Religion and Politics Are Issues Research Proposal

Excerpt from Research Proposal :

This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.

Machiavellian Leaders

Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.

The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was protestant while her predecessor was Catholic. Under her predecessor Catholicism became the national religion and heresy laws had been reinstated. As queen Elizabeth I reinstated that Church of England and created the Religious Settlement Law. Queen Elizabeth was able to use her political power to change the religious practices of a nation. As a result politics and religion were intertwined but there was also a clear distinction made between the two factions.

Other Machiavellian Leaders throughout history who intertwined religion and politics were King Phillip II of Spain and Peter the Great of Russian. King Phillip II had a unique responsibility because of the poverty in Spain at the time. Also Spain was not composed of a single monarch but a network of leaders (King Phillip II). King Phillip II had develop alliances with the various leaders in order to handle the political and religious pressures associated with time. There was also an alliance
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with England that proved beneficial in defeating the French (King Phillip II). Religion was such a part of society at the time they were inevitably intertwined in the decisions that the king made (King Phillip II).

Finally Peter the Great of Russia was also a Machiavellian leader who formed great armies who conquered a great deal of both Finland from Sweden. Eventually he had the greatest amount of Power in all of the Northeastern Part of Europe (Peter the Great). While his reign followed the reformation, religion was still a major part of society and tensions still existed. Peter the Great was able to overcome early defeats through alliances formed through the Treaty of Nystadt (Peter the Great).

Modern Europe

Like many wars, the end of the French Wars of Religion (1562 -- 1629) initiated a time of renewal for modern Europe. These impact on modern Europe can be seen in areas of greater religious tolerance and a clear and distinct separation between church and state in most European countries. The Wars of Religion also changed the social, economic and political climate of Europe forever.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to demonstrate an understanding of religious tolerance from 1517 throughout the mid 17th century. The research found that religious tolerance and intolerance were both present in Europe during the aforementioned time period. Ultimately many of these regions worked through their differences with the assistance of dynamic leaders.

Works Cited

Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly

Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363

Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press

King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from: http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/king-philip-ii-spain.htm

Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. Retrieved February 22, from "http:/ / www. historyguide.org/earlymod/95theses.html

Peter the Great. Retrieved February 22, from http: / / staff .gps.edu…

Sources Used in Documents:

Works Cited

Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly

Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363

Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press

King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from: http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/king-philip-ii-spain.htm

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