131 results for “Red Scare”.
U.S. (after 1865)
At the end of World War I, a fearful, anti-communist faction known as the First ed Scare started to extend throughout the United States of America. In 1917, ussia had gone through the Bolshevik evolution. The Bolsheviks set up a communist government that removed ussian troops from the war. Americans thought that ussia had let down its associates, comprising the United States, by leaving the war. Additionally, communism was, in theory, an expansionist philosophy, extended by way of revolution. It propagated that the working class would defeat the middle class (First ed Scare, 2011).
Once the United States no longer had to focus its labors on winning World War I, a lot of Americans became scared that communism might extend to the United States and pressure the nation's democratic ideals. Adding to this fright was the mass migration of Southern and Eastern Europeans to the…
Burnett, Paul. n.d. "The Red Scare." Accessed May 19, 2011.
"Communism in Washington State." 2011. Accessed May 19, 2011.
Terrorism, Nuclear Threat, And the ed Scare
With the carnage of the Boston Marathon bombings still echoing in the minds of many Americans just weeks after the devastating terrorist attack took place, the residual fear and uncertainty that resulted from the September 11th attacks was brought the forefront of the national consciousness. After years of relative inactivity in terms of terror attacks launched on American soil, the public's sense of complacency and calm was shattered by a seemingly random event. This pattern repeats that which was experienced by an entire generation during the 1950's and 1960's, when the Cold War against the Soviet Union positioned the planet on the precipice of nuclear war and global annihilation. During this especially tense era in America's history, the general public was held hostage by the posturing and provocation of the U.S.S.. And its increasingly belligerent foreign policy maneuvers. Schoolchildren were taught to huddle…
Murrow, E.R. (Reporter) (1954). See it now - interview with senator joseph mccarthy [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=1065699n
Shane, S. (2010, April 15). Cold war nuclear fears now apply to terrorists. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/16/world/16memo.html?_r=0
This scene can easily be likened to the communist investigations of this era, when many writers, directors, actors, and numerous people in the entertainment business were blacklisted from working, many of whom were turned in by peers who had been "beaten down" by interrogations.
This film is really remarkable, considering that there is no dialogue. There are only sound effects, thus the actors must be given praise for their abilities to carry the film, especially Pascal. His portrayal of innocence and naivete comes across as truly genuine.
ithout dialogue, music and sound effects take on added importance to the film. Lamorisse chooses music and sound that is very appropriate for each scene. For example, when Pascal is trying to get the balloon down from the lamppost, the music in the background adds to the mischievous nature of the boy and the story. Moreover, the sound effects also help to enhance…
Albert Lamorisse. http://movies2.nytimes.com/gst/movies/filmography.html?p_id=98570&mod=bio
The Red Balloon. Director: Albert Lamorisse. 1956.
There are no more round red, Roma and plum tomatoes on the shelves or in the menus as Publix supermarkets decided to take them off the market regardless of their provenience. The measure was motivated by the fact that "it's not based on geography. We've chosen to pull them all, as a safety precaution" Reid pointed out (Gilbert, 2008).
Some of the major culinary attractions such as urger King, Subway, Taco ell and Chipotle Mexican Grill, or McDonald's chose to respect the FDA recommendations and take out tomatoes from their list of ingredients.
The most affected restaurants however are not those who can afford to leave out tomatoes, but rather those that largely depend on the fresh juice of the tomatoes such as Italian restaurants. Gainesville is on high alert as well. The concern of salmonella determined Pasquale's, one Italian restaurant to adapt to this situation and use tomato sauce…
Gilbert. D. (2008) Salmonella scare takes tomatoes off some menus. Gainsville Times. [online] Accessed 12 Jun., 08, at http://www.gainesvilletimes.com/news/article/6276/
Walker, E. & Paiva Cordle, I. (2008) Salmonella scare takes tomatoes off shelves, menus. The Miami Herald [online] Accessed 12 Jun., 08, at http://www.miamiherald.com/news/florida/story/564401.html
Murray, the first wave of ed Scare was characterized by "a nation-wide antiradical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in America was imminent -- a revolution that would destroy property, church, home, marriage, civility, and the American way of life." This time of massive scare also generated intense fear of foreigners as most aliens were seen as conspirators. Many alien related laws were passed and massive arrests were made during this time. It was not a good time for immigrants as "the federal government consistently targeted alien radicals, deporting them [...] for their speech or associations, making little effort to distinguish true threats from ideological dissidents." series of bomb explosion targeting Attorney General Palmer led to the controversial Palmer raids in which tens of hundreds of aliens were arrested on one pretext or another. Initially the American public responded in a positive manner and…
1] Levin, Murray B. (1971). Political Hysteria in America: The Democratic Capacity for Repression. Basic Books, pg. 29.
2] Cole, David D. (2002). "Enemy Aliens." Stanford Law Review Vol. 54 (Issue: 5): pp 953+.
3] Farquhar, Michael (2003). A Treasury of Great American Scandals. Penguin Books, pg. 199
California." The Columbia Encyclopedia, (2004) Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press
Cold War dominated American culture, consciousness, politics and policy for most of the 20th century. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, which symbolized the fall of the Iron Curtain and therefore finale of the Cold War, Cold War rhetoric and politics continued especially in the War on Terror. Depictions of the Cold War in American literature and film parallel the changes that took place in American ways of thinking about its own domestic policies as well as American perceptions of the alien enemy or "Other." Tracing the evolution of American film and literature from the end of World War Two until the 1980s reveals trends in thought. Early depictions of the Cold War were modernist in their approach, with clear distinctions between good and evil and no moral ambiguity whatsoever. Clear delineations between right/wrong and good/evil prevailed, a form of political propaganda and even brainwashing that prepped the…
Booker, K.M. (2001). Monsters, Mushroom Clouds, and the Cold War. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Comyn, J. (2014). "V2 to Bomarc: Reading Gravity's Rainbow in Context." Orbit 2(2). Retrieved online: https://www.pynchon.net/owap/article/view/62/174
Hamill, J. (1999). Confronting the Monolith: Authority and the Cold War in Gravity's Rainbow. Journal of American Studies 33(3): 417-436.
Jarvis, C. (n.d.). The Vietnamization of World War II in Slaughterhouse Five and Gravity's Rainbow. Retrieved online: http://www.wlajournal.com/15_1-2/jarvis%2095-117.pdf
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…
Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.
Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.
Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.
Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
World War I and the Great Depression
World War I
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…
Giangreco, D. M. & Griffin, R. E. (1988). Airbridge to Berlin -- The Berlin Crisis of 1948, Its Origins and Aftermath. Background on Conflict with USSR.
Hiebert, Ray, and Roselyn Hiebert. (1970). The Stock Market Crash, 1929. New York, NY: Franklin Watts.
McElvaine, R. S. (1993). The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941. New York, NY: Times Books.
Parrish, M. E. (1992). Anxious Decades: America in Prosperity and Depression, 1920-1941. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an editor of the Communist Daily orker. He had also been what was then vaguely known as a Communist courier."
