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Within the broad gamut of enaissance art throughout Europe, two sculptures remain outstanding and worthy of mutual comparison. Those two works of art are Michelangelo's statue of David and Donatello's same. The latter is the predecessor; Donatello's David predates Michelangelo's by about fifty years. Donatello's sculpture of David is considered to be of the Early enaissance period, and was completed by about 1430 (Hudelson, n.d.). Michelangelo's David, on the other hand, was completed in the early 1500s. It represents, and perhaps epitomizes, the culmination of the Italian enaissance: the period known as the High enaissance (Hudelson, n.d.). Yet, both Donatello and Michelangelo were accomplished Italian artists. Both Michelangelo and Donatello spearheaded enaissance art movements in their depictions of the Biblical hero David. Their respective sculptures capture the physique and form of the masculine David, while also revealing the most perfected artistic techniques known at that time. The subject…… [Read More]
Ghirlandaio's "Old Man with his Grandson"
Ghirlandiao's Old Man with his Grandson
The enaissance marked a dramatic shift in artistic values and ideals as represented by Domenico Ghirlandaio's painting "Old Man with his Grandson." While the subject of Medieval art was strictly religious and lacked true perspective, enaissance artists sought to recapture the artistic Humanism of the Classical World by incorporating reality through perspective. The enaissance also saw a transition from the strictly religious topics to a more human-centered focus. Ghirlandaio's "Old Man with his Grandson" exemplifies these values and ideals in a physical form.
In the tradition of the Classical World, enaissance artists sought to capture realistic human forms and Domenico Ghirlandaio's "Old Man with his Grandson," portrays just such a realistic scene in which an old man is seated with his grandson on his lap. Both the old man and the child are wearing clothing appropriate…… [Read More]
enaissance literally means 'rebirth' and the movement was specifically about rebirth of cultural ideas, spiritual views and artistic expression. The term, first coined by Vasari in 1550, is now used for the period from mid 14th to mid 16th centuries that was marked by a revolution in art, painting, sculpture and even literature. enaissance gained prominence almost immediately with Bellini, Botticelli, Bruegel, da Vinci, Durer, Michelangelo, aphael associating themselves with the movement. Though the origins of enaissance can be traced to Florence, Italy, there is no consensus on the exact period when this rebirth took place. Some believe that it started in 14th century as early as 1337 with the death of Giotto while others feel it originated in the 15th century. Similarly historians largely fail to agree on the exact period when enaissance ended. But it is largely felt that enaissance Art died somewhere between the death…… [Read More]
As Baxandall points out, "a fifteenth century painting is a product of a social relationship," (p. 1). That social relationship was carefully forged and affected by a confluence of interests including those that are commercial, cultural, religious, and perceptual or aesthetic in nature. The relationship between client and artist was one constrained by social convention, legal tradition, and also the expedience of broader interests. Money has played a long-underestimated role in the history of art, notes Baxandall. For this reason, it helps to examine fifteenth century paintings in terms of not only their aesthetic values and symbolism but also in terms of how financial or class-based issues impacted issues like the materials used, how the artist was paid, and the size of the piece. Painting, Baxandall states, was "too important to be left to the painters," (p. 3). Two of the most important conventional characteristics of fifteenth century paintings…… [Read More]
Cimabue's late Byzantine painting Madonna and Child Enthroned is on the surface and in many respects similar to Giotto's early Renaissance painting Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints. In fact, only a generation or two separated these two painters. Cimabue painted his Maesta from 1280 and finished in 1285, whereas Giotto worked between 1305 and 1310 on the Ognissanti Madonna. Within this 40-year time span, great changes were taking place in Italian art as well as history and culture in general. These changes become evident when analyzing the differences between Cimabue's and Giotto's differing renditions of the Madonna enthroned. In particular, Giotto's painting whispers of the emerging naturalism and realism that would become hallmarks of the Renaissance.
The Byzantine style can be described fairly as being two-dimensional in scope, as the human figures are rendered flatly on the canvas. Moreover, one of the distinguishing features of Byzantine art is…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to trace the compositional, stylistic and symbolic development of the story of the Last Supper by Leonardo Da Vinci and what makes Leonardo's work unique. Earlier examples will be cited including those of Andrea del Castagno or Domenico Ghirlandaio. The three sources will be annotated with a 10-sentence paragraph reviewing the source. Each annotation will include full sentences in essay format that detail what the link explores and how it is organized.
