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religion and society. There are two references used for this paper.
eligion plays an important role in people's lives throughout the world. It is interesting to look at the origins of religion, as well as its different varieties.
The majority of the "classical religious beliefs emerged in a pre-scientific era before the application of the methods of science. The ancient religions of prophecies and revelations -- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- all claim that God intervened at one time in history, spoke to Moses and the prophets, resurrected Jesus, or communicated through Gabriel to Muhammad (Kurtz, 1999)." The sacred books of the religions, the Bible and the Koran, were written to tell of another life beyond this one, and to convey the promise of salvation. Since they were written, believers have "accepted them as gospel truth; after centuries they became deeply ingrained in the entire fabric of society. The…
Kurtz, Paul. (22 June, 1999). "Why do people believe or disbelieve? (The Science of Religion)."
(The Major World Religions. (accessed 05 January, 2005). ).
From the beginning of time religion played an essential role in people's lives, taking into account numerous accounts showing how some of the most primitive societies have concentrated on devising religious ideas in an attempt to establish diverse legislations. Humanity is apparently inclined to promote the idea of an afterlife and of a higher power regulating conditions in the world. To a certain degree, religion enabled communities to function better and influenced individuals in these respective communities to express more interest in cooperating. It would be safe to say that religion is a social concept, given that it brings people together and encourages them to get actively involved in assisting others.
A recent Oxford University project aimed to reveal more information about religion and its relationship with mankind. "The project, involving 57 researchers who completed more than 40 studies, found that human thought was 'rooted' to religious concepts." (Belief…
McConkey, D., & Lawler, P.A. (2000). Social Structures, Social Capital, and Personal Freedom. Greenwood Publishing Group.
McGuire, M.B. (2008). Religion: The Social Context, Fifth Edition. Waveland Press.
"Belief in religion is 'simply a universal part of human nature'," Retrieved May 16, 2014, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1386533/Belief-religion-simply-universal-human-nature.html
religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. eligion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.
The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…
Goen, C.C. Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740-1800: Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists in the Great Awakening. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962.
Matthews, Terry. "The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. 1996. 20 Sept. 2005.
< http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html >
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…
Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly
Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363
Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press
King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from: http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/king-philip-ii-spain.htm
eligion on Planet Earth
Based on careful observation of the beliefs and practices of people on earth, I can state that human beings are mostly religious people. There are five characteristics that define their religiosity. First, religious people function in groups. They share the same beliefs and perform the same activities as part of their religious activities. Within each group, there is a hierarchy of ranks and people but all people generally identify with the group as a whole.
The second religious characteristic of humans is faith. I have encountered people with different religions. But all of them have faith. Faith involves beliefs in a deity or deities and the existence of supernatural beings called angels and demons. Each religious group believes in it and the group generally agrees upon the fundamentals of faith. The fundamentals are believed to be sacred and are very important for the adherents. The fundamentals…
Johnstone, R.L. (2007) Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
Thus, the adoption of Christianity by these and other European nations created new forms of government and new ways of living a just and moral life.
In contrast, those that practice Judaism, as compared to Christians, tend to be socially and economically liberal and strongly support individual liberties with regard to many societal issues. However, Judaism also reflects "Enlightenment beliefs about the value and sanctity of each individual conscience," meaning that semi-Christian beliefs and practices were adopted by many Jews in Europe as a result of the spread of Enlightenment ideals during the middle years of the 18th century (Parratt, 212).
As compared to Christianity, Islam has played practically no role in the development of Western civilization (except perhaps for the many religious wars between Christianized nations and Islamic nations in the past one thousand years or so), yet in today's modern world, Islam has taken a foothold in many…
Baker, Liva. World Faiths: A Story of Religion. Israel: Abelard & Schuman, 1965.
Eliade, Mircea. The HarperCollins Concise Guide to World Religions. San Francisco:
Gilsenan, Michael. Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Arab World.
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
Religion is an analysis of seven works that the author, Daniel Pals, believes have shaped the understanding of religion in the past century. These theories represent seminal attempts to see religion in its social context as a system of values and beliefs, something that would be popularized by French structuralists and students of myth and semiotics in the last half of the 20th century. The theories reviewed put forth a 'scientific approach to religion' that 'first caught the imagination of serious scholars' in the 19th century. (pg. 10) These theories 'exercised a shaping influence not only on religion but on the whole intellectual culture of our century.' Some of the names put to us are familiar to us, such as Freud and Marx, whereas others are more obscure, such as Tylor and Frazer, Emile Durkheim, Mircea Eliade, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Clifford Geertz. The author picks what might be called the…
religion on world events cannot, and should not be underestimated in its importance in dictating the events of history. The Protestant eformation is one such historic event or epoch that seemingly altered the way religion and society intermixed. The 16th century was a time of revolution and revolt and this modification of the church helped exposed many of the problems that the church had in maintaining a control over its subjects.
A the time shortly before Martin Luther's edict of worms, many were having problems with the Catholic church and an opportunity for a new sect to break off was ripe. The main problem with the church at this time was its ineffectiveness in dealing with personal salvation. The pomp and bloviated rituals apparently had lost their folk values and growing numbers were despondent and unsatisfied with the Catholic church's stance on many issues.
The main issue with the Catholic…
Arnold, J. (1999). The Causes and Results of the Reformation. IIIM Magazine Online, 1,2, 14 Mar 1999. Retrieved from http://old.thirdmill.org/newfiles/jac_arnold/CH.Arnold.RMT.2.html
Goetzmann, W.H. (1995). New lands, new men: America and the second great age of discovery. Texas State Historical Association.
