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ehabilitation vs. Punishment
When criminal or delinquents have been duly sentenced in the court of law, they are locked up in various penitentiaries in the country. These incarceration centers vary from one to another in terms of security level, the size, population and further more differences but one similarity that they share is they are meant for releasing (if the sentence allows) back to the society a better person that the one who went into custody.
However, while in incarceration centers, there tend to be a clear cut difference between rehabilitation and punishment, there is therefore the risk of emphasizing one over the other which may not mould the best individual whom the society expects to walk out of the jail doors at the end of the sentence.
To have a clear picture of where the difference between rehabilitation and punishment ideology comes in, it is worth looking at what…
Gadek, R., (2008). Rehabilitation vs. Punishment in the Adult Justice System. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://criminaljusticeonlineblog.com /archives/rehabilitation-versus-punishment-in-the-adult-justice-system/
Net Industries, (2011). Rehabilitation - What Is Rehabilitation? Rehabilitation Across Time,
Correctional Programs In The United States, Does Correctional Rehabilitation Work? Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://law.jrank.org/pages/1939/Rehabilitation.html
The needs principle says that interventions should target the known predictors of crime and recidivism for change. There are two types of predictors for recidivism: static predictors, such as criminal history, and dynamic predictors, such as antisocial values. Those predictors that can be changed are the predictors that should be targeted by rehabilitation programs. The dynamic factors that can be changed are: antisocial/procriminal attitudes, values, beliefs, and cognitive-emotional states, procriminal associates, isolation from anticriminal others, antisocial personality factors, and dysfunctional family relationships. Those are the factors that should be targeted in rehabilitation programs. Second, is the responsivity principle. The responsivity principle provides that treatment services should be behavioral in nature, because of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and social-learning interventions in changing human behavior, particularly those behaviors that are linked to recidivism. "einforcements in the program should be largely positive, not negative. And the services should be intensive, lasting three to…
Gendreau, P. (2011). What works to change offenders. In F.T. Cullen and C.L. Johnson (Eds.)
Correctional theory: Context and Consequences (pp.147-170). Thousand Oaks: Sage
With his SCI, Mike clearly has functional limitations that he cannot overcome. These can be frustrating, but there is a lot of equipment that can help Mike with the things that he needs to do. Unfortunately, the motorized wheelchair will not fit in his parents' home, but there is often assistance available for these types of issues. Helping the parents find and afford a larger and better-equipped place, or simply helping them to find money to do things like widen doorways can go a long way toward Mike's mobility. There are many companies who can help with this type of assistance. Initially, however, Mike needs to be able to do simple things like eat and use the bathroom. One of the ways that he can move toward being able to do some of these things is through building up strength. There are many devices today that he can use to…
To help Tony overcome his drug and alcohol abuse problem, the techniques as well as methods to be made use of should not only be effective but also situation-sensitive. The therapeutic process to be adopted in this case should in my view begin with detoxification. Treatment and the prevention of a relapse should follow detoxification in that order. The other critical elements of the said therapeutic process are behavioral therapy and medication. While medications could in this case come in handy in the suppression of withdrawal symptoms, behavioral therapy will enable Tony to modify his behaviors and attitudes in relation to drug abuse. Behavioral approaches could in this case include but they are not limited to cognitive behavioral therapy. Given the special aspects of Tony's situation, the relevance of a customized treatment regimen cannot be overstated. The said treatment regimen should in my view address all the aspects…
Bradshaw, M. & Lowenstein, A. (2010). Innovative Teaching Strategies in Nursing and Related Health Professions (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Kaminer, Y. & Winters, K.C. (Eds.). (2010). Clinical Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Parrish, M. (2009). Social Work Perspectives on Human Behavior. Berkshire, England: McGraw-Hill International.
This can have adverse effects on the child's mental and emotional state and could make it more likely that the child will follow the same path. Also, incarcerating an individual who has a minor child is another way of creating a single parent home. Incarceration by a parent also increases the likelihood that that a child will become a product of the system. Mothers in state prison (58%) were more likely than fathers (49%) to report having a family member who had also been incarcerated. Glaze and Maruschak (2009).
Proponents of imprisonment will argue that it is just as traumatic for a child to witness his/her parents on drugs and going through rehabilitation. They would argue that when a person is going through rehab they will face emotional instability and may even pose a threat to the child and family. The Campbell Danger Assessment lists drug abuse as a risk…
ADAM II. (2008). 2008 annual report, arrestee drug abuse monitoring program II. ADAM II.
Retrieved from: http://www.abtassociates.com/Page.cfm?PageID=40897 .
Alarid, Leanne, Cromwell, Paul, and Del Carmen, Rolando. (2008). Community-based corrections, 7th Edition. California: Wadsworth Publishing.
Baker, M. (2004). Understanding alcohol and drug addition: An lds perspective. Springfield,
com (2004), the author focuses specifically on Florida. In this state, prisoners are indeed incorporated in labor programs. However, these programs are targeted only towards the advantage of those benefiting from cheap labor. There is not rehabilitative function. The lack of rehabilitation programs, as mentioned above, simply perpetuates the situation that created overcrowding in prisons in the first place. Rehabilitation programs can give convicts a sense of humanity and society again.
In conclusion, it is vitally important that humanity begins to take precedence over prejudice. This is also the case in terms of convicted felons and the possibility of their return as productive members of society. uch return would be to the advantage of both the society making use of goods and services rather than paying taxes for prison maintenance, and to the felon who feels like more than a criminal and changes for the better.
PrisonerLife.com (2001-2004). Prison…
PrisonerLife.com (2001-2004). Prison Industry vs. Prisoner Rehabilitation in Florida. http://www.prisonerlife.com/articles/articleID=17.cfm
Rehabilitation of Felony Offenders
In this drug court program there are five phases: a) detoxification (if necessary), comprehensive assessments, a short-term treatment plan and individual and group counseling services; and b) a more intensive individual treatment plan, group and individual therapy, weekly court hearings, meetings with the probation officer and "required attendance at AA 12 Step recovery meetings daily; c) the 2nd phase activities continue but in this phase they also focus on developing life skills (jobs, housing, education, etc.); defendants must pay all courts costs; d) this is the "life skills enhancement" phase in which defendants are required to seek jobs and housing, required to get their GED and continue showing negative random drug screens (olfer, 309-310).
In the "exit interviews" conducted with the first 55 "graduates" of the drug court program in Pennsylvania there were numerous response to the question of what should be changed or kept in the program. "Almost 90%"…
Banks, Duren, and Gottfredson, Denise C. (2003). The Effects of Drug Treatment and Supervision on Time to Rearrest Among Drug Treatment Court Participants. The Journal
of Drug Issues. 33(2). 385-412. Retrieved March 9, 2011, from www.ccjs.umd.edu/faculty/userfiles/25/Banks2003.pdf.
Wolfer, Loreen. (2006). Graduates speak: a qualitative exploration of drug court graduates'
Views of the strengths and weaknesses of the program. Contemporary Drug Problems.
Brookwood Community is a community in Brookshire, Texas, which is organized around meeting the needs of special-needs adults. The campus consists of eight group homes, two staff homes, a residential Inn, health and dental clinics, greenhouses, a restaurant, a gift shop, and several support buildings. The community provides rehabilitation therapy to adults with disabilities, but also provides several other benefits. They have 110 resident adults and another 80 adults who participate in the day program. They help people with a wide range of disabilities: autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental disabilities, traumatic brain injuries, aging care needs, and those with a dual diagnosis. The facility is located at 1752 FM 1489, Brookshire, Texas, 77423. The main phone number is [HIDDEN] . The URL is BrookwoodCommunity.org.
The Mission Statement of Brookwood Community is to provide opportunities through education, which allows Brookwood citizens to: acquire meaningful job skills and hold real jobs…
While its goals may be commendable, restorative justice is nevertheless a disaggregated model. Uniting relational justice, participative or consensual justice and changing or improvement justice, restorative justice has become a concept that has something for everyone (Wilson, 2012).
