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Separation of Church and State: A Moral Dilemma
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
The First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States guarantees the right to practice one's own religion without discrimination or retribution for doing so. Yet at the same time, when the question of opening each school day with a prayer is proposed it is met with public outrage. Religion has all but been taken out of America and the results can be seen everywhere you look. The media is filled with teenagers stealing, doing drugs, and committing violent acts. Many see it as a sign of the downfall of the…
American Civil Liberties Union. (ACLU). "Joint Statement of Current Law on Religion in the Public Schools." April 12, 1995. Accessed October 2002. http://www.aclu.org/ReligiousLiberty/ReligiousLiberty.cfm?ID=9007&c=139 .
Baker, Mike. "Do religion and schools mix?" BBC Broadcast transcript. Aired Saturday,
Coeyman, Marjorie. Finding the right fit for religion and schools. The Christian Science
Religion does not necessarily need to be considered to be something spiritual, as it can also teach people in relation to moral values and about how they can distinguish between good and bad.
A modern school system needs to be fair towards everyone and this can only be made possible by school authorities allowing children to express themselves without restraint. Parents should have the right to decide what their children will learn in school. Religion is generally beneficial for opening people's minds and for preparing them to behave properly in the contemporary society.
1. lanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Perry lanzer's article presents readers with solid arguments regarding to why the teaching of religion in schools must not be regarded as something immoral. Also, the paper brings support to religion and reveals the reasons for which it…
Glanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Wright, Elliot a. (1999). "Religion in American Education." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 81.
Brewster, Karin L. & Cooksey, Elizabeth C. & Guilkey, David K. & Rindfuss, Ronald R. (1998). "The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States." Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 60, No. 2.
If the teacher and the majority of the class were engaged in prayer, that student will undoubtedly be receiving the message that his or her beliefs are inferior and not as important. Schools are the primary institutions of forming social and political identities, and it is for this reason that they must be kept religiously neutral.
Allowing religion into public schools will only increase feelings of separatism and inequality in this country. It is not only Constitutionally forbidden, but it is also ethically and morally prohibited. Whether or not the religion is permitted to directly influence the workings of the class, members of non-dominant religions or who are not at all religious will necessarily feel inferior to the rest of the class. The protection of their rights in the face of other's actions is the primary concern of the Constitution.
I. Freedom of religion is a founding principle.…
I agreed with Paul's perspective that the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual and cannot be fully understood by the human mind. I also believe that following death, Christians will not experience a physical rebirth, but expect to live an immortal, spiritual life in heaven. Paul's perspective encourages rebirth as a spiritual phenomenon. I think this belief closely ties with the second view of the resurrection, which is the resurrection occurred only in the imagination or faith of those closest to Jesus. Paul believes the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual, and liberates Christians from death by promising an immortal life in the likeness of Jesus. I feel there is a strong psychological element to this belief that can be explained as faith and the hope for death to not be the end of existence. Paul's point-of-view explains death is not an ending, but the beginning of immortal life. I agree with…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 169-179. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 139-152. Print.
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…
Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm
"Basics of Buddhism." Retrieved online: http://www.letusreason.org/Buddh1.htm
Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.
The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
Religion the Gospel of Matthew
There are a number of similarities between Helmut Koester's article, The Gospel of Matthew: Jesus as the New Moses, and that of Marilyn Moses, also entitled The Gospel of Moses. Both of these works examine the reason and purpose that the book of Matthew was written, and explore the impact upon the immediate surrounding community of Christianity. However, in order to best summarize these works, it is necessary to do so individually, in order to gain the best understanding of these articles.
Koester's article primarily focuses on the book of Matthew's portrayal of Jesus as being directly descended from Abraham and aligned with traditional Israeli law. This is a particularly important aspect of the Koester's article (and the book of Matthew), because it verifies the fact that Jesus's teachings and works are directly in accordance with the Israeli tradition which preceded his existence, and which…
And bee it also Enacted by the Authority and with the advise and assent aforesaid that whatsoever person or persons shall from henceforth use or utter any reproachfull words or Speeches concerning blessed Virgin Marv the Mother of Our Saviour or the holy Apostles or Evangelists or any of them shall in such case for the first offence forfeit to the said Lord Proprietary and his heirs Lords and Proprietaries of this Province the sume of five pound Sterling or the value thereof to be Levyed on the goods and chattells of every such person soe offending, but in case such Offender or Offenders, shall not then have goods and chattells sufficient for the satisfying of such forfeiture, or that the same bee not otherwise speedily satisfyed that then such Offender or Offenders Shall be publiquely whipt and bee imprisoned during the pleasure, of the Lord Proprietary or the Lieut.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445657
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=90445659 .
A www.geocities.com/lawandabrewer_uncp"Brewer, Jaques, Jones, and King. (2001). 23 Sept 2007 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/religion.htm .
Crossing the Ocean to Keep the Faith: The Puritans. (2007) Library of Congress. 23 Sept 2007 http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel01.html .
Friedrich Von Schlegel (1772-1829), German philosopher. Idea 14 in Selected Ideas (1799-1800), Franklin, Benjamin. His Autobiography. Vol. I, Part 1. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/1/1/.23 Sept 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/1/1/4.html .
eligion on Planet Earth
Based on careful observation of the beliefs and practices of people on earth, I can state that human beings are mostly religious people. There are five characteristics that define their religiosity. First, religious people function in groups. They share the same beliefs and perform the same activities as part of their religious activities. Within each group, there is a hierarchy of ranks and people but all people generally identify with the group as a whole.
The second religious characteristic of humans is faith. I have encountered people with different religions. But all of them have faith. Faith involves beliefs in a deity or deities and the existence of supernatural beings called angels and demons. Each religious group believes in it and the group generally agrees upon the fundamentals of faith. The fundamentals are believed to be sacred and are very important for the adherents. The fundamentals…
Johnstone, R.L. (2007) Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
ith regard to strong network ties, religions like Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses will grow in communities with strong social connections that already exist. Thus, a few core members of the community become converted. Those core members are trusted in the community, and therefore community members are far more likely to embrace the faith through their trusted friends, neighbors, or family members than by total strangers. The growth of Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses may also have to do with deeper psychological issues in places where these sects have been growing. Just as consumer behavior is linked to psychological theories, including theories of personality, so too is behavior regarding choice of religion. Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses both demand a strict adherence to a set of rules related to personal conduct and social behavior. Proselytizing actively is also considered part of one's religious duty and social contract.
