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It does not suggest that Scripture is infallible; merely that it is divinely inspired. It does not suggest that Scripture should be the controlling definer of Christian faith. It does not suggest that the New Testament should be treated in the same manner as the Old Testament, because Scripture referred solely to the Old Testament until well after the establishment of Christianity. What this means is that someone who uses a critical contextual perspective looks at the actual history behind the writings, places those writings within their historical, anthropological, and sociological settings, and uses those writing as a guidepost for understanding Christianity, rather than as an unwavering definition of Christianity.
ead the first two chapters of Genesis, and based on what you have studied about historical critical interpretation of the Bible, Why don't they (2 stories of creation) coincide? What do you think is the "truth," the message that God…
Hill, B., Knitter, P., & Madges, W. (1997). Faith, religion & theology: A contemporary introduction revised & expanded. Mystic, CT: Twenty-Third Publications.
Spirituality, Religion, and Faith -- a (Diverse) Catholic Perspective
The words spirituality, religion, and faith, are often used interchangeably. hen they are used to connote or denote a specific form of theistic phenomenon, more often than not, the term 'spirituality' is usually used to suggest the more individualistic aspects of God-focused thoughts and actions, the word 'religion' is more often used when discussing the issues of a particular traditional strain of philosophy regarding the divine essence, (such as the phrase 'the Catholic religion') and the notion 'faith' is often referred to as a schema of belief that may or may not be communal or individual -- in other words, to say that one has faith in God means that one has a belief in God.
Given the modern focus on the individual as opposed to the communal experience -- in fact, one might even say, given modernity's self-centered and self-consumed…
Carlson, Paula J. And Hawkins, Peter S. Editors. Listening for God: Contemporary Literature and the Life of Faith. Augsburg/Fortress, 1994.
Guinan, Michael D. "Christian Spirituality." Catholic Update. http://www.americancatholic.org/Newsletters/CU/ac0598.asp
McBrien, Richard. "Faith, Theology, and Belief." Catholicism. Vol. I. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, Inc., 1980, pp. 23-77
Sachs, John R. The Christian Vision of Humanity. Basic Christian Anthropology, Collegeville, Liturgical Press, 1991.
Paul’s writings are naturally cosmopolitan, his being influenced by Hellenistic culture and philosophy as well as Judaism. As a result, Paul’s contributions indelibly and significantly transformed the mode, meaning, and implications of Christ’s message. As Scholz (2013) points out, Paul penned almost half of all New Testament texts: thirteen books. Paul’s theology is “one of the cornerstones upon which the Christian Church is built,” (Zetterholm, 2009, p. 1). What also makes Pauline texts different is that unlike the synoptic gospels, Pauline letters reflect the author’s own theology. Reading and re-reading Pauline theology offers insight into how early Christian theology evolved and was influenced inevitably by historical, cultural, and contextual variables. Moreover, the Pauline letters show how later Christian theologians would revise and reinterpret the teachings of Jesus and his disciples.
Most likely, Paul viewed himself as a theologian, one who felt an intense personal responsibility to travel, preach, and teach…
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…
Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm
"Basics of Buddhism." Retrieved online: http://www.letusreason.org/Buddh1.htm
Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.
The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
Both faiths ascribe to a heaven and a hell, belief in angels and the devil. Moreover, Islam and Christianity teach against crimes against humanity to include violence, gambling, adultery, lying, theft and murder. Both teach that children are to respect their parents and husbands and wives are to be respected. Both Islam and Christianity teach against same sex marriage, homosexuality, fornication, and vulgarism. Both teach of modesty in presentation to the rest of the world. Observation of societal laws is also important to believers in Islam and Christianity (Asad 60).
Islam and Christianity both believe in zakat or charity; extending one's self to those less fortunate. Both traditions teach fasting as a way of getting closer to God as well as enhancing each individual's God like qualities. Despite recent extremist practices by some Muslims, both Islam and Christianity are faiths based on a tradition of peace (Asad 103). Although…
Asad, Talal. Formations of the secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity.2003. Web.
Games, Alex & Victoria Coren. Balderdash and Piffie. One Sandwich short of a dog's dinner. (2007): 143-144.
Goddard, Hugh. Christian-Muslim Relations: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. International Journal for the study of the Christian church, 3.2 (2003): 1-14.
Lowenthal, Kate. The psychology of religion: a short introduction. 2000. Web
eligions of ome
Throughout history, religion has been having a major impact on the societies around the world. In the case of the omans, they had numerous religions that were practiced throughout the reign of the empire. To fully understand these ideas requires looking at the chapter titled Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome. This will be accomplished by summarizing the various points and discussing a broad theme from the chapter. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how specific practices from other cultures affected various oman religions.
In Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome, it is talking about the worship of the sun god name Sol. He was a mythological figure that was considered to have the most power among the various oman pagan gods. This is because the omans believed that the sun was a vital…
Sol in the Roman Empire, 1 -- 30.
Beard Mary. Religions of Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Goldhill Simon. Being Greek Under Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2006.
Mary Beard, Religions of Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 167 -- 363.
Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.
The dialogue between Sam…
Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-intro.asp .
Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.
Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.
Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
Environment and Globalization
Christine Burke calls for a Christina response to the issue of environment and globalization in her essay entitled Globalization and Ecology. She sets forth her estimation of the steps that the Christian world needs to take to change the current affects of globalization on the earth and the societies that inhabit it. Burke calls for "active participation'42 by the Christian community in understanding, "ecological awareness'42 to shape that action, and a "new participation'42 by "creative leadership'42 to engage in action. The goal she stresses is to move from the "individualistic mindset'42 toward one that is "holistic and inclusive."
The Christian community needs to understand the narrow focus of the global community. It is a focus, according to Burke, which idealizes only income and wealth vs. social responsibility. In turn, individual societies suffer as global corporate interests destroy their ecologies. Because corporations operate in what seems to…
Burke, Christine E. "Globalization and Ecology." Earth Revealing, Earth Healing Ecology and Christian Theology. Ed. Denis Edwards. 2001 by The Order of St. Benedict, Inc.: Collegeville, Minnesotta.
Without an understanding of the Arian crisis, it is difficult to understand why later theological debates ensued and tore apart people who essentially believe in the same basic religion. Some Christians might take for granted that Christ is divine, whereas others view Jesus more as a human messenger of God. The Romans were debating this very issue several thousand years ago.
Second, the story of Arius and Athanasius shows that Christianity was not founded by Jesus Christ. Christianity was founded by those who came after Jesus. Christianity was also formed over time, and as the result of crises as bloody and violent as the one that Rubenstein describes in When Jesus Became God. Jesus set in motion a chain of events that would lead to the formation of a new religion, even though Jesus himself might only have been trying to reform Judaism. Jesus may have preached of a new…
In your view, how can Christians and Muslims work to understand one another better?
One of the first ways Christians and Muslims can work to understand one another is to recognize their shared heritage as "people of the book." Their religions are important to their identities and worldviews, and knowing this will also shed light on their common ground. Both Christians and Muslims believe in the veracity of the Hebrew Bible as the cornerstones of their religion. The common grounds between the two faiths, including the stories of the Old Testament, can be starting points for religious dialogue.
Once Christians and Muslims realize they are from a common background, they may be able to inspire compassion in one another. However, it is also important for Christians and Muslims to recognize and understand d their differences and more importantly, respect those differences. Valuing diversity, Christians and Muslims can appreciate that…
Race factored in creates a shift in the view which can be correctly applied to that which affects voting and as well globalization has created its' own impact on voting choices made by the American individual.
Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political ehavior, 26 (2), 155-180.
Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African
American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.
Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at: http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns
Kelly, Nathan J. And Kelly, Jana Morgan. (2005). Religion and Latino Partisanship in the United States. Political Research Quarterly, 58 (1), 87-95.
McClurg, Scott D. (2006). The Electoral Relevance of Political Talk: Examining
Disagreement and Expertise Effects in…
Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political Behavior, 26 (2), 155-180.
Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African
American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.
Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at: http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…
Hopfe, Lewis M. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
" (Leviathan, Chapter 12).
This passage speaks directly to man's relationship with God in Hobbes' eyes. The idea that God exists pre-logic erupts into an understanding that faith and fate play such an integral role in Man's life. Whatever we may do to secure our happiness we may do, but fate and faith play a larger role than we would generally care to admit to be the case.
In general, Hobbes philosophy on religion does satisfy a lot of philosophic ends. It points at one true course (Christianity) and also obviates the need to justify religion in the face of logic and philosophy. As in, we do not need to logically defend Christ's birth, the stories of his life and the prophets, and subsequently the parable of his cruxifiction. In fact, we do not even need to defend logically the basic premises of religion or specifically Christianity.
Instead, we can…
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…
Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa
Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:
Probe Ministries International
Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…
Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly
Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363
Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press
King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from: http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/king-philip-ii-spain.htm
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html
2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
And maybe mass suicides are the old way's means of presenting their final argument. "Whether this is truly the case or not, suicides both individual and collective are only going to increase as frenetic technological changes tear apart tradition and destabilize cultures throughout the world."
Mass suicides are a form of protesting against the changing systems of beliefs; a means of escaping the unsatisfactory world around or pathways to heaven, conducted by weak and sometimes ill minds, led by a diabolic genius who has the capability of playing with others' minds. They exploit religious beliefs in order to make a less or more well founded statement.
And religious exploitation towards the advantage of an individual or group of individuals is not a procedure we are strange from. We should however bear in mind that we are beginning to demolish universal values. And after all, what will happen to…
Joost Abraham Maurits Meerloo, Suicide and Mass Suicide, 1962
Mass Suicides in Recent Years, CNN News, March, 1997, http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9703/27/suicide.list/index.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicides Raise the Question: Why?, CNN News, March 1997, http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9703/27/nfm/suicide.psychology/index.html , last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicide, Holology Department of Research, http://www.holology.com/suicide.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.
The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…
Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…
Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality (Religious Traditions of the World).
Waveland Press; Reprint edition, 1998.
McGrath, Alister E. Science & Religion: An Introduction. New York: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.
(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."
Blend et al. 30)
Max eber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…
Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Sharlet, Jeff, "Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian Right is Reimagining U.S. History" 33-43.
Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
Wood, Richard L. Introduction to Politics and Religion
eligion on Planet Earth
Based on careful observation of the beliefs and practices of people on earth, I can state that human beings are mostly religious people. There are five characteristics that define their religiosity. First, religious people function in groups. They share the same beliefs and perform the same activities as part of their religious activities. Within each group, there is a hierarchy of ranks and people but all people generally identify with the group as a whole.