The major starting point of the case was Chambers' disappointment with the communist doctrine and the dual attitude Stalin had when signing the 1939 pact with the Nazi leadership. Therefore, according to Time Magazine, he "abandoned the party in revulsion and despair, and became a determined enemy of Communism." Consequently, outraged by the dramatic turn that the soviet politics had taken, he began expressing his views on the collaborators of the soviet regime in the U.S. It is in this way that Chambers contacted Berle, who, after the discussion he had with the former communist partisan, wrote in his notes from September…
Abrahamsen, David. Nixon vs. Nixon: An Emotional Tragedy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976
Adolf Berle's Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers. Responses, reflections, and occasional papers. Avaliable on Internet, http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page100.html#_ftnref3 . Accessed 15 October 2006
Crowell, William P. Remembrances of Venona. Available from Internet, http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/coldwar/venona-crowell.html. Accessed 15 October 2006
Excerpts from Grand Jury Hearings Relating to the Alger Hiss Case December, 1948. Available from Internet, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hissgrandjury.html. Accessed 15 October 2006.
1921 and 1927, the trial and appeals of two individuals, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti,, dominated the news and were the inspirational source for many political movements throughout the world (Frankfurter). The profound and wide ranging effect that these two Italian immigrants had on society in the 1920 is remarkable and provides an excellent topic for discussion.
The incident giving rise to the Sacco and Vanzetti controversy occurred on April 15, 1920. The payroll of a South Braintree, Massachusetts factory was being carried by the company's paymaster and a guard for disbursement when the two men were suddenly robbed and killed by two men who retrieved the payroll and escaped in a waiting automobile. At first, the crime received only minimal attention on the local level around Boston but this would soon change as the two Italian immigrants, Sacco and Vanzetti, were arrested for an unrelated crime and eventually charged…
Alba, Richard. "Sacco and Vanzetti and the Immigrant Threat." Contexts (2011): 30-35.
Frankfurter, Felix. The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Critical Analysis for Lawyers and Laymen. Buffalo: William S. Hein & Co., 2003.
McGirr, Lisa. "The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti: A Global History." The Journal of American History (2007): 1085-1115.
Roschwalb, Susanne A. "Litigation Public Relations." Communications and the Law (1992): 3-24.
This sort of behavior and scapegoating was the intellectual and cultural "easy way out" for many Americans looking for solace from the events taking place thousands of miles away, affecting the entire country. In the fog of war, as writer Barbre (2000) puts it, mistakes are made and generalizations are easily placed into existence. hen Americans were confused and scared, they looked to the easiest form of comfort, the alienation of the outsider or the "other."
Sexual Projection and the Internment of the Japanese-Americans
riter Renteln (1995) explores the role that sexual projection had in the dealing with Japanese-Americans in internment camps during II. This can be directly related to the themes within the book Snow Falling of Cedars due to the fact that Americans used their fear of the outsider (Japanese and Japanese-Americans) to project their own fears and misgivings about their sexuality and feelings of inadequacy. As author…
Barbre, C. (2000). "Review: Films: The Straight Story, Snow Falling on Cedars."
Journal of Religion and Health. Vol. 39, No. 4. pp. 383-385.
Renteln, A.D. (1995). "A Psychohistorical Analysis of the Japanese-American
Internment." Human Rights Quarterly. Vol. 17, No. 4 pp. 618-648.
Could this movie possibly fall into the category of a conspiracy; that any fictional parody of male behavior (which this surely is, at least in part) becomes in fact a parody of female behavior as well? Is that what irks feminists about the Stepford Wives?
And no matter what the answer to that question is, the "horror" aspects of this 1975 film were balanced, and even matched, by the ideological aspects. Whether one views the film as a statement on that cadre of men who are control freaks, or that element of the female gender hopelessly submissive to the whims and demands of men, the film has a strong ideological theme.
And moreover since ideology is part of the political world, and the political issues of the day seem to always creep into film, the Stepford Wives, as a feminist-themed film, is ideological. Feminists always have a fierce political agenda,…
Skal, David J. The Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror. New York: W.W.
Norton and Company, 1993.
Of course, the 2007 pet food scandal is also a result of this same lack of regulation and inspection in China. Pet food manufactured here in the United States and in Canada contained melamine, an ingredient used in the manufacture of plastic dinnerware, but also a key ingredient in many fertilizers. It sickened thousands of dogs and cats, and hundreds died as a result of eating the tainted pet food. This incident helped bring the dangers of Chinese imported food and other products into focus, and made it much more real for many Americans. As a result, many people are becoming more vigilant about Chinese products, and some Congressmen have called for bans on all Chinese foods that are not inspected, but that has not occurred.
Clearly, this poses a danger to American consumers, and it is one reason that Chinese imports are the biggest threat to America.
Comerford, Michael Sean. "Red Scare Fear Grows over the Quality, Inspection and Sheer Volume of Imports from China." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), 15 July 2007, 1.
Elwell, Craig K., Marc Labonte and Wayne M. Morrison. Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy? Federation of American Scientists. [online]. 2007. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33604.pdf .
Hirsch, Steve. "Safety Warning Issued on Chinese ATV; Government Cites Lack of Front, Parking Brakes." The Washington Times, 6 June 2007, C08.
Murray, Geoffrey, and Ian G. Cook. Green China: Seeking Ecological Alternatives/. New York: Routledge, 2002.
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).
The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…
Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.
Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood
The "Highlander Center," a group advocating rights for African-Americans, "were labeled as subversive and subjected to investigation, and their members were harassed," which sounds a bit more like fascism than democracy.
But were the hearings fair? No, they were highly unfair; from the very beginning, the lack of fairness was obvious to any objective observer; they were called "Hearings egarding the Communist Infiltration of the Motion Picture Industry" (held October 20-30, 1947). The proof was in prior to any fair hearing of the issues or the accused, which is a denial of democratic justice to begin with.
And meantime, the witnesses were classified as "friendly" or "unfriendly." If you were "friendly," that meant you already had cooperated with the HUAC, and had indicated a willingness to point fingers, name names, of suspected "communists," so the members of the committee (which included Congressman ichard Nixon) would look like they were doing…
Wheels and Becker. "The Second Red Scare: HUAC vs. Hollywood, 1947."
McClellan, Jim R. "Women's Suffrage: The Nineteenth Amendment is Ratified." Historical
Moments: Changing Interpretations of America's Past, Vol. 2, the Civil War Through the 20th Century. Chapter 15. New York: Cushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000.
McClellan, Jim R. "Prohibition: The Eighteenth Amendment Takes Effect." Historical Moments:
Future of Unions in America
Union membership has been steadily decreasing since the 1970's. But since the history of union membership has been filled with short, fervent periods of rapid increases in membership, followed by long periods of stagnation and decrease in membership, this may not seem to be cause of worry. However, while the current decrease in the number of union workers may seem to be just another slump, the fact that it has lasted more than thirty years, is disturbing. In that time, the world and it's economy has dramatically changed, and one must ask the question "could this be the twilight of the American labor movement?" If unions are going to, not only survive, but flourish and expand their influence, the entire labor movement must change it's very nature; expanding it's scope of interest, membership, and international relationships. This essay will examine the history of the union…
Fletcher, Bill, Kate Bronfenbrenner, Donna Dewitt. (2011 June 2) The Future of Organize Labor in the U.S.: Reinventing Trade Unionism for the 21st Century. Monthly Review. Retrieved from http://monthlyreview.org/commentary/the-future-of-organized-labor-in-the-u-s
Friedman, Gerald. "Labor Unions in the United States | Economic History Services." EH.Net | Economic History Services. Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/friedman.unions.us
Haeberle, Kevin. (2011, Feb. 17) Labor Unions are Dead…or at Least on Life Support. Becker's Hospital Review. Retrieved from http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/news-analysis/labor-unions-are-deador-at-least-on-life-support.html
Hirsch, Barry. (2008). Sluggish Institutions in a Dynamic World: Can Unions and Industrial Competition Coexist. Retrieved from http://126.96.36.199/scholar?q=cache:G9FwFp3jAsIJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=
Arthur Miller penned the play The Crucible in the context of McCarthy-era rhetoric and anti-communist propaganda in the United States. Although it has a literal and direct historical reference and application to the Salem witch trials, the play serves as an overarching metaphor for public persecution and the dangers a police state poses to the general public. Through The Crucible, Miller critiques American society and indirectly accuses patriarchy of dismantling some of the core norms and values upon which the nation was built. Moreover, Miller deftly draws analogies between Salem's persecution of women during the witch-hunts and ashington's persecution of all Americans during the Cold ar. hereas women were the only real targets during the witch trials of the late 17th century, all Americans had fallen under the indiscriminate policies of political discrimination. Miller therefore presents patriarchy within a Marxist as well as a postmodernist framework. As a Marxist, Miller…
Adler, Thomas P. "Conscience and Community in An Enemy of the People and The Crucible." In Harold Bloom. Arthur Miller's The Crucible.