Kreis, S. (2009). The Protestant Reformation. The History Guide, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture3c.html
Manteufel, T. (1994). Churches in America. Concordia Publishing House 1994.
The Greeks were one of the most religious societies in the ancient world. With roots in Minoan culture, West Asian beliefs, and Central Asian gods, religion permeated virtually every aspect of Greeks' life -- from politics and culture to family, morals, agriculture, festivals, games, as well as beliefs about nature and the origin of life (Carr). The Greeks strongly believed that there were invisible, all-powerful gods and goddesses that controlled every occurrence. As a society, therefore, it was important to maintain a good relationship with the gods through prayer, sacrifice, and leading a good (morally upright) life. The prayers and sacrifices were made in sacred sites and temples where the gods were erected in their personified forms (Cartwright). Gods were also believed to reside in mountains.
Religion in ancient Greece was strongly tied to natural phenomena like rain, storms, plagues, earthquakes, and volcanoes (Carr). There were gods for each of…
Religion features prominently as a theme in literature. In fact, some of the earliest works of literature are rooted in their religious and cultural traditions, including the ancient literatures of the Middle East and Mesopotamia.
As the role of religion in society changed, so too did the role of religion in literature.
Modern literature, including work by Nathaniel Hawthorne, often offers scathing critiques of religion, whereas postmodern literature allows religion to play a more complex role in shaping individual identity.
Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter heavily criticizes the role of religion in a patriarchal society, whereas Yann Martel's Life of Pi presents religion more as a subjective phenomenon, revealing an important cultural shift from religion to spirituality.
In Nathaniel Hawthorne's he Scarlett Letter, the author shows how religion becomes a tool of social oppression and political control.
A. Hawthorne shows that religious authorities are hypocritical, and especially fundamentalists, as the…
This article offers some interesting background information on Yann Martel as an author, showing that the author's secular background proves that Life of Pi is making a clear statement about the difference between religion and spirituality. Religion is an outmoded social institution, whereas spirituality remains central to the human experience. The character of Pi illustrates the similarities between faith in God and faith in one's own ability to succeed, and through the motif of the journey also shows that "a journey toward enlightenment" can be stripped of any religious or even cultural context (Stephens 41).
Stratton, Florence. "Hollow at the core": Deconstructing Yann Martel's Life of Pi" SCI/ELC, Vol, 29, No. 2, 2004. Retrieved online: https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/SCL/article/view/12746/13690
This article critiques Yann Martel's novel by showing that the protagonist fails to actually show any growth, while also noting that the author takes a firm postmodern stance on the nature of truth or reality. The author points out that Life of Pi in part addresses the question of objective reality and whether a human being can even determine whether there is any objective reality, a core feature of postmodernism in general. This article offers a refreshing counterpoint to the other articles about Life of Pi.
eligions of ome
Throughout history, religion has been having a major impact on the societies around the world. In the case of the omans, they had numerous religions that were practiced throughout the reign of the empire. To fully understand these ideas requires looking at the chapter titled Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome. This will be accomplished by summarizing the various points and discussing a broad theme from the chapter. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how specific practices from other cultures affected various oman religions.
In Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome, it is talking about the worship of the sun god name Sol. He was a mythological figure that was considered to have the most power among the various oman pagan gods. This is because the omans believed that the sun was a vital…
Sol in the Roman Empire, 1 -- 30.
Beard Mary. Religions of Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Goldhill Simon. Being Greek Under Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2006.
Mary Beard, Religions of Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 167 -- 363.
Both faiths ascribe to a heaven and a hell, belief in angels and the devil. Moreover, Islam and Christianity teach against crimes against humanity to include violence, gambling, adultery, lying, theft and murder. Both teach that children are to respect their parents and husbands and wives are to be respected. Both Islam and Christianity teach against same sex marriage, homosexuality, fornication, and vulgarism. Both teach of modesty in presentation to the rest of the world. Observation of societal laws is also important to believers in Islam and Christianity (Asad 60).
Islam and Christianity both believe in zakat or charity; extending one's self to those less fortunate. Both traditions teach fasting as a way of getting closer to God as well as enhancing each individual's God like qualities. Despite recent extremist practices by some Muslims, both Islam and Christianity are faiths based on a tradition of peace (Asad 103). Although…
Asad, Talal. Formations of the secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity.2003. Web.
Games, Alex & Victoria Coren. Balderdash and Piffie. One Sandwich short of a dog's dinner. (2007): 143-144.
Goddard, Hugh. Christian-Muslim Relations: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. International Journal for the study of the Christian church, 3.2 (2003): 1-14.
Lowenthal, Kate. The psychology of religion: a short introduction. 2000. Web
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
eligion and Politics
All religions aim to provide a code of life for mankind. Apart from other tenets, this code establishes laws that govern all areas of man's life. Thus the laws established by the religion Islam are termed as Shariah. The term Shariah means all of the Islamic Laws and is derived from four basic sources. These sources are The Holy Quran, Sunnah, Ij'ma (consensus) of the Companions (Sahabah) and Qiyas or analogical deduction. These laws are not just limited to areas such as marriage or divorce; rather, the Islamic laws cover every action performed by an individual or a society. The term Shariah is also synonymous with Fiqh. However the term Fiqh means knowledge of all the Islamic Laws (Shariah). It can also be taken to mean the Knowledge of the sources from where the Islamic Laws (Shariah) have been extracted.
