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Religious Violence Essays (Examples)

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Violence and the Cross an
Words: 3053 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38360665
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Gustavo Gutierrez did just that in Latin America, employing Marxist analysis to interpret the Jesus' teachings in the Gospel. Gutierrez founded Liberation Theology, which is, essentially, the twentieth century take on Violence and the Cross. Christ is viewed less as Redeemer and more as Liberator.

Evans discusses this same interpretation in black theology, which is, essentially, a continuation of Liberation Theology: "In spite of the ravages of their kidnapping and the disorientation that they endured, African slaves retained an outlook on their experience that continually reaffirmed their worth as individuals and as a people…The Jesus whom they encountered as they were exposed to the Bible was a caring and liberating friend who shared their sorrows and burdens" (12). Yet, in black theology, Jesus does not bring grace through suffering that can perfect one's nature and lead one's soul to Heaven (as classical theology insists); in black theology, Jesus is the…

Works Cited

Evans, James H. We Have Been Believers: An African-American Systematic Theology.

Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1992. Print.

Migliore, Daniel. Faith Seeking Understanding: an Introduction to Christian Theology.

Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991. Print.

Religious Views of the Holocaust Most People
Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62327553
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Religious Views of the Holocaust

Most people realize that during World War II, the Nazi Party of Germany waged a relentless war against people they did not welcome in their country for one reason or another. We all know that over 6 million Jews died during the Holocaust, but many people don't realize that the Nazis targeted others as well, including Gypsies and some Christians who would not cooperate with the Nazi regime or who were caught aiding those who were supposed to be sent to concentration camps.

Given that the Holocaust was a multicultural and multi-religious event, it is interesting to consider how some major religions might view the events. Christianity teaches that all murder is against the law of God. However most Christian religions allow the execution of criminals by state governments. This is why we have individuals who protest executions but rarely hear entire denominations protest such…

Bibliography

Dworkin, Andrea. 1994. The Unremembered: Searching for Women at the Holocaust Memorial Museum. Ms. Magazine, V:3

Rittner, Carol, Smith, Stephen D., and Steinfeldt, Irena, editors.

The Holocaust and the Christian World: Reflections on the Past - Challenges for the Future. 1994. New York: Continuum.

Violence and Death in Slaughterhouse
Words: 2292 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76103801
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This idea appears repeatedly. hen Billy proposes marriage to Valencia:

Billy didn't want to marry ugly Valencia. She was one of the symptoms of his disease. He knew he was going crazy when he heard himself proposing marriage to her, when he begged her to take the diamond ring and be his companion for life, (ibid p.107).

However, he was trapped in his life, for better or worse, such as the fact that Billy knew when he would be killed, yet didn't try to do anything about it. His death is compared with mankind's fate.

At one point Billy discusses the problem of war with the Tralfamadorians (p.117). They tell him that war is inevitable and he is stupid to try to change it. Humanity is trapped in his human nature, to create war and wreak death. Some people want peace, but they are naive and are unaware of human…

Works Cited

Brifonski and Mendelson (Eds). Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.8. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1978.

Riley, Carolyn (Editor); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.1. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1973.

Riley, Carolyn and Barbara Harte (Editors); Contemporary Literary Criticism vol.2. Detroit: Gale Research Co. 1974.

Vit, Marek. "The Themes of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse Five." Kurt Vonnegut Corner. http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/4953/themes.html.

Violence the Definition of Violence Is One
Words: 1758 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87077750
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Violence

The definition of violence is one that might best be described as it is at Dictionary.com; i.e.; a violent act or proceeding. There are other definitions to be sure, however, the definition used herein is the one that most constitutes the premise of the question is violence socially constructed? Since the question, in this specific space, directly refers to whether I agree, or disagree, with the view that violence is socially constructed, I would have to say that I most vehemently agree that it is.

One need only look as far as the local newspaper to discern that America (as an example) is a very violent country. Constant reports of innocent (and not so innocent) bloodshed is broadcast on the nightly news, reports of murders, slayings, and violence in all its forms are abundant in nature. America is a nation of violence and its leaders adhere to that culture…

References

Aluf, B. (2011) Understanding history won't help us make peace, Foreign Policy, Issue 184, p. 70

Barron, P. & Sharpe, J.; (2008) Local conflict in post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding variations in violence levels and forms through local newspapers, Journal of East Asian Studies, Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 395 -- 423

Barron, P.; Kaiser, K.; Pradhan, M.; ( 2004) Local conflict in Indonesia: Measuring incidence and identifying patterns, Policy Research Working Paper No. 3384. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Diehl, P.F. & Lepgold, J.;( 2003) Regional conflict management, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield

Religious Undertones in the Work
Words: 2724 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69928260
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People can be affected by religion in different ways and The Misfit becomes the perfect character to uncover the grandmother's gullibility. She, in turn, is the perfect person to expose his evil nature. This contrast allows O'Connor uses to reveal the delicate nature of man. Somehow, in the midst of everything, the two people bond, leaving the grandmother with a false sense of hope. She believes, because she knows best, that she has transformed his life. She truly believes she can change him. Parini writes that at the moment he shots her, she realizes "they are connected, and through a horrible act of violence she has received a moment of understanding, if not grace" (Parini 231). The showdown becomes one between The Misfit's powerful convictions and the grandmother's shallow beliefs. O'Connor proves with these individuals the importance of being passionate about the right thing. Being passionate about Jesus is good,…

Works Cited

Denham Robert D. "The World of Guilt and Sorrow: Flannery O'Connor's 'Everything That

Rises Must Converge." The Flannery O'Connor Bulletin 4. 1975. Gale Resource Library.

01 May 2010. Web.

Malin, Irving. "O'Connor and the Grotesque." Flannery O'Connor. Broomall: Chelsea House

Religion & Curbing Violence Has
Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63915802
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The issue remains debatable, but a case can be made that the mainstream judgment was terribly wrong in a cultural sense" (right 17).

Schools and educational institutes play a vital role in teaching religious traditions and imparting knowledge regarding religion. The most important aspect of teaching religion is to adopt proper method of teaching. Avoiding controversial and extremist point-of-views and including positive elements from religious teachings from various religions could help in developing tolerance in the generation that growing in the era when religious violence is at its peak.

Other School of Thought

The other school of thought makes the case against religion when it comes to controlling violence. They argue that it is the religion that encourages violence simple on the basis of religious differences. People belonging to one religion consider them superior to others. Examples of all major religions including Christianity can be given when these religions induced…

Works Cited

Wright, Elliott a. 'Religion in American Education'. Phi Delta Kappan. 81.1. (1999): 17.

Volf, Miroslav. 'More Religion, Less Violence'. The Christian Century. 119. 8. (April 10, 2002): 32.

Bennett, Gary L 'Preventing School Violence: Is Religion the Answer'. Free Inquiry. 19. 4. (Fall 1999): 28.

Vernon, Glenn M. Sociology of Religion. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.

