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Research Designs in Developmental Research
Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82919925
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Development Change Research Issue

Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.

An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…

Research Summary
Words: 1249 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37510181
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Halcomb, Peters, and Mclennes (2015) aims at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education. The authors have determined that clinical assignments to community facilities may offer nursing undergraduates important opportunities for learning. The research was conducted using a qualitative study design.

The research work attempts at examining pre-registration nurses' experiences in community clinic assignments as well as the effect such assignment has on their education.

Statement of Purpose

For promoting the profession of primary healthcare, comprehending pre-registration pupils' experiences within primary care contexts at the time of clinical assignment is vital.

In spite of the observable advantages such assignment have for pupils, poor supervisor-student relationships, work climates that do not foster a sense of belonging, and the absence of adequate guidance and monitoring are proven to have strong links to exacerbated anxiety and stress levels, greater pupil attrition…

Reduced treatment mistakes and patient falls, together with patient perceptions of being better informed during shift change, was witnessed by researchers. The intervention incorporated a 3-hour nursing pupil handoff practicum, 2-hour clinical staff training, and a formative student assessment and feedback in the course of clinical experiences all through the 3rd semester. The pupil practicum was integrated into clinical orientation and clinical lab experience. Best practices in bedside hand-offs were addressed as well. All through the course of the practicum, emphasis was placed on the handoff receiver's active participation in safety communication (Avallone & Weideman, 2015). Numerous favorable results were recorded with regard to combined bedside nurse shift reporting practice, with a small number of downsides. Nursing outlook towards reporting during final data acquisition proved to be more favorable as compared to their outlook at the start of program implementation. If put into proper practice, bedside nurse reporting may improve patient safety results and nurse and patient satisfaction. But it is imperative to ensure nurse involvement in practice implementation and to continually check both report format uniformity and process support on nurses' and patients' part (Jecklin-Sand & Sherman, 2014).

Avallone, M., & Weideman, Y. (2015). Evaluation of a nursing handoff educational bundle to improve nursing student handoff communications: A Pilot Study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 65 - 75.

Jecklin-Sand, K., & Sherman, J. (2014). A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 2854 - 63.

Research Assumptions Regarding Human Trafficking
Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69522906
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infused my original assumptions with greater specificity over the course of the gathering of my information. At first, I conducted a literature review of my topic (human trafficking) to establish that there is a recorded tendency that women are more likely to be trafficked than men. But after exploring the data collection process further of these research studies, I began to understand that certain factors can affect even statistical evidence, such as the fact that certain forms of trafficking may be more likely to be detected than other forms. For example, women seem to be more apt to be trafficked into the sex industry. Since all forms of prostitution are illegal in most states, this makes it easier to detect than coerced labor in the agricultural and garment industries and in domestic service (Hepburn & Simon 2010). This highlighted that there will likely always be gaps in whatever data that…

Research on the Role of Leadership in Organization Transformation
Words: 3243 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87881365
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Organizational Innovation

ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation

Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.

Similarly, empirical evidence…

References

Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.

Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.

Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.

Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.

Research on Terrorism
Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32040451
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Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking

The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…

Sources:

Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at  http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm 

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at <  http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html >

Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.

Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.

Research Approaches in Education
Words: 1763 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84885030
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Educational Leadership

Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.

Introduction

The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…

References

Brooks, J. S., & Normore, A. H. (2015). Qualitative Research and Educational Leadership: Essential Dynamics to Consider When Designing and Conducting Studies. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(7), 798-806.

Demeh, W., & Rosengren, K. (2015). The Visualization of Clinical Leadership in the Content of Nursing Education -- A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences. Nurse Education Today, 35(7), 888-893.

Kilpatrick, J. E., & McCarthy, M. H. (2015). Global Education and School Leaders' Role in Equitable Access for All Students: Synthesis of Two Qualitative Studies from Massachusetts, USA.

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Health Promotion Practice, 1524839915580941.

Research Methods
Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 72756430
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.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).

How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?

The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…

Research Methods
Words: 409 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 63348945
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nursing interventions purposed at assisting ambulatory surgical patients with the management of postoperative symptoms at home. The problem statement is easy to locate and is clearly stated. In addition, the problem statement does build a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study in the need for obtaining research data about nursing interventions.

The problem stated does have significance for nursing with respect to patient care given to patients subsequent to receiving ambulatory surgery. The research might contribute to nursing practice by outlining the proper and fitting nursing interventions needed to ensure that ambulatory surgical patients do not experience pain after the procedures.

There is a good fit between the research problem and the paradigm within which the research was conducted, in that, the research encompassed comparison between patients that received NCI intervention and those that experienced usual practice to examine the impact.

As pointed out, the research does provide…

research approach
Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74401619
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learning for you in considering these materials. What variations in research approach to your dissertation topic might be suggested by them? What encouragement, related reading, or other ideas can you suggest?

"Experience" is a term increasingly bandied about in academic circles, partially in relation to the present interest in phenomenology among social scientists. Many attempts have been made to define the term over time, from a cultural studies and social anthropology standpoint. ut, scholars usually bring up this subject without any description of what is really meant by it. Even those scholars who have, earlier, discussed this issue could not come to any consensus with regard to defining 'experience'. A focus on experience of a sensory nature raises the methodological question of how to comprehend others' experiences considering experience's complexity. It is not possible to peek into their mind or underneath their skin for thinking or feeling the way others…

Bibliography

Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: Sage Publication.

