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Religious Field Research -- Interview with a Mormon
There are many myths and misunderstandings about the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints -- also known as Mormonism -- that are based in many cases on a lack of knowledge. The misunderstandings are also the result of the fact that the Mormon faith is -- to the traditional Protestant, or Catholic, or Muslim or Buddhist or Jew -- somewhat mysterious. Perhaps the Mormon faith is mysterious because it is so very different from other faiths. hen there are misunderstandings about a particular philosophy or religious practice myths and even hateful stereotypes can emerge from society. In this paper some of the most common misconceptions and misunderstandings will be presented along with an interview with a Mormon, a person that will respond to questions and be authoritative in his responses.
Misconceptions / Prior Understandings / Steps to Minimize Myths
Givens, Terryl. (1997). The Viper on the Hearth: Mormons, Myths, and the Construction of Heresy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gordon, Sarah Barringer. (2002). The Mormon Question: and Constitutional Conflict
In Nineteenth-Century America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Mormon. (2011). Meet with the Missionaries / Who are the Missionaries? Retrieved September
Although religious and secular authority have been in conflict practically since religion was first formalized into specific institutions and centers of power, the evolution of religious authority which occurred after 1500 set the stage for the conflicts of the contemporary world by distributing religious authority to the religious populace, rather than a small group of priests and leaders. By imbuing each individual member of any given religion (but mostly Christianity) with the supposed blessing and authority of a god, religion actually increased its influence exponentially precisely by making that influence appear diminished.
hen religious authority was centered in the hands of a relatively small priesthood, it could be easily attacked and confronted because there was a single target of criticism. However, when religious authority was distributed among the faithful as a result of the Catholic Church's split and the rise of Enlightenment ideas, confronting or challenging religious authority became an…
Erasmus, Desiderius. The Praise of Folly. London: Hamilton Adams and Co., 1887. Print.
Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1922.
Milton, John. Paradise Lost. London: Jacob Thomson, 1922. Print.
The worship of Mazu shares many elements with other types of Chinese folk religions. Mazu was based upon a historical figure and is said to play a protective role over the people in her region; in Mazu's case, she is said to protect fishermen (Lim 2010). She was worshipped for over 500 years in China, so that many elements of her worship are traditional parts of culture.
However, the modern celebration of Mazu contains elements that were not historically present in her worship. "Facing off at the other end of the square from the Mazu statues is a podium, where government officials from the Communist Party are seated. The ceremony is part political rally, part religious ceremony and part cultural event" (Lim 2010). Moreover, the belief in Mazu is not seen as violating the Communist Party prohibitions against religion; as a folk religion, belief in her is seen as a…
Lim, L 2010, July 23, China's leaders harness folk religion for their aims. Retrieved July 10,
2013 from the NPR website: http://www.npr.org/2010/07/23/128672542/chinas-leaders-harness-folk-religion-for-their-aims
Liu, EY 2013, Religion in China, Sociological forum, 28(2), pp.419-422.
Pittman, P 2003, Belief in control: regulation of religion in China, China Quarterly, 174, 317-
eligious Field esearch
Because of the diversity within Buddhism, the religion is widely misunderstood and misrepresented. Before visiting the local chapter of a Buddhist organization, I was mystified by all of the different groups in the area. I had met a practitioner of Nichren Buddhism last month, and decided to find out if I could attend the religious service as part of my field research. After phoning in advance, it was clear that visitors were welcome as long as we were not disruptive. I was told that the service lasted for about one hour and consisted mainly of chanting.
According to the Nichren Buddhist Association of America, "The purpose of Buddhism is to enable each and every person to eliminate suffering from their lives." The techniques by which the practitioner attempts to eliminate suffering varies. I always knew that meditation was integral to the Buddhist traditions, but I did not…
"The Daily Practice," (n.d.). SGI-USA. Retrieved online: http://www.sgi-usa.org/newmembers/dailypractice.php
"Nichiren Buddhism," (n.d.). Religion Facts. Retrieved online: http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/sects/nichiren.htm
Nichiren Buddhist Association of America (n.d.). Welcome to NBAA. Retrieved online: http://www.nichirenbuddhist.org/
O'Brian, B. (n.d.). Nichiren Buddhism. About.com. Retrieved online: http://buddhism.about.com/od/nichirenbuddhism/a/nichiren_over.htm
eligious traditions include laws, beliefs, doctrines and regulations that are found within a specific religion. They are a collection of belief systems and cultural systems which establish symbols that show and establish a relationship between humans and their spirituality. eligious traditions are handed down from generations to generations with significant events being viewed as part of historical time focusing mainly on conduct and behavior. These traditions are either true or false depending on their alignment to scriptures. If they are in accordance to the scriptures then they are true but those which are contrary to the revealed and written word in scriptures is false. The everyday lives of people comprise of religious traditions and rituals (PreserveArticles.com, 2012). The paper will give an explanation on how religious traditions describe and encourage the following relationships; with the divine, sacred time, sacred space or natural world and with each other.it will also look…
Tangient LLC. (2013).Relationship between sacred spaces and the beliefs. Retrieved June 10, 2013 from http://cmsor2u2008.wikispaces.com/Discuss+the+relationship+between+sacred+spaces+and+the+beliefs+of+the+religio
Rossano, M.J.(2010).Understanding Religion through the lens of relationships. Retrieved June 10, 2013 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/matt-j-rossano/understanding-religion-th_b_596856.html
PreserveArticles.com, (2012). Notes on the Eight Basic Elements of Religion. Retrieved June 10, 2013 from http://www.preservearticles.com/201104296053/notes-on-the-eight-basic-elements-of-religion.html
Davies-Stofka, B. (2008). Sacred Time. Retrieved June 10, 2013 from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Islam/Ritual-Worship-Devotion-Symbolism/Sacred-Time.html
eligious Life of Planet Earth
What does religion look like on Earth
eligion depicts a relationship between spirituality and humanity and also shows how moral values are related to them. It comprises of an organized collection of world views, cultural systems and belief systems regarding spirituality and humanity. Many religions explain the origin of life or Universe through symbols, narratives, traditions and sacred histories. The concepts of ethics, religious laws, preferred lifestyles and morality are derived through their ideas pertaining to human nature and cosmos. Some estimates have indicated that there exist approximately 4200 religions all over the world (The Everything World's eligions Book, 2010).
