The worship of Mazu shares many elements with other types of Chinese folk religions. Mazu was based upon a historical figure and is said to play a protective role over the people in her region; in Mazu's case, she is said to protect fishermen (Lim 2010). She was worshipped for over 500 years in China, so that many elements of her worship are traditional parts of culture.
However, the modern celebration of Mazu contains elements that were not historically present in her worship. "Facing off at the other end of the square from the Mazu statues is a podium, where government officials from the Communist Party are seated. The ceremony is part political rally, part religious ceremony and part cultural event" (Lim 2010). Moreover, the belief in Mazu is not seen as violating the Communist Party prohibitions against religion; as a folk religion, belief in her is seen as a popular belief, not the type of threat that is posed by established larger religions. Furthermore, the Chinese state may be using this worship of Mazu as a means of attaining a political goal. "After China's economic reforms began in 1978, Mazu worship spread further along trade routes" (Lim 2010). One area where Mazu worship occurs is Taiwan. Therefore,...
This convergence does not mean that China is not becoming more tolerant of religious expression. However, it does suggest that religious expression in modern China should be viewed through political, economic, and social lenses.
We also know that they engaged in robust trade, both domestic and foreign and even over the Hindu Kush and into the Persian Gulf areas. Between 1800-1700 BC, though, most of the cities were abandoned, perhaps from environmental reasons (deforestation, etc.) and perhaps from invasion from Central Asia (Bentley, et.al., pp. 49-50). By 3000 BCE, Ancient China had developed larger regional states and political/social units called dynasties. Each succeding dynasty
I do not approve of reading so many books. The method of examination is a method of dealing with the enemy. It is most harmful and should be stopped" (Johnson 1992:552). Mao wanted control of China's destiny -- and he wanted that destiny out of the hands of the religionists, whose doctrine was not formulated by him but by an outside body. Thus, places like Sacred Heart convent in
The latter type of employees will act as mediators between the foreigner and the host, will point out potential mistakes and will also be more easily accepted by the staff. Undoubtedly, if Chinese who haven't had international experiences are capable of appropriately managing the business, they will be given the chance to hold top management positions after a certain period of intercultural training. 4) Referring to demand and customer relations,
In 1924, the American Congress greatly reduced immigration with the Immigration Act, but this system was removed in 1965 which allowed for a huge wave of immigration from parts of Asia, such as the Philippine Islands, Japan and China; also, immigrants from Haiti and Mexico flooded in and greatly increased the population of American Catholics. With the arrival of the 1960's, five events are of high importance. First, John F.
China did not have any debts to pay. However, actually during this era Chinese authority had been so undermined and the prestige of the government with its own people so completely destroyed "that it may well be said to have prepared the ground for the Walpurgis night of imperialism, which was witnessed in the decade following the Sino-Japanese War in 1895." For example, one major complication that rendered diplomatic relations
2009; Zhang et al. 2009). Claims of the programs' success in general are also claimed to be highly exaggerated in official reports, which often provide the only numbers available on the subject (Jacka 2007; Xiaokang 1996). The human rights issues that the programs either directly and explicitly entail or quite predictably and verifiably lead to are the main source of the criticisms directed at China's official birth control policy and