Religious Tolerance Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Religious Culture in Korea

Words: 1448 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47460237

Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).

Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.

Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.

XXX.2, 115-122.

Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from  http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).

Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
View Full Essay

Religious Liberty as Stated in the First

Words: 2471 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42497451

eligious Liberty as Stated in the First Amendment

eligious Liberty

The practical and legal ramifications of religious liberty are not difficult to determine, for they follow from the theological implications of the concept of religious liberty. The idea of religious truth, such as defined by the North Carolina state government in 1776 which forbade anyone from serving who denied the truth of the Protestant religion, has no place in a country that holds religious liberty as law. Yet, religious liberty has not always been practiced, as North Carolina and Maryland (which was officially declared an Anglican state in 1692) both show. Today, the first amendment has been ratified to make such claims untenable. Nonetheless, many scholars question whether religious liberty itself is defensible. By acknowledging the right of religions to be exercised publicly, the U.S. constitution sets the stage for a massive fight between various and contending religious beliefs, which…… [Read More]

Reference List

Associated Press. (2011). High Court Rules Against Fallen Marine's Father In Funeral

Protest Suit. KWTX. Retrieved from  http://www.kwtx.com/home/headlines/High_Court_Rules_Against_Fallen_Marines_Father_In_Funeral_Protest_Suit_117242333.html 

De Tocqueville, A. (1838). Democracy in America. (H. Reeve, Trans.). New York,

NY: George Adlard. (Original work published 1835). Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=DUAvAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#
View Full Essay

Religious Heritages in America Influenced

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3837322



The spread of public education in the 20th century gave rise to even greater tensions about the appropriate role of religion within the public education system. The Supreme Court declared that mandated prayers in public schools were unconstitutional, yet the words 'under God' were inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance (Prayer, 2010, eligious Tolerance). Students can wear religious clothing and jewelry to school, and teachers can teach about religion -- but not preach to their students. Walking the fine line between endorsing certain religious traditions within an officially secular community can be tricky, and the definition of what is secular and what is religious continues to evolve with the passage of time. Today, the debates about religion rage on -- the role of so-called 'creationist' science in biology classes that teach about evolution and the right of religious groups to hold meetings on school grounds are two recent examples of…… [Read More]

References

Horace Mann. (2001). School: The story of American public education. PBS.

Retrieved August 16, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/innovators/mann.html

Neil, John. (2005). John Dewey's philosophy of education. Experiential learning.

Retrieved August 16, 2010 at  http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
View Full Essay

Tolerance and Its Limits

Words: 2465 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88199441

Tolerance

Global terrorism has changed the entire spectrum of tolerance in today's world. Highlighted by the events of 9/11 the facts that even the world's most powerful nation was not immune to the effects of terrorism brought home the fact that there was little defense to the acts of terrorists. The age of innocence in the United States had ended and the rest of the world waited to see how the United States would react (Schorow 2002).

Terrorism has been a part of the world framework for some time but in the United States it had been something that occurred somewhere else. It was not anything that those living within the borders of the United States had to be concerned with. Those types of problems existed elsewhere. In America everyone was safe: until 9/11. 9/11 forced Americans to look at terrorism in a different light and to examine the roots…… [Read More]

References

Blake, Michael. "Religion and Statecraft: Tolerance and Theocracy: How Liberal States Should Think of Religious States." Journal of International Affairs, Fall/Winter 2007: 1-17.

Stetson, Brad and Joseph G. Conti, The Truth about Tolerance: Pluralism, Diversity, and the Culture Wars. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2005.

Hinkson, John. "In the name of freedom: is the legacy of September 11 a global anti-liberal ascendancy?" Arena Magazine, February 1, 2002.

Hoodbhoy, Pervez. "The United States and Islam:toward perpetual war?(Views from Russia, Pakistan, Malaysia, and China." Social Research, December 22, 2005.
View Full Essay

Religious Field Search Ahmadis The Other Face

Words: 1889 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71154430

Religious Field Search

AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM

For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:

Lutterworth Press Cambridge

2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:

Simon and Schuster.
View Full Essay

Religious Philosophy the Nature of

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55055997



.. The actual universe, with all its good and evil, exists on the basis of God's will and receives its meaning from His purpose. However, these two conclusions do not stand in simple contradiction, to one another. The one says that evil is bad, harmful, destructive, fearful and to be fought against as a matter of ultimate life and death. But the other does not deny this. It does not say that evil is not fearful and threatening, inimical to all good and to be absolutely resisted. It says that God has ordained a world which contains evil- real evil- as a means to the creation of the infinite good of a Kingdom of Heaven within which His creatures will have come as perfected persons to love and serve Him through a process in which their own free insight and response have been an essential element."

(Hick, 1978)

Arthur Schopenhauer,…… [Read More]

References

Bowker, John. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions.

New York: Oxford, 1997

Einstein, Albert. Ideas and Opinions.

New York: Crown, 1954
View Full Essay

Civilizations the Topic Is Religious and Social

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83889752

Civilizations

The topic is religious and social life in the Achaemenid Empire. The purpose of the project is to learn more about this subject and dispel some of the myths in today's media. I will use books on the subject to learn about what this empire was like, and what their religion was like. I expect that I will be able to come to some conclusions about the Achaemenid Empire. Furthermore, I believe that I will demonstrate that the rulers of this empire were enlightened and had a high level of tolerance for the customs of those over whom they ruled.

Purpose Statement

The subject of this report will be the Achaemenid Empire that flourished in ancient Persia, from 550-330 BCE. This empire is interesting for several reasons, not the least of which was its Zoroastrian religion and general religious tolerance. This empire has been cast as villain in popular…… [Read More]

References

Armayor, O. (1979). Herodotus' catalogues of the Persian Empire in the light of the monuments and the Greek literary tradition. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Vol. 108 (1979) 1-9.

Choksy, J. (1989). Purity and pollution in Zoroastrianism: Triumph over evil. University of Texas Press.

Dandamaev, M. (1989). A political history of the Achaemenid Empire. EJ Brill: New York.

Dusinberre, E. (2003). Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis. University of Michigan: Ann Arbor.
View Full Essay

Good and Bad About Religious Diversity

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40265235

PLUALISM BEST FO SOCIETY?

Diversity and Pluralism

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Is Pluralism the Best Outcome for Society?

Diana Eck (1997) takes great pains to distinguish between diversity and pluralism, as it relates to the religions practiced in the United States. The word 'diversity' simply means that Americans practice more than one religion, but a religious pluralism implies an ongoing effort by each faith to engage with each other to negate the negative outcomes often associated with diversity. For example, Eck (1997) list three philosophies individuals may turn to when faced with religious diversity: exclusion, assimilation, and pluralism. An exclusionary philosophy demands that members of other religions, should they desire a life in America, strip themselves of their religious affiliation if it differs from the dominant religious faith in America, i.e., Christianity. A person supporting an assimilation philosophy would welcome diversity, but only if immigrants promised to…… [Read More]

References

Dick, P.K. (1968). Do androids dream of electric sheep? New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Eck, D.L. (1997). From diversity to pluralism. In: On Common Ground. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from http://www.pluralism.org/encounter/challenges.