Ardolino, Frank. "Babylonian Confusion and Biblical Inversion in Miller's The Crucible." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology
Martin, Robert A. "Arthur Miller's The Crucible: The Background and Sources." Modern Drama, Vol 20, Issue 3, DOI: 10.3138/md.20.3.279
Miller, Arthur. "Why I Wrote The Crucible." The New Yorker. Oct 21, 1996. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1996/10/21/why-i-wrote-the-crucible
Homeland Security / Constitutional Issues
Civil Liberties: These are fundamental freedoms interpreted by policymakers and courts over the years or assured by the Constitutional Bill of ights (Pearcy, 2003-2016).
Bill of ights: This is an official statement of American citizens' fundamental rights, integrated into the U.S. Constitution in the form of ten Amendments, as well as into the constitutions of all states (Bill of rights, n.d.).
Thought Police: This denotes a cluster of individuals holding totalitarian views regarding a particular subject, and who continuously keep an eye on others for noting any deviations from the way of thinking approved (Thought Police, n.d.).
Thought Crime: This refers to a case of controversial or unconventional thinking, which is regarded as socially unacceptable or as a crime (Oxford Dictionaries, 2016).
Big Brother: A 'big brother' is an ever-present, apparently benevolent personage who represents the tyrannical control over the lives of individuals as exerted…
Bill of rights. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/bill-of-rights
IndiaAllouche. (2012). 1984 Dystopian Society. Writing About Literature. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://12fwritingaboutliterature.blogspot.in/2012/10/1984-dystopian-society.html
Nolo. (2016). Appeals and the Writ of Habeas Corpus FAQ. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/appeals-writ-habeas-corpus-faq-29096-5.html
Oxford Dictionaries. (2016). Thought Crime. Retrieved May 21, 2016 from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/thoughtcrime
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
Joseph made me hate Communists, then intolerance, and finally everything that could break the charmed pattern of our lives. I am not sure the Sisters of St. Joseph expected this from their daily lessons on the Red threat. The nuns' stories made me want to keep everything that I could. First, I would keep my faith. Much later, I would keep our regard for each other, and the ways which we revealed ourselves in these small houses.
The return from the very bloody and life changing WWII also peppers the reflections of the work, through both the ability of the community to embrace the Red scare with complete and utter servitude, build civic and amateur bomb shelters and honor those who returned with constancy. Many of the homes in Lakewood were purchased by young couples, the male partner being a returning veteran from WWII, as a result of the programs…
Waldie, D.J. Holy Land: a Suburban Memoir. New York: W.W. Norton. 1996.
D.J. Waldie Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir (New York: WW Norton, 1996) 73-74.
Ibid. 16, 33, 85, 86, 87, 168.
Ibid. 108, 112, 113.
It is considered to be a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and has, since 1981, killed more than 25 million people worldwide (United Nations).
In most of the world, HIV infection is more prevelant in the heterosexual population, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, however, it became known as the "Gay Plague" due to its initial discovery in the homosexual population, the lack of condom use at the time, and the predominance of anal sexual activity. Unforrtunatly, HIV / AIDS also carries with it ostracism, rejection, and discriminiation. This stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents a number of individuals from seeking HIV testing, receiving their results, securing treatment, or even turning what would normally be a managable chronic illness into something that is dire and a death sentence -- as well as perpetuating the disease -- all because of misguided bias (Ogden and Nyblade)
(NORC), National Health and Social Life. Summary - the Sex Survey. June 1993. March 2011 .
Bidstrup, S. Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. June 2000. March 2011 .
Blumenfeld, W. Homophobia: How We All Pay the Price. New York: Beacon Press, 1992.
Busko, a. "Civil Rights in the 21st Century." July 2006. The Writer's Voice. March 2011 .
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
" Prohibition, the Red Scare, and the Klan were responses to the flapper, reflecting anxieties about newly pluralistic demographics in the form of Mexican and Japanese immigrants as well as Africa-Americans and religious minorities such as Jewish people and Catholics. Many Americans saw modernity, as they conceptualized it, as a curse, not a blessing. The causes of the "Modern Temper were thus a culture clash of old and new, of a reaction to Progressivism as well as a desire to kick up the nation's heels at the end of World War I and a delight at the ability of more individuals to enter the more leisured consumer class. The national focus shifted to private solutions for social problems, such as women's interest in work rather than winning the vote, the Harlem Renaissance's emphasis on literature and newspapers to give Blacks a voice, and the retreat of organized labor and government's…
Telecommunications made it easier to transfer ideas and information instantly and without the delays that hindered previous efforts at military and strategic intervention. Similarly, the barriers to international trade had largely been lifted. The seeds of the World Trade Organization had already been laid by the end of the Second World War. Finally, the United Nations and other trans-national governing bodies would become legitimized sources of power. Nations who could climb on board stood a chance and those who could not join in faced a perilous century of poverty and political disenfranchisement. America directly contributed to the imbalance of power that would ensue throughout the 20th century.
Being a bully seemed to come easy to the Americans. Armed with what had become the largest and most well-endowed military in the world, the United States forged a path toward hegemony almost effortlessly. As if it were trying to be the world's…
old, my parents and I moved from the sprawling, suburban township of Hudson, Ohio to the village at its center, and I fell in love with small, walkable cities and towns that are built on grids. I believe that such environments promote socialization due to the activation energy involved in going out. If we accept that socialization is more comfortable for the majority in the traditional context of a high-density city, why do the majority of new home permits proclaim otherwise? Why don't people just don't pick up and move to places where people have traditionally conducted their daily affairs without the use of a car, like San Francisco and New York City?
The 1960's and 1970's in America saw an urban transition still unknown in most of the major cities of Europe. The Federal Housing Administration had precipitated the explosion in suburban development by offering 4% interest loans following…
Stephen Sobek. "A long, hard road to desegregation: New Castle County had significant role in national movement." Delaware News-Journal, 12/21/2000.
When life is more interesting than art." Economist, 3/23/2000.