The Case for ehabilitation
The Attack on the ehabilitative Ideal
A premise that has endured all through the history of American corrections is that labors should be put forth to reform those who commit crimes. At the start of the 1900's, the rehabilitative model was eagerly broadcast and aided to direct the overhaul of the correctional system with the achievement of undetermined sentencing, parole, probation and a detached juvenile justice system. Over the next several years, offender treatment ruled as the established correctional attitude. Then, in the early 1970's, rehabilitation went through a steep turn of fate. The greater disturbances in American civilization in this period encouraged a universal evaluation of the…
Akers, R.L. & Jensen, G.F. (2002). Dangerous Liaison? Rational choice theory as the basis for correctional intervention. In A. Piquero & S. Tibbetts (Eds.), Rational Choice and Criminal Behavior Recent Research and Future Challenges. (279-296). New York:
Braithwaite, J. (2012). Reintegrative Shaming. In Cullen, F.T. & Johnson, C.L.
Cattaraugus County eHabilitation Center Case Study
Balanced Scorecard is a concept that was introduced in 1992 through the publication of an article on the topic by Harvard Business eview. After its introduction, the concept was quickly adopted by various companies, which was a reflection of the potential and power of balanced scorecard. This concept became a revolutionary management tool within the first two decades of its inception as evident in its adoption by many private, public, and non-profit organizations or enterprises across the globe. Cattaraugus County eHabilitation Center is an example of a non-profit organization that has adopted this concept. The organization started using balance scorecard approach in its strategic planning process as a measure towards bridging the gap between strategic planning and the daily activities of the Center. Cattaraugus County eHabilitation Center adopted the balance scorecard approach with the ultimate objective of aligning each of its departments with the…
Kaplan, R.S. (2010). Conceptual Foundations of the Balanced Scorecard. Retrieved from Harvard Business School website: http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/10-074.pdf
Martello, M., Watson, J.G. & Fischer, M.J. (2008, September). Implementing A Balanced
Scorecard In A Not-for-Profit Organization. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 6(9), 67-80. Retrieved from http://journals.cluteonline.com/index.php/JBER/article/viewFile/2471/2517
physiotherapy rehabilitation following a stay in ICU
A stay in the Intensive care unit can be a set back to the full recovery of a patient calling for a need to carry out a rehabilitation program. According to ersten, Soni, & Oh (2009), after a patient is discharged from the intensive care unit, there is requirement for a care plan that is multidisciplinary in order to achieve the best possible recovery for the patient. No matter the rehabilitation program that health care providers may choose to adopt, prior assessment of the patient is critical to help them in making the most informed decisions on the appropriate approach to apply (Porter, and Tidy, 2008). This paper will look at the evidence of an aged patient who developed sepsis after a surgery to remove bowel.
Most patients that recover from long-term sepsis are able to regain normalcy in life. However, some patients…
Bersten, A.D., Soni, n., & OH, T. E 2009, Oh's intensive care manual. Oxford,
Porter, S.B., & Tidy, N. M 2008, 'Tidy's physiotherapy. Edinburgh, Churchill
ehabilitation of Felony Offenders Possible? Desirable?
As the global economic downturn continues to adversely affect federal and state budgets across the board, one of the hardest hit areas has been the nation's penal system. Dwindling budgets have caused layoffs and cutbacks in many prison systems, and many facilities are at their limit already with no end to the steady stream of felons in sight. Unfortunately, even when they are released, many felons reoffend, violate their parole or otherwise become once again involved with the criminal justice system and are returned to prison. Given the combination of scarce resources and a burgeoning prison population, it just makes good sense to ask whether the rehabilitation of felony offenders is possible, and if so, is this a desirable outcomes for the nation's prison systems? To answer these questions, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature followed by a summary of the…
ACA policies and resolutions. (2005, April). Corrections Today, 67(2), 63-64.
Estaver, A.J. (2005). Dangerous criminals or dangerous courts: Foreign felonies as predicate offenses under Section 922(g)(1) of the Gun Control Act of 1968. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 38(1), 215-217.
Felony. (1999). Black's law dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Halsey, M. (2007). Assembling recidivism: The promise and contingencies of post-release life.
This means that all teachers will be familiar with disability categories instead of specializing in only one or two. Practice teaching is inclusive in practically al degree programs at universities. Degree requirements differ from state to state. Some states require or recommend a masters degree while others have different requirements in educational attainment. There are many states that require teachers of special education to be both generally as well as special educationally certified. Most States require a competency test.
In an article entitled "Vocational rehabilitation in rural America: challenges and opportunities" an examination is made of the issues that are dealt with by vocational rehabilitation service delivery in rural areas of the United States the findings show that, substantial portion of the United States population resides in nonmetropolitan areas totaling nearly 56 million individuals that live in rural areas of the country and that of those 56 million there are…
Green, Kathleen (1993) Careers In Special Education (12221993) Occupational Outlook Quarterly 1993 Dec 22 Online at Highbeam Research
Rojewski, Jay (1992) Vocational rehabilitation in rural America: challenges and opportunities. (Rural Rehabilitation) American Rehabilitation; 3/22/1992. Online at: Highbeam Research Library.
M., Bornhoeft, D.M., Barcome, D.F., & Knowlton, D.D. (1985). Providing outreach services in a rural setting utilizing a multidisciplinary team: The CARES Project. Rehabilitation Literature, 46, 264-267. [16.]
Jansen, D.G. (1988). The role of vocational education in rural America. Columbus: The Ohio State University, Center on Education and Training for Employment.
Coectional Sevices of Canada says that these pogams ae the esult of acknowledge the woman as "he own beset expet," and ae built on the pemise that "eaning to make infomed choices and then accepting the consequences of them will enable these women to take contol of thei lives." Thee, a Liteacy and Numeacy Pogam ceated just fo female inmates aims to foste skills equied fo basic employment and civic involvement.
The State of Floida epoted in 2001 that the ecidivism ate fo inmates who eceived a GED was 29.8%, significantly lowe than the 34.4% attibuted to those who failed to complete the educational pogam. That ate of etun essentially tanslated into 100 inmates not etuning to pison of the 1,788 who eceived thei GED. The State epoted that avoiding thei e-incaceation saved appoximately $1.9 million dollas.
With the gowth of so many gende-specific pogams, the ationale fo addessing incaceation…
U.S. Department of Justice. "Expenditure and Employment Statistics."
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.
U.S. Department of Justice. "Prison Statistics, Summary Findings." Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.
Tittle, Charles R. "Prisons and Rehabilitation: The Inevitability of Disfavor." Social Problems. Vol. 21, No. 3. (1974) p. 385.
Describe what the cardiac rehabilitation program is.
Cardiac rehabilitation is a medically supervised program, which helps improve the health of those with heart problems. Some programs that are part of cardiac rehabilitation include various training, such as physical exercise, education and healthy living straining, and various forms of counseling to help oneself reduce stress and pursue a healthy, active life. According to a cardiac rehabilitation help website, there are plenty of benefits from such treatments, including helping a person recover from heart attacks or heart surgery, preventing future problems, such as heart problems, hospital stays or even death related problem. Other benefits are to address other health related risk factors, such as coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, smoking, and other such health concerns.
Some other benefits of such a program are to essentially adopt healthy changes to one's lifestyle, for that is…
[5: All information in this section retrieved from the Mayo Clinic: "Mayo Clinic Staff - Cardiac Rehabilitation: Why it's done." (2011). Retrieved July 5, 2011, from . ]
Describe how can nurse cooperate with other health professionals to get the best results of cardiac rehabilitation.