The second religious characteristic of humans is faith. I have encountered people with different religions. But all of them have faith. Faith involves beliefs in a deity or deities and the existence of supernatural beings called angels and demons. Each religious group believes in it and the group generally agrees upon the fundamentals of faith. The fundamentals are believed to be sacred and are very important for the adherents. The fundamentals…
Johnstone, R.L. (2007) Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
The aim of Christian faith is not to reject the truth of the universe or our individual characteristics, like some religions give, but to gratify our genuine yearnings. Christian faith gives an extremely reasonable contentment, as it encompasses the most ideal manner and justifies our encounter of the world and our own feelings of being. Christian belief accords importance to reason and, of course has a justification for reason. Among the other religions, Christian faith is the most sensible, and thus it can be proposed as the most advanced.
A question might be posed that if God has the supreme power as per Christianity, then what is the reason behind the Almighty unable to resolve the evils of the universe completely. Christianity considers that the Almighty was not behind the making of this world in this collapsing state of affairs or with immorality and pain. He made it entirely good…
In spite of the conflicts between the world's great monotheistic faiths, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share much in common. Each of these religions was born in the Middle East, and each of these religions values sacred texts as being important ways for human beings to receive the word and knowledge of God. As monotheistic religions, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam eschew idol worship or the worship of Gods that are not their own. At the same time, these religions have very similar concepts of God. The Gods of each of these four religions in omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent: a concept of God that actually originated with Zoroastrianism ("God, Zoroaster, and Immortals," n.d.). Zoroastrianism is the oldest of these four faiths, followed by Judaism. The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are collectively referred to as "people of the Book" because all value the Hebrew Bible, which is known…
"Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an." Retrieved online: http://people.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO4_QuranBeliefs.html )
"God, Jesus, and the Saints." BBC Religions. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/basics_1.shtml
"God, Zoroaster, and Immortals." BBC Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian/beliefs/god.shtml#findoutmore
Huda. Allah (God) in Islam. Retrieved online: http://islam.about.com/od/godallah/a/god.htm
Religions of Rome
Long before the mythological figure of Romulus founded Rome, Rome was already being influenced by other religions, specifically the Greek religion when it was occupied by King Evander. King Evander was said, in common folklore, to have shown the escaping Trojan hero Aeneas the city, and the idea that Aeneas was a 'proto-founder' of Rome who brought his household gods to the city became a commonly-accepted part of the city's mythology. It was another great hero, Tarquin the Great, who laid the foundation for the city's temple to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, three of the most important gods in the Roman pantheon. y the time of the deposition of Tarquin the Proud, the structure of the Roman religion had been established.[footnoteRef:1] Thus, one of the most striking characteristics of the early Roman religion was that, unlike other religions of many early civilizations, no single family or leader…
Beard, Mary, John North & Simon Price. Religions Of Rome: Volume 1-A History
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Religion and Mysticism
Two of the world's major religions, Islam and Christianity seem to be very different belief systems. hen comprising a mental picture of a practitioner of one and then the other, they seem to have very different characteristics. However, when examined more closely, it becomes evident that the two religions are based on some of the same principles of kindness towards others, inherent goodness, and most specifically some sort of supernatural or spectacular being that is stronger than anything on earth. Sufism is the branch of Islam which is most comparable with Christian Mysticism, both of which look to some sort of spiritual power that has more strength than mere mortals.
Sufism stems from the Islamic religion. Muhammad is considered the prophet of both sects and this is why the two are so often linked, however Sufism teaches that the spirituality can be combined with any religion. "No…
"Sufism: The Mystical Side of Islam." Islamic Studies in Christian Perspective. Print.
"Sufism -- What is it?" All About Religion. 2002. Print.
Zuck, John. "What is Christian Mysticism?" Wild Things. 2008. Print.
here is a rather complex juxtaposition between the ideals of the founding of the United States and the presumption of religious conversion. he historical and sociological paradigm of religion in America actually spans the great migration of tribes from Asia over the Alaskan land bridge and evolved into various Native American cultures and the European contact between the early 1600s and even into the 20th century. Most of the Amerindian cultures worshiped a naturalistic religion that focused on harmony with nature, a group of Gods that represented spirits of parts of nature, and ways to explain all the natural phenomenon (weather, birth, death, etc.) that are common to human cultures. Religion was more all-encompassing and an approach to explain the universe. Since everything within the universe was part of the natural order, and therefore sacred, these cultures tended to revere all that was in nature and placed humans as…
This conundrum was not adequately addressed during the Constitutional Convention, and it was not until Thomas Jefferson became President that the issue became publically important. In 1802, for instance, members of the Danbury Baptist Association wrote to Jefferson with concerns about the Constitutional requirement for freedom of religion. Jefferson replied, assuring the coalition that there freedoms would be protected and cherished. He noted his previous work from 1777-79 under the Virginia Statute for religious freedom: "Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free… That even the forcing him to support [a state religion] or that teacher of his own religious persuasion is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions…That our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry…yet we are free to declare… the natural rights of mankind" Lippy). This, in essence, formed the basis of the notion that the State cannot make a law establishing a religion or force individual citizens to follow anything other than what they deem appropriate for their own individual belief and need.