Therefore, what Stark and Iannacoone say…
Lippy, Charles. Introducing American Religion. Routledge, 2009.
The work of Chidester explores different types of death, and symbolizes three patterns describing the transcendence of death: ancestral, experiential, and cultural (12). Types of death, and the way death is imagined, can help human beings die in a meaningful way, give life ultimate meaning, and significance (Chidester: 12). The ancestral transcendence represents a type of biological death, meaning this form of transcendence provides a way for the individual to connect with a continuous biological chain of parents and offspring (Chidester: 12). This is significant as the family line is not broken by death; death provides an ongoing continuity of family. The psychological type of death is considered experiential transcendence, and represents "profound and often intense psychological experiences that embrace death in acceptance or ecstasy" (Chidester: 14). Accepting and embracing death signifies death as a psychologically peaceful experience. A third type of death is social, referred to as cultural transcendence,…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-36. Print.
The song "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles is a song about loneliness, wanting, and hopelessness. The song begins with the lyric, "Ah, look at all the lonely people." The line is repeated twice and gives an obvious nod to the song's theme of loneliness. The song details Eleanor Rigby's life to embellish her loneliness and her longing for a better life. The first line about Eleanor is, "Eleanor Rigby picks up the rice in the church where a wedding has been/Lives in a dream." This lyric explains Eleanor throwing rice after a wedding ceremony, and dreams of having her own wedding and belonging. She is alone, and wishes for something more from her life. Eleanor Rigby lives her life in isolation, and this is signified by the lyric, "Waits at the window, wearing the face that she keeps in a jar by the door/Who is it for?" Eleanor puts on a mask, "wearing a face," so that no one will be able to tell how lonely and empty she feels. The line, "Who is it for?" suggests, "What's the point? Why bother?" There is a sense of hopelessness. The song departs from The Beatles "pop-rock" sound, and has no drums, guitar, or piano accompaniment. The song only uses string instruments, adding to feeling of loneliness. The absence of other instruments allows for the desperation of the strings to be heard, and the isolation of the strings mimics Eleanor Rigby's isolation. A wish that people might have when they die, as suggested by the song, is to not die alone. The lyric, "All the lonely people/Where do they all belong?" suggests, "Where do the lonely people go?" And if no one is witness to their life, how does one know where the lonely people go? According to the song, Eleanor Rigby did not get this common wish. The lyrics states, "Eleanor Rigby died in the church and was buried along with her name/Nobody came." Eleanor Rigby died alone, and no one attended her funeral. The phrase, "was buried along with her name" refers to her being buried with her memory. She was alone in the world, and there is no one left behind to remember her; there is no memory by which she can continue to live.
The U.S. Supreme Court has supported school cooperation in regards to the establishment of religion. They have done this because they respect the religious nature of people and feel that people should be able to accommodate their spiritual needs (hat are the pros and cons of prayer in school, n.d.)?
On the other side of the debate, those who are against putting prayer back into the public schools often argue that school prayer violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment because it says that the government shall not make laws in regards to the establishment of religion. Due to the fact that public schools are financed by the government, prayer that is led by school officials or included in any school program can be seen as government-established religion. Proponents to school prayer feel that school prayer ignores the division of church and state. Traditionally public schools are thought to…
"Prayer in Public School - Overview of Governing Constitutional Principles." 2003. Viewed 23
June, 2010. < http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/prayer-in-public-school.htm >
"What are the pros and cons of prayer in school?" n.d. Viewed 23 June, 2010, <
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…
Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.
Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm
Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
As a matter of fact, she seems very open to new ideas and theories, as she was able to discuss my beliefs with me in a very open manner.
Although Carol claims she does not strongly adhere to her original fundamentalist beliefs, she still belongs to the Baptist Church. She raised two children with the husband she found at Bob Jones and her family attended and still attends church together. She disagrees with some of the newly-imposed strictures that the Southern Baptist Convention has handed down, but she has faith in the future of the denomination. She believes that the basic organization of the Baptist Church as a whole is the way that churches should be organized. hen she was a young person, meetings were held in a democratic fashion, using Robert's Rules of Order. Even in the youngest classes of Sunday School. She believes that her parents' strongly protecting…
Armstrong, Karen. The Battle for God. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 2000.
Jones, Steven. "Fundamentalism." New Religious Movements. July 17, 2001. Website available at http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/fund.html .
Pojman, Louis P. "Gilbert Harman's Internalist Moral Relativism," the Modern Schoolman, Vol. 68 (November, 1990), pp. 19-39.
Robinson, B.A. "Eschatology, End Times and Millennialism." Religious Tolerance. 2006. http://www.religioustolerance.org/millenni.htm .
Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.
First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…
Edwards, L., 2001. A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.
Esposito, J., Fasching, D., and Lewis, T., 2002. World Religions Today. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hopfe, L. And Woodward, M., 2001. Religions of the World, 8th ed.. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Sharma, A., 1993. Our Religions. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers.
They angered God, and as God has done throughout the ages, He punished the Jews. Many of them retain their faith and hope in God, and retained it even during their time in the concentration camps - it was the only thing that helped them to survive when all other hope had died. On the other hand, many Jews saw the camps as a place where they lost their belief in God. They questioned how He would allow such a thing to happen, and felt He had turned His back on them when they needed Him the most. Neither of these reactions is surprising. Another historian believes this gap between acceptance and denial of God will continue. He writes, "I believe that Jewish religious thought will continue to demonstrate this tension between mixed intentions, innovation, and conservation well into the future" (Braiterman 164). Faith is a tenuous thing for many.…
Braiterman, Zachary. (God) after Auschwitz: Tradition and Change in Post-Holocaust Jewish Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Mandel, Naomi. "Ethics after Auschwitz: The Holocaust in History and Representation." Criticism 45.4 (2003): 509+.
Mathis, Andrew E. "General Semantics and Holocaust Denial." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 63.1 (2006): 52+.