Religion and Violence Throughout History
Words: 376 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87992524
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iolence in scripture occurs in a certain context, and with the direct sanction of God. While some imagine themselves to be instruments of God on earth, it has to be taken into account that we no longer live in a world where violence is at the order of the day. We no longer live and die in wars to gain territory or to fulfill prophesies. Instead, the main purpose of religion today is comfort in times of trouble as well as a guide for living well. The Rabbi should therefore emphasize these qualities. Followers should gain an understanding of the Scripture not only in the context of today's life, but also in the context of the time of writing. God is not a perpetrator of violence merely for its sake. His followers should not take it upon themselves to perpetrate violence in the context of a world that is ruled…

Violence in scripture occurs in a certain context, and with the direct sanction of God. While some imagine themselves to be instruments of God on earth, it has to be taken into account that we no longer live in a world where violence is at the order of the day. We no longer live and die in wars to gain territory or to fulfill prophesies. Instead, the main purpose of religion today is comfort in times of trouble as well as a guide for living well. The Rabbi should therefore emphasize these qualities. Followers should gain an understanding of the Scripture not only in the context of today's life, but also in the context of the time of writing. God is not a perpetrator of violence merely for its sake. His followers should not take it upon themselves to perpetrate violence in the context of a world that is ruled by intellect and restraint.

Source

Traer, Robert. Ending Religious Violence in Dharma World (Man/Feb 2004, vol. 31), pp. 9-13.

Religious Reasons Why Purity and
Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34481879
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Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.

However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.

Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…

References

Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice

Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.

Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New

York, pp. 232-262.

Religious Values in War and Peace
Words: 1789 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85945003
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Hinduism and People

Unlike most religions which ask their practitioners to prescribe to a designated set of behaviors wherein they shall all behave uniformly, Hinduism bears the motto that "People are different." Most religions begin from a dogma which is a written interpretation of what the creators of that religion state their God or Gods want from the followers of that religion. Because of this, the religions are slow to evolve and more or less stagnant. According to J.N. Nanda, "Hinduism is not limited by the view of a single founder, a single holy man or a single holy book" (106). That is to say, those that practice Hinduism understand that there is no one type of person. Individuality, by its very definition states that people will have singular ideas and singular personalities. There is no one type of person living in the world, just as there is no one…

Works Cited:

Keene, Michael. Religion in Life and Society. Dublin, Ireland: Folens. 2004. Print.

Ketkar, Shridhar. The History of Caste in India: Evidence of the Laws of Manu. Ithaca, NY:

Taylor & Carpenter. 1909. Print.

Lipner, Julius. Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Chatham. 1994. Print.

Religious Fundamentalism Has Been Continually
Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 56249626
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At the same time, they would go to social networking sites (such as: Face ook and Twitter), to reach out to similar individuals that have the same kind of views on religion. This will improve collaboration among a number of individuals around the world, who share similar kinds of views. Over the course to time, this would help to increase the outreach of the blog and it will become an alternative voice, for those individuals who share similar opinions.

The major timeline for milestones of the blog would be: when ex-religious fundamentalists began to consistently post stories / social network, the point that the site will cross one million page views for a particular story, having various bloggers make public appearances as the face of the site and when the blog is having its stories posted in the mainstream media. These different points in time are important, because they will…

Bibliography

These are Dark Times. (2005). Daily Kos. Retrieved from:  http://www.dailykos.com/story/2005/5/17/104253/423 

Brady, K. (2009). Islam is Not the Problem. Kyle Brady. Retrieved from: http://www.kyle-brady.com/2009/11/24/islam-is-not-the-problem/

Dureyermyer, R. (2010). Pay Per Click Advertising. About. Retrieved from:  http://homebusiness.about.com/od/internetmarketing/a/pay_per_click.htm

Religious Fundamentalism and Violence
Words: 1357 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84251486
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Primary Source Analysis: Islamic Text

The Muslim Brotherhood is one of the most notable conservative Pan-Islamic groups -- it is based in Egypt but has a worldwide influence. As is the case with most fundamentalist organizations, the Brotherhood takes an extremely gendered view of women. According to one of its most influential members Hasan al-Banna in his tract "Towards the light:"

"Following are the principal goals of reform grounded on the spirit of genuine Islam...Treatment of the problem of women in a way which combines the progressive and the protective, in accordance with Islamic teaching, so that this problem - one of the most important social problems - will not be abandoned to the biased pens and deviant notions of those who err in the directions of deficiency and excess...a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior; the instruction of women in what is proper, with particular strictness as…

Works Cited

Al-Banna, Hasan. Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna. Translated by Charles Wendell Berkeley,

1978. Excerpt available:

 http://www.nmhtthornton.com/mehistorydatabase/hasan_al_on_women.php 

[20 Apr 2013]

Religious Ethnic Conflicts
Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94613861
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Arabs/Tuareg vs. Africans

Arabs/Tuareg Ethnic Clash with Sub-Saharan Africans

Africa is a very tumultuous continent and for a number of reasons. hether it be fights relating to race, ethnic squabbles, religion or a combination of the three, wars and problems are not hard to find. North Africa in particular and its proximity to the Middle East makes an already hot situation all that much hotter. One particular conflict that is ongoing and protracted in nature is that which exists between the Tuareg Arabs and the blacks in sub-Saharan Africa. They occupy much of the same areas of Niger, Mali, Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria…just to name a few. The problems between the two groups date back at least a thousand years and the wounds run deep for both sides. hile there perhaps may be chances for peaceful coexistence in the future, the last thousand years or so will probably prevent that…

Works Cited

Boundless. "Perception - Boundless Open Textbook." Boundless. N.p., 16 June 2014.

Web. 16 June 2014. .

GMU. "Women in World History: MODULE 9." Women in World History: MODULE 9.

N.p., 16 June 2014. Web. 16 June 2014.

Virtual Religious Service Islam Is a Religion
Words: 1447 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98705019
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Virtual eligious Service

Islam is a religion of great misconceptions and of immense misunderstanding. It was because of this same notion that this religion in particular was of great interest. With all the negative publicity that Islam receives in the media, people only get exposed to the violent extremists that represent a minute minority of this religion. A picture of violence and death is flashed on the television daily, forcing many to create negative misconceptions about Muslims. Their portrayal of how their females are treated is an aspect that has also come under speculation. The media portrays oppressed hopeless females, which induces viewers to think that this is actually true. These are both misconceptions that I had prior to my viewing of the online religious service and research.

Violence and terrorism are shown constantly across the television screen whenever extremist Muslims are depicted. This creates a sense of misconception as…

References:

Adams, M., Bell, L.A., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. CRC Press.

Common misunderstandings of muslims [Web log message]. (2008, February 26). Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com /Primetime/WhatWouldYouDo/story?id=4339516&page=1

Lawrence, B.B. (1998). Shattering the myth: Islam beyond violencec. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Impact of Domestic Violence
Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15194895
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Domestic violence is a major problem in today's society that has significant effects in the well-being and proper functioning of the family and society. Generally, domestic violence and threat of violence contributes to the emergence of fear that basically destroys the normal functioning of the family and eventually affects the society. omen, children, and young people are the most commonly targeted and affected by violence or the threat of violence at home. The effect of domestic violence on individuals is attributed to the fact that exposure to violence in the immediate social environment generates considerable challenges and difficulties for the individual. The home or family environment acts as the immediate social environment for the growth and development of a person.