A nurse can cooperate with health professionals and achieve results for cardiac rehabilitation patients through various means. The first is to communicate with everybody on his or her patient's list. In other words, everyone the person sees, a nurse must also know about as well, so she can truly ascertain that the patient is getting the best of care and that everybody is informed, comfortable and benefiting to the fullest form cardiac rehabilitation programs.
ehabilitation for Juvenile Offenders
Discipline, punishment and prisons are in many ways as old as the history of humanity. Nearly every society has had some form of confinement or some method of punishing those who break the laws of society. The modern world, however, has experimented heavily with the concept and notion of discipline and punishment, along with the programs and methodologies inherent within these two things. However, the issue in its entirety becomes far more complex with juvenile offenders, as punishments for them can range from halfway house facilities to minimum security work camps to high security detention centers. With juvenile offenders in particular, there has been an aggravated struggle to make punishments more effective. For juvenile offenders, methods of punishment really need to reflect the social standards of the societies from which they originate. In this case, for juvenile offenders the absolute objective has to always be an…
Bonta, J. (1999, November). The effect of prison on criminal behavior. Retrieved from publicsafety.gc.ca: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/ffct-prsn/index-eng.aspx
Earlyadolescence.org. (2014). Building a More Effective Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved from earlyadolescence.org: https://www.earlyadolescence.org/juvenile_justice_system
Irish-Tarbox, K. (2009, August 8). Rehabilitation and the Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved from yahoo.com: http://voices.yahoo.com/rehabilitation-juvenile-justice-system-3979980.html
Kumli, K. (2014). Juvenile Justice: What Works? Retrieved from pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/juvenile/bench/whatittakes.html
This approach to rehabilitation has been preferred due to the typical level of complexity of patient care needs, with many patients having medical, social, psychological and economic issues (Haley et al., 1998). To be effective, though, these authors emphasize that such team approaches to healthcare delivery require communication, collaboration, and coordination required in order to avoid fragmented care that does not address the unique needs of the rehabilitation patient: "ehabilitation professionals must collaborate and coordinate the intensity of rehabilitation care to efficiently and effectively influence and achieve maximum patient and family outcomes" (Haley et al., 1998, p. 29). This is particularly important for stroke victims that still have children at home. According to Dowdy, Kiev, Lathrop and Winkle (1997), "Sudden disability of a parent brought on by stroke or other life-threatening illnesses can have a devastating effect on a child at any age. Families are frequently ill-equipped to deal with…
Antai-Otong, D. (2004). The art of prescribing: Poststroke depression psychopharmacological considerations. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 40(4), 167.
Ashih, H.W. Duncan, P.W., Lai, S.M., Matchar, D.B., Parmigiani, G., & Samsa, G.P. (2003). Cross-calibration of stroke disability measures: Bayesian analysis of longitudinal ordinal categorical data using negative dependence. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 98(462), 273.
Dillon, D.L., & Sternas, K. (1997). Designing a successful health fair to promote individual, family and community health. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 14(1), 1.
Dowdy, J.H., Kiev, C., Lathrop, D.L., & Winkle, M. (1997). Facilitating adjustment to catastrophic illness through involving children in age-appropriate education. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 63(2), 22.
alker (2011) did find, however, that drug courts, which are a new type of diversion program, are yielding promising results.
In the end, according to alker (2011), it is a problem of prediction. As alker (2011), states "some programs work for some offenders" (p. 277). The problem is accurately identifying which programs work for which offenders.
hereas alker was concerned with recidivism, orrall's (2008) definition of rehabilitation includes "intervention that is intended to change offenders for the better" (p. 228). To address alker's (2011) concern that some programs work for some offenders, orrall (2008) explains that it is important to consider the risk, needs, and responsivity of offenders when planning interventions. These interventions include: cognitive skills such as morals training and reasoning training; anger management, victim awareness, and life skills training such as drug resistance skills, personal self-management, and general social skills.
orrall (2008) reaches different conclusions than alker and…
Whereas Walker was concerned with recidivism, Worrall's (2008) definition of rehabilitation includes "intervention that is intended to change offenders for the better" (p. 228). To address Walker's (2011) concern that some programs work for some offenders, Worrall (2008) explains that it is important to consider the risk, needs, and responsivity of offenders when planning interventions. These interventions include: cognitive skills such as morals training and reasoning training; anger management, victim awareness, and life skills training such as drug resistance skills, personal self-management, and general social skills.
Worrall (2008) reaches different conclusions than Walker and finds that rehabilitation is effective. Worrall (2008) finds that morals and reasoning training favorably alters the behavior of low-level offenders. Also, according to Worrall (2008) treatment programs focusing on anger management and life skills training are promising, whereas programs focused on improving victim awareness do not. Finally, Worrall (2008) concludes that treatment aimed at rehabilitation is more effective than prison or other harsh sanctions, particularly when it is combined with cognitive-behavioral therapies.
While Walker and Worrall may disagree on the definition and effectiveness of efforts of rehabilitation, they both agree rehabilitation is not a cure all for all criminals. According to Walker (2011), the problem is prediction -- matching offenders with the appropriate rehabilitation program. Worrell (2008) that offenders differ in their risk, needs, and responsivity and these issues must be considered when providing treatment programs.
The work of Klein, Cnaan and Whitecraft entitled: "Significance of Peer Social Support with Dually Diagnosed Clients: Findings from a Pilot Study" states that a pilot study was conducted of 10 randomly selected clients in the study group, and 51 in the comparison groups, who had been in community care one year prior to the investigation was conducted. The study took place over a six-month service period and states findings that "coupling peer social support with intensive case management is associated with positive system outcomes" (1998) Klein, Cnaan and Whitecraft report that the crisis events of the comparison group outnumbered those of the study group by a great margin and that the "...number of hospitalizations was dramatically lower for the study group. Clients in the study group reported improved quality of life and perceived their physical and emotional well-being as improved over the course of the study." (Klein, Cnaan…
Mowbray, Carol T. et al. (2005) Supported Education for Adults with Psychiatric Disabilities: An Innovation for Social Work and Psychosocial Rehabilitation Practice; Social Work, Vol. 50, 2005.
Klein, Amelia Rocco, Cnaan, Ram C. And Whitecraft, Jeanie (2005) Significance of Peer Social Support with Dually Diagnosed Clients: Findings From a Pilot Study. Research on Social Work Practice, Vol. 8 No. 5.
There are similar situations occurring across the nation. According to U.S. Census information, one tenth of Americans suffers from some sort of hearing loss or impairment, with around 30.6 million Americans suffering from hearing impairment in general; out of this population are "approximately 18 million of these persons are of working age (16 to 24 years old)" (Watson et al., 2008, p 13). This means that there is a huge and increasingly growing population that can benefit from V services across the nation. Over 63% of those affected by hearing loss or impairment are employed (Watson et al., 2008). This is a promising number, yet at the same time "80.5% of all persons ages 21-64 without a disability are employed" (Watson et al., 2008, p 13). V programs around the country are aiming to make this number more equal through proper training and counseling services to help hearing impaired and…
Downing, Rozann & Harrison, Karen. (2010). VR and SRC: Our focus is success in changing economic times. State Rehabilitation Council Annual Report 2010. Web. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tennessee.gov%2Fhumanserv%2Frehab%2FStateRehabCouncil_AR2010.doc&ei=UJW0ULiMBJCjqQH0p4C4Bw&usg=AFQjCNHPbKfHQwR-sqzSMNDdieT__NVncg&sig2=zalWtc4naLCtjAu59YWDig
Institute for Community Inclusion. (2010). A Selected Look at the Literature Base on Vocational Rehabilitation and Implications for Future Research. University of Massachusetts, Boston. Web. http://www.vr-rrtc.org/sites/vr-rrtc.org/files/docs/Synthesis%20Reference%20List.pdf
Tennessee Department of Human Services. (2011). Annual Fiscal Year 2010-2011. State of Tennessee. Web. www.tn.gov/humanserv/pubs/DHS-AR.pdf
Watson, Douglas, Jennings, Thomas, Tomlinson, Patricia, Boone, Steven, & Anderson, Glen. (2008). Model State Plan for Rehabilitation of Persons who are Deaf, Deaf-Blind, Hard of Hearing or Late Deafened. University of Arkansas Rehabilitation and Training Center. Web. http://hawaiivr.org/forms/mspdeaf.pdf
Drug abuse is a very serious problem in the United States and the rest of the world. Today, nearly every family in the United States is affected by drug addiction in some way. In modern society, heroin, crack, methamphetamine, cocaine, LSD, ketamine, MDMA or ecstasy and other drugs are being more heavily abused than at any time in history (Narcanon, 2003).