Raphael, Melissa. The Female Face of God in Auschwitz: A Jewish Feminist Theology of the Holocaust. New York: Routledge, 2003.
The issue remains debatable, but a case can be made that the mainstream judgment was terribly wrong in a cultural sense" (right 17).
Schools and educational institutes play a vital role in teaching religious traditions and imparting knowledge regarding religion. The most important aspect of teaching religion is to adopt proper method of teaching. Avoiding controversial and extremist point-of-views and including positive elements from religious teachings from various religions could help in developing tolerance in the generation that growing in the era when religious violence is at its peak.
Other School of Thought
The other school of thought makes the case against religion when it comes to controlling violence. They argue that it is the religion that encourages violence simple on the basis of religious differences. People belonging to one religion consider them superior to others. Examples of all major religions including Christianity can be given when these religions induced…
Wright, Elliott a. 'Religion in American Education'. Phi Delta Kappan. 81.1. (1999): 17.
Volf, Miroslav. 'More Religion, Less Violence'. The Christian Century. 119. 8. (April 10, 2002): 32.
Bennett, Gary L 'Preventing School Violence: Is Religion the Answer'. Free Inquiry. 19. 4. (Fall 1999): 28.
Vernon, Glenn M. Sociology of Religion. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
Identify prejudices and biases in traditional Christian approaches to non-Christian religions, both in general and specifically.
Identify possible objections to Christianity, in terms of theology, ethics, and missiology.
esolve the challenges associated with new era missiology and new era ministry, by developing a comprehensive plan for the future.
Materials: Today's materials will be the same as the previous days.
9:00-9:10: Opening prayer
9:10-11:00: Crash course/review of world religions based on credible source material written from each faith's point-of-view or from a non-biased, scholarly source.
11:00-12:00: Each participant uses his or her personal electronic device or notebook to write down specific areas of concern and possible roadblocks to interfaith dialogue.
1:00-2:00: Share the concerns addressed by each participant openly, engaging in a dialogue of our own. Understanding that our participants are from diverse backgrounds, each will have unique perspectives on multiple faiths. Some will have had first-hand experiences…
Kenneth Cracknell, In Good and Generous Faith: Christian Responses to Religious Pluralism (Pilgrim Press, 2006).
Throughout the book, she illustrates how the old-school traditional Muslims and the younger, most liberal Muslims are butting heads and driving a rift in the people and the religion. The more "progressive" Muslims believe that women should play a larger role in the church and the faith, and that some of the religion's tenets must change to keep pace with the 21st century. Others are rooted in the past and want no change whatsoever, in fact, they might become even more restrictive.
Nothing represents this more than the beliefs and traditions surrounding arranged marriage. The Yemenis of the Dix mosque, where Sherine lived, are extremely representative of these old-school Muslims. Most do not plan to remain in the country, and most are extremely resistant to changing their ways to adapt to American society (Abdo 47). These are the groups of Muslims that are holding back others from more fully assimilating…
Abdo, Geneive. Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America After 9/11. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Since its humble beginnings, the number of Jesuits in the world has "grown to 24,000 members who work out of 1,825 houses in 112 countries. In the intervening years many Jesuits became renowned for their sanctity (41 Saints and 285 Blesseds), for their scholarship in every conceivable field, for their explorations and discoveries, but especially for their schools (http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/sjhist.htm)." Today, the General Congregations is the authority which presides over the Society.
hen exploring Islam, three terms which need to be understood are Salet, Umma, and Hijra.
Salat is the daily prayer of Muslims and is the second of the five pillars of Islam. These prayers are obligatory, "performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshiper and God. There is no hierarchical authority in Islam, and no priests, so the prayers are led by a learned person who knows the Quran, chosen by congregation…
Definition of Zionism. (accessed 15 August 2005). http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html ).
Pictorial History of the Jesuits. (accessed 17 August 2005). http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/sjhist.htm ).
Church History. (accessed 15 August 2005). http://anglican.org/church/ChurchHistory.html ).
Five Pillars of Islam. (accessed 17 August 2005). http://barney.gonzaga.edu/~islam/salat.html).
School esponse to Student Suicide: Postvention
The emotional impact on family and friends following an adolescent suicide - and the school's response to a suicide - has not been the subject of the same level of intense research as have: a) the causes of suicides; and b) programs to prevent suicides. However, there is now an emerging body of solid research on what protocol a school can put into place, to be more prepared in the unfortunate circumstance of a teen suicide. Indeed, on the subject of tragedy, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many schools and communities re-tooled their crisis/response plans for dealing with such threats. And yet, in many ways, the sudden, inexplicable death of a student can cause serious psychological ramifications to fellow students on a part with the shockwaves following an attack by terrorists. And hence, this paper analyzes literature that…
American Association of Suicidology (2003). Remembering Our Children:
Parents of Suicides, A Memorial to Our Precious Sons & Daughters. http://www.angelfire.com/mi2/parentsofsuicide/page1.html
Bratter, Thomas Edward (2003). Surviving Suicide: Treatment Challenges for Gifted, Angry, Drug Dependent Adolescents. International Journal of Reality
Therapy, XXII, 32-36.
Glynn concludes that fundamentalists exist not only in the Creationism Camp, but in the Evolutionism camp as well, regretting the unfortunate irony that Evolutionism Fundamentalists are attempting to suffocate constructive dialogue in much the same way Catholic Priests did in the past.
e. Thomas Demere and Steve Walsh -- Creationism Should Not Be Taught In Public Schools
Demere and Walsh argue that teaching a non-disprovable theory like Creationism would further weaken the already lagging Scientific literacy of American students. Demere and Walsh state that for something to be considered Science, it must depend on rational evidence and observation of natural events. Demere and Walsh conclude that the theory of Creationism does not meet this standard because it is supported only by religious texts and cannot be disproved on its own terms.
Most Personally Appealing Position
Regarding the broader relationship between Science and Religion, I agree most with Ruse, who…
eligion and Education
eligious development in children and adults alike have been research areas that have historically been of interest to those involved in the developmental psychology arenas such as theorists of religious development, religious educators, and designers of religious education curricula in various settings. However, religious development did not receive a great deal of consideration during the early phases of growth in the psychology or the schools of human behavior and development. Even though the work of Sigmund Freud has been extremely influential in education and psychoanalysis, there are many other eminent psychologists who have made greater strides for humankind by trying to understand the planning and teaching aspects of religious education. This paper, therefore, aims to discuss three such prominent individuals: Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson and Jerome Bruner.