Clergy and organized behaviors define the structure of holy places, scriptures and membership which are also an integral part of many religions. Mythology also constitutes a significant part of several religions. eligious practices usually comprise of sermons, trance, feasts, rituals, matrimonial services, gods or goddesses,…
The Everything World's Religions Book: Explore the Beliefs, Traditions and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions, page 1 Kenneth Shouler - 2010
Durkheim, E. (1915) The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. London: George Allen & Unwin, p.10.
Fitzgerald, Timothy (2007). Discourse on Civility and Barbarity. Oxford University Press. pp. 45 -- 46.
Kevin R. Foster and Hanna Kokko, "The evolution of superstitious and superstition-like behaviour," Proc. R. Soc. B (2009) 276, 31 -- 37
Obviously, while the statutes prohibit religious discrimination, the courts will not simply rubber-stamp an employee's claim that something conflicts with his religious beliefs. Instead, the court will look at whether a bona fide religious practice conflicted with an employment requirement, whether the employee brought the religious practice to the employer's attention, and whether the religious practice was the basis of the adverse employment decision. Once that is established, the burden shifts to the employer to either demonstrate that they made a reasonable accommodation or that to do so would have been unduly burdensome. The problem comes when one realizes that many of these issues are very subjective, which means that the solution in one fact-specific situation would probably differ tremendously from the situation in another fact-specific scenario.
For example, when one examines the scenario with Sandy Koufax, it appears reasonably clear that, had the Dodgers chosen to take adverse employment…
Bearden, Tom. Playing by the Rules: Transcript. PBS Online Newshour. (March 14, 1996)
(available at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/sports/nba_debate_3-14.html ) (accessed October 10, 2011).
Cosme v. Runyon, 287 F.3d 152 (2d Cir. 2002).
EEOC v. Union Independiente de la Autoridad de Acueductos y Alcantarillados de Puerto Rico,
There is no one who is supposed to be discriminated on the basis of their religion in the workplace. The rights of employees are protected under Title VII. According to Title VII, religion includes all aspects of religious observance and practice coupled with beliefs .Therefore in a workplace situation unless an employer demonstrates that he is not able to reasonably accommodate an employee or even a prospective employees' religious practice or observance without undue hardship on the conduct of the business of the employer (Bennett-Alexander & Hartman, 2009). In this case MaryJo had every right to file a claim to EEOC. The paper will be an evaluation of the merit to the claim that MaryJo wants to file. First of all every employer is supposed to accommodate an employees religious conflict even if the conflict was not existing when the employee was being hired. Clearly MarJo's proselytizing which…
Bennett-Alexander, D.D., & Hartman, L.P. (2009). Employment law for business (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
At the extreme side, the September 11 attacks and various Islamist violence perpetrated against civilians in the last two decades is an example of how violence and conflict can be justified in religious terms. Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders often quote from the Qur'an and refer to the est as "Crusaders," emphasizing the religious significance of the struggle they conduct (Lincoln; Juergensmeyer). Historical circumstances may also dictate the totally pacifist manifestations of Islam. An example is Abdul Ghaffar Khan in India, also known as the "Frontier Gandhi," a close associate of Gandhi in non-violent struggle against British rule. Ghaffar Khan was not a minority figure but garnered the support of a hundred thousand official followers and even a greater number of sympathizers (Gandhi).
"Violent ideas and images are not the monopoly of any single religion," Juergensmeyer explains. "Virtually every major religious tradition -- Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Sikh…
Aslan, Reza. "Harris, Hitchens, Dawkins, Dennett: Evangelical Atheists?" Washington Post, 16 July 2010. Web. 8 May 2011.
Gandhi, Rajmohan. "Mohandas Gandhi, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and the Middle East Today." World Policy Journal (MIT Press) 22.1 (2005): 89-94. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 10 May 2011.
Gopin, Marc. Between Eden and Armageddon: The Future of World Religions, Violence, and Peacemaking. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.
Juergensmeyer, Mark. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003. Print.
eligious Health Care
As a consultant we have identified some of the issues that need to be considered further by the consultant group and perhaps confer it with the governing board and the CEO, and I have discussed these issues to ensure the most critical issues of the eligious Health Care has in order of importance. These concerns must be addressed in order for there to be some changes to the system as it stands, and first and foremost the first function that they should be concerned about it is needs of the community and diversity because living and learning about religion should go together and have successful facilities. The organization must address the needs that are first religious, divine, biased, reasonable, advocatory, individually, or insecure in character to meet the staff and seniors needs. Second, the healthcare board should be devoted to the standards of area, self-sufficiency, and trust…
A conceptual framework for the oecd health care quality indicators project. (2006). Oxford journal, 18(1), Retrieved from http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/18/suppl_1/5.full
A guide to computer assisted audit techniques. (2006). Informally published manuscript, Department of Revenue, University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/Ador/docs/dor/Publ/PD/FS/caat.pdf
Increase your market share. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/layer?topicId=1079668198
Student governing board of Columbia university missions statement. (2007, March 26). Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/cu/sgb/files/constitution.pdf
Religious Life of Planet Earth
The objective of this study is to assume that the writer is from another planet and has been sent to Earth to determine if it is a religious planet or not. The superiors are expecting a report from this writer who will discuss the criteria employed to determine if people on earth are religious. This work will additionally describe three behaviors or beliefs that are observed to meet the criteria established and based on the writer's observations to explain the function of religion on earth and determine how the observations made could otherwise be interpreted.
The criteria that would be used in determining whether Earth is a religious planet or not would include a belief on the part of humans that there is a greater and higher power that is more intelligent and otherwise superior to human beings that has a great deal of…
The Middle Colonies evolved differently from other colonies, as people there had a greater degree of tolerance with regard to religious behaviors and this thus influenced people to develop open-minded thinking styles. Many families that had controversial religious preferences at the time relocated to the Middle Colonies in an attempt to improve their condition. Individuals from large and small sects directed their attention toward the Middle Colonies, as numerous Quakers, German Lutherans, and Amish came to move there.
Many Europeans who came to the New Continent were from England, France, and Spain. This meant that religious ideas in areas dominated by each of these communities were generally supportive toward particular religious ideologies. The prospect of becoming an explorer and seeing rapid gain influenced a great deal of other Europeans to come to America. As a consequence, these people brought their religious preferences with them and established communities in…
Lippy, Charles, M., "Introducing American Religion," JBE Online Books, 2009.