Lippy, C. Introducing American Religion. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Religion has been a controversial, almost political matter since its invention. In fact, modern religion was considered as a form or means of civilization. This is clearly seen from many colonization stories where colonialists urged the natives to abandon their ways of worship and embrace the 'civilized ones'. Europe was one of the modern civilizations where it gave Christianity emerged. The clergy used to work closely with kings in passing of judgment and Popes crowned kings. The entire title of Europe being secular is ironic in a number of ways. Firstly, the article states that Europe does not place much attention to religion affecting public life. This is ironic because Europe itself used to execute civilians who did not conform to the ways of the church. Currently, we see a Europe with a diminishing trend in terms of religious practices. If such continues, the region is taking a direction of…
Pew Research Center. Secular Europe and Religious America: Implications for Transatlantic
Relations. Pew Research Center. Web. 2005. Accessed 19 February 2014
ith regard to strong network ties, religions like Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses will grow in communities with strong social connections that already exist. Thus, a few core members of the community become converted. Those core members are trusted in the community, and therefore community members are far more likely to embrace the faith through their trusted friends, neighbors, or family members than by total strangers. The growth of Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses may also have to do with deeper psychological issues in places where these sects have been growing. Just as consumer behavior is linked to psychological theories, including theories of personality, so too is behavior regarding choice of religion. Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses both demand a strict adherence to a set of rules related to personal conduct and social behavior. Proselytizing actively is also considered part of one's religious duty and social contract.
Therefore, what Stark and Iannacoone say…
Lippy, Charles. Introducing American Religion. Routledge, 2009.
While art is certainly a part of culture, other cultural gifts to history mark religion as a positive force. Without the music, ceremony, poetry, and holy books of Muslim, Hindu, and Christian texts, the world would be without significant Beauty. In their own ways, each of these traditions shaped the cultures that would come after them in significant theological, intellectual, and cultural ways. Burhan writes that Islamic influence in the world has included charity, justice, and unity. Wade writes that even as Christianity is often vilified as a blight to mankind, it made great contributions to science, freedom, ethics and morality, medicine, etc. In conclusion, the ancient history of Eurasia would not have been the same without religion. While religious wars are certainly an important part of history, religion's contributions in the areas of art and culture suggest the positive role religion played in the shaping of contemporary society.
Burhan, R. "Islam's Contribution and Influence on the World." Institute of Islam and Arabic Studies.n.d. 26 July 2009.
Religion of the Spirits
In responding to adherents of the Religion of the Spirits, one might expect very different statements by St. Thomas Aquinas and the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Indeed, these two personalities are opposite ends of the religious scale, with the former believing without any doubt that God exists and Catholicism is the true religion, and the latter being a believer in nihilism, physical life as the only existence that can reasonably be expected, and the non-existence of God. One similarity between Aquinas and Nietzsche is that they both believe unshakably in their respective viewpoints. There is therefore not much likelihood that the Religion of the Spirits will be able to convince either of their "truth."
If believers in the Religion of the Spirits were therefore to try and convince Thomas Aquinas of the truth of their religion, I believe he would in turn explain to them that there…
Religion & Life Cycle
Different religious visions, different life cycles: The religious experience according to Rosenstock-Huessey and the Medicine Rite
Religion has always been the binding force that enabled humanity to create meaning in their lives and maintain unity among them. As a way of expressing spiritual reality, religion is instrumental in providing humanity a way of converting into concrete form (i.e., rituals and religious symbols) the different emotions associated to one's belief in a religion. Perhaps one of the most important functions that religion has for humanity is that it is able to depict humanity as the most important creature that the Supreme Being (or God) had created in the universe. That in our attempt to give meaning and purpose in life, we humans subsist to religion in order to validate that we, indeed, matter the most to God above anything else. This spiritual reality, despite its selfish nature,…
There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…
Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.
Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / / jbe.gold.ac.uk.
Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.
eligion or Science?
Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…
Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science
And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins
Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847.
From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century.
Modern Portrait of Xuanzang.
From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels.
I agreed with Paul's perspective that the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual and cannot be fully understood by the human mind. I also believe that following death, Christians will not experience a physical rebirth, but expect to live an immortal, spiritual life in heaven. Paul's perspective encourages rebirth as a spiritual phenomenon. I think this belief closely ties with the second view of the resurrection, which is the resurrection occurred only in the imagination or faith of those closest to Jesus. Paul believes the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual, and liberates Christians from death by promising an immortal life in the likeness of Jesus. I feel there is a strong psychological element to this belief that can be explained as faith and the hope for death to not be the end of existence. Paul's point-of-view explains death is not an ending, but the beginning of immortal life. I agree with…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 169-179. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 139-152. Print.
Religion the Gospel of Matthew
There are a number of similarities between Helmut Koester's article, The Gospel of Matthew: Jesus as the New Moses, and that of Marilyn Moses, also entitled The Gospel of Moses. Both of these works examine the reason and purpose that the book of Matthew was written, and explore the impact upon the immediate surrounding community of Christianity. However, in order to best summarize these works, it is necessary to do so individually, in order to gain the best understanding of these articles.