Art & Critique
The website 'Art & Critique' examines how the work of Leonardo Da Vinci entitled "The Last Supper" serves to unite "a personal interpretation of the event with a display of some general Renaissance aesthetic principles." (Art & Critique, 2012, p.1) It is reported that there is the confrontation of "an idiosyncratic vision" and in contrast a "generalist, if not dogmatic principle." (Art & Critique, 2012, p. 1)…… [Read More]
Renaissance Art Response
The word renaissance means a complete change in modes of art, literature, music, and architecture, as well as an altered sense of morality and ethicality during a given period of time. This change stems from an expansion of thought and with that a new sense of what matters in the world. Every type of art developed and changed throughout the Renaissance period, including literature, music, and visual arts, namely paintings and sculpture. One of the finest artists who came out of the European Renaissance was Rembrandt van Rijn. Rembrandt is unique in all of Renaissance artistry in that he was primarily interested in painting people that he knew rather than historic figures or events although he did also paint Biblical scenes which he felt particularly connected to.
The piece I focused on is a self-portrait of the artist Rembrandt van Rijn, more commonly known as simply Rembrandt,…… [Read More]
Bernini's statuary group is a combination of lyric and mimetic representation depicting both a mythical episode and vital energy which is best felt when looking at Persephone's hand pushing against Pluto's face. In fact, even this apparently simple detail is dual in the sense that on one hand, it is meant to give the impression of despair and struggle, and on the other, this gesture results in creases in Pluto's skin. Bernini's sculpture incorporates the twisting pose belonging to Mannerism, a reaction to the perfection of forms that can be identified during the Renaissance in the works of its greatest exponents, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael.
The middle ages were marked by strictness imposed by the Catholic Church which exerted control over society. Artistic expression was reduced to a minimum because the doctrine of the church encouraged religious meditation, and austerity. The end of the middle ages…… [Read More]
Renaissance Art Patrons and Their Effect on History
The great works of art that hang on the walls of some of the great museums of the world are not there because the artist wished for the world to behold their particular brilliance. It is true that greats such as Michelangelo and da Vinci were brilliant in their own right, but they would not have been able to produce as they did unless they had patrons who commissioned many of their works. Royalty were not alone in being able to afford the works that brilliant masters produced, though they were patrons at times. Private, wealthy persons who wanted to be remembered for their wealth and stature were the most prolific patrons. Even into the modern day, there are patrons of the arts who commission paintings, sculptures, buildings and other works that otherwise would not be produced. It is a tradition that…… [Read More]
The division of Renaissance art into three distinct periods began with Giorgio Vasari, the great Florentine art historian and chronicler of the lives of the artists. Vasari concluded, based on his universally accepted perception of Michelangelo as "Il Divino," that Renaissance art reached its most sublime expression in the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. However, some modern art historians wonder how valid or valuable this categorization and consequential value judgment is. Roberta J.M. Olson challenges the very existence of a "High Renaissance," on the grounds that "the term is artificial, a qualitative judgment of 'High' signifying the best," (149). Surely, there are noticeable differences in the vivid expressions of Italian Renaissance art from the fifteenth to the sixteenth centuries. Art from the early period of the Renaissance sprouted from the preceding medieval and Gothic artistic traditions, with their emphasis on dramatic facial expressions and compositions. This…… [Read More]
enaissance Art eflection
The Birth and Evolution of Beauty
Perspectives on form and beauty have changed over the span of hundreds of years, from unrealistic expectations in anatomy to that of more lifelike depictions. Of course, no story on beauty can ever be told without the use of Venus and the changes she undergoes throughout the years during the enaissance. Botticelli gave Venus life, Bronzino beatified her to a goddess-like pedestal, and Cambiaso shadowed her in humanity. It is through these artists' eyes that one can see the progression of beauty throughout the enaissance years.
Earlier enaissance artists sought to epitomize and define beauty as "an order or arrangement such that nothing can be altered except for the worse" (Haughton, N.). While the movement brought along by the enaissance certainly aimed to focus toward a realistic depiction of beauty, this was not always so defined during Botticelli's time. If one…… [Read More]
itual and pageantry also surround the architecture and buildings of the time, as the article on the Medici indicates. The architecture of the enaissance is rich in art and tradition, making it some of the most memorable architecture in the world. Without art, this would not be the case, as the buildings celebrate the beauty of design and balance as well as form and function. Clearly, art permeates every aspect of the enaissance world, from the pageants and rituals that were so common, to the pageantry of the buildings that represent the time.
Not only do these pieces indicate the importance of religion in enaissance society, they indicate that rites, and rites of passage are common throughout the world, even in uncivilized countries, which indicates this is a very common social form of worship and custom. We still observe many rites of passage in society today, from "sweet 16" birthday…… [Read More]
To counterpoint that, the third author discusses the many images of childbirth that were created during the enaissance, also handcrafted, which helped celebrate babies coming into the world. It is not impossible to imagine that some of these images, often created to give mothers comfort before and after the birth, could have been created by the very same artists and craftsmen who were creating tools for torture and pain during the same time.
