Religious Traditions Essays (Examples)

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Religious Field Search Ahmadis The Other Face

Words: 1889 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71154430

Religious Field Search

AHMADIS: THE OTHER FACE OF ISLAM

For the purposes of this paper I visited the local Ahmaddiya Muslim Community or as they prefer to called Ahmadis. Ahmadis are a sub-sect of the Islamic Community. What attracted to me to study this community was that unlike the general image we have of the Islamic community, this community is non-violent and is considered heretical by the larger Islamic community for having a prophet in succession to Muhammad, the founder of the Islamic faith. In many Muslim majority countries the Ahmadis are banned and in many others they have been ex-communicated from the Islamic mainstream. Apparently -- as I discovered- one of the other contentious issues between them and the rest Islamic community is the controversy over Jesus Christ's death, which I found interesting given that I considered Jesus an exclusively Christian figure. To my amazement it turns out that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Ahmad, M.T (1989). MURDER in the NAME of ALLAH London, UK:

Lutterworth Press Cambridge

2. Durant, W. (1950), The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes, New York:

Simon and Schuster.
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Religious Convictions and Practices of

Words: 1862 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94938216



Conclusions

There is no one standard for what is considered right and wrong in the world of American religion. The American religion that exists today may be described as "Agnostian-Secularian" meaning it is made up of multiple faiths, beliefs and convictions, some more Christian based and some more abstract in nature.

By and large the American 'religion' or modern society is varying accepting of people of many different faiths and idealisms. Though the government of this country is somewhat heavily influenced by Christian fundamentalist ideals such as those that Bush emphasizes, the public by and large particularly in the eyes of the media, is much more open and flexible in nature. There are some beliefs that may be considered more 'universal' in nature than others. There is for example an obvious preference among people living in the modern American world to belief in the basic concepts of right and wrong.…… [Read More]

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Religious Philosophy the Nature of

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55055997



.. The actual universe, with all its good and evil, exists on the basis of God's will and receives its meaning from His purpose. However, these two conclusions do not stand in simple contradiction, to one another. The one says that evil is bad, harmful, destructive, fearful and to be fought against as a matter of ultimate life and death. But the other does not deny this. It does not say that evil is not fearful and threatening, inimical to all good and to be absolutely resisted. It says that God has ordained a world which contains evil- real evil- as a means to the creation of the infinite good of a Kingdom of Heaven within which His creatures will have come as perfected persons to love and serve Him through a process in which their own free insight and response have been an essential element."

(Hick, 1978)

Arthur Schopenhauer,…… [Read More]

References

Bowker, John. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions.

New York: Oxford, 1997

Einstein, Albert. Ideas and Opinions.

New York: Crown, 1954
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Religious Terms There Are Nine

Words: 816 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90113763

This meant that individuals were 'elected' for salvation by God, and this view of human salvation is called either the 'doctrine of the elect' or the doctrine of living saints' (www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM)."

John the Baptist was a prophet who "preached a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many, and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus (www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm)."

Islam

Three terms in Islam that should be explored are Quraysh, Hijra, and Saum. Quraysh is "the ancient Bedouin tribe near Mecca to which Muhammad belonged. At one time camel drivers and caravan guides, they became, after acquiring custody of the Kaaba, one of the most powerful tribes in central Arabia and the chief family of Mecca. They were at first bitter opponents of Muhammad but became his devoted followers when Muhammad retained the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hijra. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.strath.ac.uk/Departments/SocialStudies/RE/Database/Glossaries).

John Calvin. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/CALVIN.HTM).

John the Baptist. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj02.htm).

Samuel Holdheim. (accessed 25 May 2005). www.knowallabout.com).
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Religious Reasons Why Purity and

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34481879

Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.

However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.

Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…… [Read More]

References

Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice

Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.

Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New

York, pp. 232-262.
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Religious Heritages in America Influenced

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3837322



The spread of public education in the 20th century gave rise to even greater tensions about the appropriate role of religion within the public education system. The Supreme Court declared that mandated prayers in public schools were unconstitutional, yet the words 'under God' were inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance (Prayer, 2010, eligious Tolerance). Students can wear religious clothing and jewelry to school, and teachers can teach about religion -- but not preach to their students. Walking the fine line between endorsing certain religious traditions within an officially secular community can be tricky, and the definition of what is secular and what is religious continues to evolve with the passage of time. Today, the debates about religion rage on -- the role of so-called 'creationist' science in biology classes that teach about evolution and the right of religious groups to hold meetings on school grounds are two recent examples of…… [Read More]

References

Horace Mann. (2001). School: The story of American public education. PBS.

Retrieved August 16, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/innovators/mann.html

Neil, John. (2005). John Dewey's philosophy of education. Experiential learning.

Retrieved August 16, 2010 at  http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
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Religious Secularization Has Been Increasingly

Words: 1194 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96405095

(Casanova, n.d., pp. 10 -- 26)

The Secularization by odney Stark

In the article titled Secularization, Stark (1999) is discussing how secularization is having a dramatic impact upon the society. This is because organized religion has not offered any kind of new or creative ideas in over two hundred years (which are leading to its decline). Moreover, many of the more mystical religions are experiencing similar decreases. The combination of these factors are important, in showing how there has been fundamental shift in morals and values. (Stark, 1999, pp. 249 -- 273)

Evidence of this can be seen with observations from Stark who said, "The day will come when religion has been relegated to memory and museums. This will not have been caused by modernization, and the demise of faith will bear no resemblance to the process postulated by the secular doctrine." (Stark, 1999, pg. 269) This is illustrating how…… [Read More]

References

Casanova, J. (n.d.). Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Stark, R. (1999). Secularization. Sociology of Religion 60 (3), 249 -- 273.