McFaul, T.R. (2006). Religion in the future global civilization. The Futurist, 40(5), 30-6.
View Full Essay

Amish Are a Long-Standing Religious Sect Created

Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77636972

Amish are a long-standing religious sect, created in the 17th century after the first Amish broke from the Mennonite Protestant tradition because of "what they perceived as a lack of discipline among the Mennonites" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance). The original Amish were of Swiss and German extraction. Many migrated to the U.S. In the early stages of the sect's formation, settling in Pennsylvania, and gradually branching out into New York, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri Ohio, and other states where they still reside today. No Amish remain in Europe. "The faith group has attempted to preserve the elements of late 17th century European rural culture. They try to avoid many of the features of modern society, by developing practices and behaviors which isolate themselves from American culture" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance).

The Amish used to be farmers, marking the culture as 'pastoral' in…… [Read More]

References

Adult baptism. (2011). Welcome to Manchester County. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at  http://www.welcome-to-lancaster-county.com/amish-belief.html 

The Amish: History, belief, practices. (2011). Religious Tolerance. Retrieved December 15,

2011 at  http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm 

Frequently asked questions. (2011). Amish Studies. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/FAQ.asp
View Full Essay

Locke S Premise in His Tract on Religious Toleration

Words: 1357 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61441862

Locke and Proast: Religious Toleration

Proast's main criticisms of Locke's Letter Concerning Toleration are that the government does have a right and, indeed, a duty to use moderate force in order to compel its subjects to adhere to the one true religion -- which in Proast's view is the religion of the Anglican Church. This was in response to Locke's contention that by attempting to regulate religion, the State supported conflict, but that in adopting a policy of religious tolerance for religions that promoted tolerance as well (thus ruling out the Catholic Church in his view) the State could avoid promoting conflict. Locke also argued that the State had no mandate from God to oversee religion or religious development and that thus religious toleration was the only moral principle for the State to follow. Proast disagreed, asserting that the magistrate did have a duty to oversee the religious developments of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Tolerance Org Dana Williams Comments on Burgeoning Alternative

Words: 325 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33906324

Tolerance.org, Dana Williams comments on burgeoning alternative student break programs that include hands-on encounters with the history of race relations and cultural diversity in America. The trend was started by Jeff Steinberg, a California high school teacher who took a class on a tour of southern civil rights sites. Because of the positive reception he received from the initial field trip, Steinberg formed an organization dedicated to helping students learn about the civil rights movement by taking them on tours of the Deep South. His organization, Sojourn to the Past, the people and places they learn about in the classroom come to life. Other alternative break programs such as those sponsored by the organization Break Away encourage community service and other means of encountering diversity first-hand. Operation Understanding DC fosters understanding among the black and Jewish communities of Washington, DC, while the Other America Tour enables students to visit other…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Religious Fundamentalist Sub-Tradition Fundamentalist the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12167405



For fundamentalists, law and authority come from God.

This is true not only in formally theocratic societies, like Iran, but can also be seen expressed in the views of fundamentalist U.S. Christians, who have an obsession with having the Ten Commandments displayed outside of secular buildings, advocate school prayer and the need for laws to be justified by Judeo-Christian values.

Female sexuality must be contained; boundaries must be established between men and women.

The female body is an obsession: hence the obsession with women staying home and not working in fundamentalist Christian circles, as well as the extreme control of women by the Taliban in Afghanistan.

Sexual behavior is a major concern of all fundamentalists

Opposing gay marriage, abortion rights, sexual education unite almost all fundamentalist groups.

Fundamentalism and nationalism converge.

"The moral life according to the will of God can only be fully lived in a society of fellow-practitioners…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Religious Discrimination at Work Would

Words: 336 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97302344

Of course, most proselytizing of this nature is also prohibited by law but a non-exclusive hiring policy obviously provides more opportunities to expose non-Christians to the faith in permissible ways than an exclusive hiring policy that excludes non-Christians altogether.

3. How would your answers change, if at all, if they planned to open a Christian school rather than a manufacturing facility? Legal but not advisable.

Because a Christian school is a primarily religious institution, it would be excepted from the obligation to comply with Title VII even if it employed more than 15 employees (Friedman, 2005). Because the essential purpose of the school would be to teach and promote Christianity, it would be advisable to employ only teachers of Christian faith. However, there is not reason that excluding non-Christians from non-teaching positions would be preferable or beneficial and it would promote discrimination instead of multicultural tolerance and non-discrimination in society…… [Read More]

Reference

Friedman, L.M. (2005) A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.
View Full Essay

Spiritual but Not Religious An

Words: 1920 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54217127

These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…… [Read More]

References

Brown, C. (2014, March 3). Spiritual but Not Religious an Oxymoron? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/candy-gunther-brown-

phd/spiritual-but-not-religio_1_b_5054627.html

Colson, C. (2008, September). The coming persecution: How same-sex 'marriage' will harm Christians. Retrieved from Christianexaminer.com:

http://www.christianexaminer.com/Articles/Colson/Art_Sep08_Colson.html
View Full Essay

Wendy Brown's Perspective on Tolerance

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42167126

It gives the government the ability to enforce its own cultural and legal norms on others without public objection. This is the key argument that Brown makes throughout the body of the work. Tolerance protects the beliefs and ideas of others, yet at the same times distances them from the norms of the mainstream. Cultural differences are not rationalized, they are simply accepted as the way a society is. Minority cultures are to be respected, but not necessarily adopted by the mainstream.

The separation of private and public life has been a tool to achieve tolerance. Those differences that make each culture unique are not allowed to enter into public life, but must remain an area that is private. Brown argues that to relegate culture and belief to the private realm is to rob it of its communal nature. One's culture becomes a matter of personal preference, not an idea…… [Read More]

References

Brown, W. Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Keohane, N. Communication & Tolerance: A Commentary on the Tinder & Wolff Papers

Polity, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Summer, 1974), pp. 480-487.

Plato. Republic. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Project Gutenberg, e-text no 1497. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile-fk_files=38607&pageno=41
View Full Essay

Work Place Religious Conviction

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25380066

Accounting for Religion at Work

In general, religious discrimination is intolerable. This fact certainly applies to human resources management, in which department heads are tasked with hiring various people for positions in any number of organizations across vertical industries. However, the reality of this situation is that religious practices and observances can create substantial complications for organizations that can actually interfere with the fulfillment of organizational objectives. On some occasions, certain facets of behavior that individuals engage in associated with their religions can actually contradict with their job responsibilities and even prevent them from fulfilling them. As such, organizations that do not discern job placement based on religious tendencies may incur situations in which they are paying people to fulfill job responsibilities that they cannot do. Therefore, it might behoove organizations to consider religion as one of the factors for hiring people, and human resources management professionals need to be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Ronald. "Balancing Employee Religious Freedom in the Workplace with Customer Rights to a Religion-Free Retail Environment." Business & Society Review 117, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 281-306.

Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth, and Fones-Wolf, Ken. "Managers and Ministers: Instilling Christian Free Enterprise in the Postwar Workplace." Business History Review 89, no. 1 (January 2015): 99-124.

McCrea, Ronan. "Religion in the Workplace: Eweida and Others v. United Kingdom." Modern Law Review 77, no. 2 (March 2014): 277-291.
View Full Essay

King Asoka Is One of

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39638120

.. carved out caves for Buddhist monk worship, lavishly subsidized the order's work, and even arrogated to himself the chore of preventing schisms in Buddhism" (67). His examples include charity and erecting hospitals for men and animals. (Albinski 68-9) Chodorow maintains that Asoka's example "enhanced the prestige of Buddhism" (Chodorow 146). It should be noted that Asoka was a "pragmatist" (147). He did "not abolish capital punishment. His official policy was one of religious tolerance as appropriate for a far-flung empire inhabited by many different communities"(147). His was a different plan of conquest, as it involved religion and general good will toward others. According to Israel Selvanayagam, Asoka's dharma is twofold. One aspect is "practical, concerning interpersonal relationships and emphasizing the duties of each individual at home and in security; the other is doctrinal in a general sense and includes a special concern for sanctity of animals, toleration of other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albinski, Henry. "The Place of the Emperor Asoka in Ancient Indian Political Thought." JSTOR Resource Database. Site Accessed May 20, 2008.  http://www.jstor.org 

Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Chodorow, Stanley, et al. A History of the World. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Javonovich, Publishers. 1986.

Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations: Combined Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2002.
View Full Essay

Conflict Building a New Jerusalem

Words: 1790 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46093768

The European actions against the natives were in error, because they were committed by Protestant Christians, who, unlike Catholics or savages, should have known better and responded with higher forms of faith and feeling. The Indian atrocities were seen as inevitable, the result of "undesigned provocation" (even though esley acknowledges that the settlers are interlopers) rather than a response in defense of their land (ard, 1872).

Thus, although the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights may proclaim religious separation from all churches, America was actually founded by individuals seeking to create what today we would call a theocracy. Despite early amicable relations with the natives, eventually conflicts over territory caused the two populations to be hostile. The violence that ensued was justified by the religious rhetoric and beliefs of the Puritans, as they strove to create a New Jerusalem in a land that was inhabited by people whose civilization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Atkins, Scott Eric. (2008) "Pilgrims and puritans." American Studies at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/puritan/purhist.html 

Native Americans of North America." (2007). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com

Religious tolerance in Colonial America (2008). Geocites. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/crownac/religious_tolerance.htm

Ward, Nathanial. (1647). "Against toleration." E-text of American History Told by Contemporaries. Vol. 1. pp. 393-96. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at  http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/ward.html
View Full Essay

Roberto Rosellini's Open City With Regard to

Words: 1493 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56402090

oberto osellini's "Open City" with regard to the war in ome and "Paisa" for a view of different aspects of the war (religious tolerance, sex, inability to communicate and partisan activities, "Seven Beauties" (a grotesquely comic alternative view of the war) as well as Ignazio Silone, (Fontamara) for the prewar attitudes and Giorgio Bassani (The Garden of the Finzi Contini) for the life and attitudes of Jews and gentiles in Italy. Describe Italy in World War II and is aftermath through the late 1940's and how they impact through to the present day.

The history of any particular period can frequently best be described by the movies and works that were produced during that period. There is no exception made in the case of pre- and during the War Italy when certain movies and a novel that described the conditions captured the situation precisely. The description of this material and…… [Read More]

References

Bassani, G (1962) The Garden of the Finzi-ContiniFaber and Faber

Ignazio Silone Fontamara

http://www2.webster.edu/~corbetre/personal/reading/silone-fontamara.html

You Tube open City
View Full Essay

Young Most of Us Do Not Think

Words: 2216 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13981506

young, most of us do not think about making a conscious decision to die. e look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever seems appealing it is as an antidote to depression. It does not often, if ever, occur to us that there will be a time when we look forward to the "good death" promised by euthanasia.

But it is inevitable that for many of us there will come a time in our lives when suicide may indeed seem appealing because we are fighting a losing battle against a certainly fatal disease that fills our remaining days with pain and despair. In such a position many of us may wish to have our doctors help us die by prescribing for us drugs that when we ourselves take them will prove to be fatal. Or we may wish that other people should have this option…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callahan, Daniel, "Good Strategies and Bad: Opposing physician-assisted suicide," Commonweal, December 3, 1999, sec1. 7+.

Cassel, Christine K. "AMA Guidelines for Caring for Patients in the Last Phase of Life.," CQ Researcher 7 (1997): 774. (http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/amn_97/edit0721.htm)

Humphrey, Derek. Euthanasia: Essays and Briefings on the Right to Die. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society, 1991. http://deathwithdignity.org/euth_us2htm.

Orric, Sarah. "House Judiciary Committee Rationale." Congressional Digest 77 (1998); 263-264.
View Full Essay

Religion and Politics Are Issues

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1586274

This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.

Machiavellian Leaders

Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.

The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly

Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363

Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press

King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from:  http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/king-philip-ii-spain.htm
View Full Essay

Religion in Our Society the

Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84377998

eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):

No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."

In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…… [Read More]

References

Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785

James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions

Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;

Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
View Full Essay

Ethics and Church in Today's

Words: 4911 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13276603

Their primary duty is that of guiding the spiritual and religious aspects of the lives of their community members. They should give the highest priority to their duties towards the community including church service, counseling and other ceremonial functions required by their profession. As part of their professional and ethical duties, pastors are also required to show an interest in community development and increase their participation in community activities. This has become a necessity in modern culture because people expect institutions to take an interest and an active role in the community development efforts. Institutions cannot expect to benefit from the resources of the society and not give back. This is why business organizations, universities and even political parties make community development a part of their organization's commitment to the society and the people they serve. eligious institutions like the church are also expected to follow this example. The pastor,…… [Read More]

References

Arnold, W.V. (1982). Introduction to Pastoral Care. Westminster John Knox Press.

Bush, J.E. (2006). Gentle Shepherding: Pastoral Ethics and Leadership. Chalice Press.

Gula, R.M. (1996). Ethics in Pastoral Ministry. Paulist Press.