Koester's article primarily focuses on the book of Matthew's portrayal of Jesus as being directly descended from Abraham and aligned with traditional Israeli law. This is a particularly important aspect of the Koester's article (and the book of Matthew), because it verifies the fact that Jesus's teachings and works are directly in accordance with the Israeli tradition which preceded his existence, and which…
Like Khan, Huxley focused on the sensations of the person (himself) having the mystical experience. During his experience, Huxley felt he had no impairment in his mind or gaze, an intensity of vision without an outer and imposed substance to induce the hallucination, and had a sense that his impetus of motion or will was impaired into a state of stasis (a direct contrast with Khan's focus on the ability of music to provide motion to parallel the nature of the divine). Above all, Huxley called his sense of harmony through visual means mystical because his visual experience eliminated any sense of division inner/outer divide in perception. As he looked at the flower, and Huxley felt he was becoming the flower.
This stands in direct contrast to Kepler's schema of harmony, which is dependant upon perceptions of distinction from outside, as an observer perceives defined opposites. Kepler's definition of harmony…
Religion does not necessarily need to be considered to be something spiritual, as it can also teach people in relation to moral values and about how they can distinguish between good and bad.
A modern school system needs to be fair towards everyone and this can only be made possible by school authorities allowing children to express themselves without restraint. Parents should have the right to decide what their children will learn in school. Religion is generally beneficial for opening people's minds and for preparing them to behave properly in the contemporary society.
1. lanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Perry lanzer's article presents readers with solid arguments regarding to why the teaching of religion in schools must not be regarded as something immoral. Also, the paper brings support to religion and reveals the reasons for which it…
Glanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Wright, Elliot a. (1999). "Religion in American Education." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 81.
Brewster, Karin L. & Cooksey, Elizabeth C. & Guilkey, David K. & Rindfuss, Ronald R. (1998). "The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States." Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 60, No. 2.
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…
Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.
Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm
Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
Religion, in whichever form of it, has over the centuries been upheld by various groups as the ultimate guide to good living, harmonious coexistence and the sole source of spiritual nourishment. Virtually all religions uphold their beliefs as the truest path to a purpose driven life and a fulfilling existence on earth and even beyond. The religious writing have situations, case scenarios and story of individuals that are geared towards teaching the readers the purpose for which they are alive and how to overcome various challenges like the religious sages did in the various writings from varying religions. Being that the religious writings define our livelihood and are our spiritual guide, there is the interaction between the spiritual and the physical. The physical body is deemed complete once it is given that functional purpose by the spiritual aspects of religion.
However, the flip side to it is that the same…
Is Jesus the Only Savoir? Is onald H. Nash's opportunity to develop a passionate and well-developed argument answering yes: yes, Jesus is the only Savoir. However, Nash does not rest on the reader's understanding or experience of faith to make his case. The author takes a different approach, using logic and reason to explain that at least to a believer in Christ, there can be no other paradigm other than Christian absolutism. According to Nash, pluralism by its very definition violates the tenets inherent in the New Testament. It is therefore impossible for a theologian, especially a Christian one, to be a pluralist.
Nash's scapegoat, for better or worse, is John Hick. Hick is a theologian who has succumbed to the temptation of thinking pluralistically and who attempts to show that Jesus is in fact not the only savior. Nash picks apart Hick's argument by revealing the logical fallacies…
Bible: New International Version (NIV)
Johnsey, Allen. "A Critique of Is Jesus the Only Savior?" Nov 5, 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.mainstreetmission.com/index.php?p=1_76_A-Critique-of-Is-Jesus-the-Only-Savior-
Johnson, Keith E. "John Hick's Pluralistic Hypothesis and the Problem of Conflicting Truth-Claims." Retrieved online: http://www.leaderu.com/wri/articles/hick.html
Nash, Ronald H. "Is Jesus the Only Savoir?" Christian Research Institute. Retrieved online: http://www.equip.org/articles/is-jesus-the-only-savior/
Many claim Islam increases their sense of worth. Islam particularly appeals to disaffected young men. Solomon, 23-years-old, participated in a television interview. "It's not a part of our religion to stand there and get stepped on," Solomon said. "That's why Islam is so good for the Aboriginal people." (Australian Aborigines...)
Europeans prefer the name "Koori" for Aborigine, even though they named the native Australians "Aborigine." Aborigine, however, means "from the beginning." Aborigines "taught their children dances, songs, and stories for both sacred and non-sacred rituals that taught them traditions and history of the past, present and future." (Australian Aborigines...) Along with plants, animals, other natural objects, man categorized himself with his totem. Aborigines focused on and blamed the supernatural for every scenario. Some individuals believed a victim of a spell would usually sicken and die, because they believed it would happen. At one time in the Aborigines' religion, the "medicine…
AIPR Fact sheet: Psychic and Mystical Experiences of the Aborigines. (2002). 07 December 2006. http://www.aiprinc.org/aborig.asp.
Australian Aborigines Dreamers. (2002). 7 December 2006. http://www.religionportal.com/ReligionFinder/religions/australiaaborigines.htm.
Australian Aboriginal Religion." (2006). 7 December 2006. http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/westoc/abor.html.
OZ CITY AUSTRALIA - Australian Aborigines. (2001). 07 December 2006. http://ozcity.faithweb.com/aborigines.html .