A pair of lovers might marry for physical attraction, and then discover one another's emotional attributes. But will this lead them to a higher form of affection, in the Platonic ideal of erotic progression? A monk would suggest that modern married life is too distracting to allow a full communion with the divine, in the presence of such worldly responsibilities, and thus religious eroticism is fundamentally incompatible with even the best of earthly, married affection.
Of course, there are those such as Bataille, who would suggest the idea of the connection between eroticism and death means that even in the original, first flush of passion, there is a parallel between the divine and the ordinary, bodily erotic. The loss of self sought by mystics and the loss of self more ordinary people seek in the distractions of love through the petite morte or little death of the orgasm are similar,…
The school has accepted to offer different teachings in accordance to the diverse religious groups and movements in the society. Therefore, the school has catered for all the learners so that they are able to learn in accordance to their original faiths. Moreover, this strategy has worked to the advantage of many people in the society as done among learners in the school. The appreciation of different faiths has been made significant and relevant to the existence of a diverse religious setting in the world (Thomas, 2007).
Not all has been well with the application of the strategy involved in my school. However, many learners have appreciated the issue of giving them religious studies based on the faiths of their culture, ethical issues as concerns interaction and replication of the faiths have created differing notions among the learners. For instance, it is hard to manage to believe in the trinity…
Murray, W.J. (2007). The pledge: One nation under God. Chattanooga, TN: Living Ink
Thomas, R.M. (2007). God in the classroom: Religion and America's public schools.
Westport, CT: Praeger
On the contrary, Jules initially seems far colder and less redeemable than Vincent. The best example of this is when Jules recites a verse from the Bible, "The path of the righteous man is beset on all sides by the inequities of the selfish and the tyranny of evil men. Blessed is he who, in the name of charity and good will, shepherds the weak through the valley of darkness, for he is truly his brother's keeper and the finder of lost children. And I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers. And you will know my name is the Lord when I lay my vengeance upon you!" (Tarantino). This verse is at least partially derived from Ezekiel 25:17. Later in the movie, Jules reveals that he said those words without believing them, pretending that he was…
Tarantino, Quentin (1994). Pulp Fiction: A Screenplay (New York: Hyperion/Miramax).
The fact that all of these traditions make the same truth-claims and all believers believe with equal intensity, yet fall short of fully capturing the earth's majesty, calls into question the limits of human being's ability to find a comprehensive explanation for the earth. All the earth, even the weather, not simply the animate elements have power. Ultimately control is impossible, and even the filmmakers are limited in time and scope to how much time and geographical breadth they can capture in art.
The film's title "Baraka" is a Sufi word that means, alternately translated, "essence or breath" or "blessing" (Hinson 1993). This suggests that the film is supposed to capture the essence of life on the planet, and by showing a diversity of images, the camera functions as a kind of blessing upon everything that falls under the omniscient gaze of the filmmaker. "The film allows us to see…
Baraka." Directed by Ron Fricke. 1992.
Brussat, Frederic & Mary Ann Brussat. "Baraka." Spirituality and Practice. 1993.
13 Nov 2007. http://www.spiritualityandpractice.com/films/films.php?id=4678
Ebert, Roger. "Baraka." The Chicago-Sun Times. 12 Nov 1993. 13 Nov 2007. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19931112/REVIEWS/311120301/1023
eligious Life in Ancient Athens
Civic Athenian Festivals
Athenians practiced a polytheistic religion which expressed itself through civic festivals and cults. The system developed greatly in the Classical period. The festival served to provide the Athenians with a basis in their worship, give them a sense and a meaning in life, and provide them with a sense of identity as human beings. The polytheistic religion provided a simple and safe explanation for all the facts of life, for their existence and for all the things they could not understand.
The Athenian festivals, together with all the religious festivals from all the city states and of the greater Attica, as well as, the other rituals practiced by the ancient Greeks, represented the expression and representation of their religious beliefs. These also helped in the determination and developing of a certain unique identity for the city states in terms of social structure,…
Burkert, Walter, "Athenian Cults and Festivals.," in Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 5: The Fifth Century BC, 245-67. 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992
Parke, H.W., Festivals of the Athenians, Cornell Univ. Pr; Reprint edition (Dec 31, 1995)
This is however untrue because unlike cults, the denomination is neither secret nor does it practice elaborate and questionable rituals. Cults also have fanatic beliefs and like I have pointed out above, are ritualistic in nature. These characteristics of cults are not present in the Jehovah's Witnesses denomination.
A look into these wrongly conceived assumptions has led me to the conclusion that Jehovah's Witnesses as a denomination is neither a cult nor a misguided religious grouping. I must say that my understanding of this religion prior to this particular research undertaking significantly differed from my current view of the same religion. Initially, I was convinced that Jehovah's Witnesses did not indeed believe in Jesus Christ. I was also convinced that they did not believe in the resurrection of Christ and life after death. However, after a scrutiny of their beliefs, I found out that the adherents of this denomination believe…
Bowman, M.R. (1994). Jehovah's Witnesses. Michigan: Zondervan Publishers
Frater, J. (2009). Top 10 Misconceptions about Islam. Retrieved June 13, 2013, from: http://listverse.com/2009/07/10/top-10-misconceptions-about-islam/
Holden, a. (2002). Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. New York, NY: Routledge Publishers.
Larry, U. (2010). Religion Series: Jehovah's Witnesses Clarify Misconceptions. Retrieved June 14, 2013, from: http://trnwired.org/2010/11/jehovahs-witnesses-clarify-misconceptions/
Religious Object Analysis
The statue of the male god present in the metropolitan museum of art belongs to the New Kingdom period. This statue is of a male God and it is made in the style of the pharaoh Amenhotep III. In one of his fist, the God is seen to be holding a 'was scepter'. The 'was scepter' is basically a straight staff and has a forked base. The base is capped with an angled horizontal section. The representation that the 'was scepter' provides is of dominion or power. This is seen held by many gods, goddesses and even pharaohs. The other hand, which is seen missing from the status, would have been holding the ankh hieroglyph. The latter would depict life. This statue is one of the many statues that were built and put up by the pharaoh in the period of the new Kingdom. It…
Questions of Religious Thought
The sociological perspective is an immensely important lens with which to view various occurrences, phenomena, conceptualizations, and ideas. Essentially, it is a way of analyzing all of these factors and others in regards to their effect upon society. The sociological perspective is concerned with assessing the social repercussions of something, as well as its origination, in terms of how it impacts society. This perspective can acknowledge other facets of whatever it happens to be focused upon (such as religion), yet is predominantly concerned with the sociological roots of a particular concept and how it affects society.