Brief Description of Domestic Violence:

Domestic violence has traditionally been regarded as a personal problem rather than a social problem. However, violence or the threat of violence has increased significantly…

Works Cited:

Ooms, Theodora. "A Sociologist's Perspective on Domestic Violence: A Conversation with Michael Johnson, Ph.D." CLASP - Center for Law and Social Policy. Center for Law and Social Policy, 2006. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. .

"Sociological Effects on Women - Violence Against Women." Violence Against Women. Weebly.com, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2014. .

Spiritual but Not Religious An
Words: 1920 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54217127
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These values might seem obvious to some, but they are actually values which so many religious institutions may preach, but not practice at all in their religious thought. Ultimately, those who view themselves as spiritual but not religious don't feel that faith can be shoved into scientific or empiricitic frameworks, and these same individuals reject the notion that all is real and can be known: rather these individuals believe that love, kindness, generosity, awe and wonder are some of the most important pillars of life and that it's nearly impossible to put these aspects in a box or encompassed in black and white thinking of certain religious dogmas. Many people who ascribe to this belief system truly do believe that there are secular movements in the world today which have similar spiritual foundations, but that many of these religious movements are just out of touch with those foundations (NSP, 2013).…

References

Brown, C. (2014, March 3). Spiritual but Not Religious an Oxymoron? Retrieved from Huffington Post:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/candy-gunther-brown -

phd/spiritual-but-not-religio_1_b_5054627.html

Colson, C. (2008, September). The coming persecution: How same-sex 'marriage' will harm Christians. Retrieved from Christianexaminer.com:

 http://www.christianexaminer.com/Articles/Colson/Art_Sep08_Colson.html

Domestic Violence in General and
Words: 2217 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4645116
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(Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped) pastor or a priest may try and approach a domestic violence issue from a religious perspective, as these are primary for any religious person. The importance of dealing with the concerns for shelter, safety, intervention and treatment may have only secondary consideration. The view may be that once these people set things right with God things will become fine. This view discounts the fact that the other domestic issues are also important. Domestic violence is complicated and potentially dangerous and these ordinary concerns represent immediate and crucial needs. eligious concerns of a priest or pastor could become stumbling blocks or utility resources, when dealing with domestic violence as these concerns are at the core of many people's lives. The results will depend on how these are utilized. (a Commentary on eligious Issues in Family Violence)

In domestic violence…

References

Davidson, Bob. Domestic Violence: Why Does it Happen? And How Can it Be Stopped. Retrieved at http://www.lovetakestime.com/art-domesticviolence.html. Accessed on 11/27/2004

Domestic Violence. Adopted 36/3 Council 22/23 February 1994. Appendix 3 Council Meeting 22/23. February 1994. Retrieved at  http://www.racgp.org.au/document.asp?id=861Accessed  on 11/27/2004

Domestic Violence: An Overview. Facts of Domestic Violence on Children and Teenagers. Mental Health Journal. Retrieved at  http://www.therapistfinder.net/Domestic-Violence/Domestic-Violence-Children.html . Accessed on 11/27/2004

Domestic Violence Fact Sheet. Retrieved at  http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/DomViolFacts.html . Accessed on 11/27/2004

New Religious Movements
Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11783755
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New Religious Movements

Of the myriad new religious movements which have arisen over the course of the twentieth century, only a few have resorted to violence and mass suicide as a course of action. Perhaps the most famous of these, the so-called Jonestown Massacre, resulted in the deaths of over nine hundred people, and serves as the basis for John Hall's examination of the particular preconditions and precipitating factors which lead one cult or new religion to violence instead of another. Hall's theory is applicable beyond the case of Jonestown, and in fact may be used to better understand the motivating factor behind the mass murder/suicides committed by the Order of the Solar Temple in the 1990s. In particular, by considering Hall's theory in conjunction with the analysis of the Solar Temple deaths given by Jean-Francois Mayer, it will become clear that each of the six preconditions and three precipitating…

Works Cited

Hall, John R. "The Apocalypse at Jonestown." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden,

MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Print.

Mayer, Jean-Francoise. "Our Terrestial Journey is Coming to an End': The Last Voyage of the Solar Temple." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell

Publishing, 2003. Print.

Gujrat Violence Society Is a Synergistic Agreement
Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20069299
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Gujrat Violence

Society is a synergistic agreement between different peoples and cultures. In today's modern world any society, it is a conglomeration of people belonging to separate beliefs and cultures. The identity of each culture or group is in fact an indication of the richness and variety in the society and is a pointer of the interaction and civic sense prevalent in them. The success of the society depends on the smoothness with which these sub-groups interact with each other and the levels to which they can adjust with each other. When the balance is upset, there starts the onset of problems, both culturally and in the national level.

The violent incidents that happened in the whole state of Gujarat was unprecedented in the sense that perhaps this was the first time in the history of independent India that human massacre in such a large scale was openly supported by…

References

Frantz Fanon, 1967,

Black Skin White Masks, New York: Grove Press, 1967

Mead George Herbert Mind, Self, and Society, ed. C.W. Morris, University of Chicago 1934

Human rights watch report, 2003, http://hrw.org/wr2k3/asia6.html

Effects of Domestic Violence on Children
Words: 4184 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6389413
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Domestic Violence on Children

Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…

References

Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.

Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.

Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.

Media and Violence Contradicting Causes
Words: 4155 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68376205
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A in millions)

Current in millions)

Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"

CHART: National Correctional Populations

National Correctional Populations

The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.

A in millions)

Current million in millions)

Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)

More Statistics

Violence in the Media

Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)

41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).

56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)

Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…

Bibliography

Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.

Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.

Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.

Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;

American Religious History Defining Fundamentalism and Liberalism
Words: 2705 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82017601
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American Religious History

Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…

WORKS CITED

Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.

Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.

Christianity and Violence Through Time
Words: 1399 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70955117
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Religion and Violence

Religion is for many a tool to remove negativity from someone's life and then make it possible for the respective individual to start a moral type of living. Even with this, religion has been used as a means to encourage violence in a series of cases throughout time. A great deal of individuals claiming to be religious can actually be considered a paradox, considering that they promote peaceful behaviors while also performing acts of violence. Religion can thus be exploited depending on what a person wants, with numerous people throughout history using it with the purpose to achieve their goals rather than for actually wanting to be religious. Christianity in particular is intriguing when discussing it in the context of violence.

From the beginning of time people have been predisposed to engaging in violent acts for a series of reasons. The simple idea of difference encouraged individuals…

Works cited:

De Vries, H. "Religion and Violence: Philosophical Perspectives from Kant to Derrida," (JHU Press, 16 Nov 2001)

Riley-Smith, J. "The Crusades: A History." (A&C Black, 25 Feb 2014)

Spousal Violence and Abuse Effects on Children
Words: 1497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68247745
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Spousal and Child Abuse

Child and spousal abuse is an intentional act that results in physical and/or emotional or psychological injury on a child or spouse (or partner) by a parent or a mate, respectively (Gelles 2004). In a child, abuse more often takes the form of neglect. Child and spousal abuse and violence are major social concerns today.