Ironically, behaviorism and psychoanalysis entail some aspects of atheistic presuppositions and therefore create many psychologists who are leaning more towards…
Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. (2004). 100 Eminent Psychologists. Retrieved on November 8, 2004, from http://www.coe.uga.edu/echd/counpsy/eminentpsychologists_new.htm#piaget
I have chosen my mother as the recipient of "the blessing." My mother and I have not always enjoyed the best of relationships, and I feel the various elements of "the blessing" are relevant to our relationship. I want to enhance our relationship and gain new awareness of my mother and myself in the process. I used the various steps and saw results, and I will explain the results step-by-step. I did see a difference in our relationship after I used the steps to bless my mother, and I saw a difference in my mother, too, which showed me the true power of the blessing in everyday life.
The Meaningful Touch. This step was difficult for me because my family has never been very "touchy feely," and so hugging is not something we do very often. I wanted to hug my mother to show her that I…
Smalley, Gary & Trent, John. The Blessing. New York: Pocket Books, 1986.
Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.
Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC,…
Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/
DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.
Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/on-the-legalization-or-not-of-marijuana/
Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
The ruling stated that, since the moment of silence was for the purpose of advancing religion, it was unconstitutional. This was evidently a case-specific ruling however, and the fact is that the Court has not ruled that this moment of silence may always be unconstitutional. There are multiple court rulings in other jurisdictions that have ruled the moment of silence allowable if it passes the test of not advancing religion.
Can a student say a prayer at a school graduation ceremony? The Supreme Court has not ruled that student-led non-sectarian prayer is not allowed at public school graduation ceremonies.
The question remains open and has been decided on a case-by-case basis. It cannot be encouraged by school officials, and prayers delivered by clergy have been ruled unconstitutional.
However, prayers at public school baccalaureate services are constitutional as long as the ceremony is distinct and separated from the graduation ceremony and…
ADL. (2009). Religion in public schools: Evolution vs. creationism. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Anti-defamation league (ADL): http://www.adl.org/religion_ps_2004/evolution.asp
Boston, R. (2009, November). Prayers, preaching and public schools. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from Americans united for separation of church and state: http://www.au.org/media/church-and-state/archives/2009/11/prayers-preaching-public.html
Calefati, J. (2009, January 22). Religion in schools debate heats up. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from U.S. News and World Report: http://www.usnews.com/blogs/on-education/2009/01/22/religion-in-schools-debate-heats-up.html
Facing history and ourselves: Religion. (2009). Retrieved November 16, 2009, from facinghistory.org: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/facingtoday/43?tid=26&tid_1=2
Blackstone initially set the precedent, so to speak, for English common law. English common law became the foundation for American common law, which values judicial precedent over statutes. Many European countries in fact use statutes over legal precedents as the means by which to determine legality, distinguishing the Anglo-American system from others. Blackstone indicated, “that precedents and rules be followed, unless flatly absurd or unjust; for though their reason be not obvious at first view, yet we owe such a deference to former times,” something that has become so entrenched in American judicial practices that it is sometimes taken for granted. Courts of final appeal, like the Supreme Court and the supreme courts of states, will tend towards upholding status quo unless there is a clear and decisive reason why a new precedent should be established. Their decisions will be based on several factors: the merits of the…
The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast the religious belief systems that existed in the Ancient Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Indeed, there will be a recitation of what they have in common and how they differ. The religions in question would include ones like Judaism, those of ancient Egypt and others like Mesopotamia and beyond. The more Eastern religions like Confucianism and Daoism is also in the discussion. hile the religions in the regions cited are alike and similar in many ways, there are still absolutely differences and variations that exist.
Some of the religions in question are Taoism/Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism are often collected in a set that is known as the "three teachings. All of the religions in question date back about fourteen centuries. One thing that they absolutely have in common is that…
ACM. "Asian Civilisations Museum." Acm.org.sg. N.p., 2017. Web. 28 Jan. 2017.
Duiker, William J. and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History. 7th ed. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage
Learning, 2013. Print.
These board members are most likely to observe these institutions as corporate business organizations and even instill the idea of top-down management to it. Birnbaum (1988) pointed out dualism of control as a problem of the institutions of learning. Westmeyer (1990) pointed out that certain signs of business theory can be identified in the institutions of higher learning. These includes competition for purchases (clients), the importance and relevance of cost-effectiveness, incentives and sanctions as well as the structured nature of departments. It has also been argued that institutions of higher education are similar to corporate businesses since they are multi-billion dollar business enterprises that are governed similar financial realities of outlay and income as well as by the market forces of demand and supply. Lenington (1996) pointed out that higher education institution's resources are similar to those of any other corporate business entity. They need similar personnel, capital as well…
Birnbaum, R. (1988). How Colleges Work: The Cybernetics of Academic Organizations and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Birnbaum, R. (2000). "The Life Cycle of Academic Management Fads." The Journal of Higher Education. Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 1-16.
Darnell, A and Sherkat, DE (1997). "The Impact of Protestant Fundamentalism on Educational Attainment." American Sociological Review 62: 306-316.
Ferren, A. (2001). Reconciling Corporate and Academic Cultures. [electronic version] AAC&U Peer Review. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 9-11.
In the "Bhagavad Gita, a greatly revered philosophical poem depicting the dialogue between God as Krishna and a devotee, it says: 'All creatures great and small- I am equal to all; I hate none, nor have I any favorites.' This rules out the claim of anyone to be the privileged or 'chosen' agent of God, and thus makes exclusivism impossible in Hinduism (Mugilan)."
One of the largest differences between "Hinduism and other revealed religions is that Hinduism recognizes no prophet as intermediary with exclusive claim over truth. One is not required to acknowledge an intermediary as a prophet or as a chosen agent of God. In a revealed religion, one who denies the authority of this intermediary is called a non-believer, even if one believes in God (Mugilan)."