Stark, R. (n.d.). The Dynamics of Religious Economies.
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Religious Motivation the Origin of

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96563834

eligion provides a valuable source of spiritual meaning for those who might feel lost psychologically without a larger purpose to their lives. eligion contributes a comprehensive moral framework for human social interactions that generates a motivation for ethical conduct in the human community.

One of the most profound benefits of religion is the extent to which it allows some people to negotiate emotionally trying circumstances, especially in relation to the loss of loved ones. Irrespective of whether or not religious beliefs about the afterlife and the continuous existence of the human soul after physical death are true, they undoubtedly help countless people cope with emotional loss.

eligious traditions enable the efficient passage of social culture from one generation to the next and serve to connect the current generation to those in the past in a manner that also allows entire communities to maintain a unified social system and a shared…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, K. (1993). A History of God. London, UK: Heinemann.

Marantz-Henig, R. "Darwin's God." New York Times Magazine, March 4, 2007.

Pinker, S. "The Moral Instinct." New York Times Magazine, January 13, 2008.
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Religious Studies the Things That Orthodox Judaism

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90903498

Religious Studies

The things that Orthodox Judaism and Jewish Renewal have in common appear to originate from the foundations of the Jewish faith. Both make use of the Jewish scriptures such as the Talmud, and both adhere to Jewish traditions in terms of holidays and general practices. Another significant similarity is the importance that both directions have for women. The Orthodoxy is reported to give significance to the feminine style of devotion to God, which includes a more emotional, nurturing relationship with him. The Renewal appears to be an inclusion of more emotional qualities in the style of worship for both women and men.

The differences are more marked, and thus easier to identify. Regarding the role of women, for example, the Jewish Renewal seeks to include women in all aspects of Jewish worship. They are thus not excluded from leadership roles or practices within the synagogue.

The style of…… [Read More]

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Religious Views of the Holocaust Most People

Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62327553

Religious Views of the Holocaust

Most people realize that during World War II, the Nazi Party of Germany waged a relentless war against people they did not welcome in their country for one reason or another. We all know that over 6 million Jews died during the Holocaust, but many people don't realize that the Nazis targeted others as well, including Gypsies and some Christians who would not cooperate with the Nazi regime or who were caught aiding those who were supposed to be sent to concentration camps.

Given that the Holocaust was a multicultural and multi-religious event, it is interesting to consider how some major religions might view the events. Christianity teaches that all murder is against the law of God. However most Christian religions allow the execution of criminals by state governments. This is why we have individuals who protest executions but rarely hear entire denominations protest such…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dworkin, Andrea. 1994. The Unremembered: Searching for Women at the Holocaust Memorial Museum. Ms. Magazine, V:3

Rittner, Carol, Smith, Stephen D., and Steinfeldt, Irena, editors.

The Holocaust and the Christian World: Reflections on the Past - Challenges for the Future. 1994. New York: Continuum.
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Religious Culture in Korea

Words: 1448 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47460237

Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).

Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.

Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.

XXX.2, 115-122.

Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from  http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).

Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
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Religious Teacher Why Do I

Words: 2108 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22241440

Trees take in carbon dioxide (which includes pollution in the air) and give off oxygen so we can all breathe, and so God's plan can be carried through. The teaching of values, morals, and discipline must be part of the program for a Catholic teacher, and also the involvement of parents brings the school, the Church, the children and the families together in a fellowship of learning and praying.

As was mentioned earlier in this section, involving parents in their children's learning activities is a powerful way to keep our faith strong and growing in the context of education and Christianity. This is particularly poignant because on page 9 of the "Our Catholic Schools" one of the major issues facing Catholic education is the "…inadequate home and parish involvement with schools," and we can mitigate this problem by working closely with children to get them inspired enough so they want…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dall, Mary Doerfler. (2000). Children Discover the Mass. Notre Dame, in: Ave Maria Press.

Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.

Ontario's Catholic Schools. (2007). Our Catholic Schools 2006-2007 / Summary Report.

Teacher Expectations.
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Religious Ritual Practices Regardless of

Words: 2195 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23376978

This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.

One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.

Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical

Research Society, 2003.

Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
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Compare and Contrast a Religious Group's Statement

Words: 2777 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15907760

eligious Group's Statement

William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"

is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process

In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.

The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…… [Read More]

References

Kaufman, Gordon D. Religious Diversity and Religious Truth. In God-Mystery-

Diversity, 172-206. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Schleiermacher, Friedrich. 1969. Romanticism. In Attitudes Toward Other Religions:

Some Christian Interpretations, ed. Owen C. Thomas, 49-69. Notre Dame:
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Spiritual but Not Religious An

Words: 1920 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54217127

These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…… [Read More]

References

Brown, C. (2014, March 3). Spiritual but Not Religious an Oxymoron? Retrieved from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/candy-gunther-brown-

phd/spiritual-but-not-religio_1_b_5054627.html

Colson, C. (2008, September). The coming persecution: How same-sex 'marriage' will harm Christians. Retrieved from Christianexaminer.com:

http://www.christianexaminer.com/Articles/Colson/Art_Sep08_Colson.html
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Diaspora Cast Jews in Socio-Religious

Words: 535 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28145167

orshipping is typically performed in synagogues that replaced the historical Temple initially meant to provide Jews with a praying location. Jewish religious rulers are called rabbis and they control the many ceremonies and customs that are very important in Jewish religious tradition.

