give order to human beings and also to the natural world. orks of art which utilize realism and naturalism try to duplicate the emotions and observations that one would experience if the work were a piece of non-fiction. Author Stephen Crane was born in the years following the American Civil ar. During his youth, he witnessed the reconstruction of the union and heard the stories of brave men on both sides who fought and willingly died for the principles in which they believed. His most famous author, The Red Badge of Courage, tells the story of a young man fighting in the…
Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. New York: Norton. 1982. Print.
Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane details the life and experiences of Henry Fleming, who encounters great conflict between overcoming his fear of war and death and becoming a glorious fighter for his country in the battlefield. Published in the 19th century, Crane's novel evokes an idealist picture of nationalism, patriotism, and loyalty in America, especially in its war efforts. Fleming's character can be considered as the epitome of an individual who experiences internal conflict between following his heart or mind. Henry's mind tells him that he should give up fighting in the war because it only results to numerous deaths, wherein soldiers fighting for their country end up getting wounded, or worse, killed. However, eventually, as he was overcome with guilt over his cowardice and fear of death and war, Henry followed his mother's advice, following his heart. By being true to himself, he won and survived the…
programs have taken hold of many university programs because they offer a "common intellectual experience to stimulate discussion, critical thinking, and encourage a sense of community among students, faculty and staff" (University of Florida). Most of the programs are for first-year students because there is a need to indoctrinate these students into the university experience. Also, students learn to appreciate literature on an entirely new level as they see how one written work can encompass many different subjects. The two books offered, The Red Badge of Courage and The Tempest, offer different experiences for the students, but they both encourage further reading in great literature. However, there is an obvious choice among the two because the potential for discussion ad integration is greater. The Red Badge of Courage is a work that can be understood in a contemporary context and is easily adaptable to multiple subjects.
Students entering college for…
Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. New York: Forgotten Books, 1923. Web.
Glencoe Literature Library. Study Guide for the Red Badge of Courage. New York: McGraw Hill, 2006. Web.
University of Florida. "Common Reading Program." New Student and Family Programs, 2012. Web.
In a fighting scene, we see how he is filled with an "intense hate" (111) and when he "was firing, when all those near him had ceased. He was so engrossed in his occupation that he was not aware of a lull" (111). After this incident, Henry throws himself down "like a man who had been thrashed" (111). Those around him saw him as "a war devil" (112).
Here we see how Henry has an animal instinct to fighting and it makes him look like a madman. Here we get an example of how we are aware of Henry's thoughts and feelings as well as what is going on around him. Crane also allows us to see the reactions of those around him to emphasize what it is that Henry is experiencing. By leaving the narrative to Henry's experiences alone, we are more apt to believe that it really happened…
Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek." The Norton Introduction to Literature. Bain, Carl, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1991.
Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. New York: Aerie Books Ltd. 1986.
Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. An Introduction to Literature. Sylvan Barnet, ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1985. 1030-1114.
Sandburg, Carl. "Prairie Waters by Night." Bartleby Online. Site Accessed November 5, 2004. http://www.bartleby.com/134/3.html
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is perhaps the best example of Realism in literature because of how Twain presents it to us. Morality becomes something that Huck must be consider and think out as opposed to something forced down his throat. He knows the moral thing to do would be to report Jim, noting, " "People would call me a low down abolitionist and despise me for keeping mum -- but that don't make no difference. I ain't agoing to tell" (Twain 269). Furthermore, he cannot send Miss atson his letter he because his friendship with Jim trumps the morality he knows. Similarly, Jim wrestles with issues of good vs. bad. This is evident because of they way he decides to escape. He even begins to understand what Huck is going through when Huck does not turn him in. His revelation forces him to realize that Huck is "de bes'…
Crane, Stephen. Maggie, a Girl of the Streets. New York: Random House. 2001.
The Red Badge of Courage. New York: Aerie Books Ltd. 1986.
Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men and Cannery Row. New York: Penguin Books. 1986.
Clemens, Samuel. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lauter, Paul, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990.