The sociological perspective affects the way religion is studied in that it focuses on the social aspects of religion. Specifically, the sociological perspective tends to concentrate on certain behavioral aspects of religion. Writers such as Durkheim believe that there are other elements of religion other than just how it…
Borstorff, P., Arlington, K. (2010). The Perils of Religious Accommodation: Employees’ Perceptions. Proceedings of the Academy of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 14 (1), 1-6.
Danchev, S. (2016). Was Bentham a primitive rational choice theory predecessor? European Journal of History of Economic Thought. 23(2), 297-322.
Durkheim, E. (1915). The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. http://www.gutenberg.org/ Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41360/41360-h/41360-h.htm#Page_1
Huber, S., Huber, O. (2012). The centrality of religiosity scale. Religions. 3, 710-724.
Marx, K. (2000). A Critique of The German Ideology. https://www.marxists.org Retrieved from https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/Marx_The_German_Ideology.pdf
Pearce, L.D., Hayward, G.M., Pearlman, J.A. (2017). Measuring five dimensions of religiosity across adolescence. Review of Religious Research. 59(3), 367-393.
Strauss, J.P., Sawyerr, O.O. (2009). Religiosity and Attitudes Towards Diversity: A Potential Workplace Conflict? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39 (11) 2626-2650.
Numerous artists have made use of religious principles as they devised ideas to use in their work. "It is no wonder, therefore, that so much of the finest art of history has religious meaning, from the Parthenon and Chartres to the Taj Mahal and Rothko Chapel, from the Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost through the erman Requiem to the Brothers Karamazov" (Dutton 230).
Bermudez, Jose Luis, Art and morality, (Routledge, 2003)
Dutton, Denis, the art instinct: beauty, pleasure, & human evolution, (Oxford University Press, 2009)
Widdows, Heather, the moral vision of Iris Murdoch, (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005)
Even though there are many individuals who promote the belief that art should not be associated with religion, people appear to ignore the fact that religious concepts can functions as catalysts strengthening the relationship between man and the divine. Art practically represents the best that humanity can give birth to and it should…
Gedacht, Daniel C. Art and Religion in Ancient Rome, (the Rosen Publishing Group, 2004)
Kaplan, Leslie C. Art and Religion in Ancient Egypt, (Rosen Classroom, 2004)
Tanner, Jeremy, the invention of art history in Ancient Greece: religion, society and artistic rationalization, (Cambridge University Press, 2006)
With far reaching negative effects that have always culminated into national and regional instability, religious discrimination is not a phenomenon that came up recently. Many authors consider it as discriminations on an individual based on their religious affiliations. Accounts of religious discrimination can be traced back to the 1800s with reference to various discrimination stories that have always appeared in articles talking about religious discrimination. One such story is the story of Harry Fischel (1865-1948), a ussian immigrant who could not be given a day-off on Saturday to enable him observe the "Sabbath"; the period in which this act of discrimination occurs gives insight into the long history of religious discrimination (Friedman, 2008). Some of the recent complaints related to religious discrimination include handling of alcohol, the mode of dressing, and observing the Sabbath (Trottman, 2013).
eligious discrimination occurs in two forms: direct and indirect religious discrimination (Bennett-Alexander…
Bennett-Alexander, D.D., & Hartman, L.P. (2009). Employment law for business (6th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Friedman, Robert J. (2008) Religious Discrimination in the Workplace: The Persistent Polarized Struggle. Association Law Journal. 144-146
Trottman, M. (2013). Religious-Discrimination Claims on the Rise. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on Jan 26, 2012 from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304682504579153462921346076
Religious Field Search
AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM
For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…
1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:
Lutterworth Press Cambridge
2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:
Simon and Schuster.
Religious Life on Planet Earth
hat does religion look like? To my alien culture, religion will take different forms. It will be seen through kindness, through humility, through love and altruism. In this paper, religion is not a dogma, it is not something that necessarily takes place in a building. Religion to my culture is a spirit, an act that inspires hope, a conflict that has been resolved. It is people helping each other in time of need.
Three examples of behaviors that meet the criteria are: a) affection shown between two people such as holding hands, hugging, looking deeply into each other's eyes, or kissing; b) a smile on the face of a person being served food by another; c) a person picking fresh vegetables from a garden and sharing it with others.
My Report on Religion in North America
On arriving in Hillsboro, a small town near Portland,…
Izzy's Hillsboro. (2011). Artisan Pizzas / Traditional Pizzas / Our Pizza was voted #1 in the Northwest. Retrieved October 28, 2011, from http://www.izzyonline.com .
Portland Rescue Mission. (2011). Inside Portland Rescue Mission. Retrieved October 28, 2011,
From http://www.portlandrescuemission.org .
The Church of Saint Michael the Archangel. (2011). Welcome / Father James Mayo, Pastor.
Religious Service Reflection
My chosen observation was of the Jehovah's Witnesses, a fundamentalist Christian organization. I have never known very much about them other than the fact that they have a community ministry, offering their pamphlets from door to door. They are often ridiculed for their beliefs against traditional celebrations such as Christmas, Halloween and birthdays. I know people who believe that they are a cult; however, I do recall a boy from elementary school who was a Jehovah's Witnesses. He did not salute the flag or participate in holiday parties with the rest of the class. He was nice, stayed to himself a lot and was a very good student. I was always a bit curious about him and thought I'd try to learn more.
As a Christian, I have always been skeptical of the Witnesses because of what I viewed as their extreme and improper beliefs. By chatting…
In 1924, the American Congress greatly reduced immigration with the Immigration Act, but this system was removed in 1965 which allowed for a huge wave of immigration from parts of Asia, such as the Philippine Islands, Japan and China; also, immigrants from Haiti and Mexico flooded in and greatly increased the population of American Catholics. With the arrival of the 1960's, five events are of high importance. First, John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic President of the United States in 1960 which "due to his popularity, charisma and personal integrity reassured non-Catholic Americans that Catholicism was legitimate and that Catholics could be trusted" (Emerson, 256).
Second, Pope John XXIII who had been elected as Pope in 1958 became one of the most popular and beloved Catholic Pope in modern history, due to his attempts to bring Catholics and non-Catholics together in friendship and appreciation. Third, John XXIII also convened…
Ellis, J.T. Catholics in Colonial America. New York: Helicon Press, 1965.