Synagogues appeared consequent to the destruction of the Second Temple by Titus, son of Emperor Vespasian in 70 A.D. Although this is considered to be the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora, it actually began approximately six centuries earlier, at the time when the Babylonians conquered the kingdom of Judea and destroyed the First Temple. Ever since this moment, Jews scattered around the world and are presently located in a wide range of countries. Most of them have expressed a particular desire to return to their traditional home. hile there are presently approximately 14 million Jews in the world, only about five million live in Israel with the other…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Goldschmidt, Arthur, "Concise History of Middle East (9TH 09 Edition)," Westview Press.
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American Religious History Both Laurence

Words: 1564 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14673434

He also observes the poignant problem of racism that arises here, which is also his reason for calling the new cult "white" Buddhism: in spite of the fact that the hite Buddhists may adopt all the traditional Asian customs- from their name to the food they eat or to the rituals as such, they will still be part of the "mainstream of the white culture." (Allitt 1999, 459). That is to say, the racial differences, still linger no matter what, and are emphasized by the American racism, which is the dark side of American culture.

Finally, Eldin Villafane analyzes the way in which the Catholicism of Spain was imposed to the Native Americans in Mexico, emphasizing the great religiosity of the Hispanic people. The author discusses the differences between Christendom and Christianity, the first being the powerful and complete assimilation of all life-matters into the religious frame.

Thus, all these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allitt, Patrick. Major Problems in American Religious History: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999

Moore, Laurence R. Touchstone Jesus. The Mixing of Sacred and Secular in American History. Westminster: John Knox, 2003
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Education - Religious Studies the

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44108630



Eastern religions, on the other hand, conceive of much broader definitions of God and deemphasize any direct relationship between individuals and God, in addition to allowing for multiple Gods.

Other religious beliefs reject any supposed consciousness of a supreme being, conceiving God as representing nothing more than fundamental elements of the natural universe and objective principles. In that sense, in addition to increasing awareness and specific knowledge of other religions, the study of religion also introduces an entirely foreign concept, at least from the perspective of students socialized in any of the Western religious traditions. Specifically, the broadened understanding of different religious frameworks raises the possibility that the highest form of spirituality possible in human life is the complete acceptance of our absolute aloneness in the world and the relative meaninglessness of human concerns in a universe that may very well be finite in existence as well as entirely godless.…… [Read More]

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Christianity Confucianism and Buddhism Religious

Words: 1685 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49811141



Confucius, likewise, although scholars say that Confucianism is not a theistic religion, stresses the will or mandate of heaven having an influence upon the lives of all, but focuses on the obligations of individuals in a society, not upon isolated religious acts of goodness. Buddhism, another cross-national religion also focuses on acts, such as the importance of meditation, rather than individual spiritual perfection, but focuses on such acts in a trans-national focus and stresses 'right understanding' as opposed to social relationships as in Confucianism. Confucianism does not stress the distinction between earth and the dead. It creates a network of continuity between ancestors of the past and one's present shows of respect, through good conduct, towards ones ancestors. Unlike Christianity, which stresses the better place of the Father in heaven, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God, the need for a savior, prayer, or eternal life after death.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Confucius. The Analects. MIT Classics Archive. Last updated 2000.  http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/analects.3.3.html 

Hoad, Colin. "Chapter One: Confucianism and Christianity." 2005

http://galileo.spaceports.com/~cjhoad/confuciusorguk/cc_intro.html

Matthew: Chapter 5 The Sermon on the Mount." The New American Bible. USCCB. http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/matthew/matthew5.htm
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Religion and Religious Belief Modern

Words: 1717 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4630685

"

(Einstein, 1954)

The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.

ources Consulted

Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.

Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.

Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London:

Routledge.

Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
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Mormonism the Religious Faith of

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60955377

In time, Bringham Young became the Mormon leader and led the Mormons further west ultimately to the Salt Lake Valley.

hat are the Tenets of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints?

According to the Mormon website, there are six key points that believers must adhere to in the Mormon Church: a) "God Is Our Father" (God is the "Father of our spirits," humans are "created in His image" and humans have a "divine nature and destiny"); b) "e lived with God" (before people were born they lived with God and hence, "All persons on earth are literally brothers and sisters in the family of God"; c) "Earth Life Is Part of God's Plan" (the lives of people are purposeful, and by coming to Earth -- through Jesus Christ -- God's plan for us is "…to gain a physical body and learn to choose between good and evil");…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. (2011). Our Eternal Life. Retrieved August 11,

2011, from http://lds.org/plan/print/our-eternal-life?lang=eng.

Gibson, Michelle. (2010). "However Satisfied Man Might Be": Sexual Abuse in Fundamentalist

Latter Day Saints Communities." The Journal of American Culture, 33(4), 280-294.
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Religious Fundamentalist Sub-Tradition Fundamentalist the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12167405



For fundamentalists, law and authority come from God.

This is true not only in formally theocratic societies, like Iran, but can also be seen expressed in the views of fundamentalist U.S. Christians, who have an obsession with having the Ten Commandments displayed outside of secular buildings, advocate school prayer and the need for laws to be justified by Judeo-Christian values.

Female sexuality must be contained; boundaries must be established between men and women.