Hewart-Mills, D. (2011). Pastoral Ministry. Xulon Press.
View Full Essay

Tie Between Politics and Religion

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27380146

eligion and Politics

Some groups hold the view that faith groups and other institutions have a very significant role to play within the political arena and that they have a duty to enter the political fight and they expect the government to remain supportive of this obligation. However, the argument of this article suggest that religious / faith groups and institutions should never have the chance of forming political parties and they should never try to posses influence in the workings of government for their views as well as values by finding their way to the realm of political discourse and any attempts to elect their own politicians.

Different countries have their varying degrees of separation between government or politics and religious institutions. A number of countries have moved a head and set up explicit barriers between church and state since the 1780s. The constitution of the United States has…… [Read More]

Reference

Daniel L. Dreisbach (2006) "The Mythical "Wall of Separation": How a Misused Metaphor Changed Church -- State Law, Policy, and Discourse." Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2006/06/the-mythical-wall-of-separation-how-a-misused-metaphor-changed-church-state-law-policy-and-discourse

James Leon Holmes and Jeremy Holmes (2003) From Aristotle to Jefferson: Christianity and the Separation of Church and State. Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://cssronline.org/CSSR/Archival/2003/Holmes%2520article.pdf

Jefferson, Thomas (1802). Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists. U.S. Library of Congress.

Locke, John (2002). Political Writings. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.Ed. Mark Goldie. CUP: Cambridge, Retrieved May 28, 2014.  http://www.iep.utm.edu/locke-po/
View Full Essay

Amish -- a Culture of

Words: 1813 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31592688

They do not pay taxes, as they do not collect Social Security or other welfare benefits, as the Amish community takes care of its 'own.'

Interestingly, despite the allowance of "flings in the English world, the number of Amish teenagers who join the church has risen over the past 50 years...In 1940, only about 60% remained in the Amish faith...[now it is] hover[ing] around 90% and is even higher in some areas" (Drummond, 2007). And although the Amish still distain higher education and contact with the world, the world has sought out their community, as tourists but also as consumers of their handicrafts, including Amish furniture, food, and hand-woven quilts. This has also made 'the English' more sympathetic to their way of life, and encouraged non-Amish people to lobby the government to protect Amish values as part of America's freedom of religion. Ironically, this society so grounded in collective values…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amish: Frequently asked questions." (1995). Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Retrieved 27 May 2007 at http://www.800padutch.com/atafaq.shtml

The Amish and plain people." (1995). Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Retrieved 27 May, 2007 at http://www.800padutch.com/amish.shtml

The Amish People and their lifestyle." (1995). Pennsylvania Dutch Country. Retrieved 27 May 2007 at http://www.800padutch.com/amishpeople.shtml

Beliefs of the Amish." Religious Tolerance.org. (1996). Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 27 May 2007 at  http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish3.htm
View Full Essay

Social Shift from Religion to Spirituality

Words: 4137 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73048599

Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense

Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).

The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

American Colonialism Opportunity in Colonial

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54310205

William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,

Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.

Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…… [Read More]

References

Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.

Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.

Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
View Full Essay

Locke One of the Single

Words: 5073 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43486576



This body then has the right and duty, especially if elected to represent to build the laws and enforce the judgment of those laws, as a reflection of the will of the consensus. Locke, having developed a keen sense of a rather radical sense of the rights of the individual and the responsibility of the civil government began his work with the development of what it is that constructs the "natural rights" of man. Locke, therefore begins his Second Treatise on the natural rights of man, as he puts it to illuminate the understanding of the right to rule.

Natural Rights Theory

Locke demonstrates in the beginning of his Second Treatise the idea that the government created by the people can only be so if the people accept that certain rights of nature are true to all men. The development of these rights is not necessary as they are natural…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arneil, Barbara. John Locke and America: The Defence of English Colonialism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Brown, Gillian. The Consent of the Governed: The Lockean Legacy in Early American Culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. Press. 2001.

Dunn, John. The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the 'Two Treatises of Government' London: Cambridge

Univ. Press, 2006.
View Full Essay

Bosnia Islam the Islamic Faith

Words: 2530 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84161527



The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.

A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.

Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.

Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.

Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
View Full Essay

Religion Shaped AMERICAN& 8230 How Religion

Words: 2067 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68756801

evisionist historian often seek to find non-Christian association among the lives of the founding fathers, such as the Freemasons, and Humanism, yet it is clear that these organizations were not dominant to religion and that a strong Protestant ethic still reigned supreme, especially in the language of the foundational documents of the nation.

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism has in fact created a more recent expression in modern America as churches attempt to "go back to the word" and support the idea that the scripture of the church is divine and unfailing. Though interpretations are varied in this group in general they espouse and return to "family values" via some "golden era" ideals regarding the past.

At its base, fundamentalism was compatible with the religiosity of the people, for both assumed the reality of supernatural power and the prevalence of supernatural forces at work in the world. By stressing such theological notions as…… [Read More]

References

Domke, D., & Coe, K. (2007). The God Strategy: The Rise of Religious Politics in America. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 42(1), 53.

Harries, R. (2003). After the Evil: Christianity and Judaism in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lippy, C.H. (1994). Being Religious, American Style: A History of Popular Religiosity in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.

McDermott, R.A. (1993). The Spiritual Mission of America. Re-vision, 16(1), 15-25.
View Full Essay

Manson Family Was the Manson Family a

Words: 1186 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43514734

Manson Family

as the Manson family a religious cult? In this essay, the author will prove this by examining the Manson Family as a political cult and the leaders use of mind control love bombing, the role of Manson as a group leader and his role within the group, and teachings and/or beliefs of the group. hile the group did not in the opinion of this author exhibit all of the aspects of religious cultism, it is certainly very much in the genre.

Its ties to and emergence from the sixties counterculture blurs this a bit, it is a cult nonetheless. As we will see in the body of this essay, a number of salient facts stand out that define a cult. One is a dominating personality. Secondly, secret and esoteric beliefs and liturgies, usually at the extreme edge of human behaviors. Finally, mind control use and tactics are endemic.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bugliosi, V., & Gentry, C. (2001). Helter skelter: the true story of the manson murders.

New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

What is a cult? (2007). Retrieved from  http://psychcynic.blogspot.com/2007/11/blog-two-what-is-cult.html .

Destructive cults: the family; charles manson. (2008, April 8). Retrieved from  http://www.religioustolerance.org/dc_charl.htm .
View Full Essay

Amish Religion

Words: 2993 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44308589

Amish Religion

Women in the Amish religion are committed to living a life that is subordinate and subservient to the male members of the community. Many women within the Amish community complacently accept this role, as it is the role that was assigned to women in ancient biblical scriptures. There are many that would argue that women within the Amish community are unfairly suppressed, however all women living within the community do have the option to choose whether or not they will accept the faith before becoming a member of the Amish religion.