The Hindus can not conceive "any accommodation of a belief system that denies one's freedom of choice and conscience. Therefore, even…
Mugilan, Kalai. "Spiritual freedom: The essence of Hinduism." University Wire. (1998): 26 May.
Unknown. "Hinduism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Unknown. "Hindu philosophy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
This difference may be in part to the fact that many philosophies that coalesced into Greek philosophy saw God or (in some cases the Gods) as tricksters that played with the living, creating havoc and destruction for enjoyment and entertainment. The God of the Greeks was watching us all play, much as if her were attending a theater, but as the defacto director he has the power to play with the actors, restaging them to do either good or evil, depending on his whim. While the God of religion is here to guide, protect and punish us for our own actions within the confines of free will, a gift he has given us to allow us to choose the right.
The similarities between the two conceptions of God sort of end with the fact that both assume that he exists, and beyond that they vary extremely in the Greek tradition…
evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.
Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.
At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…
Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.
Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
There are exceptions, where legal ramifications are employed and individuals are held to account for their inaction. For most people, including myself the idea that faith is the only solution to medical concerns, and especially emergent ones is unfathomable. Medical care is congruent with faith, as even for the most ardent believer in God if God had not meant for children to be cured of preventable a treatable disease he would not have developed treatments to do so. For the broader population this is a reasonable tenet and most people report taking themselves and their children to a doctor or hospital when they feel it is necessary. It is also clear that modern people are even more involved in their own wellness and may even be able to treat some injuries and illnesses at home, without medical intervention. Furthermore most know when they need to seek care for themselves and…
Barnes L.L. & Sered, S.S. (2005). Religion and Healing in America. New York: Oxford University Press
Hamer, D. (2004).The God Gene: How Faith is Hardwired Into our Genes.
Koenig, H.G. (2005). Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet. West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.
Nord, W.A. (1999). Science, Religion and Education. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(1), 28.
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…
Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785
James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions
Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;
Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
...social conditioning was effected in such a way, that any thing that was considered primal, pagan, or unchristian, was frowned upon... [leading to] persecution of the Druids, Witches, Gypsy, and Jewish cultures that still continues today." Curiously, it may be that very historical hostility towards the primal which has corroded the power of Catholic sacred music and turned new catholics and protestants alike against it.
In the Jewish ritual, music of all sorts has long played an important part. The majority of each service is sung. The Jewish Encyclopedia described the history of this tradition and describes the way that (in antiquity) the singers-of-songs were slowly absorbed into the priesthood because of the importance of their role. From the ancient days cantors (those who sing the Torah scriptures) have received tunes from their ancestors and embellished them to fit the present eras. Thus one can see in such Jewish rituals…
Brown, Karen McCarthy. "Drum Is the Ear of God: Africa's Inner World of Music." Harvet Moon. http://www.harvestmoon.net/Vodou/Articles/Women/women.html
Hull, Arthur. "RHYTHMACULTURE: The Birthing of American Rhythmaculture," Percussion Source Magazine, Spring 1997. http://www.drumcircle.com/arthurian/rhythmaculture.html
Jewish Encyclopedia (1901). archived at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/index.jsp
Schiller, Benjie-Ellen. "Some notes on the future of Jewish sacred music." Union for Reform Judaism. http://urj.org/worship/letuslearn/s9sacredmusic/
schools or modes of thought regarding methods for interpreting text. These are "traditional interpretation" and "modern interpretation." Please provide a brief explanation of each and which you personally ascribe to and why. Then explain how the mode of your choice would be applies to interpretation of the Ten Commandments.
Traditional interpretation is intended to decide the explicit meaning of something, or to define the truth. For example, interpreting something as true in the traditional meaning would be the same as knowing something is true. Modern interpretation, on the other hand, is subjective and many interpretations or understandings of something can coexist without paradox; a modern interpretation does not imply the whole and absolute truth.
I personally ascribe to a modern interpretation style. The reason for this is because I am not only a reader, I am also an artist. When I create, I personally put many layers of meaning into…
In addition for many years it was indeed considered impolite to laugh out loud in public which had an impact on the aesthetic value of the period in history.
The faith of Ancient Buddhism is perceived to be one of the oldest faiths in the world. Its teachings are still followed today in much of the Eastern part of the world and its simplistic view of life and the meaning of life can be seen in many other areas and cultures.
There is no denying the aesthetic value that the faith had on the period of ancient times when one examines the art being located on digs today. The beliefs of Ancient Buddhism have carried over to impact the aesthetic value of Western cultures as well as can be evidenced in the color lessons at designers schools and the study of color by modern day mental health professionals.
Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment. - Review - book review Christian Century, May 23, 2001 by Leo D. Lefebure http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693
Color Symbolism in Buddhist Art http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/colors.html
Real Buddhas Don't Laugh:Attitudes towards Humour and Laughter inAncient India and ChinaMICHEL CLASQUINUniversity of South Africa http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:0ZC9clSD9mMJ:www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf+aesthetic+%22ancient+Buddhism%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…
1. Amudsen, Christan. (1999). "Insights from the Secret Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel of Thomas." 1st World Publishing.
2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.
3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.
4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
This led him to start the second major religion in Germany -Protestantism. This makes it clear that there were views of religion being also something other than pure belief in a path to reach God even in those days.