Pink, S. (2008). Research Methods for Cultural Studies: Analyzing Visual Experience. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Robson, C. (2013). Real World Research. Wiley: Washington.

Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social & Behavioral Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage

research in education qualitative quantitative
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19336558
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Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…

research design issues in education dual credit
Words: 945 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53239074
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The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Problem Statements
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…

research design and methods used in leadership
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69889618
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Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…

Questions Concerning the Study of
Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76550023
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Homeostasis is the goal promoted by both positive and negative
feedback mechanisms. This is the principle which indicates that there is a
balance in autonomic life functions which the body attempts always to
maintain. This refers to such features as body temperature, heart rate,
respiration and the powering of vital organs. When stimuli create a
divergence from this status, the body will activate a set of responses
designed to regulate a return to balance.

4. In anatomical position, how many planes can be described and what
are their names?
There are three major anatomical planes, which are used to refer to
different ways of addressing the body and its systems. The anatomical
planes include the Coronal Plane, which refers to the frontal surface of
the body from head to foot. The Sagittal Plan refers to the surface which
might be viewed from a profile, indicating a lateral perspective on the…

Divorce on Children the Research
Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38983439
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I will also solicit from individual his or her basics demographics and personal information such as rough socio-economic status ('I make approximately ($-) per month); vocational occupation; characteristics of place that respondent lives in; details of children (amount, ages, etc.) and how respondent feels program impacted his children; age children were when divorce occurred: details of support system (if any) and of extended family (if any). I will also ascertain that I am targeting individuals who have been divorced once and not remarried and that they have not introduced any other significant partner in their lives at the moment. This is so as to control for possible confounding elements. Stakeholders and participants in this sense are participants of the online / forum / chatgroup / blog environment.

Ethics

Two of the ethical precautions that I will take will include coding the respondent's genuine or pseudo online identity so that he…

References

Bowler, G.M., Jr. (2010). Netnography: A method specifically designed to study cultures and communities online. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1270-1275.

Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152

Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal
Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 90647310
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Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…

References

Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from  http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf 

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.

Future Research Agenda That Judge Et Al
Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65713662
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future research agenda that Judge, et al. (2008) present addresses their critique of personality research in organizational behavior.

According to Judge, Klinger, Simon and Yang (2008), the various criticisms directed at early organizational behavioral theories have been countered by a growing body of evidence that supports these fundamental precepts. In this regard Judge et al. report that there have been three main pieces of evidence to date that have been particularly influential:

The growth of meta-analysis allowed for cumulation of results across studies. This development was particularly important in the area of personality, given the myriad traits that had been considered over decades of scientific research.

The widespread acceptance of the five-factor model (or the 'Big Five' -- Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience) of personality provided a framework to organize the diverse set of traits. While the gains from the five-factor model have been considerable, its acceptance…

References

Chen, J-K & Chen, I-S. (2008, Fall). How can institutes of technology change successfully? A

discussion from a human resources perspective. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 3, 85-

88.

Judge, T.A., Klinger, R., Simon, L.S., & Yang, I.W.F. (2008). The contributions of personality to organizational behavior and psychology: Findings, criticisms, and future research directions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1982-2000.

Eureka Proj Question Set for
Words: 1283 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41909149
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This in turn will allow for the development of a better and more useful service.

Frequency usage rates require little background information; it is possible that some of the alternative sources/services currently in existence maintain records regarding usage frequency that they would be willing to share, and this would certainly make for an interesting comparison with the primary data collected in the research. This knowledge is not actually necessary in addressing this area of the research, however. Fee structures are a more essential piece of knowledge, as understanding current fee levels will help guide questioning and follow-ups during the interview process.

elation of Questionnaire to Desired Information

The questionnaire was designed specifically and explicitly with the identified research questions firmly in mind, and with the interrelationships between these three key areas also acknowledged and accounted for. Determining the research questions ahead of time was key in ensuring that the questions…

References

Clifton, R. & Ahmad, S. (2009). Brands and Branding. New York: Wiley.

Pragmatic Linguistic Awareness Motivation Research Study Outline
Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 73951214
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Pragmatic Linguistic Awareness Motivation

Research Study Outline on Pragmalinguistic Awareness

A helpful one-line summary of the research study, indicating the topic area and including all the key concepts to be studied.

Takahashi tested eighty Japanese students with a noticing-the-gap activity after administering a motivation questionnaire and an L2 proficiency test, finding that pragmalinguistic awareness was correlated with motivation subscales, but not with proficiency.

Link to previous research: What the author (SATOMI TAKAHASHI) had done on this topic area and what he had found; unanswered questions that your research study plans to answer.

The role of attention in pragmalinguistics was introduced in Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis, which claimed that learners have to notice L2 features in the input for subsequent development to occur in the L2. (Schmidt, 1990). Schmidt argues that noticing is central to SLA, and learners must first notice the surface structures of utterances inthe input to acquire virtually every…

Job Outing This Research Was Done to
Words: 473 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83068714
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Job Outing

This research was done to identify any relationship to job satisfaction and a recent company outing to Camp Feel Good. Essentially, the manager is doing this experiment to determine how effective Camp Feel Good attendance is on employee's attitudes.

u1= mean of employees who attended meeting and did not increase job satisfaction u0 = mean of employees who attended meeting and increased job satisfaction

u1 > u0

Null: H0: u1 / u0

Meeting attendance: This variable is discrete since it can either be yes or no, with no in between. This is a quantitative measurement and is the independent variable.