The female body is an obsession: hence the obsession with women staying home and not working in fundamentalist Christian circles, as well as the extreme control of women by the Taliban in Afghanistan.

Sexual behavior is a major concern of all fundamentalists

Opposing gay marriage, abortion rights, sexual education unite almost all fundamentalist groups.

Fundamentalism and nationalism converge.

"The moral life according to the will of God can only be fully lived in a society of fellow-practitioners…… [Read More]

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Tradition and Modernity in A Madman's Diary

Words: 804 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80753831

Tradition and Modernity in "A Madman's Diary"

During Lu Xun's time, China was witnessing a landmark political and economic change. This was the time for the popular May Fourth Movement in 1919 following the announcement of the terms of the Versailles Treaty that concluded WWI. At this time, the Chinese society was oppressive and feudalistic. The elite fed off the labors of those below them thus destroying their souls. Those in leadership took advantage of the led that lived in abject poverty and without a political voice. The author seems to associate cannibalism with such prevalent social conditions. As much as the madman's reasoning is flawed, his lunacy points at the social, economic as well as political reality of the time. First, the story begins with different mode where the narrator introduces the diary. It appears as though this is a preface and the point at which the narrator distances…… [Read More]

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Religious History of My Family as I

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71221287

religious history of my family as I know it, and its impact on me.

I myself am from Vietnam and am studying in New York. My parents are Vietnamese and living in Hanoi, Vietnam.

We follow a mixture of Buddhism and Confucianism, although I think that somewhere way back, my grandparents or great-grandparents - I know little of either side -- may have been pure Buddhists. Actually, I see similarities in both, in that both focus on peace within oneself, and I think that the popular way of how Americans see Buddhist belief of nirvana as believing that we are feted to suffer is wrong.

Thinking of my family's beliefs and how it has shaped our lives and my life in particular, I think it is more Vietnam's beliefs in general; that has impacted us rather than that of my particular family. The two primary beliefs in Vietnam in general,…… [Read More]

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Religious Life of Planet Earth Criteria Employed

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67318423

eligious Life of Planet Earth

Criteria Employed to Identify eligious Behavior

Based on what we already know about religion in other parts of the cosmos, we will consider the following criteria to be indicative of religiosity on Earth: (1) itualistic prayer; (2) Symbolic rules that have no apparent utility or function beyond symbolism; (3) Ceremonial sacrifices (Sagan, 2002). Previous experience suggests that most religions are theistic and that the hallmarks of theistic religiosity are rituals used to demonstrate, reinforce, and transmit traditions to successive generations; symbolic rules that have no functional purpose beyond their symbolic value; and sacrifices meant to appease or thank imaginary supreme beings (Armstrong, 2003). While there are other forms of religiosity that involve more complex spirituality than presumed direct relationships between "gods" and living beings or causal relationships between the pleadings of living beings and natural events, for the purpose of a preliminary investigation, the foregoing…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, K. (2003). A History of God. London: Heinemann.

Sagan, C. (2002). Billions & Billions: Thoughts of Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House.
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Religious Reflections Please Respond Identify 3 1

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43669389

Religious Reflections." Please respond: Identify (3) 1) Judaism, 2) Shinto, 3) Buddha, things discussed fully, explain learned (3) things Identify (3) surprising things learned quarter, explain surprised.

Religious reflections

The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith. As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews.

It is often said that Buddhism…… [Read More]

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Religious Fundamentalism and Violence

Words: 1357 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84251486

Primary Source Analysis: Islamic Text

The Muslim Brotherhood is one of the most notable conservative Pan-Islamic groups -- it is based in Egypt but has a worldwide influence. As is the case with most fundamentalist organizations, the Brotherhood takes an extremely gendered view of women. According to one of its most influential members Hasan al-Banna in his tract "Towards the light:"

"Following are the principal goals of reform grounded on the spirit of genuine Islam...Treatment of the problem of women in a way which combines the progressive and the protective, in accordance with Islamic teaching, so that this problem - one of the most important social problems - will not be abandoned to the biased pens and deviant notions of those who err in the directions of deficiency and excess...a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior; the instruction of women in what is proper, with particular strictness as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Banna, Hasan. Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna. Translated by Charles Wendell Berkeley,

1978. Excerpt available:

 http://www.nmhtthornton.com/mehistorydatabase/hasan_al_on_women.php 

[20 Apr 2013]
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Religious Faith

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37881638

ideals of Religious faith looking at such questions as "What are the grounds of religious faith? What does a faith do for a life?. Examples used are historical data such as Germanic faith, Vedic cultures and faith from Christianity, Judaism and Islam. Bibliography cites four references

Faith; Blind love or stupidity

What are the grounds of religious faith?" This question is as ambiguous, and as difficult to answer as the question "Does a God exist?" There are many ways of understanding the need and grounds for a religious faith, such as psychological, sociological and cultural. It also needs to be recognized many devout followers believe that their God is supreme, for instance followers of the Muslim faith.

However, to answer the question, where are the grounds for faith in religion, we need to look at the evidence and the reason of the existence of faith. The moist common answer may…… [Read More]

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Religious Values in War and Peace

Words: 1789 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85945003

Hinduism and People

Unlike most religions which ask their practitioners to prescribe to a designated set of behaviors wherein they shall all behave uniformly, Hinduism bears the motto that "People are different." Most religions begin from a dogma which is a written interpretation of what the creators of that religion state their God or Gods want from the followers of that religion. Because of this, the religions are slow to evolve and more or less stagnant. According to J.N. Nanda, "Hinduism is not limited by the view of a single founder, a single holy man or a single holy book" (106). That is to say, those that practice Hinduism understand that there is no one type of person. Individuality, by its very definition states that people will have singular ideas and singular personalities. There is no one type of person living in the world, just as there is no one…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Keene, Michael. Religion in Life and Society. Dublin, Ireland: Folens. 2004. Print.