It is interesting to note how different the uses of art and artistic talent were during this time. Today, it seems a juxtaposition for an artist to create tools used to maim and kill another human, but at the time, it was commonplace and even "normal," as these essays indicate.
Musacchio, J.M. The art and ritual of childbirth in enaissance Italy.
Sheridan, a. Discipline and punish: Birth of the prison.
Terry, a. The craft of torture:…… [Read More]
Images of adolescent itself are no longer as carefree and fun as they were during the decade when Ferris Bueller was such a cultural icon. Today, the teens of television shows like the OC are cynical beyond their years, rather than careless about their future. Also, the image of the World Trade Towers has become a loaded cultural symbol for both liberals and conservatives. For liberals such as Michael Moore in Fahrenheit 9/11, the Towers symbolize the Republican establishment's stupidity (as President Bush does not even react to the bombing while it happens, but continues reading a children's book) while for conservatives, the bombing of the Towers represents the failure of diversity and tolerance, and the need to return to the supposed true, core American values of Christianity and insularity. The Towers that once symbolized the New York skyline for all New Yorkers now divide Americans on the right and…… [Read More]
aphael: Artist of the enaissance
aphael was the son of Giovanni Santi, an educated man that was able to provide his young son with a remarkable life exposed to much art, many artistic geniuses, and the remarkable culture of the Umbrian court. aphael was blessed during his childhood in terms of wealth and culture and would never have to know the life of a struggling artist nor the sense of begging for handouts or working in squalor. However, aphael did suffer great tragedy: his mother died when he was eight years old and his father died three years later when aphael was eleven years old. Thus, as a tender child, aphael was no stranger to tragedy, something that no doubt instilled his life, making an imprint on him as an artist. One thing that aphael's father did before his death that had a profound influence on the child and how…… [Read More]
Brown, Beverly Louise. "The Genius of ome." London: oyal Academy of the Arts, 2001.
Brown's "The Genius of ome" offers a comprehensive analysis of both the convergence and dichotomy of sacred and profane elements in enaissance Italian art. Caravaggio stands at the midpoint, the pivotal space, between sacred and profane. As Brown points out, many of Caravaggio's altarpieces were initially rejected on the grounds that they were not sacred enough, and the author claims that his work has been described by contemporaries as "mezzo tra il devote, et profano," or "halfway between sacred and profane," (p. 276). Interestingly, seventeenth century sources reveal scant evidence as to why Caravaggio's work would have been viewed in this way, and why his altarpieces were sometimes summarily rejected. Later in the chapter, Brown focuses on ubens, who encapsulated the dichotomies between sacred and profane. This resources provides instrumental evidence related to the evolution of…… [Read More]
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…… [Read More]
enaissance and Baroque Periods
The term enaissance describes, not only a movement in art, but also a corresponding social and cultural movement that moved through Europe at the conclusion of the Middle Ages. The enaissance period lasted from the 1400s to the 1600s, and spread through most of Europe, though it is probably the most heavily associated with Italy. The term "renaissance" means revival or rebirth, and the enaissance did mark a period of significant cultural revival. In order to truly understand the enaissance, it is important to understand that the Middle Ages, the time period preceding the enaissance was a period of retraction largely due to political instability. However, as Europe emerged from the Middle Ages and became more stable, the surrounding social landscape became supportive of an explosion in the arts and learning. The movement began in Italy in the 1400s and spread into France, northern Europe, and…… [Read More]
renaissance paintings- VIGIN AND CHILD
Art has always been an important tool for understanding various eras and their influence. It has served as a reflection of the times during which it was created and for this reason, art is considered a very sensitive medium. It quickly absorbs the changes that witnesses in the surrounding culture and society. It is impossible for art to remain static and uninfluenced in the wake of societal upheaval. enaissance art therefore is a completely distinctive breed as it reflects the massive transformation in political and religious mood of the society. It depicts the changes that enaissance era underwent. While some painters paid closer attention to political problems that occurred during 14 and 15th century AD, others focused mainly on religious changes. These changes are most prominent in the several enaissance paintings that depict Virgin and Child theme.