Job Satisfaction Score: This variable is continuous and is nominal. It is a qualitative variable that needs to be converted to understand its meaning. It is the dependent variable in this analysis.

Descriptive Statistics

The descriptive statistics infer some important points about the research question posed.

The first…

References

Week 3 SPSS Output. Provided by student.

National Atlas.GOV. (nd). Understanding Descriptive Statistics. Viewed 22 July 2013. Retrieved from http://nationalatlas.gov/articles/mapping/a_statistics.html

Sands Rewards Club on Venetian Macao Research
Words: 4315 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24557319
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Sands Rewards Club on Venetian Macao/

"Research & Reporting": How does the hotel membership system (Sands Rewards Club) affect the Venetian Macao Hotel itself?

How does the Hotel Membership System (Sands Rewards Club)

Affect The Venetian Macao Hotel itself?

Module Title & Code

Authors, names and Class designations

This work describes the affect of the Sands Rewards Club on the Venetian Macao Hotel through an exploration of three key themes. 1.The role of loyalty program membership on customer loyalty in the hotel industry as influenced by repetition of stays at Sands Hotels and specifically at The Venetian Macau Hotel. 2. The influence of loyalty program membership on customer purchase behavior, by comparing both member and non-member purchases. 3. The relationship between membership purchase discounts and/or privileges and purchasing behavior by comparing member and non-member purchases of a single promoted hotel package that is marketed and discounted for members. Research Question:…

Bibliography

2011, 'Hotels.com Expands Its Successful welcomerewards Loyalty Program', Hispanic PR Wire, 28 October, Regional Business News, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.

Bareham, JR 2004, "Can consumers be predicted or are they unmanageable?," International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16, 3, pp.159-165

Barsky, J 2011, 'Hotel reward programs attracting more consumers', Hotel Management (21582122), 226, 14, p. 12, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.

Berman, B 2006, 'Developing an Effective Customer Loyalty Program', California Management Review, 49, 1, pp. 123-148, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 December 2011.

Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research
Words: 4846 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 87946505
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Experimental esearch Methods in Business

Experimental esearch Methods

The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.

Introduction

The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…

References

Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.

Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899

Akron Research Politics Purpose Statement To Determine
Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62996338
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Akron Research

Politics

Purpose Statement: To determine whether or not one's political affiliation has an impact on their views regarding public policy.

Applicable Literature: The relationship between political affiliation and behavior has been studied extensively, dating back decades. Studies in the 1960s and 70s explored the impact of party affiliation on judge's decisions (Nagel, 1961), and on the war in Vietnam (Verba et al., 1967). In some of these studies, political affiliation is considered to be a demographic variable that can be measured and used to help analyze results, and this tactic has continued to be popular fifty years hence. For example, a recent study examined the impact of political affiliation on trade issues (hite, 2009). Recent literature in psychology and sociology has gone further, to study how political affiliation impacts on one's thinking process (Gerber et al., 2009; Baldassarri, 2008). This study will approach the issue again from a…

Works Cited:

Baldassari, D. & Gelman, A. (2008). Partisans without constraint: Political polarization and trends in American public opinion. Working Paper, Columbia University.

Gerber, A., Huber, G. & Washington, E. (2009). Party affiliation, partisanship, and political beliefs: A field experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 15365.

Nagel, S. (1961). Political party affiliation and judges' decisions. The American Political Science Review. Vol. 55 (4) 843-850.

Verba, S., Brody, R., Parker, E., Nie, N., Polsby, N., Ekman, P. & Black, G. (1967). Public opinion and the war in Vietnam. The American Political Science Review. Vol 61 (2) 317-333.

Role of Research in Social Work Research
Words: 2302 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72488529
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ole of esearch in Social Work

esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.

Social Worker's need to understand research

The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…

References

Allen, R., & Earl, B. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. 2nd ed., Belmont, CA:

Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Leece, J., & Leece, D. (2010). Personalization: Perceptions of the Role of Social Work in a World of Brokers and Budgets. The British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 204-223.

Regnerus Mark. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research

Loans Envisioned Research Methodology Association Loans Association
Words: 4859 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 84889499
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Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology

Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology

Envisioned research Methodology and Design

Methodologies Considered

Quantitative Methods

Correlation

Experimental Study

Qualitative Methods

Descriptive Research Methods

Interviewing

Focus Group

Mixed Method

Research Designs Considered

Convergent Design

Explanatory Sequential Design

Exploratory Sequential Design

The Embedded Design

Research Validity and Reliability

Strengths and weaknesses

Method of Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

Secondary Data Collection

Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs

Conclusion

ibliography

Introduction:

The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…

Bibliography:

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.

Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.

Formation of the Research Topic
Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48731615
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It is helpful for oth the author and the readers. The literature review must identify works that have een pulished on the topic in case y accredited scholars and researchers (Taylor, 2010). Usually, the literature review is an introduction to the research project.

The purpose of the literature review consists in introducing the readers into the knowledge and ideas referring to the selected topic for the research project in case, and to help the readers adjust to the research topic. Also, a good literature review should not only list these issues, ut also identify and explain their strengths and weaknesses in order for the readers to e ale to develop a more clear idea on the researched topic.