Emerson, Charles W. The Story of Catholics in America. Rome: Paulist Press, 1978.
Marino, Anthony. The Catholics in America. New York: Vantage Press, 1960.
Trisco, Robert F. Catholics in America, 1776 to 1976. Boston: Committee of the National
While it may be unsurprising that Worldly Goods will be of little use in the afterlife (perhaps a 'dig' at church ostentation, when the play was originally performed) the play also stresses that even family and friends, two cherished institutions, will be of little use, as will Discretion (intelligence), Strength, and other valued social attributes. A person who is well-liked and successful and supports the sacred institutions of 'mom, country, and apple pie' cannot bring these things with him to the afterlife, he or she can only call upon the good he or she has won on his or her own merit after death.
The play counsels an individual to keep his or her character in order. Remember that every person dies, and is reduced to the same state of nothingness after death (significantly, Everyman's 'Five Wits' leave him). The only thing remains are the things that have made the…
Religious Views of the Holocaust
Most people realize that during World War II, the Nazi Party of Germany waged a relentless war against people they did not welcome in their country for one reason or another. We all know that over 6 million Jews died during the Holocaust, but many people don't realize that the Nazis targeted others as well, including Gypsies and some Christians who would not cooperate with the Nazi regime or who were caught aiding those who were supposed to be sent to concentration camps.
Given that the Holocaust was a multicultural and multi-religious event, it is interesting to consider how some major religions might view the events. Christianity teaches that all murder is against the law of God. However most Christian religions allow the execution of criminals by state governments. This is why we have individuals who protest executions but rarely hear entire denominations protest such…
Dworkin, Andrea. 1994. The Unremembered: Searching for Women at the Holocaust Memorial Museum. Ms. Magazine, V:3
Rittner, Carol, Smith, Stephen D., and Steinfeldt, Irena, editors.
The Holocaust and the Christian World: Reflections on the Past - Challenges for the Future. 1994. New York: Continuum.
The things that Orthodox Judaism and Jewish Renewal have in common appear to originate from the foundations of the Jewish faith. Both make use of the Jewish scriptures such as the Talmud, and both adhere to Jewish traditions in terms of holidays and general practices. Another significant similarity is the importance that both directions have for women. The Orthodoxy is reported to give significance to the feminine style of devotion to God, which includes a more emotional, nurturing relationship with him. The Renewal appears to be an inclusion of more emotional qualities in the style of worship for both women and men.
The differences are more marked, and thus easier to identify. Regarding the role of women, for example, the Jewish Renewal seeks to include women in all aspects of Jewish worship. They are thus not excluded from leadership roles or practices within the synagogue.
The style of…
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
Whether or not God chooses to forgive the choice not to accept Christ in life, any punishment for that in the afterlife is a matter for God, not man, to consider. Likewise, the decision to forgive earthly sins based on repentance and acceptance of Christ is also a matter for God's infinite wisdom and not man's fallible intellectual powers.
In all likelihood, there are explanations besides genuine remorse for one's sins that explain the unusually high religious conversion rates observed in prisons generally, and among those sentenced to life terms and to death, in particular. For one thing, all of us have a psychological need to think of ourselves as being good people. In then outside world, so called illicit pleasures and impulses that conflict with religious morality are a powerful temptation to stray from the moral path. Without immoral temptation, after all, there would be no motivation to sin…
People can be affected by religion in different ways and The Misfit becomes the perfect character to uncover the grandmother's gullibility. She, in turn, is the perfect person to expose his evil nature. This contrast allows O'Connor uses to reveal the delicate nature of man. Somehow, in the midst of everything, the two people bond, leaving the grandmother with a false sense of hope. She believes, because she knows best, that she has transformed his life. She truly believes she can change him. Parini writes that at the moment he shots her, she realizes "they are connected, and through a horrible act of violence she has received a moment of understanding, if not grace" (Parini 231). The showdown becomes one between The Misfit's powerful convictions and the grandmother's shallow beliefs. O'Connor proves with these individuals the importance of being passionate about the right thing. Being passionate about Jesus is good,…
Denham Robert D. "The World of Guilt and Sorrow: Flannery O'Connor's 'Everything That
Rises Must Converge." The Flannery O'Connor Bulletin 4. 1975. Gale Resource Library.
01 May 2010. Web.
Malin, Irving. "O'Connor and the Grotesque." Flannery O'Connor. Broomall: Chelsea House
There is no one standard for what is considered right and wrong in the world of American religion. The American religion that exists today may be described as "Agnostian-Secularian" meaning it is made up of multiple faiths, beliefs and convictions, some more Christian based and some more abstract in nature.
By and large the American 'religion' or modern society is varying accepting of people of many different faiths and idealisms. Though the government of this country is somewhat heavily influenced by Christian fundamentalist ideals such as those that Bush emphasizes, the public by and large particularly in the eyes of the media, is much more open and flexible in nature. There are some beliefs that may be considered more 'universal' in nature than others. There is for example an obvious preference among people living in the modern American world to belief in the basic concepts of right and wrong.…
Despite the articulation of this as a social function of religion, the relation that an individual has with his or her society cannot be postulated. By so doing, the religious power justifies deprivation and social injustices by rendering non-competitive and scarce goals. This notion further asserts that these goals are unimportant on matters of inequality and exploitation. eligion does this by making conditional policies in providing solutions to social issues, but does a disservice to individuals; hence preventing its role of bring positive change in the society (Hamilton, 2001).
eligion is responsible for spurring cross cultural and social changes in society. It brings every person into fellowship according to his or her own doctrines and emphasized experiences. eligion does integrate the society, by attempting to relativize individual desires, and fears, in addition to subordinating personal preferences to a conception of harmony. However, from the functional approaches of the society,…
Hamilton, M. (2001). The Sociology of Religion: Theology and Comparative Perspectives. New Jersey: Routledge.
Coleman, J.A. (1970). Religion. Sociology of Religion, Vol 31, Issue 2, pp 67-77.
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
Trees take in carbon dioxide (which includes pollution in the air) and give off oxygen so we can all breathe, and so God's plan can be carried through. The teaching of values, morals, and discipline must be part of the program for a Catholic teacher, and also the involvement of parents brings the school, the Church, the children and the families together in a fellowship of learning and praying.