Unlike the dogmatic nature of religious beliefs observed…… [Read More]
The compositional structure here is actually quite daring. Even though a viewer tends to "read" a painting left-to-right, as with a book, here the left side of the canvas seems to fade away into nothingness. It is not just the empty seascape on the left as compared with the dark richness of the forest on the right. The left half of the painting contains the subject of the painting after all -- Europa and the Bull. It is Rembrandt's genius to have the drama of Europa and the Bull taking place in the lower left corner of a very large painting, almost as though the moment of drama is on its way out, and the viewer is lucky to have caught it. But it is also clever how Rembrandt essentially balances the canvas with two central subjects, equally illuminated from above -- we have Europa and the Bull on the…… [Read More]
The relationship between patronage and art
During Early and High Renaissance of Italy, it was through the vehicle of patronage was the key fashion in which an artist established his artistic identity as well as established himself economically. For instance, in considering Botticelli's "The Birth of Venus," it is important to remember that this vision is not an individualistic picture of a an artist living outside of his society. Rather, the patron who commissioned the Botticelli painting for his country villa was a member of the rich and powerful family of the Medici, and demanded that certain artistic standards and ideals be reflected in the work. (Sandro Bottecelli, ebart, "The Birth of Venus (http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/botticelli/venus/)
The Medici family had a fascination not so much with tale of Venus, but with the Neoplatonic philosophy of beauty this female form had the potential to represent. Venus, it was thought, and all…… [Read More]
Both Duccio di Buoninsegna and Fra Filippo Lippi paint the Christian Madonna and child scene. Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels" is rendered on wood with tempera and gold leaf. It is rounded at the top, and was the center part of a triptych that was completed in about the year 1440.[footnoteRef:1] Also in tempera and gold leaf on wood is di Buoninsegna's "Madonna and Child." Candle damage at the bottom of the wood panel suggests that the painting was "used for private devotion."[footnoteRef:2] Buoninsegna's painting was completed in the year 1300, almost one hundred and fifty years prior to Lippi's "Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels." The two depictions of mother Mary and baby Jesus share similar themes, and in both the mother is holding the child. However, the composition of the two paintings is strikingly different and symbolizes their respective religious histories. [1: "Fra…… [Read More]
enaissance and early twentieth century art offer an interesting study in comparison because of their distinctive styles. It is the objective of this paper to describe the definitive characteristics of each period through comparing aphael's Alba Madonna to Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory.
enaissance art is reputed for the unified balance achieved between pictorial considerations of measurable space and the effects of light and color on the one hand, and the artist's personal expression on the other (Pioch, 2002). This unity is evident in aphael's Alba Madonna, a painting that represents the artist's unique style of sweetness of expression. The painting is remarkable because of the manner in which aphael has succeeded in addressing a serious subject within a backdrop of a serene countryside. Indeed, it can be said that he was able to do this precisely because of the use of symmetry, namely, the round format that succeeds…… [Read More]
A good example of this can be seen with Sistine Chapel in the Last Supper. In this piece, he is using color and his imagination to understand what is happening. The use of bright and dark colors added to the sense of realism by giving the appearance as if these events were happening at the moment. In the future, this technique would be utilized by artists to create a sense of appreciation and underscore the emotions of the work itself.
Furthermore, the article that was written by Oremaland (1980), is discussing how pieta has often been used throughout many different building projects in the world (with the original at St. Peter's Cathedral). Since that time, various churches have used this dome like structure to create designs that mirror those of Michael Angelo. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this technique was continually embraced by various contractors…… [Read More]
The function of the work of art would be to stand before the city, and to show the city as wisdom personified, and by implication show that the wisdom came from the works and power of the Medici. It would make an analogy between the city-state of Florence and the ancient city-state of Athens. Because Athens was a genuine republic, it might even deflect some criticism from the Medicis, who were technically supposed to be residents of a republic, even though they ruled from behind the scenes. The setting of the sculpture, next to David, outside the city gates would act as a powerful warning of the city's power (with the violence of the anvil and David's shotgun) as well as strike a balance between Classical representations of learning and the still-important tenants of the Catholic faith that must be honored in a world still dominated by the clergy.
The…… [Read More]
There is also little doubt that viewing the original works is a very different experience to viewing a reproduction. There is as sense of presence and intimacy in viewing the original works that is not evident when viewing a reproduction. There is something tangible and direct that comes across when looking at the original that is lost in viewing reproductions. With the original paining one is allowed to view the actual brush strikes and paint build-up in a way that cannot be achieved with a reproduction.
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
"Italian vs. Northern Renaissance." Accessed September 10, 2011.
"Religious Themed Paintings inside Houston's MFA." Accessed September 10, 2011.
http://peggy-w.hubpages.com/hub/Religious-Themed-Paintings-inside-Houstons-MFAaissance Art and Architecture
"Renaissance Art and Architecture." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John," accessed September 10,…… [Read More]
The idea of humanism started in Italy in the 14th Century and thrived throughout the 15th Century. During this period, Italians placed a significant emphasis on education and increasing knowledge, particularly that of the classical ancient times. The Italians also promoted the exploration of human potential, desire to excel, and the devotion to civic responsibility and moral duty. The link between humanism and education and culture appealed to people of high status to an extent that the idea of humanism had its greatest influence on the elite and powerful individuals ("15th Century Italy," n.d.). Given its impact on the then philosophy, the ideas of humanism permeated art from the enaissance onwards.