The extent that children are abused by their parents or adult caretakers is difficult to measure, although it appears to occur most frequently among lower-income communities and certain ethnic and religious minorities. Abuse of children ranges from physical and emotional abuse and sexual abuse to physical and emotional neglect (Gelles). Effects of physical abuse are varied and visible: unexplained bruises, fractures and burn marks. Emotional abuse destroys the child's sense of security and self-esteem. Sexual abuse includes all acts that expose them to the sexual satisfaction of the parent or adult…

Bibliography

Boudreau, Diane. Damage: the Health Effects of Abuse. ASU Research: Arizona:

State University, 2002.  http://researchmag.asu.edu/stories/abuse.html  childabuse.org. Child Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse. For the Love of Our Children, 2002.  http://www.fortheloveofourchildren.org/statistics.html  childabuse.com. Why Child Abuse Occurs and the Common Criminal Background of the Abuser. Arctic Originals, 2002.  http://www.childabuse.com 

Gelles, Richard. Child Abuse. MSN Encarta. Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com

Hopper, Jim. UChild AbuseU, 2004. http://www.jimhopper.com/abstats

Domestic Violence No Place Like
Words: 4223 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98385581
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What appears to explain their shared high rates of violent behavior is their increased interpersonal dependency. They are socially withdrawn and entertain a negative view of themselves. These difficulties with trust are common in the two disorders. They are thus more personally dependent on their partners. Furthermore, veterans with a major physical health problem are likelier to commit domestic violence than the other veterans surveyed. The physical problem tends to increase their irritability and dependence on their partners. Other studies found this characteristic high partner-specific dependency among physically abusive men who exhibit personal inadequacy, low social self-confidence and increased reliance on those nearest them. Many of these physically abusive men greatly fear abandonment and are anxiously attached. They are thus hypersensitive to rejection and often show anger in their intimate relationships. Veterans often display excessive coercion to which the partners respond by distancing themselves. The veterans' fear and dependencies can…

Bibliography

Blasko, K. et al. (2007). Therapists' prototypical assessment of domestic violence Situations. 13 pages. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy: Blackwell Publishing

Brammer, a. (2006). Domestic violence crime and victims act 2004. 4 pages. Journal of Adult Protection: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd.

De la Hey, M. (2006). Gender differences seen in consequences of domestic violence. 2 pages. Cross Currents - the Journal of Addiction and Mental Health: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health

Kelly, K.a. (2004). Working together to stop domestic violence. 14 pages. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work

Looking at Psychology of Violence
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MFT: Psychology of Violence- Domestic Violence, Abuse and Legal Mandates

Violence has been described as any form of aggression that could result in either psychological or physical injury. From the early beginning of the current century, violence has increasingly become a pressing issue for behavioural experts. Despite the increased focus on violence in the last two decades, most of the studies tend to investigate effects on victims or risk factors with only a handful looking into the underlying causes of violence and the psychology behind it. Moreover, spousal battering or domestic violence as it is more commonly known, has received lesser attention despite the increase in such kind of violence. This study aims to investigate the main theories that explain the root causes of violence, distinguish cultural, gender and psychological dimensions of violence and also highlight the treatment and violence prevention methods. Lastly, this paper aims to look into the…

References

Cavanaugh. M, Gelles. R (2015) The Utility of Male Domestic Violence Offender Typologies, Journal of Interpersonal Violence,  http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/20/2/155.short  {Retrieved; 9/11/2015}

Weithorn .L (2001) Protecting Children from Exposure to Domestic: The Use and Abuse of Child Maltreatment Statutes, Social Science Research Network,  http://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=366007094000027106000104094087021022033059088011053070123106102098095094059037035124015004037107117126070066064108027053078048000075103068078089016011118064069006037085074064096005119027005100064103113013114088094075126086127087086119101110082&EXT=pdf  {Retrieved; 9/11/2015}

Widom. C, Hiller-Sturmhofel. S, (2001) Alcohol Abuse as a Risk Factor for and Consequence of Child Abuse, PDF,  http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh25-1/52-57.pdf  [Retrieved;9/11/2015}

Mazarin. J. (2015) Child Abuse and Neglect:4 Major Types, Characteristics and Effects, Study.com,  http://study.com/academy/lesson/child-abuse-and-neglect-4-major-types-characteristics-effects.html  {Retrieved:9/11/2015}

Predicting Violence Potential the Objective
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48926594
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115)

Risk factors may be static in nature. Static factors are described as "variables that increase the risk of future violence but are unlikely to change and are often fixed." (Huss, 2008, p.115) This include such as the individual's gender and race. Dynamic factors are also used to consider violence potential. Dynamic factors are inclusive of such as the individual's attitudes and psychiatric status as well as their behavioral and affective characteristics. Dynamic factors are held as being more difficult to identify than static factors. Protective factors are reported to be an aspect of risk assessment that has been overlooked. Protective factors are such that decreases the chance of the individual committing violence. Protective factors include a supportive network of friends and family with religious convictions that are strong and which "act as buffers" to reduce the risk of violence potential. This includes potential violence in the form of suicide…

Works Cited

Huss, MT (2008) Forensic Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. 22 Sep 2008. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=qelixoBsXyYC&dq=forensic+psychology:+assessing+violence+potential&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

Webster, C.D., & Douglas, K.S. (2001). Purpose of this guide. In K.S. Douglas, C.D. Webster, S.D. Hart, D. Eaves, & J.R.P. Ogloff, (Eds.),HCR-20: Violence risk management companion guide. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University, and Department of Mental Health Law & Policy, University of South Florida.

Human Conflict and Violence
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Human Tendencies Towards Violence

A study that focuses on the emergence of conflict presumably aims to use whatever knowledge is gained in efforts to prevent conflict. The history of humanity is laden with accounts of people engaging in violence. It is so ingrained within society, yet we seem to not have a concrete understanding of what provokes it to the extent that recent events have shown violence can go. The study of conflict and violence in humans have been explained through various schools of thought, of which the conflict theory is the most prominent and more appropriate in the study of humans' tendencies towards violence.

Conflict theory explains that humans have the tendency to experience conflict within and in his/her society, demonstrating that to a certain degree, conflict and the emergence of violence is structural in nature. This school of thought further characterizes conflict into the following key stages: latent…

References:

Lund, M.S. (2009). Conflict prevention: Theory in pursuit of policy and practice. In J. Bercovitch, V. Kremenyuk, and I.W. Zartman (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution. London (UK): SAGE, pp. 287-308.

Pedersen, D. (2004). Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: Broad implications for health and social well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 55, 175-190. file: Pedersen%202002_Political%20violence.pdf

Popay, J. (2006). "Guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews." ESRC National Centre for Research Methods.

____. (2014). Understanding conflict. Chapter 1. Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC): Applied Knowledge Services. Australia: University of Birmingham. Retrieved from  http://www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/CON70.pdf

Domestic Violence Laws for Restraining Orders and Habitual Offenders
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Combating Domestic Abuse in the United States

Domestic Abuse

In the United States, intimate partner violence afflicted nearly 4 out of 1,000 persons aged 12 or older in 2010, down from 1 in 100 in 1994 (Catalano, 2012). This translates into 0.9 million victimizations for the most recent year in which data were available. Females are victimized more often than males, however, with one male victimized for every six females. The crimes include rape, robbery, and assault against spouses and girlfriends/boyfriends, current or former. Family violence victimization rates were similar, with about 2.1 victimizations per 1,000 citizens aged 12 years or over in 2002, the most recent year with for which data is available (Durose et al., 2005). To put this statistic in perspective, approximately one in ten violent victimizations within the U.S. is the result of family violence. The gradual decline in domestic violence rates could be due to…

References

Catalano, S. (2012). Intimate partner violence, 1993-2010. NCJ 239203. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ipv9310.pdf .