The Amish, otherwise known as "plain people" for their unadorned clothing, live in many different throughout the United States in segregated communities. Speaking what is referred to as "Pennsylvania Dutch" many people in the Amish community avoid casual contact with people living in modern society, as a means to avoid most of the conveniences afforded to people…… [Read More]

Bibliography with Annotations." Wildrid Laurier University Press: 1977

Robinson, B.A. "The Amish." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, 2000. Available:  http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm
View Full Essay

Catholic Australian Catholic Education in

Words: 787 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66178433



n addition to the explicit curriculum of facts and the implicit curriculum of cultural indoctrination, Eisner (1985) argues that there is also a null curriculum that is taught precisely through not teaching certain things -- there is a set of facts and values that is explicitly (and implicitly) not a part of any given educational system, so students are also taught what to discount, ignore, or even simply fail to perceive. This is perhaps the most profound and the most essential part of Eisner's argument in this essay, with definite and resounding implications and ramifications on attempts at a well-rounded religious education.

For Catholic schools, the issues that Eisner raises must be viewed in the context of a school that is at least somewhat explicitly indoctrinating students with specific values and beliefs. That is, a major part of the explicit curriculum in Catholic schools -- the facts and figures that…… [Read More]

In addition to the explicit curriculum of facts and the implicit curriculum of cultural indoctrination, Eisner (1985) argues that there is also a null curriculum that is taught precisely through not teaching certain things -- there is a set of facts and values that is explicitly (and implicitly) not a part of any given educational system, so students are also taught what to discount, ignore, or even simply fail to perceive. This is perhaps the most profound and the most essential part of Eisner's argument in this essay, with definite and resounding implications and ramifications on attempts at a well-rounded religious education.

For Catholic schools, the issues that Eisner raises must be viewed in the context of a school that is at least somewhat explicitly indoctrinating students with specific values and beliefs. That is, a major part of the explicit curriculum in Catholic schools -- the facts and figures that are taught -- is akin to the implicit curriculum taught in any school as identified and described by Eisner. This in turn has major ramifications on the implicit curriculum taught in Catholic schools, as teachers and administrators must ensure that teaching methods and standards as well as rules of classroom operation and definitions of student success are in line with the explicit values taught in the curriculum. Essentially, then, the line between the implicit and explicit curricula are blurred in Catholic schools, and truly in any institution that provides a religious education. Morality, cultural values, and systems of behavior are an explicit part of any religion, and definitely of Catholicism, meaning they will necessarily be a part of any meaningful and effective religious education.

The null curriculum that Eisner identifies is also of great importance when it comes to Catholic education, especially in the modern world of growing diversity and the greatly increased need for cultural and religious tolerance and understanding. Students in Catholic schools, while being taught a definite, specific, and explicit set of values and beliefs must also be made aware of other attitudes and values or run the risk of becoming bigoted or narrow minded. Striking the balance in the explicit and implicit curricula of unequivocal value statements without ignoring other options and values is difficult, but entirely necessary.
View Full Essay

America States' Rights Are a Hot Topic

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29724844

America, states' rights are a hot topic. Can states legalize gay marriage, or is that something that is better left to the federal government? Can states make their own gun laws, or should we have a general law by the U.S. government about them? These are just a few examples of issues where states' rights are disputed. Religion is a hot topic as well; can students pray at football games and graduation ceremonies? Can a person's religious beliefs make taking an otherwise illegal drug legal? Foreign affairs gets a lot of coverage, as well: should America be concerned about democracy in other nations? Should we use force to patrol the world, perhaps making it a more secure place?

These all seem like very modern questions, and in many ways, they are. Football games and gay marriage were hardly relevant during the colonial period of American history. But the events of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

10th Century Islam Mid-10th Century

Words: 1068 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21081797

They attempted several times to conquer Egypt and Sicily, among other places. In Yemen, rett describes a situation of internecine warfare between various sectors of Yemeni society. He writes, "Mahdism thus proved unable to transform the society of the Yemen into an enduring new state, as it did the society of ahrayn" (p. 78). Al-Fadl could not make headway with the southern tribesmen and nobility. In the end, Yemen proved too introverted a place to become a unifying imperial power as the community was fragmenting. To make matters worse, the twelfth imam has just disappeared (Mohammad Al-Mahdi in 941). What were they to do? No one knew, they believed, when he would come out of hiding. So there must be waiting and vigilance, and a strict adherence to the imam's religious and judicial authority in the community.

Another Shiite group expecting the Messiah's return was the Fatimids, who traced their…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, Karen. (2000). Islam: a short history. New York: Modern Library.

Brett, Michael. (2001). The rise of the Fatimids: the world of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the tenth century. CE. Leiden: Brill.

Endress, G. (2002). Islam: an historical introduction. C. Hillenbrand (Trans.). New York: Columbia University.

Goldschmidt, Arthur, & Lawrence Davidson. (2005). A concise history of the middle east (8th Ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
View Full Essay

Anachronism Universal Peace and the

Words: 1840 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72645032

They investigate on the nature of virtue and pleasure but they concentrate on the happiness of man and what it is made up of. They uphold that man's happiness consists mainly in the good type of pleasure. They derive arguments from religious principles, despite its roughness and strictness. Without these principles, all searches on happiness can only be merely conjectural and defective (Philosophy asics).

The need for a real-life utopia is more felt today than before. It is a basic ingredient in the fulfillment of human potential in the contemporary environment (Ainsa 1991).

Contemporary historical, political and philosophical views still retain some Utopian dimension or strain. Utopianism may have discredited for some flaws in the past, but it remains indispensable as an alternative model for mapping out the future. An ideal society is always an attempt to invent the future. Utopia differs from ideology in that utopia represents hope in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ainsa, Fernando. Do We Need Utopia? UNESCO Courier: UNESCO, Feb 1991

Burnet, Gilbert, trans. Thomas More's Utopia -- Moral Philosophy and Religion.

British Library Board: George Routledge & Sons, 1885

Microsoft Encarta. Desiderius Erasmus. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia:
View Full Essay

Trade from the End of the Axial Age to 1500 C E

Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89606004

Introduction

Trade and imperialism brought all the societies of the Near East into contact with one another during the Axial Age so that networks were established and goods and services flowed from society to the other. These networks also facilitated the dispersal of ideas, both religious and philosophical. By the end of the Axial Age, the foundations of Western thought had been laid by the classical philosophers in Greece: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—and their ideas rooted in the observance of Transcendentals, or ideals, that individuals pursued through the cultivation of good or virtuous habits in their daily lives, spread to the next dominant empire in the West—the Roman Empire. This paper will discuss the transmission of technology, ideas (religious and philosophical), consumer goods, and germs from the end of the Axial Age to 1500 CE. It will also examine the treatment of indigenous people by expanding empires and conquerors as…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Rise of Russia There Are

Words: 1418 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1019593

"

Catherine the Great

Catherine the Great was "one of those catalyzing forces in history who, through hard experience, unbounded intelligence, and overwhelming practicality, changed the face of a country against overwhelming odds. She was a German princess who was married to Peter, a nephew of Elizabeth, who served as Empress of Russia from 1741 to 1762. Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, was a shrewd and Machiavellian ruler; she did not like Catherine, who was, from the time of her marriage to Peter in 1745 to the death of Elizabeth in 1762, constantly under the threat of danger (www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ABSOLUTE.HTM)."