Ketkar, Shridhar. The History of Caste in India: Evidence of the Laws of Manu. Ithaca, NY:

Taylor & Carpenter. 1909. Print.

Lipner, Julius. Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Chatham. 1994. Print.
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Traditions When We Look at

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32135038

And because of widespread exposure to estern traditions, many people around the world -- especially the youth -- start adopting estern traditions which ipso facto leads to partially quitting local traditions. An imported tradition replaces the existing local one. Therefore, many public figures around the world today act defensively, by banning estern TV channels, publicly condemning globalization, or emphasizing the importance of local traditions because they believe the loss of traditions means the loss of identity (Galeota). Intellectuals start worrying that the loss of traditions will lead to forgetting local histories and having a different future.

Traditions we follow sometimes may not be rooted in local histories. As Giddens explains in his analysis of traditions, "[m]uch of what we think of as traditional, and steeped in the mists of time, is actually a product at most of the last couple of centuries, and is often much more recent than that"…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Galeota, Julia. "Cultural Imperialism: An American Tradition." The Humanist (2004): 22-24, 46. Web. 4 Oct. 2011.

Giddens, Anthony. Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. New York: Routledge, 2003. Print.

Chorlian, Meg. "Following the Traditions of Family, Faith and Feasts." Cobblestone 17.9. Web. 4 Oct. 2011.

Rusen, Jorn. "Tradition and Identity: Theoretical Reflections and the European Identity." Taiwan Journal of East European Studies 1.2 (2004): 135-158. Web. 4 Oct. 2011.
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Tradition of Witchcraft

Words: 611 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24390410

Wicca

There can be no exhaustive or authoritative sources that can trace Wicca back through ancient times. Wicca is mainly a manifestation of ancient systems of nature worship in the 20th century that is based out of northern Europe that has been in existence for thousands of years ago. Wicca is basically a religion that is rooted in the mist of Neolithic history which can be termed as fertility and agrarian society. Wicca is a nature worship religion and subsequent interaction with nature which is dissented from that practice by the Celtic clans that were found in the Western Europe as well as the indigenous people of British Isles. Therefore it is one of the mainstreams of indigenous earth spirituality that is found in European culture.

Wicca has its origins from the Celts and other people that lived in the area which is known as Great Britain. The Wiccans celebrate…… [Read More]

Reference

Carm.org.(2010). History and Origins of Wicca. Retrieved April 3, 2014 from http://carm.org/religious-movements/wicca/history-and-origins-wicca
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Sin and Ignorance

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52064657

eligious Traditions

The human problem that religious traditions attempt to solve

eligion is one of the oldest human activities that have ever existed since man started interacting with each other. With interaction, there are bound to be challenges coming up between the people involved and concerns of what is the wrong thing or the right thing to be done in such circumstances. This is where the issue of sin and ignorance comes up and in order to well explain and define these, religion is evoked. This shows that religion and man has been growing hand in hand from historical times and as times go by, there are different forms that religion takes within different societies. Indeed it is religion that separates us and sets us apart from the other living species on the earth.

eligion exists to solve a given range of problems and the most fundamental one is the…… [Read More]

References

Davis C., (1975). Religion and the making of Society. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/unger/english/pdfs/discussions15.pdf

Dunaway Russell H., (1983). Sins of Ignorance. Truth Magazine. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://www.truthmagazine.com/archives/volume27/GOT027176.html

James Livingston, (2009). Anatomy of the Sacred: An Introduction to Religion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from https://kindle.amazon.com/work/anatomy-sacred-introduction-religion-edition-ebook/B000AHZIZA/B002MPPS5S/posts

Merriam Webster, (2014). Sin. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sin
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Sexual and Religious Ideologies of Buddhism in North India

Words: 1217 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71535592

Sexual and Religious Ideologies of uddhism in North India

uddhism is the fourth largest religion in the world, exceeded only by Christianity, Islam and Hinduism (Robinson, 1982). The uddha, Siddhartha Gautama, founded udhiam in Northern India. When uddha was 29, he left his wife, children and community involvements in order to seek truth and Nirvana. At the time, it was acceptable for men to leave their family and seek spiritual enlightenment.

uddha rejecting both extremes of the mortification of the flesh and of hedonism as paths toward the state of Nirvana (Warren, 1963). uddha spread the belief that in order to live a life without pain and suffering, people are required to eliminate any attachments to worldly goods. Only when this is accomplished will they be afforded peace and happiness. uddhists believe that they must rid themselves of greed, hatred, and ignorance.

uddhists strive to cultivate four attitudes into their…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The Dhammapada, ed. And trans. Juna Mascaro (London, Penguin Books, 1973).

Tales from the Kathasaritsagara, trans. Arshia Sattar (London: penguin, 1994).