He is more interested in "things," than what those things will bring. "Nick went over to the pack and found, with his fingers, a long nail in a paper sack of nails, in the bottom of the pack. He drove it into the pine tree, holding it close and hitting it gently with the flat of the axe. He hung the pack up on the nail. All his supplies were in the pack. They were off the ground and sheltered now" (as quoted in Vernon)
However, with time Nick is able to find some semblance of his early self. He overcomes challenges and moves forward the best he can. Despite the fact that he is walking uphill through burned land with a backpack that is too heavy, he is now in a familiar place and happy to be here:
Nick slipped off his pack and lay down in the shade.…
Crane, Stepen. Red Badge of Courage. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Hemingway, Ernest. Big Two Hearted River. In Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Scribner's, 1987.
O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Random House, 1998.
Stewart, Matthew. Hemingway and World War I: Combatting recent psychobiographical reassessments, restoring the war. Papers on Language and Literature. (2000) 36, 198-217
For example, a fact was discovered by an anonymous source at the White House would have to be corroborated with other sources. In this particular case, while this is a direct source, it must treated with caution. This means that you want to corroborate the information with other direct sources or secondary / third level sources. Normally, if the information can be verified with at least three different sources, it would be considered to be credible information.
However, when you are analyzing any of the different kinds of sources you must use flexibility and common sense. This is because some sources can appear to be legitimate, while at the same time they are not. An example of this can be seen in the book, the Red adge of Courage, where it is a depiction of Civil War battles. Yet, when you look at little deeper, the author (Stephen Crane) wrote…
"Stephen Crane." Kirjasto. 2008. Web. 26 Mar. 2010 http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/scrane.htm
The education sector with all its capacities for delivering knowledge and training has an important role to play in the rebuilding process. Finally, because education intersects with almost every sector and theme in peace-building, it warrants its own examination of the competencies, skills and resources needed to make the kinds of contributions demanded of it." (Ibid)
Further stated is that "Formal education covers the knowledge, skills and training obtained through primary, secondary and tertiary institutions such as schools, colleges and universities. Non-formal education is generally of a short-term duration and is geared towards upgrading of skills and introducing new knowledge."(Ibid)
In the work entitled: "Overview of Post-Conflict Recovery and Reconstruction: Experiences and Lessons Learnt" it is related that in the early 1980', "Somalia could boast 'the lowest GNP, the lowest physical quality of life index, the lowest per capital public education expenditure, the higher infant mortality per;1,000 births, and the…
Rose, P. & Greeley, M. (2006) Education in Fragile States: Capturing Lessons and Identifying Good Practice. Online available at http:///www.ineesite.org/core_references/Education_in_Fragile_States.pdf
Bekalo, S.; Brophy, M.; & Welford, G (2006) Post-Conflict Education development in Somaliland. Togdheer Online available at http://www.togdheer.com/education/education.shtml
Restoration of Hope and Peace: The Amoud Initiative. Medicine and Surgery. Amoud University. Online available at:
Boyden, J. And Ryder, P. (1996) Implementing the Right to Education in Areas of Armed Conflict. Oxford Journal Jun 1996, Online available at http://www.essex.ac.uk/armedcon/story_id/000021.htm
Project Management: Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Project in Singapore
Background of Complex Shipyard Construction Project
Project Overview and Objective
ork Process of Building Construction
Issue Analysis in Shipyard Construction Project Management
Literature Review of Project Management
Issues in Scope Management
Methodology of Scope Management
Lessons Learned from Scope Management
Issues in Cost Management
Methodology of Cost Management
Lessons Learned from Cost Management
Issues in Human Resources
Methodology of HR Management
Lessons Learned from Human Resource Management
Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Construction Project in Singapore
This paper introduces the special features of a completed shipyard project, together with its construction and human resource management processes as well. The organization of the paper provides an introduction to the topic, an overview and background of the In the first part, this project illustrates overview of the complex background of a complex ship-building project as…
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Best Practices for Project Scope Planning. [Online]. Available: http://www.tensteppb.com/5.2.02TSProjectScopePlanningTechniques.htm .
About Us. (2004). Keppel Shipyard. [Online]. Available: http://www.keppelshipyard.com/corporate/aboutus.asp.
Badiru, Adedeji Bodunde. Quantitative Models for Project Planning, Scheduling and Control. Westport, CT: Quorom Books, 1993.
BP awards U.S.$20 million follow-up job to Keppel yard. (July 26, 2004). Keppel Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://www.kepcorp.com/press/press.asp.