Shariah or Islamic Laws are divine ways…
S.Q. Fatimi, Islam Comes to Malaysia. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, (MSRI), Singapore. 1963;
EDITH M. LEDERER, Associated Press Writer, U.N. Development Fund for Women protests stoning sentence against Nigerian woman., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
Author not available, Mexico's president to fight death penalty in Nigeria., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
D'ARCY DORAN, Associated Press Writer, Nigerian government 'totally opposed' to death by stoning sentence., AP Worldstream, 08-22-2002
It is only human for cultures to borrow from successful societies. It has been a common practice throughout human history, especially within the context of the Classical periods, where many major nations were developing themselves as world powers. Many of these traditions still live on today either in their own right, or through the perpetuation by other cultures. In fact, Western society owes much of its foundations and philosophies to Classical cultures, such as Greco-oman and Middle Eastern influences. Then, the question remains, how will our current society lend to the future formation of new societies yet to be conceived?
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html.
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, ichard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. etrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PESIANS.HTM.…
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html .
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, Richard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. Retrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS.HTM .
Jayaram, V. (2008). "Chinese Buddhism: An Overview." Hindu Website. Retrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.hinduwebsite.com/buddhism/chinese_buddhism.asp .
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…
Hopfe, Lewis M. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
While art is certainly a part of culture, other cultural gifts to history mark religion as a positive force. Without the music, ceremony, poetry, and holy books of Muslim, Hindu, and Christian texts, the world would be without significant Beauty. In their own ways, each of these traditions shaped the cultures that would come after them in significant theological, intellectual, and cultural ways. Burhan writes that Islamic influence in the world has included charity, justice, and unity. Wade writes that even as Christianity is often vilified as a blight to mankind, it made great contributions to science, freedom, ethics and morality, medicine, etc. In conclusion, the ancient history of Eurasia would not have been the same without religion. While religious wars are certainly an important part of history, religion's contributions in the areas of art and culture suggest the positive role religion played in the shaping of contemporary society.
Burhan, R. "Islam's Contribution and Influence on the World." Institute of Islam and Arabic Studies.n.d. 26 July 2009.
(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."
Blend et al. 30)
Max eber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…
Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Sharlet, Jeff, "Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian Right is Reimagining U.S. History" 33-43.
Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
Wood, Richard L. Introduction to Politics and Religion
There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…
Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.
Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / / jbe.gold.ac.uk.
Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.
" (Leviathan, Chapter 12).
This passage speaks directly to man's relationship with God in Hobbes' eyes. The idea that God exists pre-logic erupts into an understanding that faith and fate play such an integral role in Man's life. Whatever we may do to secure our happiness we may do, but fate and faith play a larger role than we would generally care to admit to be the case.
In general, Hobbes philosophy on religion does satisfy a lot of philosophic ends. It points at one true course (Christianity) and also obviates the need to justify religion in the face of logic and philosophy. As in, we do not need to logically defend Christ's birth, the stories of his life and the prophets, and subsequently the parable of his cruxifiction. In fact, we do not even need to defend logically the basic premises of religion or specifically Christianity.
Instead, we can…
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html
2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…
Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality (Religious Traditions of the World).
Waveland Press; Reprint edition, 1998.
McGrath, Alister E. Science & Religion: An Introduction. New York: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.
Without an understanding of the Arian crisis, it is difficult to understand why later theological debates ensued and tore apart people who essentially believe in the same basic religion. Some Christians might take for granted that Christ is divine, whereas others view Jesus more as a human messenger of God. The Romans were debating this very issue several thousand years ago.
Second, the story of Arius and Athanasius shows that Christianity was not founded by Jesus Christ. Christianity was founded by those who came after Jesus. Christianity was also formed over time, and as the result of crises as bloody and violent as the one that Rubenstein describes in When Jesus Became God. Jesus set in motion a chain of events that would lead to the formation of a new religion, even though Jesus himself might only have been trying to reform Judaism. Jesus may have preached of a new…
Like Khan, Huxley focused on the sensations of the person (himself) having the mystical experience. During his experience, Huxley felt he had no impairment in his mind or gaze, an intensity of vision without an outer and imposed substance to induce the hallucination, and had a sense that his impetus of motion or will was impaired into a state of stasis (a direct contrast with Khan's focus on the ability of music to provide motion to parallel the nature of the divine). Above all, Huxley called his sense of harmony through visual means mystical because his visual experience eliminated any sense of division inner/outer divide in perception. As he looked at the flower, and Huxley felt he was becoming the flower.
This stands in direct contrast to Kepler's schema of harmony, which is dependant upon perceptions of distinction from outside, as an observer perceives defined opposites. Kepler's definition of harmony…
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847.
From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century.
Modern Portrait of Xuanzang.
From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels.
Religion does not necessarily need to be considered to be something spiritual, as it can also teach people in relation to moral values and about how they can distinguish between good and bad.
A modern school system needs to be fair towards everyone and this can only be made possible by school authorities allowing children to express themselves without restraint. Parents should have the right to decide what their children will learn in school. Religion is generally beneficial for opening people's minds and for preparing them to behave properly in the contemporary society.
1. lanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Perry lanzer's article presents readers with solid arguments regarding to why the teaching of religion in schools must not be regarded as something immoral. Also, the paper brings support to religion and reveals the reasons for which it…
Glanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Wright, Elliot a. (1999). "Religion in American Education." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 81.
Brewster, Karin L. & Cooksey, Elizabeth C. & Guilkey, David K. & Rindfuss, Ronald R. (1998). "The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States." Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 60, No. 2.