Peter Gordon and Harry W. Richardson. "Critiquing Sprawl's Critics." Policy Analysis: The Cato Institute Press, January 24, 2000
Peter Samuel and Randal O'Toole. Smart Growth at the Federal Trough
Introduction The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e., the Quakers) in Spring 1917. The link between AFSC and the Religious Society of Friends was always tenuous as the activism of the organization was something universal that many non-Quakers around the world could celebrate, while the actual tenets of Quakerism were not nearly as popular as the peace movement that the Religious Society of Friends took part in. Initially, the goals of the committee were limited; however, over the 20th century, AFSC epitomized the pacifist convictions and social-change driving forces of Philadelphia’s Quaker-led world-class fight for peace (Ingle, 2016). The AFSC essentially helped to support and come to the aid of the victims of war, whether they were Jewish, Russian, European, African, etc. (Frost, 1992). This paper will discuss the…
death conveniently resolves the problem of the murder of the Soc and is followed within hours as Whissen puts it, "Dally is made into a tragic antihero. He 'fought for Johnny,' and when Johnny dies, Dally, too, must die. And what he dies for is the absence of fairness in the world, for as all teenagers know, life is anything but fair. Again, though, where adults may guffaw at the sentimental silliness of Dally's way of death, Hinton makes it all quite credible -- even moving" (p. 185).
These events also serve as the basis for Ponyboy redeeming himself academically with his English teacher who cautions him that, "Pony, I'll give it to you straight. You're failing this class right now, but taking into consideration the circumstances, if you come up with a good semester theme, I'll pass you with a C. grade" (p. 178). After calling his English teacher…
Bereska, T.M. (2003). The changing boys' world in the 20th century: Reality and "fiction." the
Journal of Men's Studies, 11(2), 157.
Herz, S.K. & Gallo, D.R. (1996). From Hinton to Hamlet: Building bridges between young adult literature and the classics. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hinton, S.E. (1967). The outsiders. New York: Viking Press.
" (Lindsey, 2004, p.1) it is interesting to note that one of the young protestors stated: "[the world leaders] are sitting over there on Sea Island having their little party only talking about how to fix things, but we are over here actually doing something to make things better" -- Laurel Paget-Seekins (Lindsey, 2004, p. 1) the U.S.A. Patriot Act has been touted to do just this - or to make things better in terms of security of American citizens and it is certain that the provisions of this Act have served to increase levels of security for American citizens but this security has come with a cost attached and for some Americans the cost is too high and too intrusive upon their basic civil rights. One such instance of the complexity created within the security paradigm are the no-fly lists that have been implemented in U.S. airports since September…
Bohn, Kevin (2003) Patriot Act Reports Documents Civil Rights Complaints. 31 July 2003. CNN Law Center. Online available at http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/07/21/justice.civil.liberties/index.html
Carafano, James Jay (2007) Securing the Home Front. The Heritage Foundation. 10 July 2007. Online available at http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed071107a.cfm
Drew, Kevin (2002) Balancing Life and Liberty: Danger to Civil Liberties when Security is Strengthened - CNN Law Center 10 Sept 2002. Online available at http://archives.cnn.com/2002/LAW/09/05/ar911.civil.liberties/
Houses, spaces raided throughout the Twin Cities (2008) Coldsnap Legal 30 Aug 2008. Online available at http://coldsnaplegal.wordpress.com/2008/08/30/houses-spaces-raided-throughout-the-twin-cities/
In my judgment, the statutory provisions on which these prosecutions are based, abridge freedom of speech, press and assembly in violation of the 1st Amendment" ("Black, J, Concurring in Part").
Hence, the Yates decision was a precursor of the things to come. In 1964, the Court declared in the New York Times v. Sullivan that public officials could not recover civil damages for libel unless they prove the libel was committed intentionally or with malice and held that making seditious libel a crime conflicted with the central meaning of the First Amendment ("Fighting ords"). In New York Times v. United States (1971) the Court prevented the federal government from exercising "prior restraint" to stop a newspaper from printing information about the Vietnam ar that it wanted to withhold from the public. In Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) it ruled that advocacy of violence or revolution may be prohibited only if it…
Adoption and Common Law Background." Find Law for Professionals: Freedom of Expression -- Speech and Press. 2008. April 17, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment01/06.html#1
Black, J, Concurring in Part: Supreme Court of the United States -- Yates v United States." Cornell University Law School. 1957. April 17, 2008. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0354_0298_ZX.html
Fighting words." Indiana University Newsroom. November 17, 2004. April 17, 2008. http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/1725.html
Opinion of the Court: Supreme Court of the United States -- Yates v United States." Cornell University Law School. 1957. April 17, 2008. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0354_0298_ZO.html
Today, the Americans fight different insurgent factions, who have limited weaponry, no air force, and no real large scale fighting tactics. Instead, they create havoc with roadside bombs and suicide bombers. Vietnam was fought on the scale of a world war, while Iraq is being fought on a much smaller scale. In addition, there was a draft in place during Vietnam, and no draft in place today, so our forces are stretched much thinner in Iraq and at home.
In contrast, many experts believe there are similarities between the two wars, but there are far more differences that keep the two wars very far apart in perspective. For example, there is no real Communist influence in Iraq; rather the country suffers from domestic unrest and insurgency, rather than large-scale intervention from other countries (except perhaps Iran). Thus, Americans are not fighting a "cold" war but rather a war supposedly based…
Kagan, Frederick W. "Iraq Is Not Vietnam." Policy Review (2005): 3+.
Letters from Iwo Jima. Dir. Clint Eastwood. Perf. Ken Watanabe, Kazunari Ninomiya, Tsuyoshi Ihara, and Ryo Kase. Warner Brothers, 2006.
Lopez, George a. "A Quagmire? Vietnam, Iraq & Other Analogies." Commonweal 16 Jan. 2004: 11+.
May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. Revised ed. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
However, this relationship with a labor organization provides more than that. Former IWW members Larry Slade and Don Parritt are haunted by the organization. Although not a former member, Kalmer is an anarchist. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) divided workers into narrow unions pursuing particular interests related to their trades and working conditions rather than creating larger comprehensive bargaining units. The IWW approach to railroad workers, for example, was a single large union instead of separate locals of firemen, switchmen, engineers, porters, among others, united behind the common cause of all the workers -- this common cause also being formed with other sizeable unions to provide a single industrial front (ibid)..
Yet it was not only O'Neill who made a name for himself and the IWW with the Provincetown Players. Susan Glaspell produced a wide variety of plays during this time that also promoted women in the theater. One…
Ben-Zvi, Linda. Susan Glaspell Her Life and Times Oxford: Oxford Press, 2005.
Dugan, Lawrence. O'Neill and the Wobblies: The IWW as a Model for Failure in the Iceman Cometh. Comparative Drama. 36.2 (2002):109
Jones, Susan. Uncommon Woman: In a Necessary New Biography, the Prolific Susan Glaspell Emerges from the Shadow of O'Neill. American Theatre. 22.9(2005): 64
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).
There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…
1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from http://libcom.org/history/articles/us -rail-strikes-1877
Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.
Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.
Mullen, S. (2011). The Strikes of 1877 & 1886: Historic Precedents For Occupy Wall Street.
nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…
One of the key changes of the late 20th century, certainly enhanced in the early 21st, is that of the economic, political, and cultural movements that broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea, called globalism, refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country (political unit). The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication, but also the concept of the global environment as a single organism (Schneider (ed.) 2004, 9). However, the changes in the global, post-World War II and even Cold War environments have also changed the perceptions of most individuals about the…
Aldrich, Tawnsley and Yeh 2005, The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1956-65, Frank
Cass, New York.
Boyd, A 2007, Operation Broken Reed: Truman's secret North Korean spy Mission that averted
World War III, Carroll and Graf, New York.
But many other nationalities also saw a great many prejudices directed at them like the Polish, Russian, and other Baltic state immigrants. Events like the Red Scare sweeping across America as well as mass racism against our own citizens as black soldiers returned home from Europe.
