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Rheumatoid Arthritis: Risks/enefits of Latest Treatments
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a form of arthritis characterized by swelling and tenderness which recent studies have revealed that approximately 1% of grownups suffer from. A common symptom of this disease is symmetric polyarticular inflammation of the synovium, typically of the small joints of the hands (MCP and PIP), wrists and feet. This swelling causes discomfort and difficulty of movement and could result into gradual joint injury characterized by misshapenness and disability. The major compound used in treating this rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is methotrexate. This compound has been used for over 40 years in treating various types of rheumatoid ailments and is still one of the most effective treatment methods for RA. Its combination with modern treatments which tackle the disorders in the immune system, conditions termed as biological DMARDs, have transformed the method of treating RA. This review will give a brief and…… [Read More]
The population that I have selected is females, specifically adult females. The health condition that I have selected is arthritis. Arthritis is an issue that often afflicts older adults. It is a joint disorder that is the inflammation of joints, which can cause pain and can also be debilitating. There are different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. The reason for studying females in particular is to determine if there are different factors that affect the rates at which women develop arthritis vs. The rates at which men do. If there are factors specific to females, that can help both in the prevention and the treatment of the condition.
A few different determinants of arthritis have been determined. One is obesity. A study found that obese individuals had three times the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis than normal weight individuals (Pedersen et al., 2006).…… [Read More]
Overview of a Recently Approved Drug by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration
The exhaustive and lengthy approval process used by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) means that when new drugs are released, they are considered sufficiently safe for use by humans as directed by physicians. This approval process, though, also means that just a relatively few new drugs are approved each year, including Kevzara used to treat adult rheumatoid arthritis approved for release on May 22, 2017 (Novel drug approvals, 2017). Given the rapid increase in the elderly demographic in the U.S. in recent years that is projected to continue well into the 21st century (Poterba, 2016), novel treatments for adult rheumatoid arthritis represent important and timely advances in drug therapy. This paper provides a description of Kevazara, including its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties as well as an overview of the rheumatoid arthritis disease state for which…… [Read More]
The drug that is chosen for this paper is Rituxan (Rituximab), which is prescribed for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Rheumatoid arthritis; and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Rituxan.com). This is a drug that comes with stern warnings of dangerous reactions, including serious infections, heart problems, kidney problems, stomach and serious bowel problems, and some side effects "can lead to death" (Rituxan.com).
Under the heading "prescribing directions," the drug company offers "Clinical Pharmacology" -- "Mechanism of Action," "Pharmacodyamics," and Pharmacokinetics"
In patients suffering with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), tests revealed that when NHL patients were administered Rituxan there was a depletion of "tissue-based B cells." The first study (using 166 patients) showed that "circulating CD 19-positive B cells were depleted" in the first three weeks of the test. And the depletion of B cells continued for 6 to 9 months after the treatment. As to B-cell recovery, 83% of…… [Read More]
Arthritis is considered as one of the major health conditions affecting a significant portion of the United States population. Even though the condition currently affects approximately 50 million adults in the country, it is not primarily an adulthood health condition. There are numerous cases of children suffering from arthritis, which implies that this condition is not uncommon among children. As a result of the prevalence of arthritis among children and adults, understanding the pathophysiology and symptoms of this condition has emerged as an important component in proper diagnosis and treatment. This paper examines the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to the similarities and differences between the two conditions. The analysis includes a selection of two patient factors that could impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis is an umbrella term that refers to different conditions involving inflammation of…… [Read More]
Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis
THERAPIES/TREATENTS TO HELP THE IUNE SYSTE OF An 18-55 PATIENT DIAGNOSED WITH RHEUATOID ARTHRITIS
Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.
Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…… [Read More]
Arthritic conditions found within the joints of the body: their causes, treatment, current research, and what effect they have on athletic participation.
Types of Arthritis
Causes of Arthritis
Arthritis and Athletic Activities
Arthritis is said to be the number one cause of disability in the United States, with more individuals disabled with arthritis than by both heart disease and strokes (Lewis 2000).