Religion, in whichever form of it, has over the centuries been upheld by various groups as the ultimate guide to good living, harmonious coexistence and the sole source of spiritual nourishment. Virtually all religions uphold their beliefs as the truest path to a purpose driven life and a fulfilling existence on earth and even beyond. The religious writing have situations, case scenarios and story of individuals that are geared towards teaching the readers the purpose for which they are alive and how to overcome various challenges like the religious sages did in the various writings from varying religions. Being that the religious writings define our livelihood and are our spiritual guide, there is the interaction between the spiritual and the physical. The physical body is deemed complete once it is given that functional purpose by the spiritual aspects of religion.
However, the flip side to it is that the same…
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…
Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.
Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm
Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445657
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445659 .
A www.geocities.com/lawandabrewer_uncp"Brewer, Jaques, Jones, and King. (2001). 23 Sept 2007 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/religion.htm .
Crossing the Ocean to Keep the Faith: The Puritans. (2007) Library of Congress. 23 Sept 2007 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html .
Friedrich Von Schlegel (1772-1829), German philosopher. Idea 14 in Selected Ideas (1799-1800), Franklin, Benjamin. His Autobiography. Vol. I, Part 1. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/1/1/.23 Sept 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/1/1/4.html .
Many claim Islam increases their sense of worth. Islam particularly appeals to disaffected young men. Solomon, 23-years-old, participated in a television interview. "It's not a part of our religion to stand there and get stepped on," Solomon said. "That's why Islam is so good for the Aboriginal people." (Australian Aborigines...)
Europeans prefer the name "Koori" for Aborigine, even though they named the native Australians "Aborigine." Aborigine, however, means "from the beginning." Aborigines "taught their children dances, songs, and stories for both sacred and non-sacred rituals that taught them traditions and history of the past, present and future." (Australian Aborigines...) Along with plants, animals, other natural objects, man categorized himself with his totem. Aborigines focused on and blamed the supernatural for every scenario. Some individuals believed a victim of a spell would usually sicken and die, because they believed it would happen. At one time in the Aborigines' religion, the "medicine…
AIPR Fact sheet: Psychic and Mystical Experiences of the Aborigines. (2002). 07 December 2006. http://www.aiprinc.org/aborig.asp.
Australian Aborigines Dreamers. (2002). 7 December 2006. http://www.religionportal.com/ReligionFinder/religions/australiaaborigines.htm.
Australian Aboriginal Religion." (2006). 7 December 2006. http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/westoc/abor.html.
OZ CITY AUSTRALIA - Australian Aborigines. (2001). 07 December 2006. http://ozcity.faithweb.com/aborigines.html .
"Even in an era that's more accepting of spirituality, the prospect of religion seeping into secular institutions, especially corporate ones, makes many uneasy" (Conlin 1999).
To tread a delicate balance between showing respect for religious differences and still allowing and encouraging spiritual and ethical concerns to be discussed in the workplace can be difficult. To do so "most companies and executives are careful to stick to a cross-denominational, hybrid message that's often referred to as secular spirituality. It focuses on the pluralistic, moral messages common to all the great religions, such as...respecting the interconnectedness of all actions and things, and practicing the Golden Rule. But it also puts a premium on free expression and eschews cramming beliefs down other people's throats" (Conlin 1999). Still, there is no way that 'all of the people can be pleased, all of the time,' to co-opt a phrase from P.T. Barnum. Every time a…
Abernathy, Bob. "Faith in the Workplace." Episode Number 822. 28 Jan 2005.
13 Dec 2007. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week822/cover.html
Conlin, Michelle. "Religion in the Workplace: The growing presence of spirituality in Corporate America." Business Week. Special Issue 1999. http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_44/b3653001.htm
Religion in the workplace: Asset or debit?" Religion: News writers. 16 May 2005.
As a matter of fact, she seems very open to new ideas and theories, as she was able to discuss my beliefs with me in a very open manner.
Although Carol claims she does not strongly adhere to her original fundamentalist beliefs, she still belongs to the Baptist Church. She raised two children with the husband she found at Bob Jones and her family attended and still attends church together. She disagrees with some of the newly-imposed strictures that the Southern Baptist Convention has handed down, but she has faith in the future of the denomination. She believes that the basic organization of the Baptist Church as a whole is the way that churches should be organized. hen she was a young person, meetings were held in a democratic fashion, using Robert's Rules of Order. Even in the youngest classes of Sunday School. She believes that her parents' strongly protecting…
Armstrong, Karen. The Battle for God. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 2000.
Jones, Steven. "Fundamentalism." New Religious Movements. July 17, 2001. Website available at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/fund.html .
Pojman, Louis P. "Gilbert Harman's Internalist Moral Relativism," the Modern Schoolman, Vol. 68 (November, 1990), pp. 19-39.
Robinson, B.A. "Eschatology, End Times and Millennialism." Religious Tolerance. 2006. http://www.religioustolerance.org/millenni.htm .
The work of Chidester explores different types of death, and symbolizes three patterns describing the transcendence of death: ancestral, experiential, and cultural (12). Types of death, and the way death is imagined, can help human beings die in a meaningful way, give life ultimate meaning, and significance (Chidester: 12). The ancestral transcendence represents a type of biological death, meaning this form of transcendence provides a way for the individual to connect with a continuous biological chain of parents and offspring (Chidester: 12). This is significant as the family line is not broken by death; death provides an ongoing continuity of family. The psychological type of death is considered experiential transcendence, and represents "profound and often intense psychological experiences that embrace death in acceptance or ecstasy" (Chidester: 14). Accepting and embracing death signifies death as a psychologically peaceful experience. A third type of death is social, referred to as cultural transcendence,…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-36. Print.