Upon Elizabeth's death, Peter became Emperor Peter III and during his reign of just a few months, established peace between Russia and Prussia, averting Russia's conquest of Prussia. He was assassinated soon afterward, resulting in Catherine becoming ruler of Russia.

Continued Growth

Prior to the deaths of Elizabeth and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Absolute Monarchy and Enlightened Absolutism. (accessed 01 June, 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ABSOLUTE.HTM).

Eighteenth Century: Introduction. (accessed 01 June, 2005). www.rollins.edu/Foreign_Lang/Russian/18intro.html).

Peter the Great, Catherine the Great and the Rise of Russia. (accessed 01 June, 2005).

A web.uvic.ca/~jfedorak/Russia.htm>).
View Full Essay

Western Civilization Reformation Martin Luther

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79237181

They felt that they Church was getting richer and the poor were getting poorer. And as a result, there were no great protests when the King broke away from the Church, because many felt that Henry would ease up on taking money from them. Henry knew of the Catholic Church's unpopularity and used this to his advantage (Truman, 2009).

Christian Humanism played a large role in the development of the English Reformation as it also did with Calvinism, which emphasized the rule of God over all things (Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism, 2004). Both of these were very similar to the ideas Lutheranism, in which each individual was seen as responsible for their own fate. There were several other heretic groups that were persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church for their beliefs; these were the aldenses and the Albigenses. These were a couple of groups of Christians who would not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"About Martin Luther." 2003. PBS. 24 April 2009



"Belief system within Christianity: Calvinism." 2004. Religious Tolerance.org. 24 April 2009

View Full Essay

Goddesses the Goddess Concept in

Words: 352 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60981922



I believe that the goddess concept is vital, especially for the development of our society in modern times. While it is no longer vital to bear children, women have much more than only biology to offer the world. Unfortunately, many men are still grounded in the patriarchic paradigm that women are not to be provided with opportunities to prove themselves, because they are somehow not as good as men. The most important contribution of the Goddess is therefore to prove once again that there need be no battle between men and women; the two can compliment each other.

The idea of matriarchy is a rather alien one in our society. As such, not only men, but also many women believe that positions of power are not for them. The matriarchy concept overrides this idea. Women and men can be equally powerful.

ources

Angier, Natalie. Goddess Theory. ept 17, 2000. http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/09/17/reviews/000917.17angiert.html…… [Read More]

Sources

Angier, Natalie. Goddess Theory. Sept 17, 2000.  http://www.nytimes.com /books/00/09/17/reviews/000917.17angiert.html

Robinson, B.A. Goddess Worship. 1995-2006. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/goddess.htm
View Full Essay

Religions Similarities and Differences Among

Words: 1427 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93043400

While the similarities in ethical and theological concepts are great, some differences emerge. For instance, Islam seems to be the more fundamental or faith-based of the two religions, as obinson (2008-1) points often to a liberal branch of Christianity that questions even the very fundamentals of the faith. For instance, while Muslims believe that Jesus was born of a Virgin, even though they do not accept him as the Son of God, liberal Christians do not accept the idea of the virgin birth (obinson, 2008-1). While Christianity has gained its share of criticism, many critics have targeted Islam in the wake of the September 11, 2009 attacks. Many criticize Islam for the concept of Jihad, a term that obinson (2008A) argues is one of the most misunderstood in the religion. Some interpret this term as war against non-believers. Ellian (2008) also criticizes Islam for its inability to accept criticism and…… [Read More]

References

Ellian, A. (2009). "Criticism and Islam." Retrieved June 10, 2009, from The Wall Street

Journal. Web Site: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120692614173175795.html

Robinson, B.A. (2007). "Comparison of Buddhism and Christianity." Retrieved June 10,

2009, from Religious Tolerance.org. Web Site: http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
View Full Essay

Allah and Brahman Perhaps the

Words: 1894 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89442419

Modern Protestantism tends more to suggest that salvation is purely the work of God, and that the human need only accept salvation and all past and present sins will be forgiven, requiring them to do nothing more to be saved. In this schema, good works are merely acts of devotion. In either case, the death of Christ provides forgiveness for sins, and the soul which has been forgiven is upon death taken into heaven where it is purified and allowed to live eternally in luxury thereafter. The only downside, here, is that one has only one life in which to accept Christ. Anyone failing to do so in that time, is sentenced to never-ending punishment and pain.

The uddhist idea or Enlightenment, on the other hand, leads to a Nirvana which is the cessation of pain and suffering and one-ness with the universe. This enlightenment comes from the individual learning…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chandra, Summet. "Allah and Krishna are the Same Person." Prabhupada Hare Krishna News Network, http://religion.krishna.org/Articles/2000/10/00184.html

Names of Paradise," Al-Islam. http://dictionary.al-islam.com/

Robinson, B.A. "Introduction to Islam" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr.htm &  http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr1.htm 

Robinson, B.A. "BUDDHISM: Comparison of Buddhism & Christianity" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
View Full Essay

Non-Denominational Religions the New Facility

Words: 2495 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49473265

" Therefore, the Second Coming and the Rapture are coincidental events, both of which have to do with Christ returning to Earth. The Rapture specifically refers to what happens to human beings. Once Christ returns, the "thousand-year reign" on Earth begins. According to the FFM website, "Jesus Christ will one day return to bring believers home to Heaven and will reign with them over the Earth for 1,000 years." The thousand-year reign has scriptural origin, and is also called the Millennial Reign of Jesus. A "new heaven and earth," ostensibly a holier and happier one, will result from the Second Coming.

Speaking in tongues is a phenomenon that occasionally accompanies the baptism rite. Many Protestant and evangelical groups encourage speaking in tongues as proof of one's salvation during baptism (Robinson 2005). More formally known as "glossolalia," speaking in tongues is considered to be a supernatural manifestation of the glory of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

'History." Faith Fellowship Ministries.org.< http://www.faithfellowshipministries.org/history.html>.

Interview material.

"Our Beliefs." < http://www.ffmwoc.org/FFM3/Beliefs.html>.