As a result, society and drug abusers alike suffer significant losses as the result of criminal and self-destructive behavior caused by drug abuse. Many drug abusers become involved in drug rehabilitation centers, although it is not clear whether or not these centers work.
The federal government, states, and private entities invest billions of dollars annually in drug rehabilitation programs that attempt to prevent the use of illegal drugs. However, illegal drug use in the United States remains a serious problem. In 1996, approximately 13 million Americans were…
United States General Accounting Office (GAO). (1998). Drug Abuse: Research Shows Treatment is Effective. GAO Drug Abuse Treatment Report.
Narconon Web Site. (2003). Drug Rehabilitation. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.getcured.com/about.htm.
The Effectiveness of Drug Rehabilitation
Punishment Compared With the Effectiveness of ehabilitation
For most people within the criminal justice system, as well as society at large, rehabilitation and punishment are two choices which must be taken, rather than taking their synonymous meanings. They give the impression to be like possible synonyms or ways to refer to same processes. Is punishment rehabilitation? Or alternatively, is rehabilitation punishment (McNeill, forthcoming)?
The supporters of rehabilitation view offending etched in people's experience of injustice and social expulsion, to bank on an individual's (criminal) responsibility (the punishment is based on that) as ill-conceived and to emphasize the role of the state to rectify the mess of the total crime produced. Punishment for certain rehabilitationists seems like a fancy term use. Meanwhile, the critics argue that there could be vengeful, appropriate and fair terms to pile up (McNeill, forthcoming).
For many rehabilitation professionals, those who happen to be compassionate about the…
Crow. I. (2001) The Treatment and Rehabilitation of Offenders. London: Sage.
Logan, C.H. And Gaes, G.G. (1993). Meta-Analysis And The Rehabilitation Of Punishment. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 10 No. 2.
McNeill, F. (forthcoming). When Punishment is Rehabilitation.Submitted to: G. Bruinsma and Weisburd, D. (eds.) (forthcoming) The Springer Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.Springer.
Raynor, P. And Robinson, G. (2009) Rehabilitation, Crime and Justice.Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Marianta undergoes rehabilitation. Punishment is not going to help her. It will only stigmatize her and make her more likely repeat her crimes in the future, as well as reinforcing her impression that she is an addict and has a psychopathic personality; that that is a part of her and cannot be helped.
Rehabilitation -- or restorative judgment, on the other hand, believes that one should make a distinction between crimes perpetrated against society and crimes perpetrated against people. Zehr, for instance, claims that conventional criminal justice system views crime and justice through a retributive perspective where crime is seen as violating laws and justice is seen as condemning the other and demanding retribution (Zehr, 1990). In his own words, he describes "crime" as a "wound in human relationships," that "creates an obligation to restore and repair" (Zehr, 1990, 181) Restorative justice, on the other hand, according to Zehr, is…
Patterns and Characteristics of Codependence http://www.coda.org/tools4recovery/patterns-new.htm
The Twelve Traditions of Co-Dependents Anonymous
Zehr, H. (1980) Changing lenses. Scottsdale, PA: Herald Press
Cattaraugus County eHabilitation Center (CattCounty eHab) is a Not-For-Profit enterprise. The purpose for its creation is to provide services to several diverse districts and voters, particularly people with injuries, developmental and physical disabilities, people with autism, and pertinent services to the disabled of all ages. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC), credited to obert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton of the Harvard Business School, is a process framework used to assess the effectiveness of an organization as it pertains to the pursuit of its mission or specific practice/objective. There are four equitably critical aspects in the BSC example that base measurement of multiple aspects of an enterprise's achievement.
Just like their name suggests, non-profits do not seek to make profit as their main objective. Although they need revenue in order to carry out their end goals, they must also consider additional aspects such as: providing proper and consistent service to customers…
Knell, A. (2006). Corporate governance: How to add value to your company: a practical implementation guide. Amsterdam: Elsevier/CIMA.
Martello, M., Watson, J.G., & Fischer, M.J. (2008). Implementing A Balanced Scorecard In A Not-For-Profit Organization. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 6(9), 67-80.
Plas, J.M., & Lewis, S.E. (2001). Person-centered leadership for non-profit organizations: Management that works in high pressure systems. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.
Human Development in ehabilitation Counseling
ehabilitation counseling is a profession that focuses on using a counseling process to assist disabled individuals to achieve their individual, career, and autonomous life goals. As a result, professional in this field work in various settings including healthcare facilities, rehabilitation centers, governmental agencies, learning institutions, and insurance companies. Given their role in helping people living with disabilities, rehabilitation counselors need to acquire necessary competencies and skills for effective practice. One of the most crucial elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development, a suitable age range or group to counsel, and applying relevant theories during practice. These three factors help in enhancing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation counselor in his/her setting.
Significance of Human Development to a ehabilitation Counselor
As previously indicated, one of the important elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development. Generally, understanding lifespan…
Good Therapy. (2017, January 30). Child and Adolescent Issues. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/child-and-adolescent-issues
Sales, A. & Brodwin, M.G. (2015). Human growth and development considerations in rehabilitation counseling (2nd ed.). Linn Creek, MO: Aspen Professional Services.
Low Vision Literature Review
The impact of low vision on a person's quality of life can be devastating… people with low vision can improve their quality of life through rehabilitation services to teach them how to use their remaining vision more effectively. Using a variety of visual aids may bring them back or help them keep their independence (Kupfer, 1999 as cited in indsor & indsor, 2001).
Low vision or vision loss has been operationally defined most commonly as that associated with macular degeneration due to age that accounts for more than half of all reported cases of visual impairment. There are other known causes of vision loss that include but may not be limited to corneal degeneration, eye injuries, traumatic brain injury, brain tumors, stroke, toxoplasmosis, optic atrophy, glaucoma, retinal dystrophies, retinal detachment, retinopathy of prematurity, achormatopsia and histoplasmosis (indsor & indsor, 2001). Moreover, visual impairment is described as…
Alliance for Eye and Vision Research. (1995). A vision of hope for older Americans' progress and opportunities in eye and vision research. An official report to the White House Conference on Aging. Alliance for Eye and Vision Research.
American Optometric Association. (1997). AOA Clinical Practice Guidelines Care of the Patient with Low Vision. St. Louis: American Optometric Association.
Kupfer, K. (1999). Announcing the National Low Vision Education Program. National Eye Institute.
Scott, I., Smiddy, W., Schiffman, J., Feuer, W., & Pappas, C. (1999). Quality of life
ole and Function of a ehabilitation Coordinator
Over the last several years, the responsibilities and duties of rehabilitation coordinators have been increasing. This is because they can serve the interests of numerous stakeholders and more effectively reach out to the disabled. As a result, more organizations are demanding the specialized skills these individuals can provide. The most notable include: hospitals, universities, schools, government agencies, insurance companies, skilled care / nursing facilities, sports organizations and in private practice. (iggar, 2004) (J. Clevenger, personal communication, October 26, 2013)
However, to fully understand what they do, requires discussing their responsibilities with a rehabilitation coordinator. This will be accomplished through conducting an interview with them. During this process, there will be a focus on the person's background, their experiences, why they chose this discipline, what are the rewards and challenges of the job. Together, these elements will highlight the roles and responsibilities of a…
Riggar, T. (2004). Handbook of Rehabilitation Counseling. New York, NY: Springer.