As was mentioned earlier in this section, involving parents in their children's learning activities is a powerful way to keep our faith strong and growing in the context of education and Christianity. This is particularly poignant because on page 9 of the "Our Catholic Schools" one of the major issues facing Catholic education is the "…inadequate home and parish involvement with schools," and we can mitigate this problem by working closely with children to get them inspired enough so they want…
Dall, Mary Doerfler. (2000). Children Discover the Mass. Notre Dame, in: Ave Maria Press.
Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Ontario's Catholic Schools. (2007). Our Catholic Schools 2006-2007 / Summary Report.
Of course, it could say that the invisible world is superstition and unreal. It might not exist, or be part of an old system of belief that is primordial. It would see those old beliefs about an unseen realm or the infinite as absurd. But are they? Have they vanished?
Lecture 14: Religion and the Self.
The levels of self are body, mind, soul, and spirit. One sees a similar emphasis here in modern society. The body and mind are valued. Advertisements sell all kinds of products for the body, and health is a huge industry with gyms, sports, and diets. Mind is stressed through education and the way to succeed is to develop your mind rationally rather than be inclined to emotions or use it to experience through insight and intuition a spiritual value. The question is why the layers of soul and spirit are less important. Yes, there…
Fowler is the one who is truly upset about the bomb in the square and the innocent peoples who are killed. He says, "A two-hundred pound bomb does not discriminate. How many dead colonels justify a child's or a trishaw driver's death when you are building a national democratic front" (Greene 163). Fowler may not believe in God but he seems more moral than Pyle who is idealistic and seems like he believes anything any one will tell him. Maybe that is why he is the one who believes in God and religion in the book. He believes what he reads, and he reads a lot so he has probably read the Bible and believes everything in it. Fowler is a reporter, and he has seen a lot of life so he questions things more closely. He does not just believe every thing he reads because he is a writer…
Gaston, Georg M.A. The Pursuit of Salvation: A Critical Guide to the Novels of Graham Greene. Troy, NY: Whitston, 1984.
Greene, Graham. The Quiet American. New York: Penguin Books, 2002.
Neilson, Jim. Warring Fictions: American Literary Culture and the Vietnam War Narrative. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.
.. The actual universe, with all its good and evil, exists on the basis of God's will and receives its meaning from His purpose. However, these two conclusions do not stand in simple contradiction, to one another. The one says that evil is bad, harmful, destructive, fearful and to be fought against as a matter of ultimate life and death. But the other does not deny this. It does not say that evil is not fearful and threatening, inimical to all good and to be absolutely resisted. It says that God has ordained a world which contains evil- real evil- as a means to the creation of the infinite good of a Kingdom of Heaven within which His creatures will have come as perfected persons to love and serve Him through a process in which their own free insight and response have been an essential element."
Bowker, John. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions.
New York: Oxford, 1997
Einstein, Albert. Ideas and Opinions.
New York: Crown, 1954
In fact, there is a sense here in which the will to do good deeds restores God to the universe as the fountainhead of morality, with the famous "categorical imperative" substituting for specific divine commandments. However, those who are not already convinced that moral truths are possible -- who are not already "morally certain" -- tend to find this argument circular (Palmer 259).
For the rest of us, it is a very different proposition to develop and defend a moral framework in the absence of religious certainty. e can simply reframe our notions of good and evil in terms of personal responsibility, as Kierkegaard does when he defines wrongdoing (sin) as the very absence of certainty itself. In this approach, human nature is split between conviction (or faith) on the one hand and anxiety on the other. "The anxiety of sinfulness manifests itself either as an anxiety about evil or…
Aldrich, C.A. (1931). The primitive mind and modern civilization. London: Routledge.
Kant, I. (2008). Kant's critiques. Radford, VA: Wilder Publications.
Palmer, M.F. (2001) The question of God: an introduction and sourcebook. London: Routledge.
Palmquist, S. (2000). Kant's critical religion Aldershot: Ashgate .
eligious Life of Planet Earth
This report seeks to establish if planet Earth is a religious planet. In so doing, the report will primarily outline the criteria used to determine if the inhabitants of the planet are religious and the various beliefs and behaviors they exhibit in line with the criteria. Further, the report will also highlight the function of religion (as it appears to be) on the planet under consideration.
To establish whether or not Earth is indeed a religious planet, the very nature of religion on the planet must first be understood. This can be accomplished using a number of approaches. On of the most effective approaches in this case has got to do with evaluating the primary characteristics of religion. This is the criteria the report utilizes in an attempt to determine if the inhabitants of planet Earth are indeed religious.
Characteristics of eligion: What eligion Looks…
Gogerty, D.E. (2001). On Earth: As It Is in Heaven. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Gwynne, P. (2011). World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction. Maiden, MA: John Wiley and Sons.
Hinde, R.A. (2009). Why Gods Persist: A Scientific Approach to Religion (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Hinnells, J.R. (Ed.). (2009). The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.
Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.
However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.
Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…
Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice
Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.
Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New
York, pp. 232-262.
eligious Life of Planet Earth
Criteria Employed to Identify eligious Behavior
Based on what we already know about religion in other parts of the cosmos, we will consider the following criteria to be indicative of religiosity on Earth: (1) itualistic prayer; (2) Symbolic rules that have no apparent utility or function beyond symbolism; (3) Ceremonial sacrifices (Sagan, 2002). Previous experience suggests that most religions are theistic and that the hallmarks of theistic religiosity are rituals used to demonstrate, reinforce, and transmit traditions to successive generations; symbolic rules that have no functional purpose beyond their symbolic value; and sacrifices meant to appease or thank imaginary supreme beings (Armstrong, 2003). While there are other forms of religiosity that involve more complex spirituality than presumed direct relationships between "gods" and living beings or causal relationships between the pleadings of living beings and natural events, for the purpose of a preliminary investigation, the foregoing…
Armstrong, K. (2003). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Sagan, C. (2002). Billions & Billions: Thoughts of Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House.
eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment
The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…
Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral
Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html
De Tocqueville, A. (1838). Democracy in America. (H. Reeve, Trans.). New York,
NY: George Adlard. (Original work published 1835). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DUAvAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#
religious tourism and its future potential development, evaluate to what extent the holy sites are important in promoting tourism and how they could be utilized as a tool for further promotion and overall development of tourism industry in the future. The research indicates that there are both strengths and weaknesses related to present day tourism of religious sites in Jordan. The strengths include the presence of some of the most important holy sites including Mount Nebo and the Baptismal Site The weaknesses of the current state of tourism involve the lack of proper services and facilities to attract and retain the presence of tourists in the region. In the future one of the primary goals is to create trails that connect the holy sites together. It is believed that this is needed for both practical and promotional purposes. As it stands such trails do not currently exist.