Robinson, B.A. (2005). "Comparing the Beliefs of Roman Catholics and Conservative Protestants." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance: Religious Tolerance.org.<  http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_capr.htm >.
View Full Essay

Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85878794

Islamic Technology

Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age

Cultural Environment

The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Islam Hinduism and Judaism

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88394009

Hinduism With Other eligions

There are a number of common characteristics that Hinduism shares with other religions. One of the most fundamental of these is the notion of the afterlife in Hinduism. Specifically, Hinduism posits the notion that there is both a heaven and a hell that people will encounter after their physical existence ends on earth. This idea is reflected in Christianity and in Judaism. Additionally, it is significant to realize that Islam is also partly predicated on the conception of paradise, which is largely akin to the Hindu tenet of heaven. Hinduism is also extremely polytheistic, which is one of its notions that is also found in other religions such as those which dominated classical Greece and ome during the period of antiquity (and prior to ome's adoption of Christianity by Constantine as its official state religion). Interestingly enough, there is a conception in Hinduism of a trinity,…… [Read More]

References

Hebbar, N.H. (2002). Modern Hinduism. www.boloji.com Retrieved from http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=1494

http://bhoffert.faculty.noctrl.edu/REL100/06.Hinduism.ModernWorld.html

Hoffert, B. (n.d.). Hinduism in the modern world. http://bhoffert.faculty.noctrl.edu/

Retrieved from http://bhoffert.faculty.noctrl.edu/REL100/06.Hinduism.ModernWorld.html
View Full Essay

Eastern Philosophy Is Increasingly Becoming

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23583478

Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. One of their daughters, Amaterasu Omikami or "Sun Goddess," became the ancestor of the Imperial Family the chief deity, and her descendants united the country (eligious Tolerance).

The Shintoism philosophy deeply reveres and worships ancestors. All humans are considered "Kami's child," and therefore all human life and nature is sacred. Followers seek the will of Kami to have sincerity and a true heart and act in a way that is best for the group. The most important aspects in life are tradition and family, nature, worship of Kami and peace (eligious Tolerance).

Shintoism is very different from Buddhism, because it is based on a philosophy of a nation, Japan. Other major related differences include ancestral worship, that centers around the Imperial Family, the philosophy's lack of discussion regarding death, and the emphasis on goodness and cleanliness instead of pain and…… [Read More]

References

Horizon Book of the Arts of China (1969). New York: American Heritage Publishing.

Religious Tolerance Org. Shinto. Website retrieved October 29, 2006.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm .
View Full Essay

Histories of the United States Address the

Words: 2496 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45764984

histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.

Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.

This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
View Full Essay

Religion and Wars

Words: 5869 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87135313

relationship exists between difference of religion and the occurrence of civil wars within societies. The relationship between religious groups to society can be defined against the backdrop of war. Powerful emotions surround both conflict and military conflict (Yinger, 1946). A direct relationship has been recognized for several year regarding religion and violence. Students of organized religion "have frequently pointed out the ease with which most church leaders shift, at the outbreak of war, from an explicit antiwar position to a vigorous pro-war policy" (Yinger, p. 176). However, despite the seemingly strong tie between religion and war, it is critical to also acknowledge that while religion seems a backdrop for many wars, many other factors have contributed as well. Political aspirations and agendas have had as much to do with war as religion. The complex intermingling of these many different factors will be explored in greater detail below.

ecent research suggests…… [Read More]

References

Allen, John L. (N.D.) "As Vatican Calls for Peace, diplomat plans defense of 'preventive war.' {Online} Available: http://www.natcath.com/NCR/Online/archives/013103/013103j.htm

Armstrong, K. (1991). "Peace in Palestine." Holy War. New York: Doubleday. p4.

Clausewitz, Carl Von. (1992). "What is War?" On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976). 75-89; excerpt reprinted in U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, C610 Syllabus/Book of Readings. 205011. Fort Leavenworth: USACGSC, July 1992.

Chandler, D.G. (1996). "The English Civil Wars, 'Islam vs. Christianity'." Atlas of Military Strategy. Boston: Sterline Publishing Company. Pp.30-33., 54-55
View Full Essay

Intervention Minors or Children Under

Words: 2896 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47675269

On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on ioethics)..

While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on ioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bender, Denise G. Do Fourteenth Amendment Considerations Outweigh a Potential State

Interest in Mandating Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children. Journal of Deaf

Studies and Deaf Education: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2004

Committee on Bioethics. Religious Objections to Medical Care. Volume 9 number 2
View Full Essay

Ecumenical Council Agenda for the

Words: 950 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97332380

Their template deals with subjects such as what women found satisfying and frustrating about work. Also the committee heard show do they balance home and work responsibilities and fit in volunteer activities, how do they find time for spiritual activities. In addition, how does the spirituality affect work and vice versa (Bishop's Committee on omen in Society and in the Church).

ith regard to birth control, more a more liberally minded Pope could base relaxation of birth control based upon the results of the 1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control. This Commission voted 30-5 to relax the concerns on birth control (1966 Papal Commission on Birth Control).

ith regard to priestly marriage, it would be well for the Church to examine the Eastern Orthodox Rite where marriage for priests is allowed. ith regard to poverty, the Church could build upon Rerum Novarum and a pile of Church encyclicals that deal…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban." Catholic Church and Birth Control: History of Birth Control Ban. Papal Commission on Birth Control, 1966. Web. 20 Apr 2010.
"Education and Ecumenical Formation." Education and Ecumenical Formation. World Council of Churches, 1999. Web. 20 Apr 2010. .

Pope Leo 13th . Rerum Novarum On Capital

and Labor. Vatican, 1891. Retrieved 20 Apr 2010. .
View Full Essay

Human Rights Improve Around the

Words: 1983 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36980176

Social ideals and ethics are secondary. As such, if it were most beneficial to the State to commit genocide while conquering another nation, that would be the course of action taken. However, again thanks to increased media coverage, the world and governing bodies such as the U.N. Would not sit idly by. For this reason, this perspective is quickly becoming antiquated. Idealism, in contrast, is on the other end of the international relations spectrum.

Idealism surmises that a State's internal policies should be reflected in their foreign policies -- what they wish to occur within their boundaries is what they should support outside of their boundaries. Followers of idealism live by the Golden un -- Do unto others as you'd have them do unto you. The promotion of human rights globally would be incredibly important, from this perspective, as they too would want to enjoy the benefits of human rights…… [Read More]

References

Human rights timeline: From antiquity to the Magna Carta. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline1.cfm.

Human rights timeline: From European expansion to the Enlightenment. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline2.cfm.

Human rights timeline: From the American Revolution to Napoleon. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline3.cfm.

Human rights timeline: From the Indian Removal Act to the U.S. Sedition Act. (No date). Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/timeline/timeline4.cfm.
View Full Essay

Death Penalty as Justified Murder

Words: 2596 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70372808

However, the reasons why people commit crime are as different as the individuals themselves. Intentional murder comes in two different flavors. The first is the carefully plotted, well thought out, planned act. In this scenario, motivational theory takes over. The person must feel that they will gain some type of value from the action. It may be that they gain something, such as money, or they may feel that eliminating a person will offer them some type of protection. In any case, the person justifies their actions through a perceived reward in the future (Horisch and Strassmair).