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000…
Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.
Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.
Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.
Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
Juvenile offenders have grown to become a serious problem in many countries, especially the United States. Like adult offenders, juvenile offenders are more likely to reoffend, especially without the proper guidance and assistance they need in order to live a law abiding life. esearch within the last five years has led to identification of specific program models as well theory-based intervention approaches that not only assist juvenile offenders in leading productive lives but also keeps them from potentially re-offending. This paper will focus on rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders and prevention programs that help in lessening the number of potential juvenile offenders by proposing alternative means of coping with hardship and stress.
Farrington's Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory will be examined within the context of juvenile offenders and how this framework may be applied to understanding Juvenile motivations for engaging in criminal activities Importance of rehabilitation will be emphasized because…
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
Barnes, A., Campbell, N., Anderson, V., Campbell, C., Onifade, E., & Davidson, W. (2015). Validity of initial, exit, and dynamic juvenile risk assessment: An examination across gender and race/ethnicity. Journal Of Offender Rehabilitation, 55(1), 21-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2015.1107004
Borduin, C., Dopp, A., & Taylor, E. (2013). Evidence-Based Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. An Evidence-Based Approach To Assessment And Treatment, 192-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118320655.ch11
Brooks, M., & Khan, R. (2015). Psychosocial influences that motivate young offenders to engage in a non-custodial community intervention. The Journal Of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(3), 351-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789949.2015.1013973
Gangs in Prisons in the United States and the Affect Rehabilitation Programs to Help Inmates Upon Release
Prison Gangs are one of the most challenging entities that have to be tackled by the authorities. Their growing influence in the prison setting concerns not just the inside of the prisons, but also the outside world, as when they are released, the members continue causing problems for the society. A lot of rehabilitation programs have been formed in order to provide guidance and a fresh start to the inmates who are released, which helps them overcome their criminal life and lead a normal one. This paper discusses the phenomenon and existence of criminal gangs and how the rehabilitation programs affect them after their release.
According to Lyman (1989), a prison gang is a criminal entity made up of special group of chosen prisoners that is governed with some sort of code…
Fleisher, M., & Decker, S. (2001). An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs. Corrections Management Quarterly, 1-9.
Gilligan, J. (2012, December 10). Punishment Fails. Rehabilitation Works. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2012/12/18/prison-could-be-productive/punishment-fails-rehabilitation-works
Lyman, M.D. (1989). Gangland. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
Miceli, V. (2009). Analyzing the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Programs. Senior Honors Project, 1.
patient suffering from dogged and severe mental illness requires some form of rehabilitation. The aim of psychiatric rehabilitation is aiding the disabled person to form the social, intellectual, and emotional skills necessary for life in society. To learn, work, and live within the community without much professional support. The general philosophy of such rehabilitation encompasses two intervention methods. The first being individual-centered, aiming to develop a patient's skills while interacting in a stressful environment. The other method is ecological, aimed towards development of environmental resources that will help minimize potential stressors.
The majority of disabled individuals require a combination of the two strategies. This is where the role of ehabilitation Counselor comes to play. ehabilitation counselors help promote independence in an effected individual. They aid persons with mental, physical, and emotional disabilities gain the kind of independence that they cannot manage on their own. By having an educated person there…
Thomas, E., Muralidharan, A., Medoff, D., & Drapalski, A. (2016). Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Social Support and Recovery in Serious Mental Illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/prj0000199
The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments allow for flexion and extension of the knee. Tears of these ligaments are a common result of sudden movements that cause strain. Injury can occur from sudden stops or from trauma to the knee as a result of sports activities. When the tear is severe, surgery is often needed. Rehabilitation and exercises to retain mobility of the joint and to preserver strength prior to surgery. After surgery, the recovery process follows a distinctive set of steps.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears and Repairs
Tears of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments are a common knee injury that affect people of all ages and activity levels. The injury can range from minor to severe, depending on the extent of the tearing. Some, but not all require surgery to restore range of motion to affected joint. The injury often requires extensive rehabilitation to regain function. The…
Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York
With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island
Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…
About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.
About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/ .
About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from http://www.opiny.org/ outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.
About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.
However, not all facilities are prohibitively costly. Serenity Lane in Eugene, Oregon, proclaims as part of its marketing and advertising plan that it accepts almost all insurance plans, and trumpets the fact that it offers value deals like the "ExSL (Long-Term Program)" that requires only a relatively modest fee of $6,495 per 30 day period, with a 60 day recommended minimum stay" and "partial financing available and a $500 discount for paying cash up front" (Treatment Costs at Serenity Lane," Official ebsite, 2007). In contrast, a stay of the same duration at the more famous Betty Ford Center is $23,000 ("Programs," the Betty Ford Center, 2007).
Quality forms of rehabilitative assistance exist for individuals in a variety of income brackets. Also, for individuals who qualify, there are Medicaid assistance programs provided by the federal government. However, less costly programs often have longer waiting lists and offer less comprehensive, quality, and…
Health Insurers Block Mental Health Parity Bill." Drug Rehabs.com. 23 Sept 2007. http://www.drug-rehabs.com/health-insurers-block.htm
How Do I pay for a Drug Rehab?" Therapist Unlimited. 23 Sept 2007. http://therapistunlimited.com/rehabs/Articles/Drug+Rehabs/How+Do+I+pay+for+a+Drug+Rehab
Oregonians Gain Benefit of Parity MH Coverage." Psychiatric News.
40(19): 2. 7 Oct 2005. APA Website. http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/19/12
Each semester the prison system has about six inmates obtain college degrees and their average income after leaving prison is more than $30,000 each in whatever field they enter.
The program has saved Utah taxpayers more than $1.5 million in what it would have cost to continue to house inmates and to receive them back had they returned to prison.
When inmates take courses or obtain a degree from USU, the rate of recidivism becomes less than 1%. Lowering this rate is the base of the whole program (Gray, 2001)."
Those who are against the program believe it is wrong to reward a criminal by paying for an education that many law abiding citizens are unable to afford. In their argument the prisoners should not be allowed to attend classes while in prison at the cost to the taxpayer. They believe the inmates should work in prison and repay their…
Klug, Elizabeth a (2002) According to a Department of Education study, inmates who receive vocational training or take high school- or college-level classes are far less likely to return to prison within three years of their release.(Brief Article) Corrections Compendium
Gray, Kari (2001) Utah State U. distance learning provides education for inmates
(Walls, Hendricks, Dowler, Hirsch, Orslene and Fullmer, 2002). The animal will serve as a vital link between John Q. And the world around him, helping to be independent and to have quality time to himself and allow him to travel on his own.
There is a need, too, to emphasize that services are available to the family as individuals, and in a group setting, to confront and work through the issues that upcoming months, perhaps even years of hardship as a result of John Q's physical injuries will mean to them as a family and as individuals. The focus must be a positive one, for research has shown that positive and hopeful attitudes impact an individual's ability to recover faster and more fully (Schmidt, Vickery, Cotugna, and Snider, 2005).
esearching the conditions and needs of a family and individual as cited above, created a sense of caring and…
Christensen, a. & Uzzell, B.P. (Eds.). (1994). Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ;d=27755753' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
CBVH then continues to work with VESID to assess performance on an ongoing basis, participate in on-site reviews, and provide technical assistance or recommend adjustments to contracts as needed.
In the near century that these agencies have been in place, they have worked together in their efforts to assist those with disabilities to find employment. The current supported employment delivery system has allowed all eligible individuals with the most significant disabilities who are interested in supported employment to obtain services. A joint policy statement between the CBVH, the State Education Department, and VESID was initiated in 1985. At this time, the two State agencies agreed that only by working together could they address the needs of individuals who are deaf and blind. Through the memorandum of the agreement in 1999, CBVH and VESID reaffirmed their commitment to joint efforts to better serve this unique group of individuals. While there are…
American Foundation for the Blind. "Statistics and Sources for Professionals."