The Divine Madman: the Sublime Life and Songs of Drukpa Kunley. Trans. Keithe Dowman and Sonam Paljor. (London: Rider, 1980)

Ashvaghosha, Buddhacarita, in Budhist Scriptures, ed. trans. Edward Conze (London: Penguin Books, 1959)
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Aesthetic and Religious Significance of

Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 359250

"Over the course of time, there will be a new world era entailing that one day there will a dawn after destruction. This system for the earth continues throughout eternity and is managed by three gods: Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu or the divine trinity." (Eck, 1996) of these, Shiva was or is the destroyer. The Hindu divinities are worshipped through art on temples and in the majority of homes. By viewing different examples Shiva, we can see the iconography to the mythology association with the figure. (Indian Heritage, 2005)

In other words, the views of Hinduism hold many opposing theories that describe aspects of an eternal truth. For example, one underlying focus is that a desire for liberation from earthly evils is and should be a life ambition. These notions and concepts can be clearly witnessed in the region's art as Hinduism plays a major role in what is and…… [Read More]

References

Eck, Diane L. (1996). Darsan. New York: Columbia University Press.

Indian Heritage. (n.d.). Siva. Retrieved on May 28, 2005, at http://www.indian-heritage.org/gods/godimages/siva2s.jpg

Singh Brothers. (n.d.). Shivnetra - Eye of Shiva. Retrieved on May 28, 2005, at http://www.thesinghbrothers.com/S_015.jpg

Hindu
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Reithian Tradition Challenges Face Director-General BBC Maintain

Words: 2956 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24950266

eithian Tradition

challenges face Director-General BBC maintain eithian tradition British public service broadcasting face technological change crises funding content ? Are lessons draw past?

The eithian tradition comes from John eith who was the British Broadcasting Corporation's director general. He created a concept of broadcasting that was centered along educating viewers. He was an autocratic leader which made the approach of educating viewers successful. He built internal checks which helped to control his benevolent style of dictatorship. He was greatly convinced that the strategy of educating viewers would greatly help the organization. He in fact summarized the purpose of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in three words which were to educate, to inform and to entertain. These remain to be a part of the mission statement of the organization to this very day. Other broadcasters around the world such as the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) which is located in the…… [Read More]

References

Feintuck, M., & Varney, M. (2006). Media Regulation, Public Interest And the Law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Kumar, S. (2009). The BBC and digital inclusion and participation Retrieved August 30th, 2012, from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/aboutthebbc/2009/11/the-bbc-digital-inclusion-and.shtml 

Moore, C. (2012). It's time the BBC learnt its lessons. Gulf Daily News Retrieved August 30th, 2012, from http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/NewsDetails.aspx?storyid=333146

The British Broadcasting Corporation. (2012). Jubilee coverage: BBC receives more than 2,000 complaints Retrieved August 30th 2012, from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-18337851
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Virtual Religious Service Islam Is a Religion

Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98705019

Virtual eligious Service

Islam is a religion of great misconceptions and of immense misunderstanding. It was because of this same notion that this religion in particular was of great interest. With all the negative publicity that Islam receives in the media, people only get exposed to the violent extremists that represent a minute minority of this religion. A picture of violence and death is flashed on the television daily, forcing many to create negative misconceptions about Muslims. Their portrayal of how their females are treated is an aspect that has also come under speculation. The media portrays oppressed hopeless females, which induces viewers to think that this is actually true. These are both misconceptions that I had prior to my viewing of the online religious service and research.

Violence and terrorism are shown constantly across the television screen whenever extremist Muslims are depicted. This creates a sense of misconception as…… [Read More]

References:

Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. CRC Press.

Common misunderstandings of muslims [Web log message]. (2008, February 26). Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com /Primetime/WhatWouldYouDo/story?id=4339516&page=1

Lawrence, B.B. (1998). Shattering the myth: Islam beyond violencec. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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Aspects of Judaism Daoism Confucianism in the Axial Age

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77576119

Religious Traditions in the Axial Age

Aspects of Judaism that made it "axial" during the period from 900 BCE to 300 CE

Judaism spelled an era in the time where there was a worship of many deities, and it brought the idea of worshiping only one deity. Judaism was widespread during this time. It had enough power to influence the people as an umbrella of worship under one deity. The worship of one deity brought about a strengthened responsiveness of human beings and their God. The responsibilities of worshiping one deity were straightened and made to look like capable of transforming whatever was necessary for any true form of worship. The sense of a linear time made people take good responsibility of their deities and everything related to them. The existence of the rival deities was also realized, as people took central of one deity. It was during this time…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bellah, Robert N. Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011. Print.

Halton, Eugene. From the Axial Age to the Moral Revolution: John Stuart-Glennie, Karl Jaspers, and a New Understanding of the Idea., 2014. Internet resource.

Strayer, Robert W, and Eric Nelson. Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources. 2016. Print.
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Roles of Tradition Convention Changing

Words: 3261 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80137907

The yzantine artists are well-known for the icon of Symeon with the Christ Child. The icon was effectively changed by yzantine artists toward the ending of the iconoclastic controversy in the ninth century. Originally the artistic protocol for the depiction has Symeon submissively approaching Mary who is holding the Christ child in her hands however the changes in the icon are of the nature that show Symeon holding the Christ child in the beginning. The first record of Symeon holding the Christ child is stated to be in the church of the Virgin of the Source in Constantinople during the restoration conducted by Emperor asil I along with Leo and Constantine sometime after 869.