"One of the most important contemporary developments in the religious field among U.S. Latinos has been the rapid growth of evangelical Protestantism, particularly Pentecostalism," (Vasquez 617). Pentecostalism is a charismatic, evangelical Protestant denomination. Known best for its espousal of "speaking of tongues, faith healing, divine visions and miracles," Pentecostalism has enjoyed a strong presence in Latin America alongside Catholicism (Kunerth). Pentecostalism is growing among American Hispanics, too, both because of immigration from countries with an already strong Pentecostal base but also because of social, political, and personal psychological changes within the Hispanic-American community. Many new immigrants from Latin America, especially Nicaragua, Honduras and the Caribbean, are already Pentecostal because of the religion has flourished there for decades (Kunerth)
However, Pentecostalism was born in the United States. The religion reflects a uniquely American religious culture. William J. Seymour is widely credited with being the "father of Pentecostalism," after starting what…
DePalma, Anthony. "God's Word, Echoing in English; Hispanic Pentecostal Churches Face Bilingual Problem." The New York Times. 02 Jan, 2003. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/02/nyregion/god-s-word-echoing-english-hispanic-pentecostal-churches-face-bilingual-problem.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Espinoza, Efraim. "Hispanic Pentacostalism." Enrichment Journal. 2011. Retrieved online: http://enrichmentjournal.ag.org/199904/059_hispanic.cfm
Garza, Jennifer. "Hispanics Increasingly Drawn to Pentecostal Church." Hispanic News. 9 May, 2009. Retrieved online: http://hispanic.cc/hispanics_increasingly_drawn_to_pentecostal_church.htm
Kunerth, Jeff. "Hispanics Flock to Pentecostal Churches." Orlando Sentinel. 02 Jan, 2010. Retrieved online: http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/2010-01-02/features/os-hispanic-pentecostals_3-20100101_1_pentecostal-churches-hispanic-congregation-pew-hispanic-center
And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445657
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445659 .
A www.geocities.com/lawandabrewer_uncp"Brewer, Jaques, Jones, and King. (2001). 23 Sept 2007 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/religion.htm .
Crossing the Ocean to Keep the Faith: The Puritans. (2007) Library of Congress. 23 Sept 2007 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html .
Friedrich Von Schlegel (1772-1829), German philosopher. Idea 14 in Selected Ideas (1799-1800), Franklin, Benjamin. His Autobiography. Vol. I, Part 1. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/1/1/.23 Sept 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/1/1/4.html .
In Chapter 5, the great churchman informs us that Water is in fact an apt designation for the Divinity, better than any of the other elements.
Water possess the unique properties of being more moveable than earth (though less movable than air) while at the same time being essential to the creation and sustaining of life, as in the way water must be added to the soil in order for plants to grow.
This signification of matter first conveys its end, that is, that for the sake of which it was made; secondly, its formlessness; thirdly, its service and subjection to the Maker. Therefore, it is first called heaven and earth; for its sake matter was made. Secondly, the earth invisible and without form and darkness over the abyss, that is, the formlessness itself without the light, as a result of which the earth is said to be invisible. Thirdly,…
Augustine. Augustine of Hippo, Selected Writings. Translated by Clark, Mary T. New York: Paulist Press, 1984.
Augustine. Confessions, Trans. Albert C. Outler, Ph.D, D.D. (1994, orig. pub. 1955).
They angered God, and as God has done throughout the ages, He punished the Jews. Many of them retain their faith and hope in God, and retained it even during their time in the concentration camps - it was the only thing that helped them to survive when all other hope had died. On the other hand, many Jews saw the camps as a place where they lost their belief in God. They questioned how He would allow such a thing to happen, and felt He had turned His back on them when they needed Him the most. Neither of these reactions is surprising. Another historian believes this gap between acceptance and denial of God will continue. He writes, "I believe that Jewish religious thought will continue to demonstrate this tension between mixed intentions, innovation, and conservation well into the future" (Braiterman 164). Faith is a tenuous thing for many.…
Braiterman, Zachary. (God) after Auschwitz: Tradition and Change in Post-Holocaust Jewish Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Mandel, Naomi. "Ethics after Auschwitz: The Holocaust in History and Representation." Criticism 45.4 (2003): 509+.
Mathis, Andrew E. "General Semantics and Holocaust Denial." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 63.1 (2006): 52+.
Raphael, Melissa. The Female Face of God in Auschwitz: A Jewish Feminist Theology of the Holocaust. New York: Routledge, 2003.
The value of discipleship stresses the cohesion between the events of the past and the present, a fundamental tenant of psychotherapy. Discipleship also implies a mediation between God and his agents on earth, and the therapist always functions as a mediator between God's grace and earth. Community is also an important tenant of modern therapy, namely that no psychologically healthy human being is a spiritual and social island. Everyone needs social resources to fall back on, such as the church and the family. In particular for Christian counselors, the family often comes to the forefront as part of the patient's community as well as the church community. And apocalypticism focuses on the future and the patient's hopes and plans, over the course of the inner and outer changes weathered during the counseling relationship.
These four important challenges or concepts offered by the book for effective Christian counseling thus form a…
If the teacher and the majority of the class were engaged in prayer, that student will undoubtedly be receiving the message that his or her beliefs are inferior and not as important. Schools are the primary institutions of forming social and political identities, and it is for this reason that they must be kept religiously neutral.
