Rheumatoid Arthritis Essays (Examples)

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Immune Boosting Therapies for RA Patients

Words: 2111 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23041738

Therapies/Treatments That Can Be Done to Help the Immune System of a Patient 18-55 Diagnosed With Rheumatoid Arthritis

THERAPIES/TREATENTS TO HELP THE IUNE SYSTE OF An 18-55 PATIENT DIAGNOSED WITH RHEUATOID ARTHRITIS

Therapies/treatments that can be done to help the immune system of a patient 18-55 diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

Annotated Bibliography

Cem Gabay, A, et al. (2013). Tocilizumab onotherapy vs. Adalimumab onotherapy for the Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis (ADACTA): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Phase 4 Trial.

Using a randomized population involving double-blind, Phase 4 superiority and parallel-group, the study used 76 centers found in different countries including the U.S. The patients used were above 18 years and suffering from Rheumatoid Arthritis for the last six months and above. The patients were supposed to have shown intolerance to methotrexate or were not appropriate for a continuation of the treatment using this method. With the random assignment of 1:1, the…… [Read More]

Michael Schiff, Michael E. Weinblatt, Robert Valente, Desiree van der Heijde, Gustavo Citera, Ayanbola Elegbe, Michael Maldonado, Roy Fleischmann. (2013). Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two- year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Clinical and epidemiological research Journal. 2013-203843v1, Ann Rheum Dis doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013- 203843

Ritika Khandpur1, Carmelo Carmona-Rivera1, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Alison Gizinski1, Srilakshmi Yalavarthi, Jason S. Knight, Sean Friday, Sam Li, Rajiv M. Patel, Venkataraman Subramanian, Paul Thompson, Pojen Chen, David A. Fox1, Subramaniam Pennathur and Mariana J. Kaplan. (2013). NETs Are a Source of Citrullinated Autoantigens and Stimulate Inflammatory Responses in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Science Translational Medicine Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 178, pp. 178ra40, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3005580

Scott, D. L. (2012). Biologics-Based Therapy for the Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Journal, Vol. 91 No.1 January 2012. doi:10.1038/clpt.2011.278
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Differential Diagnosis for Mrs Patrick and Give

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14912947

differential diagnosis for Mrs. Patrick and give the most likely probable diagnosis.

A review of the case reveals that Mrs. Patrick could be suffering from Fibroblastic rheumatism, heumatoid Arthritis, Sarcoid arthropathy, Acute viral polyarthritis or heumatoid Arthritis.

Fibroblastic rheumatism is noted by Chkirate and Job-Deslandre (2001) to be a very rare disease of an unknown etiology. It however shares certain features of arthritis, nodules as well as arthraglia. The disease causes flexion contractures in most of the patients, a symptom which Mrs. Patrick lacks. In half the cases, thickened palmar fascia is presented.

Sarcoid artropathy

This is a chronic arthritis in the sarcoidosis and it may be polyarticular or oligoarticular. In most cases, it presents itself similarly to A.In most cases it affects knees, hands, ankles and wrists as well as interphalangeal joints and metacarpophalangeal. It is also normally associated with parenchymal pulmonary disease.It is distinguished from heumatoid Arthritis by:…… [Read More]

References

Gorsche, R (2001).Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. The Canadian Journal of CME

Rindfleisch JA, Muller D. (2005).Diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis.

Am Fam Physician. 2005 Sep 15;72(6):1037-47.

Smith CA, Woolf AD, Lenci M.(1987)Parvoviruses: infections and arthropathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1987 Aug;13(2):249-63.
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Arthritic Conditions Found Within the Joints of

Words: 2815 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 670936

Arthritic conditions found within the joints of the body: their causes, treatment, current research, and what effect they have on athletic participation.

Types of Arthritis

Osteoarthritis

heumatoid Arthritis

Psoriatic Arthritis

Causes of Arthritis

Treatments Available

Current esearch

Arthritis and Athletic Activities

Learning Outcome

Arthritis is said to be the number one cause of disability in the United States, with more individuals disabled with arthritis than by both heart disease and strokes (Lewis 2000).

Arthritis is also a disease that is plagued with misunderstanding. The Center for Disease Control warns that it is these misunderstandings that result in the disease doing so much harm (Lewis 2000).