Arthritis is also a disease that is plagued with misunderstanding. The Center for Disease Control warns that it is these misunderstandings that result in the disease doing so much harm (Lewis 2000).
Some of the common misunderstandings involve recognizing that there are different types of arthritis and that arthritis is not only a disease of the aged. Arthritis is also often not taken seriously enough in its early stages, preventing individuals from seeking medical help that could…… [Read More]
Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Neuroplasticity reflects the brain's ability to transform itself. This is an important concept, because it means that the brain is constantly changing, in that there is no constant self. The brain can thus be "re-wired," as a consequence of this neuroplasticity. When considering the brain and its role in our health, this is important because as the brain regenerates, we have the opportunity to change it. We do not need to be who we were, for example. Some of this is fairly common sense -- new experiences can change us -- but neuroscience has allowed this to be proven, that our brains are not set entities but can be transformed. Even more important is the finding that we can change our own brains over time with training (Draganski, et al., 2004).
Stress is one of the major influences on the…… [Read More]
Chen, X., Huang, R., Huang, Q., Chu, Y., and Yao, J. (2015). Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of ZhengqingFengtongning Combined with Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2015.
By definition, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a protracted general inflammatory ailment, categorized by infammation of the synovial soft tissue and mutilation to articular tendons and bone, which in turn brings about extreme incapacity, practical deterioration, and enhanced death. This ailment is the most prevalent one with rheumatism having a pervasiveness of about one percent in North America and Europe, while that of Southeast Asia is lower to some extent as it has about 0.3%. The disease is an area of major concern as it is estimated that at the present moment, about five million individuals suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. This in turn has come to be both a social and economic…… [Read More]
Doctors should be consulted on their effectiveness and safety (NIAMSD).
In the meantime, a person with fibromyalgia can help himself or herself feel better besides taking medicines (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders 2004). He can try to get enough sleep of the right kind to ease or lessen the pain and fatigue. Although pain and fatigue may make exercise and daily activities difficult, the person should be as physically active as possible. Studies show that regular exercise is, in fact, among the most effective treatments of the condition. A patient can try walking or doing mild exercise slowly and according to the severity of his condition. He can or should also make adjustments at work, such as reducing his working hours or change to a less strenuous type of work, change some things in his work space. His diet also deserves a second look. Some persons…… [Read More]
Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?
Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.
When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…… [Read More]
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…… [Read More]
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]
Muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis are complicated conditions. According to the research, muscular dystrophy is a "group of familial disorders that cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Many researchers believe that the different types are each caused by different biochemical defects. For example, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is thought t be the result of a single gene defect "thought to be caused by a deletion of a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Similarly, Becker Muscular Dystrophy is also caused by deformities in the X-link. Different types of dystrophy affect different muscle groups. There is the example of scapuloperneal Muscular Dystrophy, which affects the facial and shoulder muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular condition, caused by abnormal transmission of nerve impulses to the affected muscle groups. Normal communication is interrupted, where antibodies disrupt the flow of acetylcholine between nerves and muscles. It is also…… [Read More]
When using open reduction of dorsal displaced fractures of the radius to restore congruency and extra-articular anatomy, the authors recommended the use of their double-plating method. This method is reliable in providing stable internal fixation and in allowing early function. It is, however, and as earlier mentioned, a demanding technique, as ot requires careful; attention to detail.
Carter, P.. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of one and Joint Surgery: ritish Editorial Society of one and Joint Surgery, September 2000
Only one surgeon performed all the operations on a total of 37 patients for pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and decreased rotation of the forearm. The authors reported that most of the tested patients were better after the operation, although a significant number had some pain. Relief from pain could not be guaranteed and that residual pain associated…… [Read More]
Cannabis contains more than one hundred and twenty distinct chemical compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. One of those canabinoids is cannabidol, commonly abbreviated and referred to as CBD. While CBD has no psychoactive properties, it may be beneficial for treating specific medical conditions including chronic pain. CBD can be used orally or topically. In its topical form, CBD is typically added to a carrier oil. Topical applications of CBD oils include the management of pain due to arthritis and inflammation. Research continues to mount suggesting the additional benefits of oral administration of CBD to treat epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and anxiety. Because CBD does not produce known side effects, euphoric or otherwise, it has also garnered attention for its relative safety especially vis-a-vis its sister compounds found in cannabis. CBD also presents tremendous opportunities for market-related growth in the budding international cannabis industry.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]
According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).
Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…… [Read More]
Ankylosing Spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that attacks young males. It may lead to the fusion of the spine (Sarker, 2016). The fusion can result in the spin being rigid thereby making the patient develop a hunched back. Subsequently, the patient may have breathing problems because of the posture. Other inflammatory signs may show up in other parts of the body such as the eyes (Sieper & Braun, 2010).
Etiology and Incidences
Ankylosing's etiology is still unknown but there are pointers to a genetic risk and component. esearchers have highlighted the association it has with the HLA B27 gene. They have proposed ineffective mechanisms but they are seen to be less apparent as is the case with reactive arthritis.
The prevalence of Ankylosing spondylitis in the general population is low (0.1% to 1.4%). It is more prevalent among Caucasians than in members of other races. Those suffering from chronic…… [Read More]
Injustice in the society
he tenacity of Bill's hypothesis of workplace toxins takes a clear significance when it comes to other experiences which together form the narrative reconstruction of the illness genesis that carries a political image of the social world. When it comes to both the illness and the response to it there is the suggestion that there is a world power inequality. Lot of Bill's account highlights some injustices and the world was portrayed as an environment where ordinary people were exploited manipulated and conned by some social powers including doctors, police or bureaucrats.
Reconstruction of social psychology
Bill's reconstruction left out references of his identity as he did not portray any sense of his self-identity. He did not bring out any sense of personal responsibility or any socio-psychological involvement when it comes to the development of his affliction. Social relations are a place where social identity can…… [Read More]
hat is a rheumatologist? It is a person who is board-certified (either as an internist or a pediatrician) and has the training and experience " ... in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones" (www.hss.edu). The training to become a rheumatologist is rigorous and lengthy.
The diseases of the joints -- and various kinds of arthritis-related health issues that rheumatologist's treat, include: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, antiphospholipid syndrome, scleroderma, musculoskeletal pain disorders, osteoporosis, gout, back pain, myositis, fibromyalgia, tendonitis, and vasculitis (www.hss.edu).
hat kind of training is required to become a rheumatologist? It includes four years of medical school, three years of additional training in pediatrics or medicine; and in addition, to become a rheumatologist, another two-to-three years (on top of the original seven years) of specialized rheumatology training is required (www.hss.edu). Once all that…… [Read More]
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]
The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).
All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]
The majority of communities in Alaska are separated by vast distances and the distance from many communities to the nearest medical facility is equivalent to the distance from New York to Chicago (Indian Health Service Alaska Area Services, 2011).
A study funded by AOA examined issues affecting access to home- and community-based long-term-care services among AI/ANS. Study results indicated that home healthcare was one of the most frequently needed services among AI/ANS. Further, 88% of the services sometimes, rarely, or never met the need, and 36% of services were rarely to never available (Jervis, Jackson & Manson, 2002). Only twelve tribally operated nursing homes exist in the U.S., and these rely predominantly on funding from Medicaid and tribal subsidies. Many tribes would like to have nursing homes but are blocked by state certificate-of-need requirements, Medicaid licensing requirements, and lack of commercial financing. The lack of alternate medical resources, whether private…… [Read More]
The Etiology, Incidence and Treatment of heumatic Fever Today
Like many diseases such as smallpox and polio, Zamula (1987) reports that until fairly recently, rheumatic fever was described by most public health officials as being a vanishing disease. "After World War II," Patlak (1991) reports, "the number of cases of rheumatic fever dramatically declined until, during the 20 years between 1965 and 1985 alone, the yearly number of cases of rheumatic fever among school-age children dropped by more than 90%" (p. 24). At the time, clinicians assumed that less crowded living conditions and the use of antibiotics were controlling the disease and some physicians called rheumatic fever a "vanishing disease in suburbia" (Patlak, p. 24). As a result, the children's hospitals that were previously dedicated to the care of rheumatic fever sufferers closed because of a lack of patients and disease registries that had been rigorously maintained by…… [Read More]
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…… [Read More]
Universal and Development Self-equisites in the Context Of a Nursing Practice Scenario
Orem's Theory of Self-Care
Self-care is the key concept in Orem's nursing model (1991). It is defined as the practice of activities that maturing and mature persons initiate and perform, within time frames, on their own behalf in the interests of maintaining life, healthful functioning, continuing personal development, and well-being A self-care deficit occurs when an individual is unable to engage in self-care Orem's self-care model has, throughout the years, provided the basis for training and support programs for groups of patients with both chronic and acute diseases, e g diabetic patients (Allison 1973, Fitzgerald 1980), employees with rheumatoid arthritis (Dear & Keen 1982), renal transplant patients (Hoffart 1982), stroke patients (Anna et al. 1978, Faucett et al. 1990), bone marrow transplant patients (Mack 1992) and patients with cancer (Dodd & Dibble 1993).