There are also…
The spread of public education in the 20th century gave rise to even greater tensions about the appropriate role of religion within the public education system. The Supreme Court declared that mandated prayers in public schools were unconstitutional, yet the words 'under God' were inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance (Prayer, 2010, eligious Tolerance). Students can wear religious clothing and jewelry to school, and teachers can teach about religion -- but not preach to their students. Walking the fine line between endorsing certain religious traditions within an officially secular community can be tricky, and the definition of what is secular and what is religious continues to evolve with the passage of time. Today, the debates about religion rage on -- the role of so-called 'creationist' science in biology classes that teach about evolution and the right of religious groups to hold meetings on school grounds are two recent examples of…
Horace Mann. (2001). School: The story of American public education. PBS.
Retrieved August 16, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/innovators/mann.html
Neil, John. (2005). John Dewey's philosophy of education. Experiential learning.
Retrieved August 16, 2010 at http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
For fundamentalists, law and authority come from God.
This is true not only in formally theocratic societies, like Iran, but can also be seen expressed in the views of fundamentalist U.S. Christians, who have an obsession with having the Ten Commandments displayed outside of secular buildings, advocate school prayer and the need for laws to be justified by Judeo-Christian values.
Female sexuality must be contained; boundaries must be established between men and women.
The female body is an obsession: hence the obsession with women staying home and not working in fundamentalist Christian circles, as well as the extreme control of women by the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Sexual behavior is a major concern of all fundamentalists
Opposing gay marriage, abortion rights, sexual education unite almost all fundamentalist groups.
Fundamentalism and nationalism converge.
"The moral life according to the will of God can only be fully lived in a society of fellow-practitioners…
religious dualism and contrasts it to ibles teachings and understanding of the existence of oth God and Satan. It explores the authenticity of dualism as a doctrine while providing strong iblical evidence of the supremacy of God. The paper highlights iblical origin of Satan and prophesies of his end. Satan's limitations are also highlighted as a proof that he is not God's equal but is in fact subservient to Him.
Religious dualism is a doctrine that acknowledges existence of two powerful and eternal supernatural beings of equal powers antagonize one another, often depicted as a representative of good and evil (Mizii 1999). However, it is important to understand what the ible says about dualism. Satan might have little power over human beings, but he is not equal to God in any way, in the book of John, the ible says, "you, dear children, are from God and have…
Floyd, Shelby G. "Temptation and Sin." www.preachthewordatheartland.com. October 2008.
http://www.preachthewordatheartland.com/docs/james/7 -- Temptation%20And%20Sin%202-17-02.htm (accessed March 6, 2012).
Mizii. "Religious dualism." www.mizii.com. 1999.
http://www.mizii.com/jesusi/inlight/religion/belief/dualism.htm (accessed March 6, 2012).
religious history of my family as I know it, and its impact on me.
I myself am from Vietnam and am studying in New York. My parents are Vietnamese and living in Hanoi, Vietnam.
We follow a mixture of Buddhism and Confucianism, although I think that somewhere way back, my grandparents or great-grandparents - I know little of either side -- may have been pure Buddhists. Actually, I see similarities in both, in that both focus on peace within oneself, and I think that the popular way of how Americans see Buddhist belief of nirvana as believing that we are feted to suffer is wrong.
Thinking of my family's beliefs and how it has shaped our lives and my life in particular, I think it is more Vietnam's beliefs in general; that has impacted us rather than that of my particular family. The two primary beliefs in Vietnam in general,…
Religious Reflections." Please respond: Identify (3) 1) Judaism, 2) Shinto, 3) Buddha, things discussed fully, explain learned (3) things Identify (3) surprising things learned quarter, explain surprised.
The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith. As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews.
It is often said that Buddhism…
religious art. This include: music, dance,
The religious piece of artwork that I have chosen to discuss within this document is Murillo Bartolome Esteban's "Crucifixion Paining." This particular work of art was rendered in oil. This work of art is emblematic of that highly influential religion known as Christianity which has dominated the estern Hemisphere since its inception early on in the year of our lord (or A.D.). Christianity has spread throughout the world, although it is most widely practiced and championed in estern Civilization.
Specifically, Estaban's work details the passion of Christ. It depicts Jesus immediately after his crucifixion. There are a number of salient details that give such an impression to the viewer. Christ is still positioned on the cross in this work; one of the most eminent features regarding his person is the blood staining his torso in which he was stabbed to officially 'kill' him. One…
Esteban, Murillo. "Crucifixion Painting." www.yahoo.com. 1675. Web. http://search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=AhOOtZWn8sACtP2WVhVV.NibvZx4?p=museum+painting+crucifixion&toggle=1&cop=mss&ei=UTF-8&fr=yfp-t-900
religious, social, economic, and legal elements of town life that made the city so difficult for feudal and manorial society to contain. As town life grew, the town's citizens became resentful of the control feudal society held over them. Cities grew, trade grew, and people began working for themselves, rather than someone else. The people no longer wished to pay their lord part of their wages or earnings, and they began forming their own town councils and guilds, removing control from the manorial society. As a result, manorial society became archaic and declined, while the towns grew and prospered. eligion grew, building increased, and the first companies came into existence as the towns grew and feudalism declined. Feudalism served a purpose, but it had outlived its usefulness and towns developed and society changed.
Early medieval life revolved around the manor and a feudal society who served the lord of the…
Editors. "The Middle Ages -- Town Life." Learner.org. 2009. 18 Nov. 2009.
Nicholas, David. The Growth of the Medieval City: From Late Antiquity to the Early Fourteenth Century. London: Longman, 1997.
ideals of Religious faith looking at such questions as "What are the grounds of religious faith? What does a faith do for a life?. Examples used are historical data such as Germanic faith, Vedic cultures and faith from Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Bibliography cites four references
Faith; Blind love or stupidity
What are the grounds of religious faith?" This question is as ambiguous, and as difficult to answer as the question "Does a God exist?" There are many ways of understanding the need and grounds for a religious faith, such as psychological, sociological and cultural. It also needs to be recognized many devout followers believe that their God is supreme, for instance followers of the Muslim faith.