Some of the common misunderstandings involve recognizing that there are different types of arthritis and that arthritis is not only a disease of the aged. Arthritis is also often not taken seriously enough in its early stages, preventing individuals from seeking medical help that could…… [Read More]

References

AAOS: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2000). Arthritis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

The Arthritis & Glucosamine Resource Center. (2002). Treating and Preventing Sports Injuries & Secondary Arthritis. http://www.arthritis-glucosamine.net/arthritis/sports-injuries-arthritis.html

Arthritis Foundation. (2002). Progress and Opportunities in Rheumatoid Arthritis. http://www.arthritis.org/research/research_program/RA/default.asp

Lewis, C. (May-June 2000). Arthritis: Timely Treatments for an Ageless Disease. FDA Consumer, 34:3.
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Links Between Stress and Diseases

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74017040

Health Self-Assessment

Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Neuroplasticity reflects the brain's ability to transform itself. This is an important concept, because it means that the brain is constantly changing, in that there is no constant self. The brain can thus be "re-wired," as a consequence of this neuroplasticity. When considering the brain and its role in our health, this is important because as the brain regenerates, we have the opportunity to change it. We do not need to be who we were, for example. Some of this is fairly common sense -- new experiences can change us -- but neuroscience has allowed this to be proven, that our brains are not set entities but can be transformed. Even more important is the finding that we can change our own brains over time with training (Draganski, et al., 2004).

Stress is one of the major influences on the…… [Read More]

References

AIS (2016). Stress effects. American Institute of Stress. Retrieved April 5, 2016 from http://www.stress.org/stress-effects/

Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Boghdan, U. & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature. Vol. 427 (22 Jan 2004) 311-312.

Pradhan, E., Baumgarten, M., Langenberg, P., Handwerger, B., Gilpin, A., Magyan, T., Hochberg, M. & Berman, B. (2007). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care and Research. Vol. 57 (7) 1134-1142.

Zautra, A., Burleson, M., Matt, K., Roth, S. & Burrows, L. (1994). Interpersonal stress, depression and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Health Psychology. Vol. 13 (2) 139-148.
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An Analysis of the Bibliography Card

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91588780

Card

Chen, X., Huang, R., Huang, Q., Chu, Y., and Yao, J. (2015). Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Adverse Effects of ZhengqingFengtongning Combined with Methotrexate in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2015.

By definition, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a protracted general inflammatory ailment, categorized by infammation of the synovial soft tissue and mutilation to articular tendons and bone, which in turn brings about extreme incapacity, practical deterioration, and enhanced death. This ailment is the most prevalent one with rheumatism having a pervasiveness of about one percent in North America and Europe, while that of Southeast Asia is lower to some extent as it has about 0.3%. The disease is an area of major concern as it is estimated that at the present moment, about five million individuals suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. This in turn has come to be both a social and economic…… [Read More]

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Prescription Nonprescription and Herbal Medications Exploring Interactions in the Geriatric Population

Words: 3992 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42847416

Prescription, Nonprescription and Herbal Medicines

Prescription, Non-prescription and Herbal Medications: Exploring Interactions in the Geriatric Population

Geriatric medicine, generally referred to as just "geriatrics" is a branch of internal medicine and health care that focuses primarily on the diagnoses, prevention, care and treatment of disease and disability in elderly patients. Elderly patients involve those senior members of the population that develop a disability, or are suffering from a disease that is a resultant of old age or is a prompt symptom of old age. Geriatrics commonly involves treatment of these old age symptoms and disabilities such as deteriorated memory, immobility, impaired vision and hearing etc. Geriatrics, in modern times, is quite advanced. Specialized services such as psycho-geriatrics, where expert psychologists focus on treating old age related depression, memory loss and other psychological conditions that occur in the elderly population, along with development of physical therapy centers whose prime focus is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Administration on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). A Profile of Older Americans: 2004. Pg. 3,.

Alavijeh, M.S., Chishty, M., Qaisar, Z.M., & Palmer, A.M. (2005 October). Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, the Blood Brain Barrier, and Central Nervous System Drug Discovery. NeuroRx, 2(40.

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. (2009). Drug Therapy in Nursing. Wolters Kluwer- Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

George, J., Byth, K., & Farrell, G. (1990). Age But Not Gender Selectively Affects Expression of Individual Cytochrome P450 Proteins in Human Liver. Pub Med- Biochem Pharmacol, 48:365-374.
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Fibermyoalgia or Fibromyalgia Is a

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57961581

Doctors should be consulted on their effectiveness and safety (NIAMSD).