Retrieved November 26, 2010.
Belote, L. Low Vision Education and Training: Defining the Boundaries of Low
Vision Patients. A Personal Guide to the VA Visual Impairment Services
Framwork for Practise and Presentation
Sociology -- Social Work
There are several factors that contribute to seeming intractability and complexity of social issues. We cannot retrieve an actual picture of any problem considering a single issue. The root causes of social issues are related to individual circumstances and some are beyond the individual control. Central goal of social work profession is the social justice. Social workers can better serve all the needs of the service users if they will have the tools that are required to analyze the existing social policies and problems. This term paper is based on the ideology and the theories embraced by social workers; also their practice strategies and inclusiveness of cultural diversity is discussed in detail.
FINAL PAPE -- FAMWOK FO PACTISE AND PESENTATION
We find several social issues in our surroundings. Every social issue does not depend on a single cause rather there are…
Antonio, A., & Resko, S.M. (2008). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. Retrieved July 3rd, 2012, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40689_2.pdf .
Clines, F.X. (1993). Dealing with Drug Dealers: Rehabilitation, Not Jail; Hynes Tries Alternative Approach Intended to Stop a Problem by Curing and Addiction. The New York Times. Retrieved July 3rd, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/1993/01/20/nyregion/dealing-with-drug-dealers-rehabilitation-not-jail-hynes-tries-alternative.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
CBR. (2004). A Strategy for Rehabilitation, Equalization of Opportunities, Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities. Community-Based Rehabilitation. Retrieved August 3rd, 2012, from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241592389_eng.pdf .
Flores, P.J. & Georgi, J.M. (2005). Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Retrieved June 02, 2012, from http://www.ctcertboard.org/files/TIP41.pdf .
Therapy aims at deterring the criminals from committing crimes in the future. The therapy is where the offender undergoes a counseling and treatment system to help them recover from that mindset of committing the crime. Psychological counseling aims at creating a positive attitude in the criminal. Therefore, in rehabilitation, the justice and correctional system work towards the emancipation of individuals to stop committing criminal acts.
Which method is more effective in reducing crime, Punishment or rehabilitation?
The impact of punishment and rehabilitation in the society help to analyze which of the two methods of the correctional system is more effective. According to the Criminal Justice Statistics, a majority of the American society prefers swift punishment to rehabilitation (Blakely, 2008). In this survey, a resounding three quarters of people have the view that punishment is the primary justification of sentencing. Additionally, a 70% of people believe that, incapacitation is the surest…
Blakely, C. (2008). American criminal justice philosophy revisited. Federal Probation, 72(1),
43-47,72. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213978959?accountid=458
Edgely, M. (2010). Criminals and (second-class) citizenship: Twenty-first century attainder? Griffith Law Review,19(3), 403-437. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/848429174?accountid=458
Stanko, S., Gillespie, W., & Crews, G.A. (2004). Living in prison: A history of the correctional system with an insider's view. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Meth Moms: Rehabilitation Strategies
The drug methamphetamine, also known as "meth," is cheap and easily obtained. This makes it a risk among those who feel overwhelmed by their circumstances, such as mothers or pregnant women. This addiction, whereas the drug itself is not costly, cost many of these women their children. In order to rehabilitate them it is perhaps better to work with them on a social basis than to send them to jail or to remove their children on a permanent basis.
elow the issues involved with meth addiction are considered, along with strategies that could be followed towards rehabilitation.
Reasons for Taking Meth
The pressure that society imposes on the modern woman is immense. Not only is a woman expected to be a career woman; she should also take good care of her home and her children. oth these things are almost mutually exclusive jobs, and without help,…
Bonner, A. & J. Waterhouse (eds.). (1996). Addictive behaviour: molecules to mankind: perspectives on the nature of addiction. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Joint committee of the American bar association and the American medical association on narcotic drugs. Drug addiction: crime or disease? Interim and final reports. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
McMurran, M. (1994). The psychology of addiction. London; Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.
Meth in the News. (2003) "Are Super Moms Turning to Meth to Do It All?" Meth in the News, http://www.stopmethaddiction.com/meth-in-the-news.htm .
Balanced Scorecard Approach by Cattaraugus County eHabilitation Center
Unlike many so-called "management fads" that emerged over the past 20 years, the balanced scorecard approach has been shown time and again as an effective way for companies of all sizes and types of better manage their resources in ways that provide them with a competitive advantage. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to demonstrate that Cattaraugus County ehabilitation Center did an effective job of implementing a Balanced Scorecard approach in a fashion that reflects their organizational mission and vision. A summary of the research and important findings concerning the Center's implementation of a balanced scorecard approach are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Balanced Scorecard Overview
The Balanced Scorecard approach was developed and refined during the 1990s by Kaplan and Norton with the goal of identifying those factors that are most responsible for driving organizational performance (Martello,…
Mackay, A. (2004, October). A practitioners' report based on: Shareholder and stakeholder approaches to strategic performance measurement using the Balanced Scorecard. CIMA
Martello, M., Watson, J.G., & Fischer, M.J. (2008, September). Implementing a Balanced
Scorecard in a not-for-profit organization. Journal of Business & Economics Research,
role of prisons in the society. I have included the theories of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, incapacitation, non-interventionism and restoration to support my discussion along with their positive and negative aspects. In the conclusion, I have given my preferred theory of imprisonment as the most effective and important ones.
A prison can be defined as a protected and locked institution where juvenile and grown-up offenders are housed with punishments that vary from a year to life. Such facilities hold the objective of accomplishing the verdict that the courts impose on the offenders and also of protecting the community and civil society by taking measures to prevent escapes. These facilities are also liable to provide programs and services that are important for taking care of the convicted population under their custody (Sumter 2007).
The issue of imprisonment has constantly been an intense experience for every individual found guilty of committing offenses. Sometimes…
Banks, C. (2004). The Purpose of Criminal Punishment. In: Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publicaton, pp 103-126.
Mauer, M. (2004). Thinking About Prison and its Impact in the Twenty-First Century. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law [online].2, p.607-618. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
Macionis, J.J. & Plummer, K. (2008). Control, Crime and Deviance. In Sociology: A Global Introduction (5th edition), New York: Pearson Prentice Hall, pp591-592.
MacKenzie, D.L. (1996). Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention. Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice University of Maryland, Maryland. Available from: . [Accessed February 17, 2013].
high-quality healthcare services to families with children suffering from a broad range of developmental disabilities is a challenging enterprise in any setting, but the constraints to productivity faced by Cattaraugus County eHabilitation Center were daunting indeed. The Center had grown to include a number of organizations that provide specialized care to disabled children, but it had outgrown its old business model when a Balanced Scorecard initiative was implemented. This paper examines the Center's efforts to determine if the job they did in implementing a balanced scorecard approach was effective in reflecting its organizational mission and vision. A summary of the research and an overall evaluation of the Center's efforts are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
The balanced scorecard approach developed by Kaplan and Norton (1992) is intended to provide managers with quantifiable performance metrics that link outcome measures with measures reflecting future outcome drivers (Martello, Watson & Fischer,…
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D. (1992). The balanced scorecard -- measures that drive performance.
Harvard Business Review, 70(1): 71-79.
Martello, M., Watson, J., Fischer, M., (2008). Implementing a balanced scorecard in a not-for-
profit organization. Journal of Business & Economics Research. 6(9), 67-80. Retrieved
Goals of Corrections
The rationale behind retribution is simply to punish the offender and it reflects the most basic natural impulse of human societies in response to individuals who deliberately break the established rules of society (Schmalleger, 2009). Its purpose is nothing more than to satisfy those impulses, particularly on the part of the victims of criminal acts. The types of penal sentences that reflect pure retribution are long terms of incarceration and even hard labor and other forms of punishment that are expressly designed to be unpleasant for the offender. The types of crime control strategies dictated by this philosophy are those that make penal sentences as long and as unpleasant for offenders as is constitutionally permissible (Schmalleger, 2009). In many respects, this was the approach taken in American criminal justice prior to the revolutionary ideas first introduced by William Penn (Schmalleger, 2009). The only "advantages" of this…
Lynch, M.J. (1999). "Beating a Dead Horse: Is There Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrence Effect of Imprisonment?" Criminal Law & Social Change, Vol.