As mentioned aove, conducing the literature review also helps the author of the research report to develop new directions that the research process can follow. This helps the author to develop more…

bibliography is more of a summary, focusing on presenting bibliographic information referring to each source used in the research project. Also, each source is briefly described, in order to provide the readers information on the issues they can find when accessing that source.

Reference list:

1. Sridhar, M.S. (2008). Research Methodology. ISRO Satellite Center. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from  http://www.scribd.com/doc/1016595/Research-Methodology-Part-3-Research-Design-Plan .

2. Taylor, D. (2010). The Literature Review: A few Tips on Conducing it. University of Toronto. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from  http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/literature-review .

Sociological Research and Undocumented Labor
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esearch Caveat - esearch surrounding undocumented workers can often be problematic and unreliable. Primarily this is due to the nature of the subject matter -- individual on both sides of the issue are unwilling to talk because of the volaltility of the subject, language barriers, legal issues, access issues, fear of anything that even remotely feels governmental, and the validity of responses. Briefly, we can view these issues and the mitigating circumstances:

Language barriers -- Any viable research study will need to be dual language based; therefore it must be translated into the appropriate lanage and level (typically Spanish), with an emphasis on clarity, removal of hidden meanings or linguistic variations. In addition, the person or persons administering any research questionnaire would likewise need to be bilingual.

Mistrust -- Undocumented workers are often reluctant to particpate in any project that has a written component; they are mistrustful of the system,…

REFERENCES

Effects of Immigration on Natives' Earnings. (1995, December 11). Retrieved from Immigration - the Demographic and Economic Facts:  http://www.cato.org/pubs/policy_report/pr-immig.html#contents 

Difficult Moral Questions Surounding Undocumented Workers. (2006, March). Retrieved January 2011, from twotj.org:  http://www.twotlj.org/G-3-171.html 

U.S. Immigration Debate. (2007, June 28). Retrieved from BBCNews.com:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4850634.stm 

Immigration Act of 1924. (2009, December). Retrieved from United States History.com:  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1398.html

Mixing Methods Within Research Projects
Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84083495
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(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…

Bibliography

Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at:  http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf 

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at:  http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:  http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html

Gum Chewing Following Cesarean in Their Research
Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24123860
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Gum Chewing Following Cesarean

In their research article entitled "Gum-Chewing Speeds Return of First Bowel Sounds but Not First Defecation after Cesarean Section," Harma et al. (2009) explore a two-fold research question. First, they looked into the duration of postoperative ileus if gum was chewed following a cesarean section. Secondly they looked at whether there was a difference in the results when comparing patients who chewed sugar-free gum with the results of those who chewed gum with sugar substitute in it. In the experiment, 76 women were divided into three categories, the control group, the sugar-free gum group, and the group who were given sugar-substituted gum. The patients who got to chew gum did so every fifteen minutes starting two hours after their surgery. hat the researchers found was that there was no marked difference between the three groups in comparing the time it took to their first episode of…

Works Cited

Harma, M.I., Barut, I., Arkian, I.I., & Harma, M. (2009). Gum-chewing speeds return of first bowel sounds but not first defecation after cesarean section. Anatolian Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1-3.

Lafon, C., & Lawson, L. (2012, April). Gum chewing as a strategy to reduce the duration of postoperative ileus. Gastrointestinal Nursing. Mark Allen. (10:3). 18-22.

Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design
Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33133730
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gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…

References

Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:

 http://guides.temple.edu/groundedtheory 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

 http://www.jbhe.com/2012/03/the-gender-gap-in-african-american-degree-attainments/

Behavioral Research
Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68325960
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Behavioral Analysis

The main topic being studied in McIlvane's research paper, "Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions with persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities" is translational behavioral analysis. It is largely defined as a hybrid of the two conventional methods of behavioral analysis: basic and applied behavioral analysis. Its distinction between these two forms largely involves its hybridization of them, and its identification as "a subfield of behavior analysis" (McIlvane, 2009, p. 273).

There are no research questions in this paper for the simple fact that it does not contain original research and is merely the author's reflection and analysis of this particular subject. The rationale for the paper is that translational behavioral analysis is a relative newcomer to the modes of science that were previously stratified as either basic or applied behavioral analysis. As such, it is worthy of study because it can bridge the gap…

References

Baer, D.M., Wolff, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1968). "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1, 91-97.

McIlvane, W.J. (2009). Translational behavioral analysis: from laboratory science in stimulus control to interventions with persons with neurodevelopmental disabilities. The Behavior Analyst. 32, 273-280.

National Institute of Nursing Research
Words: 842 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58525861
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esearch opportunities are afforded for projects on and off the NIH campus.

Funds for training and research are provided by NIN. Fellowships enable scientists to be trained to conduct independent nursing research and to collaborate in interdisciplinary research through individual and institutional pre-doctoral, post-doctoral, and senior awards. Grants enable schools of nursing with research programs to provide full-time pre-doctoral and post-doctoral research training. NIN also provides Career Development Awards, Mentor esearch Scientist Development Awards (to promote diversity), and Career Training Awards as well as numerous other training and research opportunities both on and off the NIH campus.