In the meantime, a person with fibromyalgia can help himself or herself feel better besides taking medicines (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders 2004). He can try to get enough sleep of the right kind to ease or lessen the pain and fatigue. Although pain and fatigue may make exercise and daily activities difficult, the person should be as physically active as possible. Studies show that regular exercise is, in fact, among the most effective treatments of the condition. A patient can try walking or doing mild exercise slowly and according to the severity of his condition. He can or should also make adjustments at work, such as reducing his working hours or change to a less strenuous type of work, change some things in his work space. His diet also deserves a second look. Some persons…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders. (2004). Questions and Answers About Fibromyalgia. NIH Publication # 04-5326. http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/fibromyalgia/fibrofs.htm
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Senior Fitness

Words: 3628 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28047071

Senio Fitness

Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?

Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.

When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…… [Read More]

references - Each client has a preferential learning style involving a dominant sensory channel. The trainer should take an active approach to learning style of each participant.

29) Give an example of each rule of professional conduct for teachers of older adults.

1. Professionalism -- Trainers should do their best to maintain the utmost levels of professionalism during sessions. An example of a commonly made mistake would be perhaps taking a cell phone call during a session.

2. Punctuality -- Knowing that many older adults are chronically early, it is critical for trainers to be on time and ready to begin their sessions.

3. Appropriate Language and Terminology -- Being that many older clients will not likely recognize most modern fitness terminology, it is important for trainers to convey their messages in a clear and understandable way. Failure to do so could potentially result in injury.
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Thermo Therapy

Words: 3365 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52189201

Thermo Therapy

Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.

For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…… [Read More]

References

Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6

Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99

Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21

Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
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Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be

Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37868620

Fibromyalgia

One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
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Alterations Which Can Occur in

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80106817



Muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis are complicated conditions. According to the research, muscular dystrophy is a "group of familial disorders that cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Many researchers believe that the different types are each caused by different biochemical defects. For example, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is thought t be the result of a single gene defect "thought to be caused by a deletion of a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Similarly, Becker Muscular Dystrophy is also caused by deformities in the X-link. Different types of dystrophy affect different muscle groups. There is the example of scapuloperneal Muscular Dystrophy, which affects the facial and shoulder muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular condition, caused by abnormal transmission of nerve impulses to the affected muscle groups. Normal communication is interrupted, where antibodies disrupt the flow of acetylcholine between nerves and muscles. It is also…… [Read More]

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Carpal Instability Is Any Mal-Alignment

Words: 5543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72024643

When using open reduction of dorsal displaced fractures of the radius to restore congruency and extra-articular anatomy, the authors recommended the use of their double-plating method. This method is reliable in providing stable internal fixation and in allowing early function. It is, however, and as earlier mentioned, a demanding technique, as ot requires careful; attention to detail.

Carter, P.. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of one and Joint Surgery: ritish Editorial Society of one and Joint Surgery, September 2000

Only one surgeon performed all the operations on a total of 37 patients for pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and decreased rotation of the forearm. The authors reported that most of the tested patients were better after the operation, although a significant number had some pain. Relief from pain could not be guaranteed and that residual pain associated…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atkinson, Larry S. et al. Scapholunate Dissociation. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians, June 1994

Berdia, Sunjay and Shin, Alexander Y. Carpal Ligament Instability. Orthopedic Surgery. WebMD. eMedicine.Com, Inc., November 22, 2005.

Bozentka, David J. Scapholunate Instability. UPOJ. Vol 12, Spring 1999

Carter, P.B. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, September 2000
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Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising

HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING

THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN

CREATING DEMAND

DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING

CAUSE F DEATH

PRFIT

UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS

LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS

LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC

RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS

In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
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Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body

Words: 2250 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25520423

S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.

Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC

Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall

Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
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Psychological Research and Patient-Practitioner Interaction the Work

Words: 830 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24737591

Psychological Research and Patient-Practitioner Interaction

The work of Like and Zyzanski (2002) reports that patient-practitioner transactions in the ambulatory setting have gained in importance in the research as there is "empirical support for our anecdotal, common-sense notions that clinical encounter experiences are a major determinant of outcomes such as the patient's satisfaction with the encounter. The study is reported to examine the issue of patient-physician encounter and asks the questions of: 1) Is there a relationship between fulfillment of patient requests for services and patient satisfaction with the clinical encounter? And (2) What degree of satisfaction is explained by the qualities of the encounter as compared to the characteristics of the patient, physician, and system of health care? (Like and Zyzanski, 2002) A study of 144 adult patients and their physicians was conducted and it is reported "at least 19% of the variance in patient satisfaction could be attributed to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Feinberg, J. (1988) The effect of patient -- Practitioner interaction on compliance: A review of the literature and application in rheumatoid arthritis. Patient Education and Counseling. Vol. 11 Issue 3, June 1998.