The ideas of humanism permeated art from the enaissance onwards because of the greatest impact of humanism on the elite and powerful individuals who had the ability to commission art. Actually, the enaissance was a by-product of the…… [Read More]
In his painting Flight into Egypt, Battista Dossi took great care to tell the story of the Holy Family at the very moment the painting shows. He evokes the urgency in the life of the traveling Holy Family as they flee for the life of their child. All that needs to be said in the painting is told with color and precision, movement and depth, and the entirely personal glimpse into the lives of the Holy Family. Battista's work is at once compelling and evocative of the situation.
The work entitled Flight into Egypt is oil on panel by the Ferrarese artist Battista Dossi, (circa 1490 to 1548) who was the younger brother of Dosso Dossi. The brothers were the primary painters in the court of Ferrara under the Alfonso I'd'Este and Ercole II d'Este. Unfortunately, most of the documented work the brothers did for the court was…… [Read More]
A Comparison between the Italian and Northern European enaissance
World history is a fascinating subject, especially when one takes into account the multi-dimensional, often heavy impact changes that are constantly taking place, and that often change the course of history in a way in which it could have never been imagined. After the Dark Ages, for instance, the enaissance or "rebirth," a period of artistic-related growth across Europe, was one such change that literally pulled Europe out of the deterioration in which it found itself after the fall of the oman Empire, and put it on a path of regrowth that was so replete with creativity that many scholars are still talking about it today. In order to better understand these historical changes, this paper will examine the enaissance, for it was a very complex movement, in order to understand it better, and will do so by comparing the…… [Read More]
One the right is a statue of Athena, god of wisdom, light, and the city. On the left is Apollo, sun god, holding a lyre. Arching over the top of the painting is a great, wide semi-circle in a space resembling a basilica annex.
Philosophy in the Middle Ages was obsessed with the analytical procedures of Aristotle, whose treatises on many subjects generally worked inductively, determining truth from other truths. A feature of the high Renaissance was the shift towards Platonic thought, but also a continued influence by papal authority. In The School of Athens, Raphael has drawn a portrait of classical philosophy but sanctified it by putting theists and atheists alike in a religious setting.
Thematically, The School of Athens presents Renaissance Humanism, linking the Athenian scene of people together in a fluid, personal picture. The personalities of each philosopher mix in a jumble of activity and motion. Whereas…… [Read More]
An examination of "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist" by Jacopo del Sellaio, 1480-85 and "St. Sebastian Attended by Holy omen" by Nicolas Regnier (called Nicolo Renieri) 1615-1626 reveal the differences between early and later Renaissance painting in Italy. Jacopo del Sellaio's word dates to the late fifteenth century, and Renieri painted more than a century after that. The historical context of their work also signals the differences between Sellaio and Renieri. Sellaio studied under Fra Filippo Lippi and his style inevitably reveals his connection with the Lippi school. Sandro Botticelli studied under Lippi at the same time; Renieri and Botticelli influenced each other and this is especially evident in "Virgin and Child with St. John the Baptist." For instance, Botticelli's style is evident in Sellaio's work "in such traits as the texture and color of hair, the tilt of the Virgin's head and the elongation…… [Read More]
Perhaps, the woman did give birth to a healthy child and then died, then this portrait would be in the nature of memorializing the wife of the man in this picture and the mother of his heir preserving for the child a likeness of the child's mother since the mother was no longer living and present in the lives of the family.
This is the only double portrait of its kind painted during the Renaissance period that is known and as related in the foregoing material, women were always pictured from a profile view with their hair severely pulled back away from their face and their gaze averted from the viewer since women were believed to be seductresses of men making them weak or otherwise castrating them with rejection though only casting a gaze in their direction.
The hands of the man are displayed in this portrait and he appears…… [Read More]
Renaissance was beginning to influence Italian painters in adapting their style in order for it to fit the needs of a more advanced world. Fra Angelico is recognized as one of the great early Italian painters from the Renaissance. In his work of decorating the Dominican Monastery of San Marco, he mastered a painting style that was reported to have been partly inspired from Masaccio, with his paintings expressing motion and being filled with linear perspective meant to suggest depth of space.