The universal self-care requisites are…… [Read More]
dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.
According to usan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.
Thus, water is unspeakably…… [Read More]
The data gathered is subjected to statistical analysis using statistical methods of linear regression and chi square testing.
The main purpose of the study was to confirm the hypothesis that consultation with CNS or RN in a drug-monitoring clinic has a significant positive impact on the well being of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study involved a single blinded randomized controlled trial over a period of three years. Subjects were chosen from the rheumatology out patient setting in a district general hospital with a drug monitoring service. A total of 71 subjects who were starting out on anti-rheumatic therapy were randomly assigned to either the interventional or the control group. While the interventional group was supervised by the CNS to assess patient needs (using Pendelton's framework) alongside drug safety evaluation, the control group was seen by an outpatient staff nurse purely for drug safety concerns. oth the groups were assessed…… [Read More]
The first component is as follows: Net Margin = Net Income/Sales. How much profit Abbott laboratories makes for very $1.00 it generates in revenue, and the higher a company's profit margin the better. The second component is as follows: Asset Turnover = Sales/Total Assets. The amount of sales generated for every dollar's worth of assets. This measures Abbott's efficiency at using assets, and again, the higher the number the better. The final factor of the Du Pont analysis is as follows: Leverage Factor = Total Assets/Shareholder's Equity. The higher the number, the more debt the company has. Abbott's Du Pont analysis is computed using the following equation:
In this case, for the end of 2006, Abbott Laboratories reported a net income of $717 million dollars, sales of $22,476 million, total assets for 2006 of $36, 178 million, and equity of $14,054 for 2006. Placing these figures into the equation above…… [Read More]
One of the functions of the lymphatic system is to be the body's "sewer system," drawing toxins from the cells and dumping them into the blood. The heart powers the blood system. Body movement powers the lymphatic system. Therefore, metabolic waste products cannot be completely cleared unless you are physically active. A second important reason for exercise is perspiration. The skin is a major outlet for waste products; when you perspire, you are disposing of waste products through the skin. A third benefit of an active lifestyle is to retain muscle mass. Muscle cells are where fat is burned. T he more muscle cells a person has and the stronger he/she is, the more fat he/she burns (http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1,2004).
With all facts and figures presented, it can be realized that in order to somewhat prevent more the entire America from burden of obesity thus preventing the American people from…… [Read More]
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…… [Read More]
Generics, Biologics, and Biosimilars
Properties of Generic Drugs, Biologics, and Biosimilars, with Examples and Usage
Generic drugs denote pharmaceutical products that are typically meant to be substituted with some innovator product manufactured with no license from innovator, and sold in the markets after exclusive rights (such as patents) expire (WHO, 2016). Some of the properties of these drugs include;
Generic drugs are usually sold at prices considerably lower than branded price; and They are bioequivalent or identical to branded drugs in their strength, form, dosage, safety, quality, administration route, intended use, and performance characteristics.
Some generic medicine examples, together with their usage:
Paracetamol: this is the chemical constituent of numerous branded painkillers; it is, however, marketed as generic medicine, too, and utilized for pain alleviation.