Nagin, D.S. (1998). "Criminal Deterrence Research at the Outset of the Twenty-First
Century." Crime and Justice, Vol. 23.
Rehabilitation vs. punishment
Creation of mandatory sentencing
Punishment vs. rehabilitation as a goal
High rates of recidivism
Alternative sentencing methods
Increasing size of the prison population
F. Elimination of parole
G. Failure to monitor released felons
Prisoners released all the time
Failure to prepare those prisoners for outside world
Programs showing success
Need for similar programs
A movie made in 1939 entitled They All Come Out makes the point that all prisoners are released one way or another, with most returning to the community (while a comparative few die in prison). The point of the film was that provision must be made for the re-entry of prisoners into the community, a point that seems to have been lost in the intervening years as politicians increase punishments as if longer sentences would solve all problems, while the re-entry of prisoners to society takes a…
Bessette, Joseph M. "In Pursuit of Criminal Justice." The Public Interest (October 15, 1997).
Conaboy, Richard P. "The United States Sentencing Commission: A New Component in the Federal Criminal Justice System." Federal Probation (March 1, 1997).
Davis, Danny K. "Living with an 'X' on Your Back: Released and No Place to Go." Corrections Today, Volume 65(5)(August 2003). October 28, 2005. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=5007703411.
Kopel, David B. "Sentencing Policies Endanger Public Safety." USA Today Magazine (November 1, 1995).
Stuntzner's (2014) study on the concept of "self-compasision" as a component in rehabilitation counseling and the study by Hartley, Johnston and Tarvydas (2015), which focuses on the use of social media advocacy in rehabilitation counseling both examine ways that rehabilitation counseling can be improved through the implementation of different variables. This paper will critique and compare the two studies and show how their findings can be used to help rehabilitation counselors better their own profession in the field.
Stuntzner's (2014) article is based on a literature review of the concept of "self-compassion" as a construct so as to determine how this idea might be applied to rehabilitation counseling to help reduce "negative thoughts, feelings, and outcomes while also promoting positive ones" (p. 37). Stuntzner's findings indicate that self-compassion is a concept that can be more clearly defined and utilized by counselors to assist in the healing of persons with disabilities.…
Hartley, M., Johnston, S., Tarvydas, V. (2015). The ethics and practice of social media advocacy in rehabilitation counseling. Journal of Rehabilitation, 81(1): 42-51.
Stuntzner, S. (2014). Compassion and self-compassion: Exploration of utility as potential components of the rehabilitation counseling profession. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 45(1): 37-44.
Furthermore, the VA hospitals are devoted to new research on Parkinson's disease in the development of surgical treatment for late-stage patients for whom medical therapy is no longer effective and development of new medications, which are more effective and have fewer side effects (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2001). In this way the VA's rehabilitation services structure assists in the transition of patients from one level to another level of care.
alanced Scorecard of the VA's Rehabilitation Services
The creation of a balanced scorecard for the rehabilitation services offered by the VA consists of developing metrics, collecting data and analyzing the data in relation to: 1) the learning and growth perspective, 2) the business process perspective, 3) the customer perspective, and 4) the financial perspective. The learning and growth perspective includes employee training and corporate cultural attitudes related to both individual and corporate self-improvement. In the current climate of rapid technological…
Department of Veterans Affairs. (2001, February). Parkinson's disease: VA Benefits and Programs. Office of Public Affairs Media Relations, p. 1.
Mitchell, S.L., Kiely, D.K., Kiel, D.P., & Lipsitz, L.A. (1996). The epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and natural history of older nursing home residents with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 44, 394-9.
Wilson, N. & Kizer, K. (1997). The VA Health Care System: An Unrecognized National
Safety Net. Health Affairs 16(4), 200-4.
Should Prison be Punitive or Rehabilitation in Nature?
A question that has existed since the beginnings of the modern prison system has been that of whether prison should be an unbearable punishment for an action committed, or rehabilitation for the accused to rid them of a particular behavior. In ancient times, a violent crime was usually responded with a violent verdict, resulting in torture and pain, and the concept of 'an eye for an eye' that led human law for thousands of years. Recently, however, civilization has rejected the outward torture of prisoners, and has tried to implement a system based on fairness, both during the trial and during the punishment. hile prisoners may not feel like their jail time is fair, modern civilization has elected judges to make these decisions for society. There is still the question, however, of what in today's world is the goal of…
Larrabee, A., (2006). Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System. Retrived from, http://voices.yahoo.com/punishment-vs.-rehabilitation-criminal-justice-119962.html .
Multiple authors. (2010). Should Criminal Justice Focus More on Rehabilitation or Punishment. IDebate. Retrieved from http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/law-crime/house-believes-criminal-justice-should-focus-more-rehabilitation.
Peak, K., (2012). Justice Administration: Police, Courts and Corrections Management (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall.
Turner, A., (2012). Work Programs for Texas Inmates Go High Tech. Chron. Retrieved from, http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Prison-factories-train-inmates-and-save-the-state-3450137.php .
Youthful offenders especially, are subjected to negative influences and damaging treatment while in prison. Rehabilitation can be arranged so as to meet the needs of individual women and men, allowing them to come to terms with the reality of their transgressions, and to see and understand how they affect those around them. Mandatory participation in rehabilitation programs as an alternative to prison can give these insights to offenders even if they do not, at first, or even a second or a third time, accomplish their desired goals. Mandatory prison sentences for relatively minor or consensual drug and alcohol offenses have swelled the nation's prison system. Vast numbers of otherwise productive persons are kept locked away from society, doomed for perhaps making ill-advised decisions, denied proper treatment and consideration. The system should be changed to emphasize the inclusiveness of society. Individuals who offend should be helped with their problems and welcomed…
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ;d=5011529346' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.
RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS
Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…
MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm
Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .
Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .
Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
Strategy Mapping & the Learning and Growth Perspective
Learning and growth is the fourth category of the balanced scorecard, which makes up the basis of any strategy. In this perspective, there is establishment of the employee capabilities, skills, technology, and a corporate environment to support a strategy. There are several objectives identified by Cattaraugus ehabilitation Center Mission (CCM) in an attempt to improve their learning and growth. These include (i) recruit, orient, manage, develop and retain personnel, (ii) Utilize technology to progress the organization's information systems and (iii) Promote, train and practice the organization's culture (Kaplan and Norton, 1992).
ecruit, orient, manage, develop and retain personnel
The turnover rates
Attract the best employees in an attempt to achieve sustainability
Develop a motivated and satisfied employee
Utilize technology to improve and progress the organization's information systems
The number of staff who successfully complete training
Incorporation of technology…
Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (1992). The balanced scorecard: Measures that drive performance.
Harvard Business Review, 70(1), 71-79.
Martello, M., Watson, G.J., & Fischer, J.M. (2008). Implementing a balanced scorecard in a not-for-profit organization. Journal of business & economics research, 6(9), 67-80.
Integration - Causal Chains and Strategy SLP
The balanced scorecard approach is a useful tool, applicable to most organizations for identifying strategic action plans. One of the most important advantages for a balanced scorecard is that it is able to provide information in a synthetic manner, making it easy to digest for decision makers, who often don't have the time to analyze all the deeper details, especially when the decision sometimes needs to be made on the stop or in a very limited period of time.
In the case of the Cattaraugus Rehabilitation Center Mission (CRCM), a first look over the balanced scorecard gives immediate information about the strategic objectives of the organization, over four pillars: financial, customer, internal and learning. These range from containing costs and improving patient outcome to personnel objectives (recruiting and retaining the best employees) and to financial objectives such as increasing revenues.