Domestic Assault by an Habitual Offender, 18 U.S.C.Z. § 117 (2011).

Durose, M.R., Harlow, C.W., Langan, P.A., Motivans, M., Rantala, R.R., & Smith, E.L. (2005). Family violence statistics: Including statistics on strangers and acquaintances. NCJ 207846. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.

Kolpack, D. (2012, September 19). ND man sentenced in pivotal domestic violence case. Native American Times. Retrieved from  http://www.nativetimes.com/index.php/news/crime/7841-nd-man-sentenced-in-pivotal-domestic-violence-case .

Looking at Psychology of Violence
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MFT Psychology of Violence; A critical Analysis of Child Abuse

A rather disturbing threat growing increasingly in today's society is child abuse. There is no agency that can appropriately and thoroughly address the issue. The development of an independent agency provided with legal mandate, appropriate material and human resources, trained to efficiently tackle legal cases of child abuse is essential. While a clear set of laws exists in relation to child molestation and abuse, physical as well as sexual abuse of children is continually on the rise; governments of many nations report astonishing annual increases in rates of child abuse cases. The American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy reports that around 3 million kids are annually endangered or harmed due to maltreatment; this includes neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical abuse. Further, statistics indicate that 30% of child victims end up dying on account of disease, malnutrition, or…

References

AAMFT .(2015) Child Abuse and Neglect, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy,  http://www.aamft.org/imis15/AAMFT/Content/Consumer_Updates/Child_Abuse_and_Neglect.aspx  {Retrieved; 8/11/2015}

Al-Shail. E, Kattan, H, Aldowaish .A, (2014) The cultural Reinforces of Child Abuse, Intech open,  http://www.intechopen.com/books/child-abuse-and-neglect-a-multidimensional-approach/the-cultural-reinforcers-of-child-abuse#article-front  {Rwetrieved:8/11/2015}

CDC. (2015) Child Mistreatment: Risk and Protective Factors, Centre for Disease Control and Prevention,  http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childmaltreatment/riskprotectivefactors.html  [Retrieved; 8/11/2015]

Farley. R, (2008) Understanding and investigating child physical abuse, Police one  http://www.policeone.com/police-products/investigation/articles/1689287-Understanding-and-investigating-child-physical-abuse  / {Retrieved;8/11/2015}

Biblical Violence
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Jesus and Violence

One of the most cherished tenets of the Christian religion is the idea of being a good Christian. According to this, a person who believes in Christianity will strive not only to abide by the laws of man as well as those in the Bible, he or she will also have a sense of morality and rules of personal behavior which reflect their religious beliefs. This comes from the teachings of Jesus Christ as they are related in the Bible. Despite the actions of those around him, even those who have betrayed him and mean to kill him, he still advocates for peace and attempts to prevent violence from being performed against those around him.

One such example is in Mark 14:43-50. Soldiers come in to arrest Jesus after he has been betrayed by Judas. It is not enough that they take Jesus into custody, but the…

Training and Religious Practices of
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The importance of ritual objects to the Shaolin is shown in how they react to the supernatural appearance of an incense burner. hen the survivors of the massacre woke up the next day, they saw on the surface of the water a white incense burner made of greenstone, which had two ears and three feet and weighed 52 "catties, thirteen ounces"; on the bottom of the incense burner, the four words Fan-Qing fu-Ming had been inscribed. The brothers immediately secured the incense burner and placed it in the third field in front of the temple gate (Baoqi & Murray 206). In this regard, the Shaolin monks of the day embraced the popular belief that Heaven could manifest its support of claimants to the Chinese throne or of founders of religious cults through the bestowal of precious objects, such as these incense burners, swords, or books. "The incense burner, as it…

Works Cited

Anderson, Mary M.

Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990.

Baoqi, Qin and Dian H. Murray. The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1994.

Campany, Robert Ford. (October-December 2001). The Eminent Monk (Book review). Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(4):656.

Amish Are a Long-Standing Religious Sect Created
Words: 1394 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77636972
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Amish are a long-standing religious sect, created in the 17th century after the first Amish broke from the Mennonite Protestant tradition because of "what they perceived as a lack of discipline among the Mennonites" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance). The original Amish were of Swiss and German extraction. Many migrated to the U.S. In the early stages of the sect's formation, settling in Pennsylvania, and gradually branching out into New York, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri Ohio, and other states where they still reside today. No Amish remain in Europe. "The faith group has attempted to preserve the elements of late 17th century European rural culture. They try to avoid many of the features of modern society, by developing practices and behaviors which isolate themselves from American culture" (The Amish: History, belief, practices, 2011, eligious Tolerance).

The Amish used to be farmers, marking the culture as 'pastoral' in…

References

Adult baptism. (2011). Welcome to Manchester County. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at  http://www.welcome-to-lancaster-county.com/amish-belief.html 

The Amish: History, belief, practices. (2011). Religious Tolerance. Retrieved December 15,

2011 at  http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm 

Frequently asked questions. (2011). Amish Studies. Retrieved December 15, 2011 at  http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/FAQ.asp

Non-Moral or Religious Standpoint While
Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36395756
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Part 4 -- Just War and Iraq -- it can be very difficult to define intangible philosophies or actions that are both part of the human psyche and that seem obvious. One of these such intangibles is war. What is war? Each historical period has added a new meaning to the word, but the essence of it still remained the same. War is always associated with terror, cruelty and unhappiness. There are really five elements that allow a just war: cause, authority, intention, hope for success, and proportionality. Without becoming too cynical, most scholars would probably agree that the first Iraqi war was Just but the second, under Bush II, was not. There were clear distinctions. In the first, Iraq invaded a soverign country, Kuwait, who asked for aid and protection; in the second, data was never fully disclosed as to the infamous weapons of mass destruction, and later found…

"Information for Research on Euthanasia." December 2009. Euthanasia.com. .

Overview of Arguments Against Euthanasia." January 2010. BBC Ethics Guide. .

Sherwin, M. A World Destroyed. Stanford University Press, 2003.

Crime and Violence
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Crime and Violence: Cultural eliefs and iases

Religion and Stereotyping

Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).

Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…

Bibliography

Armstrong, A. C. (2015). Race, Prison Discipline, and the Law. UC IRVINE LAW REVIEW, 759.

Barak, G. (2009). Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Ways of Seeing Difference. Second Annual Conference on RACE, GENDER and CLASS.

Blow, C. M. (2014). Crime, Bias and Statistics. Retrieved from The New York Times:  https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/08/opinion/charles-blow-crime-bias-and-statistics.html 

Becker, Gary S. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (1968): 169 -- 217.