Clouds and sky views often used in yzantine art are rooted in Roman art which changed from "smooth and pliable clouds" into "flattened triangles with horizontal bottoms and scalloped tops. In this odd and stylized form…… [Read More]

Bibliography

A. Cutler, 'Originality as a Cultural Phenomenon' pp. 203-16

A. Cutler, The Hand of the Master: Craftsmanship, Ivory and Society in Byzantium (9th - 11th Centuries (Princeton 1994)

A.W. Carr, 'Popular Imagery', in Glory of Byzantium, pp. 112-81

A.R. Littlewood (1986) "The Symbolism of the Apple: An Example of Kazantzakis' Debt to Byzantine Erotic Imagery" Byzantine Studies Conference. Second Annual Study Conference 12-14 November, 1976.
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America and British Traditions in

Words: 1377 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72643045

So alike yet distinct did these early writers create, that they are now required reading in British schools (Duquette).

In terms of religion, American culture emulated Britain less than many of the early settler were reactionary against British conservatism. Several of the original 13 Colonies were established by English, Irish, and Scottish settlers who were fleeing religious persecution. By 1787, in fact, the United States became one of the first countries to place a freedom of religion code into law, even if it was only at the Federal level (Gaustad).

Thankfully, America has a taste for more exotic foods and cuisine than the British, but if we think of many of the celebrated Holidays, they either derive from or are part of the British tradition. Thanksgiving, for instance, is now a traditional American holiday evolving from the Pilgrim's plight during the first winter of their landing. Christmas, Easter, and Lent…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ciment, J., ed. Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. New York: Sharpe Reference, 2005.

Duquette, E. Loyal Subjects: Bonds of Nation, Race and Allegiance in 19th Century America. Trenton, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Gaustad, E. Proclaim Liberty Througout All the Land: A History of Church and State in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Gienow-Hecht, J. "A European Considers the Influence of American Culture." 1 Febuary 2006. America.gov - Engaging the World. .
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Cultural Practices and Religious Beliefs

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66126461

The other issue is the poverty that makes the population not access medical healthcare. The most common diseases are asthma and diabetes. This is because the place is damp and highly populated hence no free circulation of air. However, the community health center and the health department of New York are working together to help curb this issue by educating the people, and advocating for preventive measures (Shelley et al., 2011).

Moreover, the people in this area seem not to realize their rights to better housing as most of their apartments are infested with moulds. Advocacy for better housing and housing facilities is another key preventive measure for the spread of these diseases. Other measures taken to combat the problem are that initiative to plant trees hence, bringing clean air. Poor diets and eating habits are also a key problem to the health of the people.

A part of the…… [Read More]

References

In Shaw-Taylor, Y., & in Tuch, S.A. (2007). The Other African-Americans: Contemporary

African and Caribbean immigrants in the United States. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Weber, J. (2009). Nurses' handbook of health assessment. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Paniagua, F.A. (2005). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide.
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Multivalent Nature of Legal Traditions

Words: 2137 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9479875

Two valuable sources of information do exist:

The first one does fall within the conflicting traditions themselves. They are never useful in the solving of the disputes by invoking worldly views. They are indeed a complex set of legal traditions since they do succeed in the reconciliation of otherwise different theoretical views. The second source of information is facts. Multivalence is an important factor in the explanation of the various contemporary issues that affect our complex societies. A society that consists of different groups of people who have multiple legal claims. There are also various legal traditions as well as identities that do overlap in extremely close proximity. There are also several conflicting principles. The conflicting principles do lead to a general weakening of the state legal system. The multivalent though does provide a way of reconciling the various legal traditions, family law, succession and potential status in a way…… [Read More]

References

Anton, D.J. (1995).Diversity, globalization, and the ways of nature. Ottawa, on, IDRC. xi + 223 p.: ill.

Kosko, B (1993), Fuzzy Thinking: The New Science of Fuzzy Logic.New York, Hyperion

Halpin, a (2006)"Glenn's Legal Traditions of the World: Some Broader Philosophical Issues'. (1) Journal of Comparative Law 116

Nguyen, M (2009.The Myth of "Lucky" Patent Verdicts: Improving the Quality of Appellate
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Role of Tradition Communities Are

Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28496321

Therefore, the concept of a traditional Western marriage can be used as a tool for making those who are different from the norm, such as homosexuals, feel alienated and distant from society. On the other hand, advocates of gay marriage suggest that allowing homosexuals to share in the rites and responsibilities of traditional marriage can be a way of recognizing their personhood, and can lead to unification between seemingly diverse sub-populations among the larger Western culture. As the above example demonstrates, there is no easy answer to the question of whether traditions promote unity; some traditions promote unity, while some promote divisiveness, and even the same tradition can have different meanings in different communities.

Furthermore, though traditions develop from a community's shared experiences, it is important to differentiate between a tradition's appearance and the underlying reality. For example, in American weddings, the bride has traditionally worn white to signify virginity…… [Read More]

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Managing Religious Diversity in the

Words: 4595 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28736846

(Krukowski, 2001) Civil religion and workplace mysticism each change the institutional locus of religious expression from the church, synagogue, or mosque to another public organization- the state or the company. The existence of these different organizations hoists the main question of individuality and perhaps challenging faithfulness.