The strength of the Protestants increased in North Baden and northeast Bavaria, and was not at a very high level till Germany was unified under Prussian leadership in 1871. The leaders of Germany at that time were under Otto von Bismarck and he was seeking a method to weaken the leadership of oman Catholics and their influence. This led to the start of Kulturkampf in the early 1870s. Other direct steps were also taken like prohibiting the Jesuit order in Germany and expelling the members of Jesuits from Germany. The entire procedure was outlined in Prussia under the "Falk laws" which were named after Adalbert Falk who was the minister of…
Barrett, Lois. (25 October, 1996) "Thinking Theologically about Church and State" Annual
Restorative Justice Conference. Retrieved at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=2794Accessed on 6 August, 2005
Carter, Stephen. L. (October 11, 2000) "Beyond Neutrality" The Christian Century. pp. 996-
1001. Retrieved at http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=1964Accessed on 6 August, 2005
Buddhism and Jainism
Based on Michael Molloy's three patterns for comparing and contrasting religions, there seems to be a great deal of similarity between Buddhism and Jainism and marked differences between Hinduism and aoism (Experiencing the World's Religions: radition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
o start with, Buddhism and Jainism both meet the definition of religion as a 'spiritual path' and Carl Jung's description of religion as meeting the need for personal fulfillment or "individuation." Buddhism and Jainism also share a common prophetic and mystical orientation: nontheistic in nature; believing in guidance from enlightened beings (the Buddhist 'bodhisattva' and the Jain 'tirthankara'). Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was himself believed to be the twenty-fourth 'tirthankara' and according to Buddhist Cosmology, an enlightened being is born in each era (Gautama Buddha is regarded as the fourth Buddha). Both religions are similar in upholding the path of 'dharma' and 'ahimsa.' he two religions…
The first elemental difference between Hinduism and Taoism is the transcendental nature of the former and the immanent nature of the latter. This characteristic also leads to Hinduism's sacramental orientation and the importance lent to the use of sacred words and scriptures in areas such as music and art vs. The more mystical leanings of Taoism and the value it places on silence and wordless meditation. The second significantly different pattern of contrast is that while Hinduism advocates dualism or that nature is contaminating and exists as an opposing force to the non-material world of the spirit, Taoism believes that nature is sacred and needs no alteration (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.) third aspect of contrast is that Hinduism preaches the doctrine of karma and cyclical time, and that the 'atman' or human soul will receive 'moksha' or liberation from personal limitation, egotism and rebirth only through following a path of 'Jnana Yoga,' 'Karma Yoga' and 'Bhakti Yoga,' whereas Taoism places far less emphasis on the individual. Taoism, instead, takes the view that actions are not guided by an internalized moral system but by society, tradition and a sense of mutual obligation (Experiencing the World's Religions: Tradition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
The fourth point of marked difference is that while Hinduism practices 'exclusiveness,' Taoism is inclusive in nature accepting belief in many deities and regarding truth as relative in the interests of attaining social harmony.
In conclusion, though there are some similarities and some differences when comparing any two religions, Buddhism and Jainism do seem to have a very common basis in their overall orientation whereas there seems to be sharp differences between Hinduism and Taoism.
The Greeks were one of the most religious societies in the ancient world. With roots in Minoan culture, West Asian beliefs, and Central Asian gods, religion permeated virtually every aspect of Greeks' life -- from politics and culture to family, morals, agriculture, festivals, games, as well as beliefs about nature and the origin of life (Carr). The Greeks strongly believed that there were invisible, all-powerful gods and goddesses that controlled every occurrence. As a society, therefore, it was important to maintain a good relationship with the gods through prayer, sacrifice, and leading a good (morally upright) life. The prayers and sacrifices were made in sacred sites and temples where the gods were erected in their personified forms (Cartwright). Gods were also believed to reside in mountains.
Religion in ancient Greece was strongly tied to natural phenomena like rain, storms, plagues, earthquakes, and volcanoes (Carr). There were gods for each of…
e can consider 'The School of Athens' as a 'visualization of knowledge.'" in addition to Plato and Aristotle, Euclid and Pythagoras are present among others. Lahanas even suggests that the painting may be a reproduction of Plato's Academy. This concept would emphasize a commitment to learning, as well as an interest in antiquity and classical learning. The architecture depicted is a "modification of Bramante's first design for St. Peter (Lahanas).
The combination of classical scholars, emphasis on learning, and suggestion of St. Peter's draws together all of the relevant characteristics of the Renaissance. First, Raphael most obviously alludes to the Renaissance's interest in antiquity with the identifiable Greek scholars. That two of the most prominent classical philosophers are prominent, suggesting not only their importance, but also the importance of the classical period. In addition, the situation in which the philosophers are located places an emphasis on the importance of learning…
Guisepi, R.A. (nd). The Renaissance. Retrieved December 30, 2008, at http://history- world.org/renaissance.htm
Lahanas, Michael. (nd). School of Athens, "Who is Who?" Puzzle. Retrieved December 30, 2008, at http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/SchoolAthens.htm
The reluctance of going to the school assumed to lie at home. It is assumed that the child has an inclination to stay at home where the well being of the parent is guaranteed. In turn the parents visualize the problem of intimidation of their children to prevalent in schools. The psychologists however find that the inclination towards avoidance of the schools is the consequence of various elements with their reaction to both home and school stressors. The contemporary thought on school phobia depicts that there are some children who denies attending school as a result of separation anxiety. (School Phobia)
Most of the children reluctant to go to school are between the ages 8-13 years. In case of some the reluctance is as an effort to avoid uncomfortable feelings associated with school. The phobia is associated with the fear of being criticized or evaluated. Sometimes the particular activities like…
Anandalakshmy. S. The child at school. Retrieved at http://www.doctorndtv.com/children/detailtopics.asp?id=31 . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Bullying in schools. Retrieved at http://www.bullyonline.org/schoolbully/school.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Hogan, Maureen. School Phobia. Nassau County Psychologist. Retrieved at http://www.fenichel.com/schoolphobia.html . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Starting School. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved at http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/82.htm . Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Secularization: The crisis as I see it
According to Kirwan (2012) the essential crisis in modern spirituality is the secular nature of modern political life, which demands a split between religious and civic existence. This is evident both on the right and on the left, although this is often framed as a liberal versus conservative issue. From a current sociological point-of-view, there seems to be increasing polarization both in politics and in religion. Conservatives complain about the need to provide birth control as part of company healthcare plans; inclusive concepts of marriage; and the teaching of evolution in schools. Liberal believers decry what they see as too much emphasis on material versus spiritual values in modern culture and policy. Despite the separation between church and state within the Constitution's Establishment Clause, people do not compartmentalize their religion away from their civic souls when entering the ballot box. ut Kirwan sees…
Kirwan, M. 2012. "Spirituality in politics." In The Bloomsbury Guide to Christian Spirituality.
Woods, Richard & Tyler, Peter (eds). Bloomsbury Press, London, pp.187-199.