Laramie Project Small Town Violence
Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28033814
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Just like they deny the existence of the gay scene near the small town, the idea that their attitudes could have played any contributing role in fostering the circumstances that gave rise to Matthew's murder is inconceivable. The character of Laramie as a community is conveyed by the evocative language used by the characters. Their words simultaneously paint a collective physical and emotional picture of the landscape and reveal the attitudes of the individual speaker.

The town of Laramie was almost two towns, a conventional Western ranching town filled with open spaces and conservative Western morality and faith on one hand, and on the other hand, a town that boasted a university with gay professors, gay students, and harbored the diversity that is characteristic of many college campuses all over the world.

In every college town to some extent there are town and gown tensions, as the culture of the…

Pillars The Religious Common Thread
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The association drawn between the leader's teachings and the principled disposition of his followers appeals to a modern Judeo-Christian vantage as well. As the documentary proceeds to its discussion on figures such as Jesus and Mohammed, the constancy of world religion becomes that much clearer. In many ways, Jesus and Muhammed may be perceived as twin pillars on a single continuum. Indeed, "Muhammed regarded himself as the last prophet of the Judaic-Christian tradition. He adopted aspects of these older religion's theologies while introducing new doctrines." (Katz, 1) Thus, it is not surprising that upon its inception into the world at around 570 CE, the Islamic religion produced a legal code which was monotheistic, centered on the prescription of ethical law and applicable in both the theocratic and civil arenas.

This law would likewise predispose the Muslim people to many rituals which echoed those of the Judeo Christian ethic. Like Jesus…

Works Cited

Films Media Group (FMG). (1998). Three Pillars: Confucius, Jesus and Mohammed. Films for the Humanities & Science.

Katz, J. (2001). The Prophet Mohammed. Eretz Yisroel.

Rhineland Massacres of 1096 Are
Words: 4241 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 73135105
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The shifting perceptions of 1096, particularly when seen against the backdrop of the historical

"reality, have much to teach us."

The development of the Rhineland Massacres, often looked at in history as a linear first example of official Jewish mass persecution by the Christians, wavers in importance to the modern scholar, as well as the modern Jew and Christian. Was it a warm up for mass persecution, or a warm up for crusade actions against the Muslims? Historically it is safe to say that it is all of these things, an important period in Jewish and Christian history. One that would have served as a good lesson for detractors of reinvigoration of anti-Semitism that pervaded not only the Nazi mentality but that of much of western thought, notorious anti-Semites existed all over the world during the rise of the Nazi regime. In fact the WWII genocide could be seen as…

Bibliography

Abulafia, Anna Sapir, ed. Religious Violence between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Bell, Dean Phillip. Sacred Communities: Jewish and Christian Identities in Fifteenth-Century Germany. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, 2001.

Chazan, Robert. God, Humanity, and History: The Hebrew First Crusade Narratives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000.

Chazan, Robert. In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1996.

Terror in the Mind of
Words: 1011 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93037507
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"

But this seems to be an assumption athe than an established fact. Jugensmeye late points out that Abouhalima denies his involvement in the Wold Tade Cente bombing. If so, how can one know that Abouhalima was "disappointed" to see little damage? One can also see assumptions in the wods Jugensmeye uses. Fo example, Jugensmeye wites that Abouhalima "felt fee to talk about the subject of teoism in geneal and teoist incidents of which he was not accused, including the Oklahoma City fedeal building bombing."

Instead of witing, he "was not involved," Jugensmeye says he "he was not accused," as if Abouhalima could be accused of the Oklahoma City bombing.

Instead of making assumptions about Abouhalima, Jugensmeye could have focused on the contadictions in the actions and views of the Islamist militant and his appaent lack of knowledge in Islamic law. Jugensmeye povides evidence fo that by telling the stoy…

references to religious doctrines are almost always abstract and vague. As Jurgensmeyer's discussion of Abouhalima's ideological views demonstrates, Islamists like Abouhalima are not well-versed in Qur'anic studies or other Islamic core texts. It is important to critically examine the views of Abouhalima and other Islamist terrorists and expose their lack of Islamic knowledge and contradictions inherent in their views as this may help in discrediting them in the eyes of most Muslims.

Mark Jurgensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001), p. 60.

Ibid, p. 61.

Ibid, p. 62.

Ibid, p. 61.

Extra the Usage of the
Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 80274639
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eligious violence is hard to understand in some ways, and easy to understand in others. If a reader is reading objectively, and happens to peruse some of the earliest pages of the Bible and the Koran, respectively, he or she may be shocked at what resides there. Again, simply by reading objectively, the reader can discern the degree of favoritism patently shown in these books, which make many attempts to lionize one particular religion and vilify virtually all of the others. For instance, there are certain passages in Genesis in which God is speaking to Abraham and is promising him that he will deliver him land (Genesis 15). Why does God need land, the prudent reader might wonder? Why do his 'chosen people' need land, and if so, why are there other 'non-chosen' people living on it, then? The answer, unfortunately, appears to be to justify religious violence. There are…

References

The Bible. New International Version. Retrieved from  http://www.biblestudytools.com/genesis/1.html

Jemaah Islamiah Jemaah Islamiyah Is
Words: 4383 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46633607
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Religion plays the center part in Jemaah Islamiyah and the extremist religious interpretation is one of the methods of manipulation of the members. In fact, religious teaching is the first step in the recruiting process of almost all Muslim terrorist organizations. As it is the case of Jemaah Islamiyah, religious teachings organized for general audience represent the first stage of the recruitment process as it draws people that are easily manipulated by the extremist interpretation of religious beliefs and that soon become dedicated to jihad. The second stage of the recruitment process is identifying the ones that seem particularly interested in finding out more about the views presented by the teacher. oth of the founders of Jemaah were school teachers.

After identifying in religious education classes the ones that seemed more interested in learning more, the students are introduced to the organization and if they seem eager to be part…

Bibliography

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jemaah_Islamiyah ;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/ji.htm ;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3613;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.rotten.com/library/history/terrorist-organizations/jemaah-islamiah/;

International Relations at This Point
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Despite the success with a new Iraqi government, elections, a new Constitution etc. The country is still highly unstable and fighting and terrorist attacks occur on a regular basis. Despite continuous fighting and combat, pacification seems to be a long way off at this point and it doesn't seem as if things are likely to improve soon.

Another disadvantage is related to the forces needed for such an action. According to estimates, a force of around 350,000 to 500,000 is needed for a potential success of a pacification action through force. The U.S. And the coalition forces have less than 200,000 people in the field and the pressure is already extremely high to reduce those numbers rather than further increase them. The political and public opinion pressure in the U.S. would be tremendous if the government was to think about increasing the number of troops stationed in Iraq. It just…

Bibliography

1. Oliker, Olga; Crane, Keith. U.S. Policy Options for Iraq. For U.S. Air Force. 2007.

Oliker, Olga; Crane, Keith. U.S. Policy Options for Iraq. For U.S. Air Force. 2007.

Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days Although
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Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days?

Although terrorism has been present ever since the beginning of recorded history, defining it may prove to be slightly controversial task. There is no universally shared definition as it's a highly subjective term that depends upon the point-of-view of the observer. However, there are three perspectives from which terrorism can be looked at and then defined. These perspectives include the terrorist's, the victim's and the general publics.