Both civil religion and workplace theology do not show the likely clashes and problems often met by employees who are also religious practitioners. Jews, Christians, or Muslims who are workforce of a company may well have grounds to question the customs of their company on religio-moral basis. Workplace theology in a funded organization does not distinguish these possible clashes. Institutionally conveying workplace theology is obviously not identical with permitting individual employees to convey their beliefs and customs at work. This grave outlook of workplace theology should not be realized, as a censure of persons who want to live out their definite religious or spiritual…… [Read More]

References

Alpert, Richard T. "Religious Diversity in the workplace." Retrieved at http://users.crocker.com/~amedpub/rc21d/Religion%20in%20the%20Workplace11.htm. Accessed on 4 February, 2005

Denise Smith

"Workplace Religious Freedom: What is an Employer's Duty to Accommodate? A Review of Recent Cases" Workplace Religious Freedom / 49. Retrieved at http://homepages.ius.edu/LCHRISTI/Journal%20of%20emply/religious%20accommodation.pdf. Accessed on 4 February, 2005

Deveney, William D. (September-October, 2004) "Religious Harassment Claims: Case Studies in Good Faith." No. 05-05. Retrieved at http://www.etsw.com/NewsletterLB/2004_09-10.pdf. Accessed on 4 February, 2005
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Scientific Models and Religious Myths

Words: 1935 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13958789

The relationship goes beyond any simple realistic or complex scientific models, because it cannot be explained through the observances of realities around us. Myth and culture can often be on the same temporal level, with one or the other being generated at different times. As such, some of the myths were actually born out of a certain culture, determined by the geographic or demographic realities of the respective culture. In other cases, culture was born out of a myth.

An important element to be analyzed in the differences between religious myths and scientific models is the introduction of variables and the type of variables in each case. The religious myth, especially the creation myths in different cultures, falls into the category of sacred myths. There is always such a distinction between sacred and profane myths or, as Eliade puts it, people "distinguish between sacred myths (cosmogony, creation of the stars,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.

2. Eliade, Mircea. 1963. Myth and Reality. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row,

McGrath, Alister. 1998. Science and Religion: An Introduction. Wiley -- Blackwell.

Ibid. Page 107
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Reason and Religious Beliefs Systems

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94061909

Fideism vs. ationalism

Is rationalism or fideism the best response to examining religious beliefs systems?

Fideism and rationality are both divergent and complementary philosophies that helps us understand religious systems. Fideism is faith in the unseen. It is based in inspiration and trust, often without solid evidence. Under fideism, faith is necessary even when circumstances point to the contrary. ationality, on the other hand, is based on reason and typically requires tangible proof and evidence. It demands factual analysis and shuns blind faith, tradition and religion alone.

The Christian faith, as an example, asks believers to await the coming of Christ in glory and fulfillment of God's purpose for the world. This is faith in the unseen. A rationalist, by contrast, views Biblical accounts more as historical event that are trusted as having happened. However, from their standpoint the Bible was written in a particular time period and its messages,…… [Read More]

References

Aquinas, St. Thomas. "Summa Theologica." Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Calvin College Computer Science, n.d. Web. 8 Oct. 2013.

Hallanger, N. (2008). Reason for Hope -- By Stanley Grenz. Reviews in Religion & Theology, 15(1), 128-130. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9418.2007.00372_2.x.
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Giotto's Method of Teaching Religious

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8167848



These remarks could be applied equally to anything in Giotto's oeuvre. The total effect of Giotto's work is one of bold religious feeling. It inspires the viewer to accept the mythology and challenges him to understand his relationship to the God both preached by the Church and challenged by heretics. Giotto's works, like Pisano's or Duccio's, certainly inspire religious feelings and thoughts. They are dignified, spiritual, and affirmative. They put into realistic terms the very humanity of the saints, prophets, patriarchs, and the Christ by depicting each as a real human being in a realistic setting. They emphasize the reality of the Faith -- which was being challenged already by men like yclif, and which would undergo its most formidable test yet with the coming Protestant Reformation.

In conclusion, Giotto di Bondone depicted traditional religious subjects but drew the viewer into a more personal relationship with the ideas didactically expressed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.

Kren, Emil; Marx, Daniel. "Legend of St. Francis: 15. Sermon to the Birds." Web

Gallery of Art. Web. 1 Sept 2012.

Shearer, Robert. Famous Men of the Renaissance and Reformation. TN: Greenleaf
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American Religious History Defining Fundamentalism and Liberalism

Words: 2705 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82017601

American Religious History

Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.

Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.
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Senghor Cultural Religious and Political

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28346560

" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)

Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)

Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi…… [Read More]

cited in Quest, 2005)

When Senghor was imprisoned for the already mentioned two years period he composed poetry, read the work of Goethe and delved into Western philosophical works and as well reestablished his link with his fellow Africans and songs and tales were shared from Africa and this resulted in the "fostering [of] an alternative understanding of humanism and society." (Quest, 2005)

The Quest Journal editorial states that it seems nice to think that the prison experiences of Senghor as well as Senghor's knowledge spanning the intellectual traditions of the Western world and his admiration for values, traditions and cultures of Africa together resulted in a "subjectivity that was transcultural and transnational in it sympathies, accomplishments and aspirations." (Quest, 2005) Senghor set the stage for "a post-anthropological humanism, one that truly points to the possibilities for a democratic and cosmopolitan world." (Quest, 2005)

5. Poetry as 'Key' Outlet for Combating Cultural Alienation in for Africans

The work of Nyathi (2005) states that the work of Senghor influenced many and in fact that poetry "became a key outlet for Africans to combat cultural alienation." The work of Baaz and Palmberg (2001) entitled: "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production" relates the writings of Leopold Sedar Senghor "on negritude and the ideas of negritude which are "above all associated with the writings of Senghor and Aime Cesaire, were developed by African, Afro-American and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris in the 1930s." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001) Negritude was defined by Senghor as "the sum of the cultural values of the black world." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001)