The song "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles is a song about loneliness, wanting, and hopelessness. The song begins with the lyric, "Ah, look at all the lonely people." The line is repeated twice and gives an obvious nod to the song's theme of loneliness. The song details Eleanor Rigby's life to embellish her loneliness and her longing for a better life. The first line about Eleanor is, "Eleanor Rigby picks up the rice in the church where a wedding has been/Lives in a dream." This lyric explains Eleanor throwing rice after a wedding ceremony, and dreams of having her own wedding and belonging. She is alone, and wishes for something more from her life. Eleanor Rigby lives her life in isolation, and this is signified by the lyric, "Waits at the window, wearing the face that she keeps in a jar by the door/Who is it for?" Eleanor puts on a mask, "wearing a face," so that no one will be able to tell how lonely and empty she feels. The line, "Who is it for?" suggests, "What's the point? Why bother?" There is a sense of hopelessness. The song departs from The Beatles "pop-rock" sound, and has no drums, guitar, or piano accompaniment. The song only uses string instruments, adding to feeling of loneliness. The absence of other instruments allows for the desperation of the strings to be heard, and the isolation of the strings mimics Eleanor Rigby's isolation. A wish that people might have when they die, as suggested by the song, is to not die alone. The lyric, "All the lonely people/Where do they all belong?" suggests, "Where do the lonely people go?" And if no one is witness to their life, how does one know where the lonely people go? According to the song, Eleanor Rigby did not get this common wish. The lyrics states, "Eleanor Rigby died in the church and was buried along with her name/Nobody came." Eleanor Rigby died alone, and no one attended her funeral. The phrase, "was buried along with her name" refers to her being buried with her memory. She was alone in the world, and there is no one left behind to remember her; there is no memory by which she can continue to live.
Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.
First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…
Edwards, L., 2001. A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Esposito, J., Fasching, D., and Lewis, T., 2002. World Religions Today. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hopfe, L. And Woodward, M., 2001. Religions of the World, 8th ed.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Sharma, A., 1993. Our Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers.
Part Two of onald Nash's book Is Jesus the Only Savior? deals with the topic of religious inclusivism. Inclusivists "insist that all people must have a chance to be saved," regardless of their belief in Christ.[footnoteef:1] Not quite the opposite of exclusivism, inclusivism does allow for the potential ability of non-believers to be saved, but just emphasizes the unlikeliness of that actually occurring.[footnoteef:2] Kanno presents inclusivism as a view that tacitly approves religions other than one's own but " as a preparatory stage to one's own religion."[footnoteef:3] Hick's stance on inclusivism is that it is just a "soft form of exclusivism."[footnoteef:4] Because Nash is a hard exclusivist, the author finds certain problems with the inclusivism stance. [1: Nash, onald H, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? p. 104.] [2: obinson, B.A, 2011. "How People View the Status of eligions Other than Their Own." etrieved: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm] [3: Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d.…
Bible: New International Version
Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d. Inclusivism and Religious Tolerance in the Lotus Sutra. Retrieved online: http://www.iop.or.jp/0515/kanno.pdf
Nash, Ronald, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Robinson, B.A., 2011. How people view the status of religions other than their own. Retrieved online: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm
They have tended, however, to remain tied to the restrictive interpretive options set in place by earlier thinkers preoccupied with the issue of secularization. In part, this is because they lacked a sufficiently comprehensive and detailed understanding of the nature of the changes gripping late modern societies. (69)
It is evident that religion still stands strong regardless of new religious movements; all that has happened is that there are individuals that view religion from a different perspective now than they may have previously, and that in fact may not be such a bad thing. Researchers also say that this new wave is bringing people into various religions that have not previously been associated with before. Depends on ones view whether that is positive or negative.
Dawson, Lorne L. "Chapter 3 the Sociocultural Significance of Modern New Religious Movements." The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements. Ed. James R.…
Dawson, Lorne L. "Chapter 3 the Sociocultural Significance of Modern New Religious Movements." The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements. Ed. James R. Lewis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 68-93.
Environment and Globalization
Christine Burke calls for a Christina response to the issue of environment and globalization in her essay entitled Globalization and Ecology. She sets forth her estimation of the steps that the Christian world needs to take to change the current affects of globalization on the earth and the societies that inhabit it. Burke calls for "active participation'42 by the Christian community in understanding, "ecological awareness'42 to shape that action, and a "new participation'42 by "creative leadership'42 to engage in action. The goal she stresses is to move from the "individualistic mindset'42 toward one that is "holistic and inclusive."
The Christian community needs to understand the narrow focus of the global community. It is a focus, according to Burke, which idealizes only income and wealth vs. social responsibility. In turn, individual societies suffer as global corporate interests destroy their ecologies. Because corporations operate in what seems to…
Burke, Christine E. "Globalization and Ecology." Earth Revealing, Earth Healing Ecology and Christian Theology. Ed. Denis Edwards. 2001 by The Order of St. Benedict, Inc.: Collegeville, Minnesotta.
ased on the gospels of the New Testament, Jews acted as the murderers of Jesus Christ who in Jewish history is claiming to be the Son of God. Criticizing today's Christian practices such as idolatry which is purely against time old philosophy of the scripture continually arouses negative notion on the true authority of Jesus on his teachings.
Most of the parables of Jesus written in the gospels of the New Testament have survived and prospered in the heart and mind of all Christians. The parable of the Prodigal Son and the parable of the lost sheep are some of the parables that depict the importance given by God towards mankind.