The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" is one that even terrorists may re-affirm, thus asserting the controversial nature of the term itself. The following definition released by the United States FBI, can be used to describe the nature of modern day terrorism:

"The unlawful use of force or persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (U.S. Department…

Work Cited

Adas, J., 2010. Mazin Qumsiyeh on the History and Practice Of Nonviolent Palestinian Resistance, s.l.: s.n.

Akram, M., 2008. Pakistan, Terrorism and Drugs. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/19/opinion/lweb22pakistan.html?_r=1&ref=opinion  [Accessed 17 October 2009].

Anon., 1988. Hamas Charter. [Online]

Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's
Words: 9235 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99898853
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' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).

As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…

References

Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.

Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-

4.

Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News

Shift of Terrorism to the International Level
Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40654289
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shift of terrorism to the international level. It defines terrorism, the reasons it is carried out, and the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers.

War and Terrorism

War can be defined as an armed conflict between two states, where both the states' main focus is to impose their own will on the rival state. During the last two centuries, the conventional ways of fighting a war have changed immensely due to technological advancements, but the reasons to initiate and fight a war remains the same. A war is fought in order to occupy and control a piece of…

References

Hudson, R.A. (1999) The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Become a Terrorist And Why?. The Library of Congress. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf 

Payne, J.L. (2008). What Do the Terrorists Want?. The Independent Review, 13. Retrieved from  http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_13_01_2_payne.pdf 

Morgan, M.J. (2004) The Origins of the New Terrorism. Parameters. Retrieved on February 2nd, 2013 from  http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/parameters/Articles/04spring/morgan.pdf

Biological Weapons
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iological Weapons: The 'Living' and Pervasive Weapons of Mass Destruction

The 'art' and methods of war have indeed gone a long way; from subsisting to crude metals and guns, human society has learned to manipulate Nature by using as one of its weapons of mass destruction organisms that create balance within the planet's ecosystem. Nuclear warheads, guns, and other artilleries and weaponry are no longer feasible arsenals of war, mainly because they are not energy- and economically-efficient, as biological weapons are. iological weapons, is identified as a destructive medium which "consist of living, infectious microorganisms that are disseminated as aerosols through the atmosphere... are generally invisible, odorless, and tasteless" (Falkenrath, 1998). These characteristics of biological weapons make it a feasible medium for destruction, especially between warring nations/societies.

This paper traces the origins and history of biological weapons, especially in the United States. In knowing its history, this research also looks…

Bibliography

Augerson, W. (2000). A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. Washington, D.C.: Random House.

Falkenrath, R. (1998). "Unconventional Arms: The Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc.

Forsberg, R. (1995). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lederberg, J. (1999). Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Case Analysis 2 Aum Shinrikyo
Words: 1441 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78927333
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Aum Shinrikyo

In 1995 a terrorist, cult organization in Japan called Aum Shinrikyo perpetrated a Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway (eader, 2000). It left more than a dozen people dead, and thousands more were affected by the gas but later recovered. Many of those affected by it still have problems today, with issues such as post traumatic stress disorder and fear when using the subway system. They also experience vision problems, and worsening of conditions they already had before the incident (Ogawa, Yamamura, & Ando, et al., 2000). One of the most troubling issues, though, was not that the attack occurred, but the way it was handled by emergency response teams who were called in to contain the problem and care for the people who were injured and sick. The gas was released on a busy subway train full of unsuspecting individuals at a crowded time of day,…

References

Eldridge, J. (ed). (2006). Jane's Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense 2006 -- 2007 (19th ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK; Alexandria, Va.: Jane's Information Group.

Ogawa, Y., Yamamura, Y., & Ando, A., et al. (2000). An attack with sarin nerve gas on the Tokyo subway system and its effects on victims. ACS Symposium Series, 745: 333 -- 355.

Reader, I. (2000). Religious Violence in Contemporary Japan: The Case of Aum Shinrikyo, New York: Curzon Press.

Sidell, F.R. (1998). Jane's Chem-Bio Handbook 3rd edition. Alexandria, VA: Jane's Information Group.

War in Afghanistan Is Visibly
Words: 2995 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54386899
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S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.

3.1.3 Power sharing agreements

In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…

References

Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.

Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.

Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]

Religion Workshop Missiology for a
Words: 1818 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50237491
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Identify prejudices and biases in traditional Christian approaches to non-Christian religions, both in general and specifically.

Identify possible objections to Christianity, in terms of theology, ethics, and missiology.

esolve the challenges associated with new era missiology and new era ministry, by developing a comprehensive plan for the future.

Materials: Today's materials will be the same as the previous days.

Activities:

9:00-9:10: Opening prayer

9:10-11:00: Crash course/review of world religions based on credible source material written from each faith's point-of-view or from a non-biased, scholarly source.

11:00-12:00: Each participant uses his or her personal electronic device or notebook to write down specific areas of concern and possible roadblocks to interfaith dialogue.

12:00-1:00: Lunch

1:00-2:00: Share the concerns addressed by each participant openly, engaging in a dialogue of our own. Understanding that our participants are from diverse backgrounds, each will have unique perspectives on multiple faiths. Some will have had first-hand experiences…

Reference

Kenneth Cracknell, In Good and Generous Faith: Christian Responses to Religious Pluralism (Pilgrim Press, 2006).

Islam Teaches That Faith Must
Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42780168
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There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.

The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.

The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…

References

Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?

Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.

Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.

Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).

Ethnic Conflict in Xinjiang An
Words: 3057 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29028426
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In this sense, "During the 1950s and 1960s, especially after the falling-out between hina and the former Soviet Union, the hinese government actively relocated Han hinese to frontier provinces such as Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Heilongjiang, in order to consolidate the border in light of possible military threat from the Soviets"

. Therefore, the decision to intervene in the ethnic composition of the region was not only a choice related to the national identity of the country but also to geostrategic aspects.

After the end of the old War, the region remained of importance for hina form the perspective of the national identity as well as crucial natural resources, which include oil reserves. From this perspective, massive investments have been conducted in the region, stating the official reason to be the reduction of the disparities between the regions of hina. In this sense, "Rich in natural gas, oil, and warm…

Violent Crowds the Phenomenon of
Words: 2653 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57637393
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y identifying with the crowd, the individual is freed from responsibility for his or her actions, and thus is more likely to engage in violent behavior (or at a minimum, feels more comfortable engaging in said behavior). However, this does not fully account for violent crowds, because even if individuals gain anonymity through the crowd and thus are free to engage in violent behavior, one must explain just how this violent behavior is instigated and transmitted through the crowd, because although there is a positive connection between anonymity and violent or unethical behavior, one cannot go so far as to say that anonymity causes this behavior. Instead, one may look to a topic in bio-mechanics that, while usually reserved for discussions concerning birds or machines, actually goes a long way in explaining how violent crowds can form, or how previously nonviolent crowds can transition rapidly.

"Flocking" is a term first…

Bibliography

Beck, E.M. And Timothy Clark. "Strangers, Community Miscreants, or Locals: Who were the Black Victims of Mob Violence?" Historical Methods 35, no. 2 (2002): 77-83.

Felson, Richard B. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22,

(1996): 103-128.

Hodge, Joel. "Why do Humans Commit Violence?" Compass 45, no. 3 (2011): 3-12.