There was more to this era than simply immigration into the United States from Europe. There was a strong migration period at the same time. For example, black Americans were beginning to migrate out of the southern states into the north for an opportunity to increase their wealth in northern cities like Chicago and Detroit. The Great Migration as it was known saw hundreds of thousands of Southern Blacks migrate to northern cities. ith that, new Black communities began to flourish in places like Harlem. But the negative side of the migration saw various race riots in cities like St. Louis and Houston.…
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on March 2, 2005, from Ed. Monroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
SlaveryInAmerica. (2005) 369th Infantry Division of the United States Army. Retrieved on March 2, 2005, from http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/scripts/sia/glossary.cgi.
Make specific use of at least 3 separate texts in the paper, from the Unit's readings in the Making Connections: Reading American Cultures with accompanying CD-ROM, AIExplorer: Immigration and Migration (You may use the 2000 or 2001 edition of the text; you will need Version 1.2 or Version 1.3 of the CD-Rom)
Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique. Families sat down with their TV dinners to watch such shows as " Gunsmoke," the Lone Ranger," the Rifleman," Have Gun, Will Travel," and " Maverick." You were not anybody unless you could sing the theme songs of each show.
Moviegoers were also being drawn into the theaters by the monster/science-fiction movies. About 500 film features and shorts were produced under this broad theme in the 1950s and early 1960s, explains the 50s B-Movie website. ne might argue convincingly that never in the history of motion pictures has any other genre developed and multiplied so rapidly in so brief a period. As Paul Michael comments, "n a sheer statistical basis, the number of fantasy and horror films of the 1950s... has not been equaled in any…
Our American Century: The American Dream, the 1950s.. Editors of Time Life. Richmond-Virginia, Time Life, 1997.
Ross, Kelly. Existentialism. 2003. Retrieved from website April 19, 2005. http://www.friesian.com/existent.htm
Western Movie Encyclopedia. Western Movie. Retrieved from website April 18, 2005. http://www.localcolorart.com/search/encyclopedia/Western_movie
By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing nationalistic belief against nonviolence. The greatest challenge came from the Black Panther Party and its ten-point program of radical reform. The U.S. government were alarmed by these demands, and agencies such as the FB stepped up their targeting of radical black groups.
n Chapter 6, Marable analyzes the political status and labor movements of this time. He emphasizes the lack of support for the full incorporation of black laborers -- the American Federation of Teachers, for example, opposed the establishment of affirmative action programs to regulate fairness in the labor market. The Longshoresman's Association nixed equal status of black members, and the Operating Engineers Union imposed physical violence on black graduates of their apprenticeship program and therefore blocked participation of blacks…
In his epilogue, Marable concludes: "American history has repeated itself, in regard to its interpretation of the pursuit of biracial democracy: the fist time as tragedy, the second time as catastrophe. In the aftermath of the First Reconstruction, white American historians attempted to portray the democratic experiment of 1965-77 as a complete disaster." After the Second Reconstruction, a similar process of historical revisionism took place -- led by President Reagan, who attempted to undermine the last vestiges of institutional equality.
Does this mean that the Second Reconstruction was a failure? "Our judgment," he says, "would be a resounding and unconditional 'no.'" Jim Crow is dead, the American State is committed to equal opportunity under law, the black consumer market has grown considerably. However, as an Afro-American and a socialist, Marable admits he cannot write his book without some political comment concerning those in poverty and many of the crimes against blacks still being committed. "The story of the Second Reconstruction has no moral, other than the simple truth that an oppressed people will not remain oppressed forever." Several basic ideals have sustained black courage: democracy, equality and freedom.
However, "given the evolution of capitalism, racism and democracy in America, a truly anti-racist democratic state must of necessity also be a socialist democracy....The demand for racial parity within a state apparatus and economy, which is based on institutional racism and capital accumulation at the expense of blacks and labor is flawed from the outset." A small group of black elites has formed, a small amount of blacks have been appointed in the government, but the now the passage of power must be given to those who create all wealth -- the working class. This will only be realized with the rise of the Third Reconstruction that seeks the empowerment of the laboring classes and all oppressed.
The next cycle came with Polish, ussian, and other Baltic state immigrants being targeted during the 1940's and 50' with events like the ed Scare that swept across America. There is no doubt that all of these periods had very restrictive immigration polices directed at the target groups and there were specific legal policies implemented to curb future immigration. but, perhaps more worrisome was that there were also underlying mass racism movements during all of these scenarios directed against these immigrants whether they were enemies of our nation or not.
Again, our immigration and naturalization policies needed reevaluation after September 11, 2001, which was an obviously horrific day in our history. That event made us view our existing immigration, naturalization and work as well as student visa policies. In other words, we were doing the same things that were done to the Chinese, German, Japanese and Baltic state immigrants -…
Chew, Kenneth SY, and John M. Liu. (2004). "Hidden in Plain Sight: Global Labor Force Exchange in the Chinese-American Population, 1880-1940." Population and Development Review Vol. 30
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on March 9, 2005, from Ed. Monroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
Sociology - Welfare
China and the Korean War
The fall of China to Communism in 1949 came about because of many different reasons. One, Mao Zedong was popular with the people, and this helped him overpower Jiang Jieshi and his government. Mao also had territory and Japanese military items left over from World War II, which Jiang did not. Mao had more military might, and he was simply more popular than Jiang with the Chinese people. China fell to Communism because of Mao's popularity more than his power. He was a farmer like most of the population of China, and he spoke to their needs and wants. The Chinese civil war did not result from the National Security Council's Memorandum 68; it had been going on for years before and after World War II.
However, NSC-68 did have far-reaching consequences in American foreign policy with China and the Soviet Union and regarding the…
"China, Korea, and the Cold War in Asia."
Fakiolas, Efstathios T. "Kennan's Long Telegram and NSC-68: A Comparative Theoretical Analysis." East European Quarterly 31.4 (1998): 415+.
Jian, Chen. China's Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
Pierpaoli, Paul G. "Beyond Collective Amnesia: A Korean War Retrospective." International Social Science Review (2001): 92+.
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…
The term "socialism" is often used to refer to an economic system characterized by state ownership of the means of production and distribution. Especially during the Great Depression, many socialists considered Soviet-style planning a remedy to what they saw as the inherent flaws of capitalism, such as monopolies, business cycles, unemployment, vast inequalities in the distribution of wealth, and the exploitation of workers (Socialism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism)."
Americans, however, felt differently. Americans were raised in a nation that prides itself on the American dream. The entire American Dream is based in the belief that if one works hard, treats people fairly and strives for success they will achieve it.
Millions of immigrants come to America annually for the purpose of obtaining the American Dream that they have heard so much about back in their homeland.
Another element in the failure for socialism to take hold in the United States dates back to…
Is America Really So Unique? (Accessed 10-8-06)
Socialism (Accessed 10-8-06)
Who were the Progressives and what were they trying to reform? How and why did the Progressive era end?
Several different Progressives include: Upton Sinclair, Teddy oosevelt, David Thelen, ichard McCormick and Samuel Hayes just to name a few. Their basic goals were to rectify many the social ills that were occurring from the rapid industrialization of the nation. This was creating a tremendous shift in the population, with more people leaving the country and moving to the cities. As a result, there were a number of different problems that emerged in the wake of these transformations. Most notably: unsafe working conditions, the use of child labor, wages and the number of working hours. The combination of these objectives was to give the people a voice in issues of government and society. This would limit the influence of the special interests during this process. (Sage) (Gilmore F-42 -- F-68)…
Divine, Robert. The American Story. New York: Pearson, 2007. Print.