It had been a common thing for the wealthy and most important families of Florence to hire talented painters to paint for them. Sandro Botticelli had been just one of the many Renaissance painters to paint for the Medici family. Even if Botticelli had spent a large part of his time working for great families, he still found time to perform additional paintings such as the one in…… [Read More]
PETE PAUL UBENS & CAAVAGGIO
The artistic period known as the enaissance continued without any sharp stylistic changes well into the 17th and 18th centuries; however, the art of this later period is often called Baroque, although there is no single Baroque style or set of stylistic ideals. Yet within the last one hundred years or so, Baroque has taken on the overall designation for the art of the period from circa 1600 to 1750. More recently, scholars have come to understand that Baroque styles were very different from those linked to the enaissance. For example, during the enaissance, art tended to be rather static, but during the Baroque, art became very dynamic and encompassed passion, opulence, a taste for the theatrical and introduced the virtuoso, being an artist that stood out from his contemporaries as a truly gifted genius.
Historically, the Baroque Period entailed many artistic ideals,…… [Read More]
In contrast, English baroque has been described as being more secular, with a higher degree of classical inspiration. However, as Daniells states, this form of the Baroque style is not easy to categorize with finality (Daniells). Wellek uses the term 'restraint' to characterize English baroque (Wellek). With regard to the period of the Scientific Revolution, English Baroque drew inspiration from renaissance geometry. As in the Italian or Roman Baroque, there is a strong religious element that permeates all the designs.
The form of Baroque is exemplified by work of Sir Christopher Wren and buildings like St. Paul's Cathedral. The following summary by Soo is reiterated as it encapsulates the link between English baroque and the religious and scientific values of the period. "...as the result of a compromise between native medieval tradition and continental classicism, reconciled by creating a disunity between appearances and reality, the final design of St. Paul's…… [Read More]
Humanities are Important:
An analysis of the Da Vinci Code, Beethoven's 9th, and 1984.
A novel by George Orwell (pseudonym), real name Eric Blair
Published in 1949
A reaction to the totalitarian state engulfing the global community
The Da Vinci Code
A (2006) film by on Howard
Based on the novel by Dan Brown
obert Langdon follows a series of clues that link Leonardo's masterpieces, the mystery of Jesus Christ, and a totalitarian regime in the guise of the Catholic Church
Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Completed in 1824 after the composer (Ludwig van Beethoven) had gone completely deaf, this -- his final symphony -- is often considered to be one of the greatest musical masterpieces of all time. The fourth movement is based on Schiller's "Ode to Joy" and invokes a chorus of universal brotherhood. If you listen long enough, you will hear the music swell into a magnificent burst of…… [Read More]
hen discussing with regard to the Old Testament figure of David and to how he was represented during the Renaissance, one would have to consider the current as a whole in order to gain a more complex understanding of why artists directed their attention toward the character. Artists during the Renaissance were determined to restructure social values for the masses to be able to acknowledge the significance of classical values. David had been a symbol of the classical era and artists in the Renaissance wanted to create works that glorified both him and the idea of the natural man in general.
It was probably David's legendary character that influenced artists to express particular interest in wanting to portray him. By looking at how each artist depicted him, one can understand the cultural elements that inspired these respective artists. All things considered, it would be safe to say that…… [Read More]
enaissance refers to the rebirth and revival of art and architecture in the 15th and 16th centuries in Italy. The enaissance is fascinating to study and is still culturally significant even today because of the high level of artistic and architectural production that was able to be produced during this time. Thus, one of the fundamental reasons as to why this period was significant is directly connected to the fact that the works which were captured during this time continue to captivate the imagination of most people, and continue to impress and amaze. The enaissance is important not just because of the high level and innovation of work that was created, but because it demonstrated a higher level of intellectualism and understanding about the human condition that was manifested through art.
The enaissance is significant today, not merely because of the high level of art that was produced, but because…… [Read More]
Art through the Ages
1. (Ch. 27) What is the interpretation of Goya's Saturn Devouring his Children?
The interpretation of Goya’s Saturn Devouring his Children is based on the myth of Saturn who feared that his children would overthrow him, so he devoured them one by one to avoid that risk. Goya lived many centuries after this ancient myth of antiquity originated. However, his own contemporary situation reflected the old myth in terms of the way the powerful rulers of the time were frantically lashing out, trying to preserve their own power by destroying the least possible threat. The wild-eyed and frenzied look of Saturn in Goya’s painting, produced between the years of 1819 and 1823, reflects what was happening in his own time. The effects of the French Revolution had spread throughout Europe and Spain had gotten to enjoy the Napoleon’s conquests. Goya’s painting reflected the insane frenzy for…… [Read More]
Brunelleschi has been one of the early fathers of the Renaissance, and, the first architect to build a building with reference to classical antiquity. The architect succeeded in proving his value through various building which came in disagreement with the laws that architects had had until the time.
One of the greatest sculptors of all times, Michelangelo, became famous at the time that the public reviewed his first works of art. Despite of the fact that he had been certain that he was best fit for being a sculptor, Michelangelo accepted to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Even with his hesitation, the painting on the ceiling still stands as one of his greatest works and one of the greatest master pieces that the Renaissance period has given birth to.