The growth of the early Christian Catholic Church have sporadically developed worldwide since its founding after the death of Jesus Christ with Apostle Peter as the first Pope. The church traces its origin from the 12 Apostles in their…
Judaism; Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005) Extracted July 22, 2006; Website;
Why the Jews Rejected Jesus: The Turning Point in Western History; David Klinghoffer (March 2006) Extracted July 22, 2006
iolence in scripture occurs in a certain context, and with the direct sanction of God. While some imagine themselves to be instruments of God on earth, it has to be taken into account that we no longer live in a world where violence is at the order of the day. We no longer live and die in wars to gain territory or to fulfill prophesies. Instead, the main purpose of religion today is comfort in times of trouble as well as a guide for living well. The Rabbi should therefore emphasize these qualities. Followers should gain an understanding of the Scripture not only in the context of today's life, but also in the context of the time of writing. God is not a perpetrator of violence merely for its sake. His followers should not take it upon themselves to perpetrate violence in the context of a world that is ruled…
Violence in scripture occurs in a certain context, and with the direct sanction of God. While some imagine themselves to be instruments of God on earth, it has to be taken into account that we no longer live in a world where violence is at the order of the day. We no longer live and die in wars to gain territory or to fulfill prophesies. Instead, the main purpose of religion today is comfort in times of trouble as well as a guide for living well. The Rabbi should therefore emphasize these qualities. Followers should gain an understanding of the Scripture not only in the context of today's life, but also in the context of the time of writing. God is not a perpetrator of violence merely for its sake. His followers should not take it upon themselves to perpetrate violence in the context of a world that is ruled by intellect and restraint.
Traer, Robert. Ending Religious Violence in Dharma World (Man/Feb 2004, vol. 31), pp. 9-13.
" Likewise, it seems that those who learned their moral values strictly within religious principles are ether offended or simply incredulous at the suggestion that moral rules are capable of being derived logically, without reference to any God.
Chances are, if there is any such thing as a "God," especially an omniscient one, he (or she) would give more moral "credit" to those who try to do the right thing for its own sake than to those who do good deeds (or refrain from indulging their immoral urges) primarily out of fear. In that regard, the irony of doing the right thing out of concern for well-being of one's own eternal "spirit" after physical death while simultaneously characterizing those who choose to do right without any such fear or concern about an "afterlife" would hardly be lost on any genuinely omniscient…
The value of discipleship stresses the cohesion between the events of the past and the present, a fundamental tenant of psychotherapy. Discipleship also implies a mediation between God and his agents on earth, and the therapist always functions as a mediator between God's grace and earth. Community is also an important tenant of modern therapy, namely that no psychologically healthy human being is a spiritual and social island. Everyone needs social resources to fall back on, such as the church and the family. In particular for Christian counselors, the family often comes to the forefront as part of the patient's community as well as the church community. And apocalypticism focuses on the future and the patient's hopes and plans, over the course of the inner and outer changes weathered during the counseling relationship.
These four important challenges or concepts offered by the book for effective Christian counseling thus form a…
The issue remains debatable, but a case can be made that the mainstream judgment was terribly wrong in a cultural sense" (right 17).
Schools and educational institutes play a vital role in teaching religious traditions and imparting knowledge regarding religion. The most important aspect of teaching religion is to adopt proper method of teaching. Avoiding controversial and extremist point-of-views and including positive elements from religious teachings from various religions could help in developing tolerance in the generation that growing in the era when religious violence is at its peak.
Other School of Thought
The other school of thought makes the case against religion when it comes to controlling violence. They argue that it is the religion that encourages violence simple on the basis of religious differences. People belonging to one religion consider them superior to others. Examples of all major religions including Christianity can be given when these religions induced…
Wright, Elliott a. 'Religion in American Education'. Phi Delta Kappan. 81.1. (1999): 17.
Volf, Miroslav. 'More Religion, Less Violence'. The Christian Century. 119. 8. (April 10, 2002): 32.
Bennett, Gary L 'Preventing School Violence: Is Religion the Answer'. Free Inquiry. 19. 4. (Fall 1999): 28.
Vernon, Glenn M. Sociology of Religion. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature." (Prothero 197). New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma.
As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism. One of…
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In World Religions in America. 4th Edition. Westminster John Knox, 2009.
Prothero, Stephen. "From Spiritualism to Theosophy: 'Uplifting a Democratic Tradition." Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation
Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 197-216.
Identify prejudices and biases in traditional Christian approaches to non-Christian religions, both in general and specifically.
Identify possible objections to Christianity, in terms of theology, ethics, and missiology.
esolve the challenges associated with new era missiology and new era ministry, by developing a comprehensive plan for the future.
Materials: Today's materials will be the same as the previous days.
9:00-9:10: Opening prayer
9:10-11:00: Crash course/review of world religions based on credible source material written from each faith's point-of-view or from a non-biased, scholarly source.
11:00-12:00: Each participant uses his or her personal electronic device or notebook to write down specific areas of concern and possible roadblocks to interfaith dialogue.
1:00-2:00: Share the concerns addressed by each participant openly, engaging in a dialogue of our own. Understanding that our participants are from diverse backgrounds, each will have unique perspectives on multiple faiths. Some will have had first-hand experiences…
Kenneth Cracknell, In Good and Generous Faith: Christian Responses to Religious Pluralism (Pilgrim Press, 2006).