Gilmore, Glenda. Who were the Progressives? Boston: Bedford Publishing, 2002. Print.
Harris, Richard. A History of the U.S. Political System. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009. Print.
Murphy, Robert. The Great Depression and the New Deal. Washington: Regenry Publishing, 2009. Print.
Political Party Machines and Immigration in 19th Century America
After a bitterly contested evolution ended in the liberation of England's former colonies, the fledgling American nation embarked on the precarious path towards a style of democratic governance that had never been enacted on so large a scale. While the latter part of the 18th century was defined by political idealism, as exemplified by contributions made by our nation's Founding Fathers, the 19th century soon gave rise to an insidious process of power consolidation and voter exploitation. The egalitarian political parties envisioned during the heady days of American Independence devolved into institutional party machines, typified by widespread corruption, fraudulent activities, autocratic rule, and a blatant disregard for the foundational importance of democracy. The most effective political party machines during the 19th century were ran ruthlessly by so-called "bosses," or political titans who maintained control over their jurisdiction through a combination of…
Judd, D., & Swanstrom, T. (2008). City politics. (8th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Because of Haynes use of dolls, I was much more interested in Karen's story; I most likely would not have been interested in the film if it simply approached her story from the same perspective as other filmmakers.
Horror films can be subdivided into various subgenres. Rosemary's Baby, for instance, may fall into the category of Satan-inspired films due to the fact that in the film, Rosemary is used as a surrogate to Satan's child. What is interesting about this film is that it relies heavily on the viewers' perception of Satan since the entity is never actually shown and neither is his child. Not showing what Rosemary and Satan's child like forces the viewer to imagine what it must look like based on how he is described, which makes it much more frightening because this image is based on the viewers' psyche and feeds off of what they are…
Postwar America in Hitchcock Films
Post-War America in Film
In the postwar America, expectations for men and women diverged from those that prevailed during the war years. The exigencies of World War II interrupted the evolution of social progress for Americans, substituting a "fast forward" that could better serve the national initiatives. From positions where everyone became focused on the war effort and their roles in supporting it, the postwar period saw a return to the traditional values that had dominated in the past. Supported by the G.I. Bill, men sought education at unprecedented levels and located themselves in business, resuming the positions and leadership they felt were their due. Homemaking and childrearing returned to center for women in postwar America. If women were engaged in business, it was considered to be secondary to their gender-based roles as mothers, wives, and daughters. Some effects of the wartime patterns were resistant…
Hitchcock A (Director) John Michael Hayes (Writer). 1956. The Man Who Knew Too Much [Motion picture]. Perf. James Stewart, Doris Day. Paramount Studies. Based on a story by Charles Bennett and D.B. Wyndham-Lewis.
Hitchcock A (Director) Raymond Chandler (Writer). Czendi Ormonde (Writer). 1951. Strangers on a Train [Motion picture]. Perf. Farley Grander, Robert Walker, Ruth Roman. Leo G. Carroll, Patricia Hitchcock, Marion Lorne. Warner Brothers Studies. Adapted by Whitfield Cook from the novel by Patricia Highsmith.
Friedan B "The Feminine Mystique." New York, NY W.W. Norton, 1963.
MacGilligan P "Alfred Hitchcock: A Life in Darkness and Light." New York: Harper Perennial 2004. ISBN 978-0-06-098827-2.
Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States by violent fanatics, the federal government passed legislation which was designed to protect American citizens and to prevent further deaths. One piece of legislation, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, more simplistically known as the Patriot Act, has been at the center of vehement debate on both sides, in support of and in opposition of the document. Among the many provisions of the act, some of the most contentious include: reduction of restrictions of law enforcement agencies, allows the Secretary of the Treasury to regulate financial transactions, and gave further powers to law enforcement and immigration officials in allowing them to detain, arrest, or deport immigrants who have been suspected of terrorist activities (Schulhofer 2005,-page vi). Following 9/11, there was a national grief over the tragic events and…
Baker, S. (2005). Patriot Debates: Experts Debate the U.S.A. Patriot Act. American Bar
Chang, N. (2002). Silencing Political Dissent: How Post-September 11 Anti-Terrorism Measures
Threaten our Civil Liberties. Seven Stories: Canada.
Spanish and American Democracy
The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite distinct. The United States of America was formally founded in 1776 by a group of early American politicians who envisioned the young nation as an alternative in democratic governance in contrast and opposition to the monarchies still in ruling power throughout Europe. Spain was one of these European countries under monarchial rule in the 18th century and remained a monarchy for 201 years after the official adoption of the democratic Constitution in the United States of America. Spain's transition to democratic rule is largely considered to have begun in 1975 when the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passed away, although there are other dates in the 1970s that are also said to mark the transition as well.
The philosophical foundations of the…
Conversi, Daniele. (2002) 'The smooth transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the nationalities question', National Identities, vol. 4, no 3, pp. 223 -- 244
Crapol, Edward P. (1992). "Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Diplomatic History 16: 573 -- 97
Fry, Joseph A. (1996) "From Open Door to World Systems: Economic Interpretations of Late-Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations," Pacific Historical Review 65:277 -- 303.
Higginbotham, Don. (1983) The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763 -- 1789.
Jews Became hite
The Nordic races were viewed as the "real Americans" (53)
Even people from other European countries were not considered "white"
The height of anti-Semitism in the United States was in the 1920s and 1930s; doors were closed to new immigrants.
Anti-Semitism was related to other types of racism including discrimination against Southern Europeans, but also against Asians and any non-Nordic group.
After II, the attitudes of Americans changed so that Europeans were viewed as "model minorities"
Jews saw themselves as successful based on hard work and deferred gratification; and discounted the impact of white privilege
There was a sort of affirmative action program for Euromales, essentially "whitening" certain groups and creating a new model of institutionalized racism.
Immigrants poured into urban centers, which were more than 70% immigrant, leading urban America to "take on a distinctly immigrant flavor" (54)
Red scare is linked to anti-working class…
Sacks, Karen Brodkin. "How Jews Became White."
Painted House by John Grisham
The semi-skillful use of an unskilled child's perspective on racial tensions in pre-civil rights Arkansas
Contrary to the expectations that might be generated by the author's name, which virtually constitutes a 'brand name' of a kind of fast-paced yet moralistic legal thriller, A Painted House is narrated by a seven-year-old child, named Luke, and does not contain a single lawyer in its storyline. Rather than being set in the fast-paced world of corporate or criminal law and injustice, Grisham's setting for A Painted House is that of a farming community in the state of Arkansas during the early 1950's. However, the theme of injustice is still present, perhaps even more palpably than some of Grisham's more overt attempts at setting a pulse-pounding pace of events in the legal world.
This work of literature work begins in a rural setting, where the young narrator is picking…
Grisham, John. A Painted House. New York, 2001.
B (d)- the 1950s was an Era of dramatic change. America's victory in World War II pushed America into a predominant role politically and economically. America was "rich," and expected to help other countries, but was going through its own crises at home, and growing pains socially and economically. Several large trends occurred during the 1950s, the Cold War between the United States and the U.S.S.R. developed, Africa began to be decolonialized throwing the economic and political situation out of balance, the Korean War brought the United States into another global conflict, tensions heated up in Egypt (the Suez Canal Crisis) and Cuba (Castro and the Cuban Revolution), and America went through a turbulent time with Anti-Communist feelings and Senator Joseph McCarthy's accusations and focus on the purported threat of communist spies inside the State Department (itzgerald, 2007, pp. 40-5; Gold, 2008).