In the case of an intentional murder, the death penalty may deter the action. However, several conditions must be met for the fear of death to act as a deterrent. The person must feel that there is a significant possibility that they will be caught and punished for their crimes. In many cases,…… [Read More]

References

Amnesty International. Death Penalty. 2008. www.amnestyusa.org/death-penalty/page.do?id=1011005).

Death Penalty Information Center. Facts About the Death Penalty. March 1, 2009.  http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/FactSheet.pdf  (Accessed March 10, 2009). (Gumbel, a. The Innocence Project: Guilty Until Proven Innocent. Common Dreams My 4, 2006). http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0504-09.htm (Accessed March 10, 2009).

Horisch, H. And Strassmair, C. An experimental test of the deterrence hypothesis. Discussion Papers in Economics. February 27, 2008. University of Munich. http://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2139/2/crime_Munich_DP.pdf (Accessed March 10, 2009).

Radelet, M., Bedau, H., and Putnam, C. In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, and Bedau and Radelet, "Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases." Stanford Law Review 40 (1987): 21-179)
View Full Essay

Islamic Right and Left Any

Words: 2976 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96174777

More recently, reports have begun coming from the Middle East that women will no longer be "expected" to participate in the pilgrimage to Mecca, thereby eliminating women from the holiest rite associated with Islam. Having once done that, it would then be easy to keep women physically, mentally, emotionally isolated within any Muslim society.

Of equal concern is the way in which the Koran is interpreted to facilitate and carry acts of terrorism. The Koran does call for the defense of Islam, that should Islam be threatened, it is the responsibility of every Muslim - presumably, women too - to rise to the defense of Islam."Islamic rulings of warfare are complex, appear to be contradictory and require careful analysis. The simplistic visions of paradise for suicide preached by militant jihadist clerics defy over 1,400 years of Islamic history and wisdom. Yet those like Osama bin Laden, yman al Zawahiri, or…… [Read More]

Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 18.

Answers.com, Zahra Kazemi, found online at http://www.answers.com/topic/zahra-kazemi, retrieved 10 January 2007

Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 19.
View Full Essay

Cloistered Virtue and Democratic Freedom Role of Education for American Christianity

Words: 3540 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47583214

philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.

What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…… [Read More]

References

Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from  http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm
View Full Essay

Importance of Cars in the United States

Words: 1261 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5760113

CARS WERE BANNED IN U.S.

Physical mobility is perhaps one of the most-crucial components in sociology; it defines what happens when people of a different culture interacts. In ideal circumstances, our personal movement is limited, and the scope of interaction will be limited to our community thanks to the discovery of automobiles. In the wake of modern automobiles, people from all walks of lives have interacted at higher and lower level; the result has been an incredible national cohesion and social acceptance. In addition, the governance, commerce and other spheres of lives have been facilitated by the diverse modes of transport. It would be unimaginable to live without automobiles; their absence will have profound effects on social, cultural and economic aspects of life.

Firstly, without automobiles, social interaction will be greatly hampered, multicultural interaction, and sociological progress of U.S. society will remain behind. Certainly, transport is a crucial tool for…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Santeria Origin of and Introduction

Words: 2767 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51585817

The power of the Orisha guides the santero. Alex told me that the attitude of the priests is very humble, because they don't believe that they are doing anything. All their actions are guided by the Orisha and all the credit belongs with the Orisha too.

I asked Alex to expand on two aspects of Santeria that I was particularly interested in because of their uniqueness. First, I asked about spirit possession. Alex told me that spirit possession is a very important concept because it helps the individual communicate directly with the Orishas. An object as well as a person can become imbued with the spirit of an Orisha. When a person becomes possessed by the Orisha, he or she temporarily acts and even looks like that spirit.

Second, I asked about sacrifices. Alex admitted that animal sacrifices do take place but much less often than they used to because…… [Read More]

References

De La Torre, M.A. (2004). Santeria: The Beliefs and Rituals of a Growing Religion in America. Grand Rapids: Eerdman's.

Leonidas, C. (nd). Introduction to Santeria. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/leonidas_1.html

Leonidas, C. (nd). Santeria and South Florida. Exploring the Culture of Little Havana. Retrieved online: http://www.education.miami.edu/ep/littlehavana/Santeria/Leonidas_1/Leonidas_2/leonidas_2.html

Robinson, B.A. (2009). Christian meta-groups: The Pentecostal group of denominations. Religious Tolerance.org. Retrieved online:  http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_pent.htm
View Full Essay

Mayflower in Human History Many

Words: 2199 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97728011



Why, though, is the name so popular and so utilized to mean change, evolution, choice, and really as an icon of a perilous journey to a new life? And what is the real story of the First Thanksgiving? In brief, the name has remained a popular icon because of the inherent nature of the story -- lively persecuted group befriends new population and thrives. Now, let us simply revise the point-of-view by one cog; instead of viewing the story as a European colonist, imagine if you will, a land that supported numerous bands of hunter-gatherers who took only from the land what they needed, had deep traditions about their interaction with nature, and, just like other societies, had passive and aggressive cultures. New people arrive who do not know how to dress, to hunt, to fish, or even how to build the proper house to stay warm. So, you help…… [Read More]

REFERENCES CONSLUTED

Adkins, R. (2005). "Mayflower: The Voyage That Changed the World." Geographical.

77(9): 78.

Arenstam, P., et.al. (2007). Mayflower 1620: A New Look at a Pilgrim Voyage. National Geographic Books.

Bush, S. (2000). "America's Origin Myth: Remembering Plymouth Rock." American Library
View Full Essay

Religion Part Two of Ronald Nash's Book

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63946071

eligion

Part Two of onald Nash's book Is Jesus the Only Savior? deals with the topic of religious inclusivism. Inclusivists "insist that all people must have a chance to be saved," regardless of their belief in Christ.[footnoteef:1] Not quite the opposite of exclusivism, inclusivism does allow for the potential ability of non-believers to be saved, but just emphasizes the unlikeliness of that actually occurring.[footnoteef:2] Kanno presents inclusivism as a view that tacitly approves religions other than one's own but " as a preparatory stage to one's own religion."[footnoteef:3] Hick's stance on inclusivism is that it is just a "soft form of exclusivism."[footnoteef:4] Because Nash is a hard exclusivist, the author finds certain problems with the inclusivism stance. [1: Nash, onald H, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? p. 104.] [2: obinson, B.A, 2011. "How People View the Status of eligions Other than Their Own." etrieved: http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm] [3: Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d.…… [Read More]

References

Bible: New International Version

Kanno, Hiroshi, n.d. Inclusivism and Religious Tolerance in the Lotus Sutra. Retrieved online: http://www.iop.or.jp/0515/kanno.pdf

Nash, Ronald, 1994. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Robinson, B.A., 2011. How people view the status of religions other than their own. Retrieved online:  http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_plur.htm