Another argument in…
Partly because anatomical variation contributes to the development of metatarsal fractures, footwear is particularly important to mitigating any existing predisposing factors to the condition. While conflicting data as to the effect of hard surfaces call into question the assumption that surface density is directly related to metatarsal problems (Laker, Saint-Phard, Tyburski, et al., 2007), the insufficient cushioning properties of athletic footwear likely increases the overall risk nevertheless.
Proper fitting, particularly in the lateral dimension (i.e. width) is directly related to increased susceptibility to metatarsal problems because it further (artificially) contracts the overall surface areas available to dissipate and absorb dynamic forces by squeezing the metatarsals closer to each other as well (Cullen & Hadded, 2004). Finally, excessive roominess in athletic footwear can also contribute to stress fractures and other debilitating foot problems by allowing the foot to develop momentum within the shoe and resulting in momentarily high loads when…
Barsom, R. (2005) Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures: Applications of Fracture
Mechanics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Cullen, N. & Hadded, F. (2004). How would you manage the painful midfoot? Pulse,
64(24), p.50 -- 52. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from EBSCO online database.
There are a number of points of interest regarding "Massage therapy in post-operative rehabilitation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy - a pilot study." On the whole this is an extremely well-organized article, which is one of its primary strengths. The different sections and phases of the research are well documented. There are a variety of tables that elucidate several components related to the literature review, the results, and the particulars of the subjects considered in the research. However, there is more than one area of the study in which the researchers could have benefited from the use of more substantial effort and a more thorough methodology, which is certainly reflected in the results and the conclusion.
The central weakness of this study is the fact that all of the results were based on research performed on just six subjects. To the credit of the researchers they…
O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
criminal justice system comprises of key features that generally include the criminal act, investigations into it and subsequently arresting the suspect, abhorrence to suspect's rights in the course of due process, the trial as well as the sentencing after a guilty verdict has been passed. The sentencing of a suspect follows the guilty verdict and at this stage of the criminal justice process, the judge determines the suitable punishment. This is the most important aspects of the criminal justice system and pivotal in the pursuit of preventing crime. The sentencing stage is based on four key objectives that include deterrence, rehabilitation, incapacitation, and retribution.
In general terms deterrence in the criminal justice system is expected to have two effects. The clear certainty of action against offenders, potential law breakers should be deterred by the risk of arrest and second, the punishment may affect behavior change by the potential offender…
Avio, K.L. (1990). Retribution, Wealth Maximization, and Capital Punishment:A Law and Economics Approach. Stetson Law Review, 19, 373-409.
Gadek, R. (2013). Rehabilitation vs. Punishment in the Adult Justice System. Retrieved Feburary 11, 2013, from http://criminaljusticeonlineblog.com
McNeill, F. (2012). When Punishment is Rehabilitation. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.Fergus.
Moore, M. (1993). Justifying Retributivism. Israel Law Review, 15-49.
The internal business processes perspective of the balanced scorecard highlights metrics that allow managers to understand how well their business is running. These processes should be tied closely to enhancing financial objectives, and should reflect a high level of congruence with the customer and learning & growth perspectives as well (BSI, 2013).
The organization's mission and vision should be the basis for this analysis. At Cattaraugus ehabilitation Center the focus is on improving patient outcomes and containing costs, so the metrics used in the internal processes perspective should reflect this. The first metric is to improve patient success rates. This has to be defined, but for each rehabilitation case there are specific objectives that are set within the industry based on medical science and industry knowledge. There is some leeway for medical staff to change the measures of success where unique circumstances arise. Thus, the first objective is…
BSI. (2013). Balanced scorecard basics. Balanced Scorecard Institute. Retrieved December 21, 2013 from https://balancedscorecard.org/Resources/AbouttheBalancedScorecard/tabid/55/Default.aspx
McCarthy, S. & Chapman, A. (2013). Balanced scorecard. Business Balls. Retrieved December 21, 2013 from http://www.businessballs.com/balanced_scorecard.htm
This is largely because rehabilitation of offenders is for the purpose of transforming the criminal to an important member of the society from being a cost to the society. Some of the most common rehabilitation techniques in the correctional system include counseling and drug rehabilitation treatment as well as vocational training.
The two most extensively used modes of rehabilitation in the correctional system are education and work programs since they are integral to offenders securing employment and becoming productive members of the society. Education and work programs are widely used as modes of rehabilitation because they have a modest impact in lessening post-release recidivism, particularly when they are geared towards specific inmates ("ehabilitation," n.d.). The education programs are conducted in various forms i.e. life-skills training that are considered as counseling interventions and vocational education. The vocational education provided in the correctional system is geared towards preparing inmates for employment upon…
"Balancing Justice: Setting Citizen Priorities for the Corrections System." (n.d.). Civic Practices
Network -- Manuals and Guides: Community. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from http://www.cpn.org/tools/manuals/Community/balancingjustice.html
"Rehabilitation -- Correctional Programs In The United States." (n.d.). Law Library -- American
Law and Legal Information. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from http://law.jrank.org/pages/1935/Rehabilitation-Correctional-programs-in-United-States.html
It is evidenced that soon after lapse of two months of treatment about 67% of the patients administered with manual therapy and 27% of the patients administered with exercise therapy could return to work revealing substantial difference through the follow up period. The study concluded that improvements are noticed in both the groups. However, the improvements in respect the patients administered with manual therapy are more prominent than that with exercise therapy. (Aure; Hoel Nilsen; Vasseljen, 2003)
Thus even though manual therapies are beneficial, it has been debated upon. However irrespective of the fact that delaying methods taking into consideration the reality that it compels the athlete to a therapeutic machine, still then it is acknowledged to have the significant techniques in alleviating pain, rehabilitating the common range of motion, and treating specialized conditions like myofascial pain syndrome. (Holt, 2004) However, such advantages are to be exploited from the physical…
Aure, Olav Frode; Hoel Nilsen, Jens; Vasseljen, Ottar. (15 March, 2003) "Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up" Spine. Vol: 28; No: 6; pp: 525-531.
Beeton, Karen. (2003) "Manual Therapy Masterclasses"
Elsevier Health Sciences.
BMJ: Manual therapy beats out traditional treatment." (August, 2003) Journal of the American
The employees should be firmly committed to the firm, they are the face of a firm (also its eyes and ears). The staff focus should be involved in the process management, also their measurement and knowledge as well as initial contact with customers, all contribute to the performance of the organization.
Firms need to provide results on a consistent basis, be innovative and should respond quickly to any changes in environment for giving exceptional results and satisfying customers. Further in continuous improvement, aspects such as redesign of processes or services, upgraded technology systems, proper paperwork should be focused upon. Continuous improvement requires all firms' members to look for opportunities to improve. Overall, the continuous improvement process involves customers, leadership, employees and quality. It is the customers who determine if the firm is providing quality. They are the judges of it. The leadership is useful for setting direction of the firm.…
Brown, S.A. (1998). Breakthrough Customer Service. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.
Buttle, F. (2004). Customer Relationship Management. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Els, W. (2003). Winning at Service. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Horrell, E. (2006). The Kindness Revolution. New York: AMACOM.
This was unknown to a researcher who wanted to test a new rehabilitation drug specifically on long-term alcoholics. As a reward for her participation, he offered Maggie some time away from the center. Maggie of course jumped at the chance without further considering the risk factors to either her physical or emotional health. The counselor working with Maggie should have joined the informed consent process, and would have been able to help her make a better decision.
Recommendation 5.4 states that mechanisms should be in place to protect the privacy and confidentiality of patient records. Confidentiality is of utmost concern, especially for vulnerable patients.
In the rehabilitation profession, the history of drug and alcohol use is of utmost sensitivity and privacy to both in- and outpatients. Those visiting the facility trust its professionals with their deepest secrets, some of which they are utterly ashamed of. It is therefore highly important…