After the war years, the Civil Rights Movement…
Fitzgerald, B. (2007). McCarthyism: The Red Scare. Minneapolis, MN: Compass Point Books.
Gold, S. (2008). Loving v. Virginia - Lifting the ban Against Interracial Marriage. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark.
Halberstram, D. (1993). The Fifites. New York: Villard Books.
Patriot Act and Constitutional Freedom
Thomas Jefferson said: 'The price of freedom is constant vigilance.' Unfortunately in a large nation dedicated to the individual freedom and liberty of all its citizens, the only time when the nation learns that is has not been vigilant enough is when a person, or group of persons take advantage of that freedom, and abuse the liberty of others in order to further their own destructive purposes. The tragedy of 9-11 is the most recent case in point of how a nation can take its freedom and liberty for granted, which ultimately makes a doorway for others to tear down that which has taken over 200 years to build, protect, and defend.
When our country endured similar acts of threat or war, such as the bombing of Pearl Harbor, or the expansion of communism into the Western Hemisphere in Cuba, the government has oven reacted…
The Alien and Sedtion acts. (2001) Folwells Laws of the U.S. Early America.com Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available from http://earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/sedition/ .
Dempsey, Jim. (2003, Jan 3) Cyber Security. Center for Democracy and Security. Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available at http://www.cdt.org/security/000404amending.shtml
Henderson, N. (2002) The Patriot Act's impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52.
Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II. Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah. Accessed 1 Jan 2003. Available from http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/9066.htm
Distinctly from John Updike's teenage character Sammy in his short story "A&P," who realizes he has just become an adult; Connie as suddenly realizes she feels like a kid again. Now she wishes the family she usually hates having around could protect her. The actions of the fearsome Arnold, are foreshadowed early on, when he warns Connie, the night before, after first noticing her outside a drive-in restaurant: "Gonna get you, baby" (paragraph 7). From then on, Arnold's quest to "get" Connie feels, to Connie and the reader, in its dangerous intensity, much like the predatory evilness of malevolent fairy tale characters, e.g., the Big Bad olf, or the evil stepmothers (and/or stepsisters) that fix on Snow hite, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, and other innocent young female characters as prey. And Connie at the end of "here Are You Going, here Have You Been" wishes, like Little Red Riding Hood, Snow…
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." E-text. 28 May 2007 http://www.mala.bc.ca/Johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm
Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Celestial Time
Piece: A Joyce Carol Oates Home Page. 28 May 2007 http://jco.usfca.edu / works / wgoing/text.html>
Updike, John. "A&P." Tigertown.com. 28 May 2007 http://www.tigertown.com/whatnot/updike/html
Miami was where it all happened. I dated then. I guess you could say I had a life. Back then, if I were to be living under any rock, it had to be a very beautiful one, such as limestone, the kind of limestone that grew in small crevices on the road leading up to my grandfather's home on the island. I felt then that Prince Charming would come, eventually and when he did he wasn't going anywhere. After all, I am amazing; he must just not have received the memo quite yet. All of this was in the past and the time was now. I had been through enough doubt and feeling that I was some creature living under a rock. I was going to meet him and this situation would be resolved. Tonight was my coming out from under the rock.
Lucas. His name is Lucas Walker. We…
Andre Lorde "Beams" Explication
In Audres poem "Beams" she suggests that the process of aging and the loss of the vigor youth is something that cannot be halted. The poem expresses the sadness and loss of innocence that results from the perception of aging. It also expresses her sense of nostalgia and loss at the passing years and lost opportunities. The poem describes the poet's desire and efforts to regain the exuberance of youth. A number of poetic techniques are used in the poem. Imagery is used extensively to express the intention of the poet. Rhythm is also used as a means of enhancing meaning. One of the central devices used in the poem is word usage or diction; where various words can have double or ambiguous meanings.
The first two lines of the first section introduce images and content that relate to the past as well as to the…
Chronic Liver Disease
With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.
It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.
The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.
The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.
The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is the result…
Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:
Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative
Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.
Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
Yet another argument in favour of the expansion towards Luxembourg is the fact that the country is most specialized on producing high quality white wines. This means that Vinos Andinos has an increased chance of selling their red and rose wines to a population that might desire a change from Luxemburg's white wines.
Switzerland (fifth by GDP and sixth by wine consumption) produces low amounts of wine internally, but has an increased consumption and demand as well as high salaries that allow consumers to afford the prices of the Chilean wines. Therefore, the Western Europe country should be one of the three destinations towards which Vinos Andinos ought to focus their attention.
The entrance onto the Swiss wine market might however pose some difficulties. Even though statistics do not mention Switzerland as a major wine producer, this is not entirely true. The inconsistency is due to the fact that…
Davis, P., 1983, Alcohol Problems and Alcohol Control in Europe, Gardener Pr.
Fielden, C., 2003, the Wines of Argentina, Chile and Latin America, New Edition, Mitchell Beazley
Lapsley, J., Moulton, K., 2001, Successful Wine Marketing, First Edition, Springer
You will likely want to purchase a yo-yo for yourself as well, and remind her that as even today, a "battle of the sexes" goes on - you are challenging her to a yo-yo contest. Or perhaps, you both can learn new techniques together. Along with giving this new friend, or as you note, "the girl of your dreams," a unique yo-yo, a flowering potted plant would be great to bring as a peace offering. This serves two purposes:
To accent the words, "I'm sorry I did not drop you off directly at your aunt's house last week. Will please forgive me?"
The flowers will remind her of you each time she has to water it.
Later, if your friend does in fact qualify to be "the girl of your dreams," you and she can laugh about you giving her a yo-yo and a potted plant. When this happens,…
Trip to Japan
I caught her looking at me the way a child stares at a dead animal, all scared and bashful -- but somehow magnetized by the image, unable to look away from the carnage. I couldn't blame her for eyeing me up that way. At the time, I was unsightly. A mess, really. I was dressing like a rock star on a budget -- black Wranglers, black T, white gold chain (that certainly wasn't gold) and a black pleather jacket replete with fur aviator collar. I looked, by all accounts, stupid. But I had one thing going for me; I was an American in Japan. And I wasn't going to be denied.
The exact setting or place we met at is inconsequential as is the total amount of time we spent, as they say in poorly written adult novels, "exchanging furtive glances." All I will tell you is…
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.
Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.
National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
Changing Character of War
The way that warfare has transformed since founding of America has been dramatic. In the past, warfare existed exclusively the work and burden of men; nowadays women have a strong strategic and participatory involvement. War used to revolve around brute force and the fight against nature and topography: in recent times, technology has evolved so rapidly that things like excessive force and ideal climate or weather aren't as crucial. In the next twenty years however, the character of warfare will continue to experience a metamorphosis and tactics of war will consist of a hybrid of techniques: covert, aggressive, technological and humanitarian.
In twenty years, war will have to take on such a hybrid, multi-modal approach because terrorism will also be taking that approach. "Many defense analysts suggest that future conflict will be multimodal…This threat is frequently described as hybrid warfare where adversaries can employ unique combinations…
Ndu.edu. The Changing Character of War. http://www.ndu.edu /inss/docuploaded/11-
GSA2009_Chpt%207.pdf (accessed July 7, 2013).
van Creveld, M. War and Technology. October 2007.
http://www.fpri.org /footnotes/1225.200710.vancreveld.wartechnology.html (accessed July 7, 2013).