Sweeney, James. 2008. "Revising secularization theory." The New Visibility of Religion: Studies
in Religion and Cultural Hermeneutics. Hoelzl, Michael and Ward, Graham (eds.) London: Continuum, pp. 5-29
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Christian Values in School
Were I a special education assistant attempting to work with Buddy in the situation described in the case study for this assignment, I would respond as such. If I were just an assistant and could work with Buddy exclusively while the teacher was able to continue on with a lecture and educating the rest of the class, I would tell Buddy he had to follow me outside of the classroom so that we could talk. If he did not respond initially to this entreaty, I would pretend that he was in trouble and that we were going to the principal's office -- simply so I could get him away from the rest of the class and be able to work with him in this situation alone.
Once we were in the hallway I would simply talk to Buddy. I would become extremely amicable in my demeanor…
Philippians 1-4. www.biblegateway.com Retrieved from https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Philippians+2%3A1-4&version=NIV
ANOVA to the statistical assumptions of an ANOVA are as follows:
The principal assumptions of ANOVA are as follows:
There must be statistical independence of the errors, and no correlation between independent variables and error.
There must be normality of the error distribution.
Homogeneity of variances
The dependent variable is a belief that it is better for the man in a couple relationship to go to work and for the woman to stay home to care for the children and the house. The independent variables are: 1) The respondents' income; 2) the highest year of school completed; and 3) the tendency "to think of self as liberal or conservative."
Ho = A belief in the traditional gender roles in a marriage is unrelated to income, education level, or political self-identification as conservative or liberal.
Ha = A belief in the traditional gender roles in a marriage is related to income,…
eligion Colonial Education
eligion as a Driving Force
The impact of religion on the human psyche is both important and worthy of investigation. The spiritual aspects that drive the human soul to its desires is a powerful, but often ignored power that can be used to help create a learning environment and teach us about the true capacity of the human mind. The importance of religion and the freedom to pursue one's own spiritual path is embedded in the values of this country as noted in the Bill of ights of the United States Constitution. This essay will explore how this religious freedom has impacted higher education in the history of this nation, and how these forces are still impacting the environment today.
The colonial movement away from England was revolutionary in many ways. Freedom loving individuals who had the courage to step away from harmful circumstances and create a…
Axtell, J. (1976). The school upon a hill: Education and society in colonial New England. Norton.
Bonomi, P.U. (2003). Under the cope of heaven: Religion, society, and politics in Colonial America. Oxford University Press.
Stout, H.S. (1977). Religion, communications, and the ideological origins of the American revolution. The William and Mary Quarterly: A Magazine of Early American History, 519-541.
Wisniewski, M. (2011). Religion, and controversy, always part of U.S. education. Reuters, 9 Jun 2011. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/09/us-usa-religion-schools-idUSTRE75829R20110609
eligion and health have long been linked, and continue to be so in most cultures around the world. In fact, both mental and physical health problems were once believed to have supernatural or spiritual origins, a belief which persists until this day in spite of empirical evidence showcasing the biological and chemical causes of illnesses (Koenig, 2000). egardless of whether or not religion is a worthwhile social institution, religion, spirituality, and practices like prayer remain central to the lives of most people. eligion can be inextricably linked with personal and cultural identity, and can greatly inform both medical decisions and health practices including lifestyle choices. There is also a notable link between religiosity and a number of health outcomes including morbidity and mortality rates, proven in empirical studies. The literature tends to support a strong connection between prayer and stress relief in particular, as prayer and religion are widely believed…
Bearon, L.B. & Koenig, H.G. (1990). Religious cognitions and use of prayer in health and illness. The Gerontologist 30(2): 249-253.
Davis, L.I. & Owens, C. (2013). The impact of religion on health practices. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Retrieved online: http://www.aacp.org/governance/SIGS/hdcc/Documents/Webinar%20Materials/Impact%20of%20Religion%20Webinar.pdf
Koenig, H.G. (2000). Religion and medicine I. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 30(4): 385-398.
Koenig, H., King, D. & Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford University Press.
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Select a eligion
eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. This paper has selected Islam as the religion to be discussed.
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Islam
eligion plays an essential role in providing spiritual, moral and ethical guidelines to individuals in order to apply it into their daily lives (Fisher, 2005). eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. There are several religions in the world, which includes Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism.…
Fisher, M.P. (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McInerney, W. (2003). Instructor's manual with tests: Living religions (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Religion of Islam.(2009). Minnesota State University. Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/beliefs.html
While thee may be ational and ethical objections to killing a nealy fully developed fetus, thee ae none that petain logically to teminating a pegnancy that is only hous old, much less fo peventing a pegnancy that has not even occued. Religious beliefs and values may be pefect justifications fo such decisions on a pesonal level; howeve, they cannot eve be allowed to impose those values on othes who may not shae those paticula eligious beliefs.
The United States was founded lagely on the concept of eligious feedom by those who ejected the notion that the govenment should be able to dictate pesonal eligious beliefs. The agument that eligious feedom is meant only in the naowest sense as petains to the actual assignment of eligion by the state is weak. If eligious feedom meant only that the state could not equie a specific eligion, that would still allow the state…
references to any "God" because that violates the religious freedom of atheists. Similarly, there is no reason that atheists should not be able to purchase alcohol on Sunday just because that happens to be the religious Sabbath of Christians any more than Christians should have to be limited in their freedoms on Saturdays just because other religious faiths happen to celebrate their Sabbath on Saturday. Religious freedom should protect the right to practice any religion and to practice no religion and it should never allow any religious beliefs to be imposed in any way on others.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions which were practiced by the Canaanites who were living in the ancient Levant from the early Bronze Age. Canaanite religion was polytheists and in some of the instances it was monolatristic. There are several salient features of Canaanite religion which are discussed below.