The office of Extramural Activities is made up of the Office of Extramural Programs (OEP), the Office of Grants Management (OCGM), and the Office of eview (O). The OEP manages the funding activities of NIN that occur outside of NIH. The NIN OEP is organized into four sections: Neuroscience, Genetics, & Symptom Management;…

References

The NIH Almanic. (2011, October12). National institute of nursing research. U.S. department of health & human services. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from  http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NINR.htm 

National institute of nursing research. (2011). National institute of health. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from  http://www.ninr.nih.gov/ResearchAndFunding/

Attainment of a Desired Research Goal Is
Words: 1213 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21757820
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attainment of a desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward the situation, event, occurrence, or phenomenon being investigated. As such no research question can be answered by way of gathering and analyzing data if first investigative issue is not stated in testable terms or form. Once a research investigator has established and properly formatted the specific research design to be used to investigate and test a desired phenomenon attention can be given to the required method of data collection. On the basis of the method chosen the researcher will be permitted to draw the necessary conclusions from the data statistically analyzed. Should a research investigator not choose the best-fit method of data collection then any inferences drawn from the data analysis are subject to a tremendous amount of error and inaccuracy. In order to avoid data error and inaccuracy the research investigator must give particular attention to…

References

Furguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:

McGraw-Hill.

Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs.

Phytochemistry Research on Isolation Identification and Purification
Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 78785024
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Phytochemistry: Research on Isolation, Identification, and Purification of New Antimicrobial Compounds from Common and Available Herbs in the Mediterranean Area and in the UK

Since ancient times the healing powers of plants has been sought and plant derived substances "have recently become of great interest owing to their versatile applications." (Das, Tiwari, and Shrivastava, 2010, p.104) Medicinal plants have been used historically as remedies for human diseases and as such "offer a new source of biologically active chemical compound as antimicrobial agent." (Das, Tiwari, and Shrivastava, 2010, p.104) Estimates state that 14-28% of higher plant species are used medicinally and that 74$ of pharmacologically active plant derived components were discovered after following up on ethno medicinal use of the plants." (Das, Tiwari, and Shrivastava, 2010, p.104) The work of Duman et al. (2009) reports that one of the most edible of all fruits and one of the oldest known is…

Bibliography

Das, K., Tiwari, RKS, and Shrivastava, DK (2010) Techniques for Evaluation of Medicinal Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agent: Current Methods and Future Trends, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. Vol.4(2), pp.104-111. Retrieved from:  http://www.academicjournals.org/jmpr/PDF/pdf2010/18Jan/Das%20et%20al.pdf 

Duman, AD, et al. (2009) Antimicrobial Activity of Six Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. )Varieties and Their Relation to Some of Their Pomological and Phytonutrient Characteristics. Molecules 2009, 14 1808-1917. Retrieved from:  http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/5/1808/pdf

Engaging Students in Learning Through Action Research
Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52904215
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Education esearch

The problem being researched or evaluated

The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.

• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)

The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.

• ationale for the design based on the problem

The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…

References

Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.

Sagor, R (2003). How to conduct collaborative action research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Person Conducting the Research Wants to Know
Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93098277
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person conducting the research wants to know. If the answers to the research question are not answers that are valuable to the audience, then the wrong question was asked. Thus, the research question needs to be relevant, and it needs to contribute to the existing body of knowledge so that the research itself is relevant in the broader scheme of the subject (Voss, 2003). The City University of New York (n.d.) also highlights two other keys to a good research question. A good research question should be specific. If the question is too broad, it will be difficult to research or it will fail to provide value to the field. The more narrow the question, the more focused will be the research. There is a process by which a focused research question can be formed. The broad subject matter will already be known. The next step is to define an…

Works Cited:

CUNY. (no date). Formulating a research question. City University of New York. Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~pzapf/classes/CRJ70000/Formulating%20the%20research%20question.htm

eHow. (2011). How to formulate a hypothesis using the scientific method. eHow. Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/how_2052860_formulate-hypothesis-using-scientific-method.html

Voss, G. (2003). Formulating interesting research questions. Journal of the academy of marketing science. Vol. 31 (3) 356-359.

Social Science Research if Building
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97833935
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video games in the life of the student. The problem with the Likert Scale is that

Thurstone Scale

1)

I like video games.

Agree

Disagree

2)

I play video games everyday.

Agree

Disagree

3)

I play video games online

Agree

Disagree

4)

I play video games with friends online.

Agree

Disagree

5)

I play video games after school.

Agree

Disagree

6)

I play video games before doing homework.

Agree

Disagree

7)

I play video games while doing homework.

Agree

Disagree

Guttman Scale

(Based on 7 Criteria Above)

Respondent

Item 1

Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 5 Item 6

Item 7

1

2

3

4

The key to the Gutman scaling is the analysis. The table shows the respondents who Agree or Disagree, and we then use those percentages to make points about the criteria, and age vs. responsibility.

Essay Three

When conducting research with humans there are a…

Inclusion Research Daniel L G &
Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14219064
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Methods Section

This research used a quasi-experimental design for third through fifth-grade students from 12 intact classrooms. There were 207 students in the study, which eliminated the possibility of the random assignments of participants. Students were examined in three groups: 68 students were in Group 1 from four noninclusion classrooms; 34 students were in Group 2 from two clustered inclusion classrooms; and 105 students were in Group 3 from six random inclusion classrooms.