Ibuprofen: his is employed for reducing fever and treating inflammation (swelling/irritation) or pain resulting from a number of conditions, including headache, back ache,…… [Read More]
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]
Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).
Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…… [Read More]
Another caution that exists for people suffering from lupus is to exercise caution before and after receiving dental treatment. Lupus patients could develop serious heart infections from the streptococci that might be released into their bloodstream during routine dental procedures, even bi-annual teeth cleanings (Blau and Schultz, 174). The infection can travel to the heart when the patient has certain other manifestations of lupus, and, if the patient has developed a condition called verrucous endocarditis, then it can be deadly if the streptococci infect the heart (Blau and Schultz, 174). Therefore it is strongly recommended that prior to and following dental procedures and cleanings that lupus patients receive antiobiotics that can help them to be prepared to defend their body against the streptococci (Blau and Schultz, 174-175).
The antibiotic -- usually amoxicillin, or another member of the penicillin family, or erythromycin in cases of penicillin allergy -- is taken an…… [Read More]
These studies demonstrate that there are several factors associated with patient noncompliance, regardless of the disease being treated. Medication side effects represent only one of these issues. Nurse practitioners could help to resolve many of these issues by being proactive and asking questions about side effects in patients at risk for becoming noncompliant. They may also be able to predict noncompliance in patients that are prescribed medications with known side effects. By informing the patient of the side effects and giving them practical ways to cope with them, the nurse practitioner can play an active role in helping to eliminate patient noncompliance.
Education was found to play an important role in patient noncompliance. The overall educational level of the patient was found to be important. The nurse practitioner can take positive action by being aware of the patient's overall educational background. Extra care must be taken with those of low…… [Read More]
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]
Hillary Clinton proposes that every American should be required have coverage, as most health care analysts agree that mandated coverage is necessary, so that the care and contribution of the healthy can effectively balance out the care of the sick. Obama would not require individuals to have coverage, merely require all children to have health insurance, and require employers to offer employee health benefits or contribute to the cost of the new public program. McCain, much in the tradition of Bush before him, says that he would provide tax credits to individuals to buy insurance ("2008 Candidates Health Care Proposals: A side-by-side summary," Health08.org, 2008).
The McCain proposal would do little to eliminate high co-pays, however. One of the arguments for co-pays is that it discourages the overconsumption of medical care, the so called moral hazard aversion: "twenty-dollar co-payment for a visit to the doctor, or when your plan includes…… [Read More]
And one cannot stop wondering: in a world where there are enough dangers among which drugs, murders etc., do we really want our children to become addicted to some product even from infancy? In a world where there are other addictive factors such as TV, computer games, fast-food, and which, combined, produce illnesses (both physical and psychical) are we to let our children drink coca cola? Are we to add another product to the list of things which tend to destroy our children health?
Adams, Mike. "The unauthorized history of Coca-Cola (satire)." January 14, 2005. NewsTarget.com. June 2007. http://www.newstarget.com/003228.html
LaBudde, obert. "Is Coke really bad for you, if so what are the ingredients that make it?" Mar 6, 2001. MadSci Library. June 2007 http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/feb2001/983940377.Ot.r.html
Leland, Elizabeth. "Addicted to Coke." Sep. 28, 2003. Charlotte.com. June 2007. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/DietCokeAddict.htm
Madison, Josh. "Coke Experiment." 14 December 2003. Joshmadison.com. June 2007. http://joshmadison.com/misc/projects/coke_nail/
Martini, Betty.…… [Read More]
Specifically focused on products for each phase of a persons' life, this business segment is the most mainstream in terms of promotional strategies. Skin Care, OTC and Nutritionals have successfully given JNJ a permanent marketing strategy for selling to women in the 25-34 and 25-45 segments, two of the fastest growing demographic markets for these products.
The biggest challenge for JNJ is the ability to quickly develop and launch products across all of their business units. This is the most challenging task internally for the entire company to coordinate on, specifically in the area of pharmaceuticals where Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and the need for compliance are very high.