There are a large number of deities which were worshipped by those who followed the Canaanite religion. In spite of a constant flux of the gods that were worshiped by Canaanites there were a few of them that were termed as the major gods that were stable throughout the iron and bronze ages. The gods of Canaan are arranged in four -- tier hierarchy which are patron gods, cosmic gods, gods of daily life and the slave gods termed as messengers. The gods of the first and second tiers were El who was the most high…
Quartz Hill School of Theology.(2012). The Religion of the Canaanites.Retrieved January 24,2014 from http://www.theology.edu/canaan.htm
Noll, K.L.(2006) .Canaanite Religion. Retrieved January 24,2014 from http://people.brandonu.ca/nollk/canaanite-religion/
Larue, G.A.(2007). Old Testament Life and Literature (1968). Retrieved January 24,2014 from http://infidels.org/library/modern/gerald_larue/otll/chap16.html
By coming into contact with nature cultures such as the Native American tribes, religions in the Western world were no longer the same. eligious fundamentalism became the basis for many of the often violent interactions between the different cultures, religions, and ways of life. This was the basis for later violence against all who did not agree with the religious norm, for example in events such as the Salem Witch Trials.
Today, this same fundamentalism insists that every word in the Bible or other religious documents should be taken literally. According to this view, the story of creation simply could not agree with Darwinism. The long American history of using religion as a basis for many actions, both good an bad, plays an important role in this.
However, it is also true that there is an increasing trend within Christianity to return to the earlier point-of-view, accepting both Darwinism and…
McGrath, a.E. (1999) Science & Religion: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.
Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…
'History." Faith Fellowship Ministries.org.< http://www.faithfellowshipministries.org/history.html>.
"Our Beliefs." < http://www.ffmwoc.org/FFM3/Beliefs.html>.
Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious Tolerance.org.< http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_capr.htm >.
Religious Symbols be worn in Schools?
Many parents and students were confused, when a school district in Nebraska stopped a 12 years old girl, Elizabeth Carey from wearing a necklace because it resembled a rosary. Rev. Joseph Taphorn said to press that "One ought to be able to figure out whether she's trying to promote a gang," he added. "If she's not, why would she be punished for her right of religious freedom and religious expression? (Haynes)"
Symbols are the powerful source of meaning and ideas. They have different meanings in different religions and are considered very important by the religious individuals and communities. The religious symbols also have a very close connection with the identity of a religion. The individuals believe their identity to be strongly connected with the symbols; therefore preserving these symbols is very important in their daily lives (Renteln 1575). Unfortunately, the United States of America,…
Ash. The Ban on Religious Symbols in Public Schools. Darkness Embraced. 2007. Published Aug 3,
2007. Retrieved Dec 10, 2012.
Clark, Matthew. Victories: Students can wear religious symbols to School. American Centre for Law and Justice. 2011. Published Dec 16, 2011. Retrieved Dec 10, 2012.
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…
Kessler, Gary E. Western Ways of Being Religious. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Pub., 1999.pp.
Edwards, Rem Blanchard. Reason and Religion; an Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York,: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.pp. 386
Paden, William E. Religious Worlds: The Comparative Study of Religion. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.pp. 192
Proudfoot, Wayne. Religious Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.pp. 263
Jehovah's Witnesses are a good example of a religious entity that claims the right the First Amendment freedom of religion clauses. Jehovah's Witnesses may act as a thorn in many families across America, however, they have been the root cause of much of our freedom of religion laws. Jehovah's Witnesses brought many cases of religion to the court system in the 1930s and 1940s. Before then, the court system handled very few court cases regarding freedom of speech and freedom of religion. These cases formed the foundation of the First Amendment protection of all citizens.
The Court has attempted to create and implement a system for determining church and state decisions. This is accomplished with a three-part test for laws dealing with religious establishment. The determination if the law is constitutional is this: does it have a secular purpose? It should not advance or inhibit religion. Finally, it cannot foster…
Women in the Amish religion are committed to living a life that is subordinate and subservient to the male members of the community. Many women within the Amish community complacently accept this role, as it is the role that was assigned to women in ancient biblical scriptures. There are many that would argue that women within the Amish community are unfairly suppressed, however all women living within the community do have the option to choose whether or not they will accept the faith before becoming a member of the Amish religion.
The Amish, otherwise known as "plain people" for their unadorned clothing, live in many different throughout the United States in segregated communities. Speaking what is referred to as "Pennsylvania Dutch" many people in the Amish community avoid casual contact with people living in modern society, as a means to avoid most of the conveniences afforded to people…
Bibliography with Annotations." Wildrid Laurier University Press: 1977
Robinson, B.A. "The Amish." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 2000. Available: http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm
I know that the case you cite, of Dr. Drake, has been a common one. The religion-builders have so distorted and deformed the doctrines of Jesus, so muffled them in mysticisms, fancies and falsehoods, have caricatured them into forms so monstrous and inconceivable, as to shock reasonable thinkers, to revolt them against the whole, and drive them rashly to pronounce its Founder an impostor. Had there never been a commentator, there never would have been an infidel.... I have little doubt that the whole of our country will soon be rallied to the unity of the Creator, and, I hope, to the pure doctrines of Jesus also (Jefferson, 1854).
American Transcendentalism -- the transcendentalist movement was a group of new ideas in religion, literature, culture and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century as a generalized protest against the general state of intellectualism and…
Benedict, Ruth. (2007). Zuni Mythology. Martino Publishing.
Coffey, J. And P. Lim. (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Puritanism.
Cowley, G. (Fall/Winter 1991). "The Great Disease Migration." Newsweek. Cited in:
Jewish religion also known as Judaism -- is the religion of the Torah, which begins with the "Five Books of Moses and encompasses the Old Testament" (Neusner, 1992, 8). Judaism honors its beginnings as part of the creation of the whole world, Neusner explains. Jews believe that God created the world "…and for ten generations, from Adam to Noah, despaired of creation." Following those ten generations, from Noah to Abraham, God was waiting for humans to finally "…acknowledge the sovereignty of one God," who was authentically the unseen power that created heaven and earth (Neusner, 9).
Most historians explain that Judaism is a "monotheistic faith" (there is but one God) and Jews in turn often find this God "…beyond [humans'] ability to comprehend" and nevertheless Jews believe God is present in everyone's life every day (Pelala, 2013). Moreover Jews believe that each person was created "b'tzelem Elohim" (meaning "in the…
Kol Emeth. (2012). About Us. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.kolemethskokie.org .
Neusner, Jacob. (1992). A Short History of Judaism: Three Meals, Three Epochs. Minneapolis,
MN: Fortress Press.
Pelala, Ariela. (2013). What do Jews believe? Jewish Beliefs. About.com. Retrieved April 15,