Six variables were defined: 1) parental concerns; 2) teacher and parent-reported instances of problem behaviors on the part of students; 3) the academic performance of the students; 4) and student self-reported self-esteem. The researchers used three standardized instruments to measure the variables of interest, these being the CBCL, SEI, and SAT (mathematics, reading, spelling, and language subscales. The researchers also used their own parent concern questionnaire. The researchers explain each of the tests and what each measures…

Hermeneutic or Phenomenological Research Hermeneutic and Phenomenological
Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 29142081
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Hermeneutic or Phenomenological esearch

Hermeneutic and phenomenological research is qualitative measurement analysis tools. They focus on the understanding and interpretation and execution of theory. Both are becoming more and more popular with contemporary research methodologies (Fuchs 1993). Together, they embody the studying of social phenomenon external to the manipulation of the research. They aim to understand how we construct and gain knowledge from the external world around us. Thus, hermeneutic research "is interpretive and concentrated on historical meanings of experience and their development and cumulative effects on individual and social levels," (Laverty 2003 p 15). Phenomenological research is additionally very descriptive and thus examines the foundational structure of experience as a way of gaining knowledge (Fuchs 1993). One study, conducted by Ajjawi & Higgs (2007) embodies these elements within its methodological structure.

The study contains particular elements adhering to ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions. Ontology focuses on the categories of…

References

Ajjawi, Rola & Higgs, Joy. (2007). Using hermeneutic phenomenology to investigate how experienced practitioners learn to communicate clinical reasoning. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 612-638.

Fuchs, Stephan. (1993). Three sociological epistemologies. Sociological Perspectives, 36(1), 23-44.

Laverty, Susann M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(3), 1-29. Web.  http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/2_3final/pdf/laverty.pdf

Standard This Research Was Permitted by the
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standard?

This research was permitted by the Human ights Committee, the institutional assessment board of the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. There was conduction of a chart evaluation of three thousand a seven health administration visits to the Children's Hospital during a constant three-month period, from December 1, 2001, to February 28, 2002. The Patient visits were not included when the child's age was less than three months or when the visit was afterward recognized as a follow-up. If the patient had more than one health supervision visit during the selected period of study, his second visit was not included in the analysis. Four hundred and ninety two visits were not included on the foundation of these criteria .this left 2515 visits that were used for analysis.

As one goes through the essay, he will totally be perplexed by it. Presented in clear, simple and grammatically correct English, it should be…

References

Barlow SE, Dietz WH (1998). Obesity evaluation and treatment: expert committee recommendations. Pediatrics.1998; 102(3) . Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/102/3/e29

Houser, J (2007)Nursing Research Reading, Using, and Creating Evidence

Medical Dictionary (2009) 'Sampling Bias' Retrieved on September 23, 2009

Marcellus, L (2004) Are We Missing Anything? Pursuing Research on Attrition .

Nurse Research Evidence-Based Nursing Develop
Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1954230
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For example, although many nurses were taught to place infants in the prone sleeping position to prevent aspiration, there is now persuasive evidence that supine (back) sleeping position decreases the risk for sudden infant death syndrome." (p. 28)

This also implicates the practice dimensions of nursing. According to the primary text, evidence-based practice is particularly important as a way to dissuade against poorly informed or assumption-driven decision-making. here non-evidence-based practice is in place, the risk is higher that error or unwanted health consequences may result from treatment approaches. By contrast, the use of evidence-base practice provides the nurse with a set of empirically formed guidelines on how to approach each patient. Instinct such as that often relied upon so heavily in non-evidence-based practice, should be integrated with the understanding afforded by comprehensive research. Only then can the practicing nurse apply practical treatment decisions without falling into otherwise discredited customs or…

Works Cited:

Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice, (8th ed.).

Sigma This Chapter Presents Research
Words: 2353 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Methodology Chapter Paper #: 1043953
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Unlike primary data that are time-consuming, the secondary data is less time consuming, and a research could collect secondary data to answer the research questions as well as achieving research objectives. Boslaug (2007) argues that the economy is the major advantage of secondary data. Since data have already been collected by another researcher, a researcher does not need to devote his/her resources to collect the data. More importantly, the saving of time is another major advantage of secondary data. Since the data has already been collected and analyzed, the research only needs to collect the data for his or her research study. Boslaug (2007) further points out that secondary data are characterized with the informed expertise, which may not be available with primary data.

Despite the advantages that this research derives from secondary data, there are still disadvantages associated with secondary data. The secondary data may not be suitable to…

References

Borlaug, S. (2007). Secondary Data Sources for Public Health: A Practical Guide.

Cambridge University Press.UK.

Hox, J.J. & Boeije, H.R. (2010). Data Collection Primary vs. Secondary. Utrecht University. The Nethertland.

Morrell, K. (2010). Quantitative Data Basic Introduction. USA.

Measures Wanted Assess Missing Research - Research
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measures wanted assess? Missing research - research? Avoid critical questions elements made argument clear? Elements research extremely poignant offered validity claims? Claims broad research size? Claims understated? Limitations research? leap erroneous conclusions opinion - addressed concerns claims? researchers biased-based study, funders, connections, specialities? research questions research bring merit research investigation? reasons claims made?

DeJong, Gerben, Ching-Hui Hsieh, Koen Putman, andall J. Smout, Susan D. Horn, & Wenqiang Tian. (2010). Physical therapy activities in stroke, knee arthroplasty, and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Their variation, similarities, and association with functional outcomes. Physical Therapy, 91(12) 1826-1837.