The Marriage of the Virgin is a painting appreciated worldwide for its perception of depth and for its great…… [Read More]
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…… [Read More]
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…… [Read More]
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…… [Read More]
Considered part of the Northern Renaissance, German Renaissance developed in the 15th and 16th centuries among German thinkers who had traveled to Italy, the cradle of the movement, and had been inspired to import it to Germany. Humanism exerted a strong influence over the arts and sciences in several German principalities, and coincided with a period of political development.
Painting was one of the most prominent ways of artistic expression within the German Renaissance. Also, publishing and printmaking were two areas which developed significantly throughout this period. German art was deeply influenced by its Gothic past, but many painters became increasingly more interested in fusing these Gothic elements with newer developments. Two of the most important figures of German visual arts were Konrad itz, a conservative German painter who was less keen on adopting Italian trends, and Albrecht Durer who was both a painter and a graphic master. In fact,…… [Read More]
enaissance and Baroque
An Analysis of Two Davids
The humanism, nobility, and power of the enaissance are reflected in Michelangelo's David (1504). The emphasis on drama, movement, and action is demonstrated in Bernini's David (1624). Both emphasize the heroic and favorite themes of the High enaissance, but it is Vasari who gives the greatest compliment to Michelangelo's David, calling it more excellent than all sculpture of ancient Greece and ome and even contemporary works (Vasari, 1998, p. 424). This paper will analyze the two works and the eras of art that produced them.
Differences between enaissance and Baroque
The most important thing to remember about the difference between the enaissance and the Baroque is that the former rose to glory prior to the feverish pitch of Protestantism, which to some extent put out its flame; the latter was a kind of rejuvenation of the themes posed by the enaissance --…… [Read More]
French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.
Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]
Period/date- enaissance 1501- 1504
Location or origin- Florence Italy
Medium and size- Sculpture
Period/date- Baroque 1610
Location or origin- ome
Medium and size- Painting
The story of David and Goliath is one that transcends time. In particular, the story appeals to a wide array of diverse individuals, each with its own views on religion, culture and values. Through the universal appeal of David, many different interpretations have arisen throughout time. These interpretations, although distinct, often convey a fundamental truth prevailing during the period of its creation. Aspects such as war, political policies, civil unrest, and culture values often matriculate into the interpretation of the David of Goliath. Art is no different in this regard. Both the Baroque and enaissance periods gave rise to new and distinct forms of belief and expression. These concepts ultimately matriculated into many of the more commonly know masterpieces of today's time. The…… [Read More]
This was even though he received no immediate remuneration, in terms of money or benefits, from developing such interests. Leonardo's notebooks of this period of his life reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of his time.
Ivor Hart makes it clear that Leonardo was far more than a great artist: he had one of the best scientific minds of his time. Perhaps Leonardo's great talent was in observing -- he made careful, painstaking observations of the natural world, such as birds in flight. Such careful observations of the natural world are critical, of course, to the eye of a great artist. But Leonardo's eye enabled him to carry out research of precision as well as beauty, in science as well as art.
Perhaps the real paradox is how separate art and science have become in the modern construction of the disciplines. Leonardo…… [Read More]
Art Practice in the Past and Present
A skill or mastery that stimulates the process of thought, amusement, and emotions is called an art. It is also defined as a special quality used by many people to express their feelings, approach and position. Dating back to 50,000 years ago, art has various forms that ground itself from sculptures, rock paintings, wall craving to modern paintings. Countries like Egypt, Persia, India, Europe and America have great foundations of ancient civilizations that developed their own way of expressing their work and teaching it to their future generations. These teachings started with simple body signs for expressing there need to using brushes, knifes and other tools to explain there work. As a result of these teachings, the art present today expresses an urbanized form of historic art.
Similarities and difference of past and present art
Artists today are very similar in…… [Read More]
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…… [Read More]
(Mulcahy and yszomirski 139)
However, this is not art for art's sake; it is art for our children's sake. If one has to put on the back burner that Picasso was a cubist for the sake of challenging a child to look at a painting and just experience it, than so be it. The very act of simply experiencing the art of an artist can have profound effects on the thought process of children as well as adults. They may think it is profound or they may think it is a piece of trash, but at least they are thinking.
Art outreach programs have become the sole window into the art world for some schools. Since funding for school programs has been so drastically reduced, these outreach programs have become absolute necessities for many communities. These programs also introduce not only children to art, but adults are benefiting from these…… [Read More]
It would have been as ridiculous for a working class man or woman to make art as it would have for that same person to become an accountant. Still, artists throughout time have snuck in their personal values in their paintings. Hieronymous Bosch is one of the artists I believe to have inserted personal values into Church-commissioned art.