However, to answer the question, where are the grounds for faith in religion, we need to look at the evidence and the reason of the existence of faith. The moist common answer may…
What are the strengths and weaknesses of understanding religious language analogically?
eligious language can be quite analogical, and because of that, it can prove difficult to understand at times. Using an analogy in religious terms can give a strong sense of understanding if the analogy itself is understood, but it can create misunderstanding if the analogy is no longer applicable to our modern society. For example, in the Bible, Noah survived a flood of forty days and forty nights. Today, we assume the analogy of that fable is the same period as we know today -- in other words, a 24-hour day. However, we may misunderstand the length of a day in Biblical times, or in God's terms. The term could mean something extremely different, and so, Noah's age and the length of the storm might not be quite as incredible as they seem, or they could…
Vardy Peter, and Arliss, Julie. The Thinker's Guide to God. Oakland, CA: O. Books, 2004.
This meant that individuals were 'elected' for salvation by God, and this view of human salvation is called either the 'doctrine of the elect' or the doctrine of living saints' (www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM)."
John the Baptist was a prophet who "preached a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many, and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus (www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm)."
Three terms in Islam that should be explored are Quraysh, Hijra, and Saum. Quraysh is "the ancient Bedouin tribe near Mecca to which Muhammad belonged. At one time camel drivers and caravan guides, they became, after acquiring custody of the Kaaba, one of the most powerful tribes in central Arabia and the chief family of Mecca. They were at first bitter opponents of Muhammad but became his devoted followers when Muhammad retained the…
Hijra. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/SocialStudies/RE/Database/Glossaries).
John Calvin. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM).
John the Baptist. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm).
Samuel Holdheim. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.knowallabout.com).
I. MY QUESTION
The topic of religious revolution interests me because much of history has been shaped by religious revolution. Consider the history of the West. The rise of Constantine to the seat of the Emperor in the early 4th century allowed Christianity to flourish. The Roman Catholic Church became deeply influential some 400 years later with Charlemagne, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope in 800. Religious revolution broke out in Europe with the Protestants, led by Luther, Zwingli, Knox, Calvin and Henry VIII. Their actions led to a revolution in the West that changed the nature of society. Today’s society has very much been impacted the Protestant Revolution, as strains of Puritanism are still seen in American society, for example, as authors like Hawthorne and Melville have shown.
What I hope to learn from the research is how religious revolution unfolded in Europe and what its…
Religious Ritual and Cooperation: Testing for a Relationship on Israeli Religious and Secular Kibbutzim," authors Richard Sosis and Bradley J. Ruffle investigate the link between religious ritual and group solidarity among a sample of kibbutzim in Israel. Sosis is a faculty member of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Connecticut at Storrs. Ruffle, on the other hand, is an economist with the Ben-Gurion University in Beer Sheva, Israel. Ruffle's contacts and familiarity with Israeli kibbutzim were invaluable in facilitating this research.
The theoretical basis of this research was Emile Durkheim's pronouncement that religious rituals functioned to promote group solidarity. Durkheim argued that religious rituals help to maintain social cohesion and to promote social stability within their community. Though this idea is widely-accepted in social science circles, few empirical studies have actually been conducted to test this theory. Furthermore, no empirical studies have been conducted to see how religious…
Sosis, Richard and Bradley J. Ruffle. 2003. "Religious ritual and cooperation: Testing for a relationship on Israeli religious and secular kibbutzim." Current Anthropology. December. 44(5): 713-722.
(Casanova, n.d., pp. 10 -- 26)
The Secularization by odney Stark
In the article titled Secularization, Stark (1999) is discussing how secularization is having a dramatic impact upon the society. This is because organized religion has not offered any kind of new or creative ideas in over two hundred years (which are leading to its decline). Moreover, many of the more mystical religions are experiencing similar decreases. The combination of these factors are important, in showing how there has been fundamental shift in morals and values. (Stark, 1999, pp. 249 -- 273)
Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Stark who said, "The day will come when religion has been relegated to memory and museums. This will not have been caused by modernization, and the demise of faith will bear no resemblance to the process postulated by the secular doctrine." (Stark, 1999, pg. 269) This is illustrating how…
Casanova, J. (n.d.). Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Stark, R. (1999). Secularization. Sociology of Religion 60 (3), 249 -- 273.
Stark, R. (n.d.). The Dynamics of Religious Economies.
Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know -- And Doesn't," Prothero claims that "Americans are both deeply religious and profoundly ignorant about religion." The professed religiosity of most Americans belies a lack of actual knowledge about religion. As Prothero puts it, "They are Protestants who can't name the four Gospels, Catholics who can't name the seven sacraments, and Jews who can't name the five books of Moses," (p. 30). Most Americans, according to Prothero, are unable to distinguish a Muslim from a Sikh, and cannot even name the five major world religions beyond Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
Religious ignorance has very real consequences, other than being a simple embarrassment. As Prothero points out, religious ignorance led Americans to target any man wearing a turban after September 11. Religious ignorance is a sign of a broader xenophobia and general ignorance about cultures, people, and history beyond American borders. The consequences…
Religious Criticism and Idealization of Women in Giovanni occaccio's "Decameron"
In the world of medieval literature, Giovanni occaccio is renowned for his timeless contributions in the form of "Decameron," also translated as "Ten Day's Work." This literary piece by occaccio chronicles the short stories and narratives of ten (10) people who sought refuge from the city that is being affected with lack Plague, a disease that left Europe's developing human civilization to ruin and destruction. "Decameron" is created to provide people with a venue for discussion of the social ills that "plague" the 13th and 14th century society of Europe, particularly occaccio's homeland, Italy. These social ills are parallel to the disease that is ravaging Europe's cities during the lack Plague, and occaccio uses this event to discuss and criticize the dysfunctions that he found to exist in his society. Thus, with this in mind, Giovanni occaccio set out to…
Bosco, Umberto. "Boccaccio, Giovanni." Shakespeare and the Globe: Then and Now, by Encyclopedia Britannica Web site. Available at http://www.britannica.com/shakespeare/micro/75/4.html .
Boccaccio, Giovanni. E-text of "The Decameron." Available at http://www.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/humftp/E-text/Boccaccio/decameron.
Ferroni, Giulio. "Religion in the 13th and 14th Centuries." 1991. Decameron Web by Brown University Web site. Available at http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/religion/culture/background.shtml .
Moore, R. "Theoretical Perspectives: The Frame." 1987. Decameron Web by Brown University Web site. Available at http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/literature/theory/frame.shtml .