Mayhem the Ancient Romans Had
Words: 2362 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7113851
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On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…

Teen Abuse Recognizing the Signs
Words: 1717 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88253660
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& Naugle, A. (2008). Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: Moving towards a contextual framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(7), 1096-1107.

Eckhardt, C.; Jamison, T.R. & atts, K. (2002). Anger Experience and Expression Among Male Dating Violence Perpetrators During Anger Arousal. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(10), 1102-1114.

Eckhardt, C.; Samper, R. & Murphy, C. (2008). Anger disturbances among perpetrators of intimate partner violence: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of court-mandated treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(11), 1600-1617.

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2010). Controversies Involving Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Response to Commentators. Sex Roles, 62(3-4), 221-225.

Palo Alto Medical Facilities (PAMF). (2010). Abusive Romantic Relationships. PAMF.org.

Smith, M. & Segal, J.…

Works Cited:

Bell, K. & Naugle, A. (2008). Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: Moving towards a contextual framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(7), 1096-1107.

Eckhardt, C.; Jamison, T.R. & Watts, K. (2002). Anger Experience and Expression Among Male Dating Violence Perpetrators During Anger Arousal. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(10), 1102-1114.

Eckhardt, C.; Samper, R. & Murphy, C. (2008). Anger disturbances among perpetrators of intimate partner violence: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of court-mandated treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(11), 1600-1617.

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2010). Controversies Involving Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Response to Commentators. Sex Roles, 62(3-4), 221-225.

Penal Practices Penal Is a Word Pertaining
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Penal Practices

Penal is a word pertaining to punishment and the penal system or penal practices are those related to trial of a person to judge if he should be punished or not and if yes, how much and for how long should he be punished. The penal practices are governed by standard penal laws that are similar yet customized in every country. For example, theft is the same crime but punished with imprisonment in USA, cutting of hands in Saudi Arabia and some time ago, punished by being shot in China. Thus the penal practices can vary from country to country and region to region.

Objective of Penal System

The objectives of penal system are evident and clear. There is a party, a person a group or an organization that committed crime and another party that was wronged. The first objective of penal system is to compensate the affected…

References

1. Spivakovksy, C. 2013. 'Chapter 1: The Infalliable Science of Offending Behaviour', Racialised Governance: The Mutual Constructions of Race and Criminal Justice, Ashgate Press, pp. 15-37.

2. Davis, A.Y. 1998. 'Racialised punishment and prison abolition', in J. James (ed.), The Angela Y. Davis Reader, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, pp. 96-107.

3. Alexander, M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, New York.

4. Bird, G., Martin, G. & Nielsen, J. (eds.) 1996. Majah: Indigenous Peoples and the Law, Federation Press, Sydney.

Roots of Terrorism
Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93098404
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Terrorism

In the book Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, obert Pape argues that that the main motivator for suicide terrorism in particular is nationalism. Politically disenfranchised groups use suicide terrorism to target large democratic state entities in order to secure territory and gain international recognition. However, to boil down terrorism to a singular cause like nationalism would be grossly and dangerously oversimplifying the phenomenon. After all, eco-terrorism is one example of a type of terrorism that is clearly not linked to a nationalistic cause. Terrorism is a strategy and quasi-military tactic used by individuals and groups to draw attention to a specific message or set of messages. In many -- if not most -- cases, nationalism is a major terrorist message. As with eco-terrorism, nationalism itself is not the issue. The issue is power and control over resources. Terrorist groups of all types use violent tactics…

References

Crenshaw, M. (1981). The causes of terrorism. Comparitive Politics 13(4): 379-399.

Pape, R. (2006). Dying to Win. New York: Random House.

Richardson, L. (2013). The Roots of Terrorism. New York: Routledge.

Optical Revolutions How the Telescope
Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32027252
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The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:

For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)

However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…

Works Cited

Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.

Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.

Hooke, Robert. Micrographia. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.

Konnert, Mark. Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious Warfare, 1559-1715. North York, on: Higher Education University of Toronto Press, 2006. Print.

Old South
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Honor and Violence in the Old South

Honor and Violence is the Old South is actually an abridged version of Bertram Wyatt-Brown's Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South. The book presents an objective and highly well researched account of life for women and slaves in the South who were considered devices with which to maintain family honor. The subject of honor has been studied from historical and anthropological perspective. The author seeks to explain why white masters treated slaves in an inhumane manner and similarly how women were expected to behave in patriarchal societies of the South. Everything was eventually connected with honor and it was the pursuit of the same that gave birth to violence in these traditional and highly conservative societies. "Honor in the pre-Civil War slave states was an encoded system, a matter of interchanges between the individual and the community to which he…

REFERENCE:

Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Honor and Violence in the Old South. Oxford University Press: New York. 1986

Contemporary India
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Women Status Contemporary India

The Status and ole of Women in Contemporary India

The women in contemporary India have a very significant role as they fulfill crucial responsibilities in almost every sector including family life, agricultural development and industrial development. However, it is unfortunate that such contributions have remained mostly indistinguishable to the planners and policy makers due to which the Indian women have always experienced an unstable status in the country. Even in this modern era of science and technology, women in India are still considered a disadvantaged group as there has been no change in the conventional structure of society as well as cultural and moral standards (Chakrapani and Kumar, 1994).

In addition, a majority of women are still unaware of the social laws that have been designed to alleviate the problems women face in the society. As a consequence, distressed situations influence Indian women more than Indian…

References

Berman, B.J., Bhargava, R., & Laliberte?, A. (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. Vancouver: UBC Press. Print.

Chakrapani, C., & Kumar, S.V. (1994).Changing Status and Role of Women in Indian Society. New Delhi: MD Publications. Print.

Chowdhuri, J.P. (2012). Caste System, Social Inequalities and Reservation Policy in India: Class, Caste, Social Policy and Governance Through Social Justice. Saarbru-cken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. Print.

Jain, T.R., & Ohri, V.K. (2006). Indian Economy: Issues in Economic Development and Planning in India and Sectoral Aspects of Indian Economy. New Delhi: V.K. Publications. Print.

Conflict Building a New Jerusalem
Words: 1790 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46093768
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The European actions against the natives were in error, because they were committed by Protestant Christians, who, unlike Catholics or savages, should have known better and responded with higher forms of faith and feeling. The Indian atrocities were seen as inevitable, the result of "undesigned provocation" (even though esley acknowledges that the settlers are interlopers) rather than a response in defense of their land (ard, 1872).

Thus, although the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights may proclaim religious separation from all churches, America was actually founded by individuals seeking to create what today we would call a theocracy. Despite early amicable relations with the natives, eventually conflicts over territory caused the two populations to be hostile. The violence that ensued was justified by the religious rhetoric and beliefs of the Puritans, as they strove to create a New Jerusalem in a land that was inhabited by people whose civilization…

Works Cited

Atkins, Scott Eric. (2008) "Pilgrims and puritans." American Studies at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/puritan/purhist.html 

Native Americans of North America." (2007). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com

Religious tolerance in Colonial America (2008). Geocites. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/crownac/religious_tolerance.htm

Ward, Nathanial. (1647). "Against toleration." E-text of American History Told by Contemporaries. Vol. 1. pp. 393-96. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at  http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/ward.html