The costs of producing a new drug can be well over $800M according to AM esearch (2004). An analysis of each phase of the development of a new drug is shown in the following graphic from PhMA (2005).…… [Read More]
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]
Abbott Laboratories is also a major supplier of hand-held point-of-care diagnostics and blood glucose monitoring devices that enable health care professionals and patients manage a wide range of disorders (Abbot.com, 2011).
Current Challenges and Problems
On May 26, 2011, the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute terminated a clinical trial of Abbot Laboratories' cholesterol drug Niaspan a full year and a half earlier than scheduled (Loftus, 2011). That decision was based on specific concerns over data indicating that Niaspan failed to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes in connection with its combination with statin drugs. That study also suggested that Niaspan could be a potential factor in the unexplained increase in ischemic-stroke rates among study participants. Last year, Abbott generated Niaspan sales totaling $927 million and had projected sales in excess of $1 billion this year. According to industry analysts, the early cessation of the government study…… [Read More]
SWOT Analysis: BRISTOL MYERS SQUIBB
Bristol Myers Sqibb SWOT:Weaknesses and an analysis of their accounting policies
Bristol-Myers Squibb was formed after the merger between Bristol Myers and Squibb Pharmaceuticals. The merger took place in 1989, this merger created the second largest drug company in the world. The company headquarters are in New York City and has a workforce of over 35,000 employees. Since the merger, Bristol-Myers Squibb has endeavored to be the leading developer, marketer and licenser of pharmaceutical healthcare products that are used for treatment of cancer, HIV / AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, hepatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
The company has been facing some challenges especially in regards to loss of market share for their biggest selling drugs to the generic drug companies. This mostly happens when the market exclusivity period of the drugs they have invented expires. This forces the company to invest so much in Research & Development so…… [Read More]
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
mily-Rose had just turned 36 and was in her first semester at university when her world began to crumble. This could not have come at a worse time as she has always looked forward to doing a Health Studies degree. Her friends and family were alarmed at the sudden moodiness, insomnia, fatigue, headaches, confusion, joint and muscle pain, nausea & #8230;and above all, the enduring feeling of tiredness she complained of.
mily-Rose has suddenly changed from a happy woman to someone who battled daily episodes of what she calls extreme tiredness and anxiety. In the first three weeks of starting university, her husband Harry and sons, Brian and Bob have put this down to overwork at university and firmly told her to "slacken up a bit." Although she tried a new relaxation regime suggested by her friend Anita, she still complained of daily episodes of overwhelming tiredness and general malaise.…… [Read More]
MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING
Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness
Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.
History of Theory Development in Nursing
The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…… [Read More]
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…… [Read More]
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
Patients…… [Read More]
Greiving Case Study
Grief is a powerful, and somewhat self-regulating condition which we face having experiences a traumatic event. The wonders of our human ody respond with pre-programmed efficiency in order to help us adjust to the reality of the new situation. In the face of a traumatic occurrence, when our emotional or mental reaction may e to shut down, or run and hide, the grieving response gives a person the needed oundaries in which they can continue to function. However, some time after the events have past into the distance, the need exists for the person to process through the grief. Only y processing the grief can the person reenter a healthy relationship with the daily responsiilities of life, and healthy relationships with others in their life.
Charley's current situation in life is a function of poor decisions in his adult life. However, these decisions are also a response…… [Read More]
Client Stressors Case Study
According to the Betty Neuman model, intrapersonal stressors are "internal environmental interaction forces occurring within the boundary of the client, between client sub-systems," (12). This commonly includes physical, psychological and emotional issues that become stressors for each particular case. The clear intra-factors in this case are the presence of a kidney infection, acute lower abdominal pain, the fact that she is not taking any medications. She has been staying hydrated, a previous back muscle injury in the past. The patient has been having heavier menstrual cycles with worse cramping, no breast tenderness, did not pass clogs, she believes she is getting close to experience menopause, no prior abnormal paps or STDs, normal mammogram and pap last year, did have surgery for PPTL in 1977 after her third child was born, does not douche, previous hospitalization for back pain 5 years ago, recently went to…… [Read More]
318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.
An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).