Even in the modern era, art is still entwined with money. The artist needs to live, sure. But that is not the only connection between art and money. Art galleries exist because art has become big money. Art symbolizes wealth. No ordinary person can afford "real" art. Ordinary people purchase prints and reproductions, not original pieces by known or up-and-coming artists.
Art is like any other commodity now, for better or for worse. Artists have a greater chance than ever of making a viable living, given the plethora of opportunities in graphic…… [Read More]
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…… [Read More]
On the other hand there is another side to the vision of human life. There is the experience of human joy and happiness that also has to be taken into account. We find this side in works that resonate with color, joy conviviality and friendship. In this exhibition works by Renoir and Picasso have been selected to show this side of the human condition. In this context the famous painting by Renoir entitled, the Luncheon of the Boating Party portrays a very different sense of the human condition compared to that of Bacon. We also this sense of the gentleness and beauty of human life in Picasso's the Bathers.
Another artist who has much to say about the human condition is Giacometti. This famous sculptor portrays human being in terms existential searching and mystery. His sculptures refuse to comment directly on the human condition but leave us with a sense…… [Read More]
Matthew from the Gospel Book made for Archbishop Ebb of Reims, circa 816 to 835 C.E. This illumination which measures about 10 by 8 inches portrays a rather frail-looking saint with his hair almost standing on end and his garment twisted around on his body and deeply wrinkled, perhaps from sitting much too long at his table while transcribing passages for a new edition of the Holy Bible. There is almost no background or landscape in this illumination but what there is of it appears very unnatural and sketchy. Also, the proportions of the saint's body appears to be somewhat unnatural, not to mention his face which appears to be almost a caricature or a cartoon of a real human face.
Also, the expression on the saint's face makes him look as if he is not enjoying the task at hand, being the writing down via dictation from the tiny…… [Read More]
ather, the vines and clusters f grapes on the tree give the piece its true softness and roundness. This is mirrored by the effect of the figures' hair. Both faun and children all possess curling flowing ringlets that seem to hang as loosely as do the grapes, emphasizing a sense of liberty in the work.
The sense of softness and liberty bestowed upon the piece by the line and texture is oddly juxtaposed with the impressions created by other elements of Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children. Most obviously, the piece is composed in a way that makes the faun's posture seem unnaturally contorted, as if the scene has moved beyond teasing and into torment. The extreme angle of the head and neck, especially with the backwards-arcing back, evince more of a struggle to get away than the softer elements of the sculpture suggest. The same is true of the…… [Read More]
We are a company at the head of the fashion industry. Our image is crucial to our success. The appearance, the environment, the overall decor, and the ambiance of our office space is what sends the first messages to our clients. If we expect consumers to value their appearance, then it is up to us to be role models for fashion sense and sensibility.
Therefore, I propose the installation of six major works of art in our corporate office space. Each of these six works of art is carefully selected because it reflects the vibe and mission of our company. The colors, the tone, and the style of the artwork matches our corporate vision. In this memorandum, I will list and describe the six works of art, telling you why these pieces reflect our image.
Camille Pissarro's "Apple Tree at Eragny"
This richly textured painting conveys a sense…… [Read More]
My letters to my brother Theo often touch upon this theme."
Q: hat was your relationship like in Arles?
Gaugin: "I would say that Vincent definitely needed me more than I needed him. Vincent was always looking for a friend, you know -- a kindred spirit. His brother Theo was sympathetic but separate from him. In me he found someone who shared his passion for art and who understood what he was trying to accomplish. But Vincent was unstable and our relationship was often frustrated by his inability to reconcile himself to the artist's lonely lot. I, certainly, was more comfortable being a loner."
Van Gogh: "My sojourn in Arles in a rented yellow house, which I depicted on canvas in my typically thickly-applied, brightly colored 1888 painting, would end in a kind of portentous delirium. Gauguin's stay and my increasing reliance upon the Frenchman proved a misstep. Gauguin's insufferable…… [Read More]
The Metropolitan Museum of Art currently presents three fascinating special exhibits including one on cubism, another on enaissance tapestry, and a third on ancient Assyrian art. Each of these three special exhibits is different, and exciting in its own way. The exhibit on enaissance tapestry is entitled "Grand Design" and focuses on the work of Pieter Coecke van Aelst. Some of the tapestries are lavish and intricate, such as the "Seven Deadly Sins." Having never before encountered tapestries from this era, I was stunned at the workmanship and marveled at the amount of time it must have taken to weave these incredible patterns. As if on cue, the museum's curator had prepared several information panels informing viewers about the process of tapestry making, its history, and its relevance during the enaissance. Van Aelst had produced tapestries for Europe's elite, including the Medici family. This made me ponder the nature…… [Read More]