Drama - World
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Drama - World
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Murray, the first wave of ed Scare was characterized by "a nation-wide antiradical hysteria provoked by a mounting fear and anxiety that a Bolshevik revolution in America was imminent…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
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Drama - World
McCarthy and the Cold War One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States…Read Full Paper ❯
World War I and the Great Depression World War I The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A…Read Full Paper ❯
On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an…Read Full Paper ❯
1921 and 1927, the trial and appeals of two individuals, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti,, dominated the news and were the inspirational source for many political movements throughout the…Read Full Paper ❯
This sort of behavior and scapegoating was the intellectual and cultural "easy way out" for many Americans looking for solace from the events taking place thousands of miles away,…Read Full Paper ❯
Could this movie possibly fall into the category of a conspiracy; that any fictional parody of male behavior (which this surely is, at least in part) becomes in fact…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
Of course, the 2007 pet food scandal is also a result of this same lack of regulation and inspection in China. Pet food manufactured here in the United States…Read Full Paper ❯
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of…Read Full Paper ❯
The "Highlander Center," a group advocating rights for African-Americans, "were labeled as subversive and subjected to investigation, and their members were harassed," which sounds a bit more like fascism…Read Full Paper ❯
Future of Unions in America Union membership has been steadily decreasing since the 1970's. But since the history of union membership has been filled with short, fervent periods of…Read Full Paper ❯
Arthur Miller penned the play The Crucible in the context of McCarthy-era rhetoric and anti-communist propaganda in the United States. Although it has a literal and direct historical reference…Read Full Paper ❯
Homeland Security / Constitutional Issues Civil Liberties: These are fundamental freedoms interpreted by policymakers and courts over the years or assured by the Constitutional Bill of ights (Pearcy, 2003-2016).…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Cold War and Film Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present…Read Full Paper ❯
Joseph made me hate Communists, then intolerance, and finally everything that could break the charmed pattern of our lives. I am not sure the Sisters of St. Joseph expected…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
It is considered to be a pandemic by the World Health Organization, and has, since 1981, killed more than 25 million people worldwide (United Nations). In most of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government…Read Full Paper ❯
" Prohibition, the Red Scare, and the Klan were responses to the flapper, reflecting anxieties about newly pluralistic demographics in the form of Mexican and Japanese immigrants as well…Read Full Paper ❯
Telecommunications made it easier to transfer ideas and information instantly and without the delays that hindered previous efforts at military and strategic intervention. Similarly, the barriers to international trade…Read Full Paper ❯
old, my parents and I moved from the sprawling, suburban township of Hudson, Ohio to the village at its center, and I fell in love with small, walkable cities…Read Full Paper ❯
Introduction The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), the co-beneficiary of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, was established in Philadelphia by individuals from the Religious Society of Friends (i.e.,…Read Full Paper ❯
death conveniently resolves the problem of the murder of the Soc and is followed within hours as Whissen puts it, "Dally is made into a tragic antihero. He 'fought…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Lindsey, 2004, p.1) it is interesting to note that one of the young protestors stated: "[the world leaders] are sitting over there on Sea Island having their little…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
In my judgment, the statutory provisions on which these prosecutions are based, abridge freedom of speech, press and assembly in violation of the 1st Amendment" ("Black, J, Concurring in…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Today, the Americans fight different insurgent factions, who have limited weaponry, no air force, and no real large scale fighting tactics. Instead, they create havoc with roadside bombs and…Read Full Paper ❯
However, this relationship with a labor organization provides more than that. Former IWW members Larry Slade and Don Parritt are haunted by the organization. Although not a former member,…Read Full Paper ❯
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it…Read Full Paper ❯
nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well.…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Covert Action One of the key changes of the late 20th century, certainly enhanced in the early 21st, is that of the economic, political, and cultural movements that broadly…Read Full Paper ❯
But many other nationalities also saw a great many prejudices directed at them like the Polish, Russian, and other Baltic state immigrants. Events like the Red Scare sweeping across…Read Full Paper ❯
Westerns soon developed into a staple of TV land. The independence and strength of the characters epitomized the ideals that made America so unique. Families sat down with their…Read Full Paper ❯
" By 1967, Black Power had become the dominant ideology of black youth as well as many individuals in the working and middle classes. King's assassination confirmed the growing…Read Full Paper ❯
The next cycle came with Polish, ussian, and other Baltic state immigrants being targeted during the 1940's and 50' with events like the ed Scare that swept across America.…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
China and the Korean War The fall of China to Communism in 1949 came about because of many different reasons. One, Mao Zedong was popular with the people, and…Read Full Paper ❯
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have…Read Full Paper ❯
The term "socialism" is often used to refer to an economic system characterized by state ownership of the means of production and distribution. Especially during the Great Depression, many…Read Full Paper ❯
eforms Who were the Progressives and what were they trying to reform? How and why did the Progressive era end? Several different Progressives include: Upton Sinclair, Teddy oosevelt, David…Read Full Paper ❯
Political Party Machines and Immigration in 19th Century America After a bitterly contested evolution ended in the liberation of England's former colonies, the fledgling American nation embarked on the…Read Full Paper ❯
Because of Haynes use of dolls, I was much more interested in Karen's story; I most likely would not have been interested in the film if it simply approached…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Postwar America in Hitchcock Films Post-War America in Film In the postwar America, expectations for men and women diverged from those that prevailed during the war years. The exigencies…Read Full Paper ❯
Patriot Act Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States by violent fanatics, the federal government passed legislation which was designed to protect American citizens and…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Spanish and American Democracy The United States of America and Spain are both now industrialized nations and modern democracies, but their paths to democracy and global influence were quite…Read Full Paper ❯
Jews Became hite The Nordic races were viewed as the "real Americans" (53) Even people from other European countries were not considered "white" The height of anti-Semitism in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Painted House by John Grisham The semi-skillful use of an unskilled child's perspective on racial tensions in pre-civil rights Arkansas Contrary to the expectations that might be generated by…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
B (d)- the 1950s was an Era of dramatic change. America's victory in World War II pushed America into a predominant role politically and economically. America was "rich," and…Read Full Paper ❯
Patriot Act and Constitutional Freedom Thomas Jefferson said: 'The price of freedom is constant vigilance.' Unfortunately in a large nation dedicated to the individual freedom and liberty of all…Read Full Paper ❯
Distinctly from John Updike's teenage character Sammy in his short story "A&P," who realizes he has just become an adult; Connie as suddenly realizes she feels like a kid…Read Full Paper ❯
Miami was where it all happened. I dated then. I guess you could say I had a life. Back then, if I were to be living under any rock,…Read Full Paper ❯
Andre Lorde "Beams" Explication In Audres poem "Beams" she suggests that the process of aging and the loss of the vigor youth is something that cannot be halted. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Drugs and Alcohol
Chronic Liver Disease With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.…Read Full Paper ❯
Yet another argument in favour of the expansion towards Luxembourg is the fact that the country is most specialized on producing high quality white wines. This means that Vinos…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
.. You will likely want to purchase a yo-yo for yourself as well, and remind her that as even today, a "battle of the sexes" goes on - you…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
Trip to Japan I caught her looking at me the way a child stares at a dead animal, all scared and bashful -- but somehow magnetized by the image,…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces…Read Full Paper ❯
Changing Character of War The way that warfare has transformed since founding of America has been dramatic. In the past, warfare existed exclusively the work and burden of men;…Read Full Paper ❯