Physical therapy is prescribed for a variety of conditions, spanning from knee surgery to traumatic brain injury. However, although the patient populations subjected to PT may vary, there is a certain uniformity of treatment prescription and goals of outcome. According to DeJong (et al., 2010) "certain rehabilitation principles" are thought to "generalize across populations. For example, we…

Reference

DeJong, Gerben, Ching-Hui Hsieh, Koen Putman, Randall J. Smout, Susan D. Horn, & Wenqiang Tian. (2010). Physical therapy activities in stroke, knee arthroplasty, and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Their variation, similarities, and association with functional outcomes. Physical Therapy, 91(12) 1826-1837.

Ethical Aspects in Research Studies the Essential
Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94884429
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Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies

The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…

References

Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.

Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.

Business Proposal for Research to Assess How
Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26333552
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Business

Proposal for esearch to Assess How Optimum May Improve their Market Position

Background to the Firm

The Product

Current problem

In a dynamic commercial environment it is necessary for firms to continually look for ways in which to improve, the aim of this paper is to look at Optimum, and outline an approach for research which will help the firm to identify the way in which it may improve performance and remain competitive. To undertake this, the first stage is to look at the firm and assess its products, current position and nay problems or challenges it faces. Using the problems or challenges an area of research may be identified, with the creation of a purpose statement and assessment of the way research may take place to resolve or minimize those problems.

2.

Background to the Firm

Optimum is a firm operating in the New York tri state area,…

References

Cablevision, (2012), 10k, [online]  http://www.cablevision.com/investor/sec.jsp  accessed 16th Aug 2013

Optimum, (2013), Home Page, [online] www.optimum.com accessed 16th Aug 2013

Nursing Research Critique Provision of Acute Nursing
Words: 821 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 70560215
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Nursing esearch Critique

Provision of acute nursing care is impacted by complex needs of hospitalized patients suffering from dementia. Despite of the gains that have been made in the realms of medical care, older adults have had to contend with progressive cognitive decline, functional decline, and challenging behaviors that impact the quality of their lives. Quality of life of patients suffering from dementia is further eroded by suboptimal healthcare. Elderly patients suffering from dementia are at risk group because the healthcare providers lack understanding of the etiology of the cognitive impairment and misrepresentation of the condition (Joosse, Palmer & Lang, 2013).

The purpose for carrying out the research is explicitly stated. The research seeks to address the challenges in providing care to hospitalized patients suffering dementia and delirium superimposed on dementia. The research also seeks to outline nursing assessments, problem identification, and interventions for dementia and delirium that can promote…

References List

Joosse, L.L., Palmer, D. & Lang, N.M. (2013). Caring for the Elderly Patients with Dementia:

Nursing Interventions. Nursing: Nursing Research Reviews, 3, 107-117.

Simulation the Research Sought the Identification of
Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 49763797
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Simulation

The research sought the identification of whether HPS would be used independently as a predictor of knowledge gains of heart failure in prelicensure nursing students.

The relevant variables in the research question include knowledge gains with HPS

Increase of clinical knowledge with the use of HPS.

HPS as an independent predictor of knowledge gains

The identification of whether HPS or other factors induce knowledge gains objectively could be used by the faculty for the maximization of those variables so as to optimize the learning experience stimulation.

Self-efficacy a factor linked to increased knowledge and consequently increased in HPS.

This is an individual's degree in confidence when they are preforming a desired skill or action.

The research shows that gains in self-efficacy were found in HPS however there are no links to gains in knowledge

HPS has also not been thoroughly investigated as being a predictor for great gains in…

Reference

Shinick M., Mary W. & Lorraine W., (2012). Predictors of Knowledge Gains Using Simulation in the Education OF Prelicensure Nursing Students. Simulations in the Education of Prelicensure Nursing Students 42 Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 28, No. 1.

Freuds Work and Researches Which Clearly Indicate
Words: 2333 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 12850810
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Freuds work and researches which clearly indicate that they were developed through researches involving case studies. In a case study every aspect of the subject is researched and analyzed so that obvious and notable patterns and behaviors can be identified so that particular causes for behaviors and psychology in some cases can be identified. The main purpose is to learn what can be learned from one subject and some basic points in this way can be generalized and applied to others as well (Yin. 1984). However case studies happen to be very subjective since they are mostly based on one area of focus, so it makes there points or even them very hard to generalize and apply their results to a larger proportion of subjects.

Types of Case Studies

Explanatory: These types of case studies are used for investigations which are casual in nature.

Exploratory: these types of case studies…

References

Powell, R.R. (1985). Basic research methods for librarians. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Simons, H. (1980). Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation. Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education.

Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Swisher, R., & McClure, C.R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association.

Ruba Research Critique on Empathy and Social
Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99012892
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uba

esearch Critique on "Empathy and social support for the terminally ill: Implications for recruiting and retaining hospice and hospital volunteers"

This particular research focuses on the relationship between empathy and social support as essential variables for the effectiveness of hospice and hospital volunteers. This paper will provide a critical summary and analysis of the research conducted by Nichole Egbert and oxanne Parrott, proponents of this Communication Studies research. The format of this critique will first discuss the nature of each research step/method taken by the researchers, and after the summary, an analysis and critique of the paper will then be conducted.

The first part of the paper that will be studied includes the determination of the research problem, identification of related literature used in the study, and the analysis of theoretical, conceptual, and operational or hypothetical framework of the study. As was stated earlier, the research aims to determine…

References

Babbie, E. (1979). The Practice of Social Research (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc.