An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…… [Read More]
The author of this report is put in a case study situation where a patient is aging and encountering some health issues. The patient is grumbling that her immediate family has not had the health problems that she has had. Those health problems include a heart attack within the last week, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. She is doing this grumbling while her hygiene is being attended. For the purposes of this story, it is the author of this report that is providing the hygiene and thus must give answers to these grumblings based on the perspective of an informed caregiver. The author is also charged with including the biologic aging theory in the overall answer and the patient's overall care plan. While genetics is indeed a major precursor for many major health issues, it is far from being the only one and this patient…… [Read More]
Identify the Disease
Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system that results in too many thyroid hormones being produced, a situation that is called hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormones impact many different body functions, so the " ... signs and symptoms" that are linked to Graves' disease cannot easily be zeroed in on specifically (Mayo Clinic). Anyone can be stricken with Graves' disease but it is far more common among women who haven't reached the age of 40 yet. To summarize, Graves' is actually caused by a "malfunction of disease-fighting immune system," which is, too many thyroid hormones are being produced.
The Mayo Clinic provides a list of signs and symptoms that a person may have Graves' disease. Some of the signs associated with Graves' disease include: being irritable or anxious; a fine tremor in hands or fingers; sensitive to heat and increased perspiration; losing weight though eating…… [Read More]
Interstitial lung disease is a blanket term for a big group of disorders categorized by progressive scarring of both the lung tissue supporting and between the air sacs. This tissue is called the interstitium. The interstitium consists of the region between the alveolar space and the capillaries. The scarring causes inflammation and damage in the lung tissue followed by lung stiffness, meaning the air sacs cannot expand as much as before. Lung stiffness makes it harder to breathe. People affected by the condition are not able to get enough oxygen from the lungs into their bloodstream.
Although some potential causes have been researched, there may be no underlying cause for development of interstitial lung disease. If there is no known cause, it is called idiopathic interstitial lung disease. IPF or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains the most common type of this illness. Of the causes most widely recognized, cigarette smoking is…… [Read More]
Chronic Sorrow Theory
The term 'chronic sorrow' may be described as sadness of a persistent, periodically severe, increasing, and lasting nature. This condition may be triggered in a person because of ongoing loss, arising from personal chronic disease, a loved one's illness, or personal disability (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Olshansky (1962) first put forward the "chronic sorrow" concept when working with children suffering from physical or mental disabilities and members of their family (parents, siblings, etc.). The researcher noted that these children' parents exhibited a persistent psychological response to their experience of being the parents of a physically or mentally disabled child (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). Through inductive reasoning, the chronic sorrow theory -- a middle range model -- was developed, which was corroborated using both qualitative research and literature review. (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 98)
The chronic sorrow theory helps create a framework to comprehend individuals' reactions to…… [Read More]
Tanacetum Parthenium, Feverfew
Tanacetum Parthenium, which is also known as Feverfew (i.e. botanical name), is an attractive perennial herb that is found sporadically growing in several part of North America as well as Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Since this attractive herb is mostly found cultivated, it is usually planted around the house because its believed to have a purifying impact on the atmosphere. Additionally, the plant is grown around the house in these regions because its associated with abilities to ward off disease. This perennial herb grows with relatively little attention once established and can be grown from its seeds, cuttings or root division though root division is the simplest method for growing this herb (Petersen, 2016). Given its significance as medicinal plant, Feverfew (Tanancetum Parthenium) was used by traditional societies and is still used in the modern society. There are some variations in the historical and contemporary use…… [Read More]
The delivery health care system takes into account the assimilation of physicians, healthcare facilities, together with other medical services with plan to facilitate the provision of the total continuum of medical care for its consumers. In a whole incorporated system, the three fundamental components including physicians, medical facilities and the membership to health plans are counterpoised in terms of equating medical resources with the necessities of patients and purchasers (Coddington, Moore, and Fischer., 1994). One of the key concerns in the present delivery of healthcare is cost. Increasing costs of healthcare has been a major worry in the past number of years, making the United States to have one of the most expensive systems of healthcare. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the different costs linked to healthcare delivery system, and delineate the manner in which these costs impact different populations and how it also affects…… [Read More]