Allowing religion into public schools will only increase feelings of separatism and inequality in this country. It is not only Constitutionally forbidden, but it is also ethically and morally prohibited. Whether or not the religion is permitted to directly influence the workings of the class, members of non-dominant religions or who are not at all religious will necessarily feel inferior to the rest of the class. The protection of their rights in the face of other's actions is the primary concern of the Constitution.
I. Freedom of religion is a founding principle.…
"Even in an era that's more accepting of spirituality, the prospect of religion seeping into secular institutions, especially corporate ones, makes many uneasy" (Conlin 1999).
To tread a delicate balance between showing respect for religious differences and still allowing and encouraging spiritual and ethical concerns to be discussed in the workplace can be difficult. To do so "most companies and executives are careful to stick to a cross-denominational, hybrid message that's often referred to as secular spirituality. It focuses on the pluralistic, moral messages common to all the great religions, such as...respecting the interconnectedness of all actions and things, and practicing the Golden Rule. But it also puts a premium on free expression and eschews cramming beliefs down other people's throats" (Conlin 1999). Still, there is no way that 'all of the people can be pleased, all of the time,' to co-opt a phrase from P.T. Barnum. Every time a…
Abernathy, Bob. "Faith in the Workplace." Episode Number 822. 28 Jan 2005.
13 Dec 2007. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/religionandethics/week822/cover.html
Conlin, Michelle. "Religion in the Workplace: The growing presence of spirituality in Corporate America." Business Week. Special Issue 1999. http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_44/b3653001.htm
Religion in the workplace: Asset or debit?" Religion: News writers. 16 May 2005.
She points out that there has been such division in modern Christianity that it is difficult to describe a universal Christian worldview. However, she describes the basic beliefs and practices that are considered universal to Christians. She also discusses Christianity's waves in Africa, the first one occurring in the first century a.D. Jesus was taken to Egypt to avoid being killed by King Herod and Jesus' early message spread into North Africa. Christianity did not become a major influence in African religion until the 1800s, and is now one of the two primary religions practiced in the country.
Finally, Aderibigbe discusses Islam. She describes Islam as a monotheistic religion worshipping Allah. She describes the historic origins of Islam, which grew out of the teachings of Mohammed. She also links Islam to Judaism and Christianity, naming it the third in the three Abrahamic religions. She describes the major themes of Islam…
Aberibigbe, I. (2012). Chapter Five: Religions in Africa. In I. Aderbigbe & a. Ojo Eds.
Continental Complexities: A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Africa, ( pp.61- 84). USA: University Readers, Inc.
Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.
First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…
Edwards, L., 2001. A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Esposito, J., Fasching, D., and Lewis, T., 2002. World Religions Today. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hopfe, L. And Woodward, M., 2001. Religions of the World, 8th ed.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Sharma, A., 1993. Our Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers.
Part Two of onald Nash's book Is Jesus the Only Savior? deals with the topic of religious inclusivism. Inclusivists "insist that all people must have a chance to be saved," regardless of their belief in Christ.[footnoteef:1] Not quite the opposite of exclusivism, inclusivism does allow for the potential ability of non-believers to be saved, but just emphasizes the unlikeliness of that actually occurring.[footnoteef:2] Kanno presents inclusivism as a view that tacitly approves religions other than one's own but " as a preparatory stage to one's own religion."[footnoteef:3] Hick's stance on inclusivism is that it is just a "soft form of exclusivism."[footnoteef:4] Because Nash is a hard exclusivist, the author finds certain problems with the inclusivism stance. [1: Nash, onald H, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? p. 104.] [2: obinson, B.A, 2011. "How People View the Status of eligions Other than Their Own." etrieved: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm] [3: Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d.…
Bible: New International Version
Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d. Inclusivism and Religious Tolerance in the Lotus Sutra. Retrieved online: http://www.iop.or.jp/0515/kanno.pdf
Nash, Ronald, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Robinson, B.A., 2011. How people view the status of religions other than their own. Retrieved online: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm
eligion and Politics
All religions aim to provide a code of life for mankind. Apart from other tenets, this code establishes laws that govern all areas of man's life. Thus the laws established by the religion Islam are termed as Shariah. The term Shariah means all of the Islamic Laws and is derived from four basic sources. These sources are The Holy Quran, Sunnah, Ij'ma (consensus) of the Companions (Sahabah) and Qiyas or analogical deduction. These laws are not just limited to areas such as marriage or divorce; rather, the Islamic laws cover every action performed by an individual or a society. The term Shariah is also synonymous with Fiqh. However the term Fiqh means knowledge of all the Islamic Laws (Shariah). It can also be taken to mean the Knowledge of the sources from where the Islamic Laws (Shariah) have been extracted.
Shariah or Islamic Laws are divine ways…
S.Q. Fatimi, Islam Comes to Malaysia. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, (MSRI), Singapore. 1963;
EDITH M. LEDERER, Associated Press Writer, U.N. Development Fund for Women protests stoning sentence against Nigerian woman., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
Author not available, Mexico's president to fight death penalty in Nigeria., AP Worldstream, 08-28-2002.
D'ARCY DORAN, Associated Press Writer, Nigerian government 'totally opposed' to death by stoning sentence., AP Worldstream, 08-22-2002
This book, written from a scholarly viewpoint by professors of religion, looks at the dynamics of seven major religious traditions and how those traditions are adapting to the world of globalization.