I think this baptism also has changed my relationships and the way I look at my sister and brother-in-law. Before, we never really talked about religion, and I did not realize how important it was to them, and how they wanted to raise their children in the Church. It just did not seem to mean that much to me. However, after I saw the baptism, I would not say that I got more spiritual, but I did understand my family better and their goals for their children. I saw it was important to have goals and ideas about how you want to raise your children, and I saw that it made me feel closer to my sister, her husband, and my nephew. Now, I have ideas and goals about my own family, when I have one. I also try to spend as much time as I can with my nephew.…
Since its humble beginnings, the number of Jesuits in the world has "grown to 24,000 members who work out of 1,825 houses in 112 countries. In the intervening years many Jesuits became renowned for their sanctity (41 Saints and 285 Blesseds), for their scholarship in every conceivable field, for their explorations and discoveries, but especially for their schools (http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/sjhist.htm)." Today, the General Congregations is the authority which presides over the Society.
hen exploring Islam, three terms which need to be understood are Salet, Umma, and Hijra.
Salat is the daily prayer of Muslims and is the second of the five pillars of Islam. These prayers are obligatory, "performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshiper and God. There is no hierarchical authority in Islam, and no priests, so the prayers are led by a learned person who knows the Quran, chosen by congregation…
Definition of Zionism. (accessed 15 August 2005). http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html ).
Pictorial History of the Jesuits. (accessed 17 August 2005). http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/sjhist.htm ).
Church History. (accessed 15 August 2005). http://anglican.org/church/ChurchHistory.html ).
Five Pillars of Islam. (accessed 17 August 2005). http://barney.gonzaga.edu/~islam/salat.html).
eligion and Politics
Uses and Abuses of the Concept of Orientalism
There have been many uses and abuses in regard to the cultural and social concept called Orientalism. "Unlike the Americans, the French and British -- less so the Germans, ussians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Swiss -- have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism, a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient's special place in European Western Experience. The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of Europe's greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its deepest and most recurring images of the other. In addition, the Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, and experience. Yet none of this Orient is merely…
Afzal-Khan, Fawzia (1993). Cultural Imperialism and the Indo-English Novel: Genre and Ideology in R.K. Narayan, Anita Desai, Kamala Markandaya, and Salman Rushdie. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Arac, Jonathan, & Harriet, Ritvo (1995). Macropolitics of Nineteenth-Century Literature: Nationalism, Exoticism, Imperialism. Durham and London: Duke University Press.
Barlow, Tani E. (1997). Formations of Colonial Modernity in East Asia. Durham & London: Duke University Press.
Bruun, Ole (2000). Human Rights and Asian Values: Contesting National Identities and Cultural Representations in Asia. Curzon: Richmond, England.
The U.S. Supreme Court has supported school cooperation in regards to the establishment of religion. They have done this because they respect the religious nature of people and feel that people should be able to accommodate their spiritual needs (hat are the pros and cons of prayer in school, n.d.)?
On the other side of the debate, those who are against putting prayer back into the public schools often argue that school prayer violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment because it says that the government shall not make laws in regards to the establishment of religion. Due to the fact that public schools are financed by the government, prayer that is led by school officials or included in any school program can be seen as government-established religion. Proponents to school prayer feel that school prayer ignores the division of church and state. Traditionally public schools are thought to…
"Prayer in Public School - Overview of Governing Constitutional Principles." 2003. Viewed 23
June, 2010. < http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/prayer-in-public-school.htm >
"What are the pros and cons of prayer in school?" n.d. Viewed 23 June, 2010, <
By concentrating on God's Name (or many titles), one conquers the ego and unites with God" (Islam in Sikhism, n.d.).
The compilation of the Sikh scriptures began in 1604 by the Fifth Guru. The last of the ten Gurus, Guru Gobind Singh, announced that he would be the last personal Guru and that after that Sikhs were to regard the Adi Granth as their teacher. This sacred book is thought to be the living embodiment of all ten Gurus and is therefore the focus of worship in all Sikh temples. The Adi Granth, though never claiming to be a revealed scripture, is made up of three main parts. A long poem by Nanak, that sums up the elements of Sikhism. A collection of Ragas, or songs that were written by the first five Gurus and a mixed collection of commentaries that elaborated on the Ragas together with hymns of many…
"7. Dalits -- on the Margins of Development" n.d. 4 October 2009,
Ali Nadwi, Syed Abul Hasan. 2008. "Islam and Civilization." 4 October 2009, <
Throughout the book, she illustrates how the old-school traditional Muslims and the younger, most liberal Muslims are butting heads and driving a rift in the people and the religion. The more "progressive" Muslims believe that women should play a larger role in the church and the faith, and that some of the religion's tenets must change to keep pace with the 21st century. Others are rooted in the past and want no change whatsoever, in fact, they might become even more restrictive.
Nothing represents this more than the beliefs and traditions surrounding arranged marriage. The Yemenis of the Dix mosque, where Sherine lived, are extremely representative of these old-school Muslims. Most do not plan to remain in the country, and most are extremely resistant to changing their ways to adapt to American society (Abdo 47). These are the groups of Muslims that are holding back others from more fully assimilating…
Abdo, Geneive. Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
As the author writes of women who are fighting to gain more acceptance and input in Islam and their mosques, it is clear she believes that women are not recognized enough in Islam, and that needs to change. She ends the chapter with a scene of a respected Muslim leader handing out awards to Muslim women, and it indicates her strong beliefs on the subject. Many men recognize Muslim women as a source of strength and family that cannot be ignored, while others simply ignore their existence and purpose. The Muslim religion was not based on inequality, it has grown and become popular through hundreds of years of history. The author feels this needs to change, and that women should be an integral part of the Muslim religion, both inside and outside the mosque.