Egbert, N. And R. Parrott. "Empathy and social support for the terminally ill: Implication for recruiting and retaining hospice and hospital volunteers." Spring 2003. (Attached document).

Sullivan, T.O., Hartley, J., & Fiske, J. et al. (1994). Key Concepts in Communication and Cultural Studies. (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Education Research it Appears That the School
Words: 1001 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27918772
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Education esearch

It appears that the school systems are failing here in America. Every year test score trend downward as a continual new stream of information floods into the public consciousness. More schooling and more intensive schooling efforts have shown little if any progress in recent decades and before any more money or energy is thrown at these problems indiscriminately, a tactical pause to contemplate the situation seems in order.

New problems arise everyday in the schooling system as the complexity of the world increases seemingly exponentially. The purpose of this research is to take a view point that steps back at the situation and looks at general trends and questions the very purposes of compulsory school. To do this properly it is necessary to take an unbiased and objective reexamination of the efficacy of public schooling.

By all measurable standards of decency, it appears American society is in some…

References

Boli, J., Ramirez, F.O., & Meyer, J.W. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative education review, 29(2), 145-170.

Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.L., Hanson, M.A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of educational psychology, 104(2), 407.

Rothstein, R. (1993). The myth of public school failure. The American Prospect, 4(13), 20-34.

Criminological Research Surpasses the Mere Act of
Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59205292
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criminological research surpasses the mere act of searching and viewing material on a topic and writing an expressive paper. Before research is conducted, it is important to fully grasp and comprehend what it is that needs to be research, why it would be researched, why if it at all it has been researched, and how it may be performed. Types of research that can be performed are basic, multipurpose, or applied. The purpose for research is usually to gain information or knowledge. This information might be predictive, explanatory, intervening, or descriptive in nature.

All research follows basic steps. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. Fitzgerald, Cox, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p. 124). Different methods of inquiry help gather the data for the research. easoning, causal (observation), deduction, induction, and the…

References

Fitzgerald, J.D., Cox, S.M., & Fitzgerald, J.D. (2002). Research methods and statistics in criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.

Graziano, A.M., & Raulin, M.L. (2013). Research methods: A process of inquiry. Boston, Mass: Pearson.

Interesting Questions on Edmund Twyford
Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29137689
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Old English Baron is a novel that was written by Clara Reeve in 1777 and first published in 1778 as a re-write of The Castle of Otranto. This book consists of several characters with one of the main characters being Sir Philip Harclay who had a life-long friendship with Lord Novel. One of the most interesting characters in this book is Edmund Twyford who is not only a close friend to the son of old English baron, but can also do anything better as shown in this novel. Edmund is an interesting character in this book because of his personality, courage, and efforts in disproving the stories of the ghosts. Actually, Edmund's better personality makes some of his family members to become jealous of him to an extent that they start to plot against him. Interestingly, everything that is planned against him seems to backfire and make him an even…

HR Research Requirements There Are
Words: 1043 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30740063
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Without adapting both instruments and the analyses of responses based on some level of assessment of the cultural values and interpretations, results (especially from qualitative research instruments such as the proposed questionnaires and interviews that will be most effective in this research) are likely to be less accurate and are certain to be less meaningful to the organization in question (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006). Taking into account cultural diversity as well as other types of personal values and beliefs that might affect results is necessary to ensure that the information collected is reliable and remains meaningful through interpretation (Stahl & Bjorkman 2006).

There are also other more mundane factors that must be controlled in order to ensure that adequate amounts of reliable information are gathered in the research process. Proper foresight and knowledge regarding statistical techniques and demands during the gathering of data is necessary, such that reliable conclusions can…

References

Bharracharyya, D. (2007). Human resource research methods. New York: Oxford University Press.

HR Guide. (2001). Job analysis. Accessed 31 January 2011.  http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G012.htm 

Stahl, G. & Bjorkman, I. (2006). Handbook of research in international human resource management. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Psychology - Research Techniques in
Words: 386 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 33939375
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Article 2 - eens Who Watched Wrestling More Violent:

he research method used in the referenced study was primarily survey/interview and correlation. he researchers collected their data by surveying and interviewing teenagers. he researchers then correlated the data to the research question and formed conclusions based on the apparent correlation between exposure to a specific form of televised violence and the incidence of actual violence among those teenagers

he following passage provides this information:

team led by Robert H. DuRant, a professor of pediatrics, social science and health policy at Wake Forest's Baptist Medical Center, surveyed about 2,000 students in Winston-Salem and Forsyth County public high schools in the fall of 1999 and again in April 2000."

he article strongly suggests that exposure to violence on television (in the form of professional wrestling) is a contributing factor to violence among teens, which may be true. However, the research cited is…

The following passage provides this information:

team led by Robert H. DuRant, a professor of pediatrics, social science and health policy at Wake Forest's Baptist Medical Center, surveyed about 2,000 students in Winston-Salem and Forsyth County public high schools in the fall of 1999 and again in April 2000."

The article strongly suggests that exposure to violence on television (in the form of professional wrestling) is a contributing factor to violence among teens, which may be true. However, the research cited is incapable of distinguishing cause and effect, because it may be that teens already inclined to violence are simply more interested in violent television content and other forms of entertainment.