Hellstrom, O., Lindqvist, P. And Mattsson, B. (1996) A Phenomenological Analysis of Doctor-Patient Interaction: A Case Study. Patient Education and Counseling. Vol. 33, Issue 1. 20 Nov 1998.

Heritage, J. And Maynard, DW (2006) Problems and Prospects in the Study of Physician-Patient Interaction: 30 Years of Research Annual Review of Sociology Vol. 32: 351-37.

Kaplan, SH, Greenfield, S, and Ware, JE (1989) Assessing the Effects of Physician-Patient Interaction on the Outcomes of Chronic Disease. Medical Care. Mar 1989; Vol.27, No.3.
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Function of Theory in Nursing

Words: 2840 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29582100

According to Newman, nurses practicing within this theory find their own lives are enhanced and transformed (Neill, 2002). Her beliefs and consciousness-centered approach were born from her early nursing experiences involving rehabilitation patients (Weingourt, 1998). She came to understand the altered connection between the concept of time for her patients and their limited mobility. For most of her patients, the day would seem to drag along despite the fact that their rehabilitation sessions were relatively short. Her conclusion was that these patients had an altered sense of reality. This eventually sparked her theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (HEC).

Looking at the practice of nursing through a more metaphysical lens, the HEC posits that there is a universal and expanding consciousness in which all humans participate -- the healthy, the recuperating, and the incurably ill. Newman believed this was a natural law just as real as the law of gravity…… [Read More]

Margaret Newman and James Fowler both focus their attention on the larger, more spiritual context of human experience and the implication this has in one's healing. There are commonalities that exist between the philosophies of both theorists: human reasoning, the ability to adopt to another's perspective, social awareness, and human formation of a world-view. Newman offers the nurse-patient relationship can be enhanced if it is viewed as a caring partnership. HEC does not really pretend to be a quick fix or direct nursing intervention; instead, it presents an opportunity to assist the sick by recognizing patterns and using this intelligence to expand a patient's consciousness, self-care, and comfort (Awa & Yamashita, 2008).

Fowler concerns himself more with faith as a lens through which we see the world. His ideas about faith over the span of one's lifetime can be particularly beneficial when working with elderly populations. Older, Stage 5 and 6 adults may begin to reincorporate earlier religious beliefs and traditions that were previously discarded (Fowler, 2004). This could be due to physical limitations or also used as a self-healing mechanism to avoid feelings of helplessness or abandonment. A nurse who is attentive can acknowledge this mature spirituality as being helpful to a patient attempting to find meaning in his or her illness.

In sum, both theories/frameworks have implications for the practice of nursing. A theory, by definition, is a group of related concepts that propose action that guide practice. From Margaret Newman and even non-nursing theorist James Fowler we see how using a systematic view of inter-relationships between concepts of spirituality, higher consciousness, caring and empathy can be useful for describing, explaining, predicting, and prescribing nursing interventions that make a difference in the lives of patients. Both philosophies offer insight that can create better nurses.
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Ankylosing Spondylitis

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39367523

Ankylosing Spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that attacks young males. It may lead to the fusion of the spine (Sarker, 2016). The fusion can result in the spin being rigid thereby making the patient develop a hunched back. Subsequently, the patient may have breathing problems because of the posture. Other inflammatory signs may show up in other parts of the body such as the eyes (Sieper & Braun, 2010).

Etiology and Incidences

Ankylosing's etiology is still unknown but there are pointers to a genetic risk and component. esearchers have highlighted the association it has with the HLA B27 gene. They have proposed ineffective mechanisms but they are seen to be less apparent as is the case with reactive arthritis.

The prevalence of Ankylosing spondylitis in the general population is low (0.1% to 1.4%). It is more prevalent among Caucasians than in members of other races. Those suffering from chronic…… [Read More]

References

Ebringer, A., & Ebringer, A. (2012). Muscle Changes in Ankylosing Spondylitis. Ankylosing spondylitis and Klebsiella, 45-50. doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-4300-0_6

Gaidukova, I. Z., & Rebrov, A. P. (2016). THE RISK OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE DEVELOPMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (BECHTEREW'S DISEASE) AND PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS: A 10-YEAR PROSPECTIVE FOLLOW-UP STUDY. The Clinician, 10(3), 26-31. doi:10.17650/1818-8338-2016-10-3-26-31