Abdo, Geneive. Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11. New York: Oxford…
Abdo, Geneive. Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Glynn concludes that fundamentalists exist not only in the Creationism Camp, but in the Evolutionism camp as well, regretting the unfortunate irony that Evolutionism Fundamentalists are attempting to suffocate constructive dialogue in much the same way Catholic Priests did in the past.
e. Thomas Demere and Steve Walsh -- Creationism Should Not Be Taught In Public Schools
Demere and Walsh argue that teaching a non-disprovable theory like Creationism would further weaken the already lagging Scientific literacy of American students. Demere and Walsh state that for something to be considered Science, it must depend on rational evidence and observation of natural events. Demere and Walsh conclude that the theory of Creationism does not meet this standard because it is supported only by religious texts and cannot be disproved on its own terms.
Most Personally Appealing Position
Regarding the broader relationship between Science and Religion, I agree most with Ruse, who…
By placing these lessons within the context of the battlefield, Sun Tzu provided thousands of years of audiences with a Taoist approach to conflict and to warfare.
Taoism is traditionally thought of as a peaceful, natural philosophy that avoids fighting much like Buddhism. But this is untrue. Taoism recognizes that life involves conflict, but that the wise man can mediate this conflict and control it so that it is least destructive and most productive. Thus, war is not an anathema to Taoists, merely a last resort. Sun Tzu concludes, "The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence under no circumstances can it be neglected" (Sun Tzu 9). Taoists would agree: conflict is an inescapable part of life, thus a deeper understanding of it such as Sun Tzu provides is the…
Cantrell, Robert L. Understanding Sun Tazu on the Art of War. Arlington, VA: Center for Advantage, 2003.
Evans-Campbell, Brent. "The Art of Strategy." 1999. 9 April 2007 http://www.langara.bc.ca/prm/1999/strategy.html .
Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Ed. James Clavell. New York: Delacorte Press, 1983.
Wilson, Jaret. "The Tao of War." 4 Literature.net. 28 July 2002. 9 April 2007 http://www.4literature.net/story/2002/7/28/114855/249.
Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.
Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC,…
Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/
DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.
Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/on-the-legalization-or-not-of-marijuana/
Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
It upheld, rather than tore down, the existing order. The search for salvation could be seen to be connected to performance of one's duty here in the material world. Confucianism was indeed an important philosophy in the Tokugawa Period, but Japanese forms of Buddhism, together with native Shinto practice always remained central to the Japanese religious experience. As in Korea, Confucian ideals found support because of their emphasis on order. The military classes of the samurai and daimyo, especially, saw a strong linkage between Confucian practice and military ideals, many even criticizing Buddhist doctrines of rebirth as irrational, especially in regard to the idea of the punishment in hell of supposedly incorporeal bodies.
Japanese Neo-Confucianists even criticized Buddhism as an antisocial religion.
Confucianism was seen as supremely rational, while Buddhist doctrines were often questioned by those in authority.
On yet other levels, Chinese ideas were adapted to fit Korean and…
Goodwin, Janet R. Alms and Vagabonds: Buddhist Temples and Popular Patronage in Medieval Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
Lancaster, Lewis R., Richard K. Payne, and Karen M. Andrews, eds. Religion and Society in Contemporary Korea. Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1997.
Leggett, Trevor. Samurai Zen: The Warrior Koans. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Nosco, Peter, ed. Confucianism and Tokugawa Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
Most of the world's religions have many common thoughts and underlying beliefs, including commonalities in beliefs about developing good character and the importance of love and compassion. This essay will attempt to create a new religion (called the Harmony) that is inspired by the commonalities seen in many world religions. Rituals, commandments and beliefs will all be examined, and where applicable, outlined for this new religion.
Stand up comedian George Carlin's comedy routine "Complaints and Grievances" reflects a great many North American's attitudes about faith and sex. The premise of his discussion of the Ten Commandments is that Ten Commandments are an artificially inflated number designed to invoke authority, and that the commandments should be revised down to a minimalist number that are more logical and workable. At the end of his discussion, Carlin gives his list of two commandments. They are, 1) "Thou shalt always be honest and…
Carlin, George. 2001. Complaints and Grievances. Atlantic.
Shreve, Mike. Celebrating Commonalities. The True Light Project. "In Search of the True Light" ©2002 copyright by Mike Shreve. 28 March 2004. http://www.thetruelight.net/commonalities.htm
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…
Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785
James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions
Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;
Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
role of religion in the history of European society is a tumultuous one. Christianity, from its obscure beginnings in the classical age, eventually took the reins as the centerpiece of philosophical, literary, and scientific thought. It is true that religion, often, tends to justify actions that might objectively be perceived as incongruous to the established faith. It has historically been the case that when traditional forms of worship become threatened, morally questionable methods are undertaken to strengthen the order. This is certainly the case with Christianity. Since the birth of the Catholic Church in the Roman Empire, Church officials have actively attempted to make their privileged positions in society impervious to assault -- this process has progressed for centuries and, indeed, tens of centuries. For many years this single faith dominated nearly every aspect of European society and was a strong force in maintaining the status quo. However, the many…
1. Haney, David P. "Christianity and Literature." Malibu, Winter Vol. 54, Iss. 2, 2005.
2. Mill, John Stuart. "Utilitarianism." Reason and Responsibility. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 1999. Pages 571-77.
3. Shelley, Mary. "Frankenstein." The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Seventh Edition, Volume 2. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. Pages 905-1033.
4. Wilde, Oscar. Literary Criticism of Oscar Wilde. Lincoln: Bison Books, 1968. Page, 233.