Rifkin, I. Spiritual Perspectives on Globalization: Making Sense of Economic and Cultural Upheaval. Woodstock, VT: Skylight Paths Publishing. Print.
For author, speaker and journalist Ira Rifkin, globalization is changing how humans live at a very rapid, and sometimes unpredictable, rate. Some of this change revolves around the shift in values from individual cultures and the anger and uncomfortability humans are left with when faced with change. The book, written in lay terms without undue citations, examines Catholicism, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Baha'i, tribal religions and Protestantism to explain how each view the economic, social and religious aspects of globalism. The major point focuses on how the social constructs that tend to arise out of spirituality can not only enhance…
They have tended, however, to remain tied to the restrictive interpretive options set in place by earlier thinkers preoccupied with the issue of secularization. In part, this is because they lacked a sufficiently comprehensive and detailed understanding of the nature of the changes gripping late modern societies. (69)
It is evident that religion still stands strong regardless of new religious movements; all that has happened is that there are individuals that view religion from a different perspective now than they may have previously, and that in fact may not be such a bad thing. Researchers also say that this new wave is bringing people into various religions that have not previously been associated with before. Depends on ones view whether that is positive or negative.
Dawson, Lorne L. "Chapter 3 the Sociocultural Significance of Modern New Religious Movements." The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements. Ed. James R.…
Dawson, Lorne L. "Chapter 3 the Sociocultural Significance of Modern New Religious Movements." The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements. Ed. James R. Lewis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 68-93.
The work of Chidester explores different types of death, and symbolizes three patterns describing the transcendence of death: ancestral, experiential, and cultural (12). Types of death, and the way death is imagined, can help human beings die in a meaningful way, give life ultimate meaning, and significance (Chidester: 12). The ancestral transcendence represents a type of biological death, meaning this form of transcendence provides a way for the individual to connect with a continuous biological chain of parents and offspring (Chidester: 12). This is significant as the family line is not broken by death; death provides an ongoing continuity of family. The psychological type of death is considered experiential transcendence, and represents "profound and often intense psychological experiences that embrace death in acceptance or ecstasy" (Chidester: 14). Accepting and embracing death signifies death as a psychologically peaceful experience. A third type of death is social, referred to as cultural transcendence,…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-36. Print.
The song "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles is a song about loneliness, wanting, and hopelessness. The song begins with the lyric, "Ah, look at all the lonely people." The line is repeated twice and gives an obvious nod to the song's theme of loneliness. The song details Eleanor Rigby's life to embellish her loneliness and her longing for a better life. The first line about Eleanor is, "Eleanor Rigby picks up the rice in the church where a wedding has been/Lives in a dream." This lyric explains Eleanor throwing rice after a wedding ceremony, and dreams of having her own wedding and belonging. She is alone, and wishes for something more from her life. Eleanor Rigby lives her life in isolation, and this is signified by the lyric, "Waits at the window, wearing the face that she keeps in a jar by the door/Who is it for?" Eleanor puts on a mask, "wearing a face," so that no one will be able to tell how lonely and empty she feels. The line, "Who is it for?" suggests, "What's the point? Why bother?" There is a sense of hopelessness. The song departs from The Beatles "pop-rock" sound, and has no drums, guitar, or piano accompaniment. The song only uses string instruments, adding to feeling of loneliness. The absence of other instruments allows for the desperation of the strings to be heard, and the isolation of the strings mimics Eleanor Rigby's isolation. A wish that people might have when they die, as suggested by the song, is to not die alone. The lyric, "All the lonely people/Where do they all belong?" suggests, "Where do the lonely people go?" And if no one is witness to their life, how does one know where the lonely people go? According to the song, Eleanor Rigby did not get this common wish. The lyrics states, "Eleanor Rigby died in the church and was buried along with her name/Nobody came." Eleanor Rigby died alone, and no one attended her funeral. The phrase, "was buried along with her name" refers to her being buried with her memory. She was alone in the world, and there is no one left behind to remember her; there is no memory by which she can continue to live.
Divine Command Theory is the ethical theory that says that what God wills or command determines the moral status of various actions, or in other words, "an act is right if and only if God wills or commands it...an act is wrong if and only if God forbids it" (Religion pp). Yet, this simply states what people are supposed to do, and does not take into account free will and individual accountability (Religion pp). This is also a version of absolutism, for it claims that certain acts are right or wrong universally, whether or not one believes in God (Religion pp).
Divine Command Theory presents two problems:
There are many different interpretations of God's commands (and one would think that if God were God he would make the truth explicit so that it could be known).
DCT presupposes God's existence.
hen faced with a situation, I generally seek…
The Divine Command Theory." http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/divinecommandtheory.html
Religion and Morality." http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/philosophy/courses/Bengson/PR%204-2123.htm
In addition, many religious groups are reviving their sacred ways because the westernized Christian religions do not meet their needs or desires. Many indigenous people feel left out or ignored in western religions, and so, they turn to their indigenous sacred ways because they conform to their belief systems and their values better than religions that were founded on European principles and beliefs. Many people, as they explore their pasts, find that their sacred ways seem to speak to them in a way that other organized religions may not. In addition, indigenous people, no matter who they are or where they live, have cultural ties to these sacred ways, and they may simply feel more comfortable with them, as if they are a better fit than other belief systems. It makes sense for a number of reasons, and more people are discovering their roots and sacred ways every year.