Moon, K., & Kim, Y. (2014). Medical Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis. Hip & Pelvis, 26(3), 129. doi:10.5371/hp.2014.26.3.129

Sarker, H. (2016). Case-45 Back Pain and Stiffness (Ankylosing Spondylitis). Short & Long Cases in Clinical Medicine, 354-357. doi:10.5005/jp/books/12920_46
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12th and 13th Chapter of

Words: 1427 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62620627



Injustice in the society

he tenacity of Bill's hypothesis of workplace toxins takes a clear significance when it comes to other experiences which together form the narrative reconstruction of the illness genesis that carries a political image of the social world. When it comes to both the illness and the response to it there is the suggestion that there is a world power inequality. Lot of Bill's account highlights some injustices and the world was portrayed as an environment where ordinary people were exploited manipulated and conned by some social powers including doctors, police or bureaucrats.

Reconstruction of social psychology

Bill's reconstruction left out references of his identity as he did not portray any sense of his self-identity. He did not bring out any sense of personal responsibility or any socio-psychological involvement when it comes to the development of his affliction. Social relations are a place where social identity can…… [Read More]

These narrative reconstructions are in attempt of reconstructing and repairing ruptures between one's body, self and the world through linking up and interpreting the different biological aspects as to realign the present, past and self with the rest of the society. For Bill illness result from working life; for Gill illnesses arises from way of life in which personal identity had been defined and constrained by important features of womanhood. For Betty, illness was seen to be residing from the realm of transcendence of the purpose tat God had.

Reference

Brown, P.(2008). "Perspective in Medical Sociology." Fourth Edition. Waveland Press. Chapters 12 & 13
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Rheumatologists Earn an Average of 180 000 Annually

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23830630

Rheumatologist

hat is a rheumatologist? It is a person who is board-certified (either as an internist or a pediatrician) and has the training and experience " ... in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the joints, muscles, and bones" (www.hss.edu). The training to become a rheumatologist is rigorous and lengthy.

The diseases of the joints -- and various kinds of arthritis-related health issues that rheumatologist's treat, include: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, antiphospholipid syndrome, scleroderma, musculoskeletal pain disorders, osteoporosis, gout, back pain, myositis, fibromyalgia, tendonitis, and vasculitis (www.hss.edu).

hat kind of training is required to become a rheumatologist? It includes four years of medical school, three years of additional training in pediatrics or medicine; and in addition, to become a rheumatologist, another two-to-three years (on top of the original seven years) of specialized rheumatology training is required (www.hss.edu). Once all that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American College of Rheumatology. (2012). What is a Rheumatologist? Retrieved February

21, 2016, from http://www.rheumatology.org.

Hospital For Special Surgery. (2010). What is a Rheumatologist? Retrieved February 21,

2016, from http://www.hss.edu.
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Skeletal System Purpose and Functions

Words: 1351 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41575906

Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).

Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html

Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL

Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf

ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
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Hemophilia the Most Common Genetic

Words: 3476 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95055081

The viruses that cause AIDS (HIV) and hepatitis can be carried in clotting factors however there have been no documented cases of such transmission in about ten years. Prevention of viruses can be prevented by: careful screening of donors; testing of donated blood products; treating donated blood products with a detergent and heat to destroy viruses (Hemophilia 2006). Both preventive and as-needed therapy can be administered at home, thus resulting in quicker treatment, fewer doctor or emergency room visits, and less costs. Vein access devices can be surgically implanted to allow easier access to a vein however infections can result from such devices (Hemophilia 2006).

All patients with bleeding disorders may benefit at times from using aminocaproic acid, an oral antifibrinolytic medication that helps stabilize clots (Curry 2004). Aminocaproic acid is the only product available in the United States in oral form, however it is not user-friendly, with dosing every…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Gaylene. (2006 October 06). Promising Non-Viral Alternative for Gene Therapy

Involves 'Jumping Gene' From a Moth. Ascribe Higher Education News Service. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Bayer Grant Promotes Groundbreaking Hemophilia Research and Education; Bayer Hemophilia

Awards Program Continues to Be a Critical Source of Funding for Hemophilia Research and Education. (2006 May 23). Business Wire. Retrieved December 20, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Home and Community-Based Waiver Services

Words: 3924 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65042012

The majority of communities in Alaska are separated by vast distances and the distance from many communities to the nearest medical facility is equivalent to the distance from New York to Chicago (Indian Health Service Alaska Area Services, 2011).

A study funded by AOA examined issues affecting access to home- and community-based long-term-care services among AI/ANS. Study results indicated that home healthcare was one of the most frequently needed services among AI/ANS. Further, 88% of the services sometimes, rarely, or never met the need, and 36% of services were rarely to never available (Jervis, Jackson & Manson, 2002). Only twelve tribally operated nursing homes exist in the U.S., and these rely predominantly on funding from Medicaid and tribal subsidies. Many tribes would like to have nursing homes but are blocked by state certificate-of-need requirements, Medicaid licensing requirements, and lack of commercial financing. The lack of alternate medical resources, whether private…… [Read More]

References

Alaska Area Indian Health Service. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.

ihs.gov/FacilitiesServices/areaOffices/alaska/.

Goins, R.T. & Spencer, S.M. (2005). Public health issues among older American Indians and Alaska natives. Generations, 29(2), 30-33.

Indian Health Service Alaska area services. (2011). Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.ihs.gov/FacilitiesServices/areaOffices/alaska/dpehs/documents/area.pdf.
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Rheumatic Fever

Words: 1197 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46012770

heumatic Fever

The Etiology, Incidence and Treatment of heumatic Fever Today

Like many diseases such as smallpox and polio, Zamula (1987) reports that until fairly recently, rheumatic fever was described by most public health officials as being a vanishing disease. "After World War II," Patlak (1991) reports, "the number of cases of rheumatic fever dramatically declined until, during the 20 years between 1965 and 1985 alone, the yearly number of cases of rheumatic fever among school-age children dropped by more than 90%" (p. 24). At the time, clinicians assumed that less crowded living conditions and the use of antibiotics were controlling the disease and some physicians called rheumatic fever a "vanishing disease in suburbia" (Patlak, p. 24). As a result, the children's hospitals that were previously dedicated to the care of rheumatic fever sufferers closed because of a lack of patients and disease registries that had been rigorously maintained by…… [Read More]

References

Arocha, J.F., & Patel, V.L. (1995). Novice diagnostic reasoning in medicine: Accounting for evidence. Journal of the Learning Sciences 4(4), 375.

Patlak, M. (1991, October). 'Strep' demands immediate care. FDA Consumer, 25(8), 24.

Zamula, E. (1987, July-August). Rheumatic fever: Down but not out. FDA Consumer, 21, 26.
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Orem Universal Self-Care Requisites and Developmental Self-Care Requisites

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31730469

Universal and Development Self-equisites in the Context Of a Nursing Practice Scenario

Orem's Theory of Self-Care

Self-care is the key concept in Orem's nursing model (1991). It is defined as the practice of activities that maturing and mature persons initiate and perform, within time frames, on their own behalf in the interests of maintaining life, healthful functioning, continuing personal development, and well-being A self-care deficit occurs when an individual is unable to engage in self-care Orem's self-care model has, throughout the years, provided the basis for training and support programs for groups of patients with both chronic and acute diseases, e g diabetic patients (Allison 1973, Fitzgerald 1980), employees with rheumatoid arthritis (Dear & Keen 1982), renal transplant patients (Hoffart 1982), stroke patients (Anna et al. 1978, Faucett et al. 1990), bone marrow transplant patients (Mack 1992) and patients with cancer (Dodd & Dibble 1993).

The universal self-care requisites are…… [Read More]

References

Allison S. (1973) A framework for nursing action in a nurse conducted diabetes managed clinic Journal of Nursing Administration 3, 53-60

Anna D., Christensen D. G, Hohon, S. A, Ord L & Wells SR (1978). Implementing Orem's conceptual framework. Journal of Nursing Administration 8, 8-11

Dear M.R. & Keen M.F. (1982) Promotion of self-care in the employee with rheumatoid arthntis. Occupational Health Nursing 30, 32-4

Dodd IN J & Dibble SL (1993) Predictors of self-care a test of Orem's model. Oncology Nursing Forum 20, 895-901
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Dehydration Impacts on Human Metabolism In This

Words: 2238 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41795082

dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.

According to usan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.

Thus, water is unspeakably…… [Read More]

Several physiologic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle factors associated with old age can interfere in homeostasis and bring a significant contribution to dehydration. Illness, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, infection, dementia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics and laxatives altogether increase the risk for dehydration in elders, and may lead to chronic dehydration in many geriatric individuals. Furthermore, potential complications of dehydration in elders include hypotension, constipation, nausea, vomiting, mucosal dryness, decreased urinary output, elevated body temperature, and mental confusion (Bernstein & Schmidt Luggen, 2011). Moreover, some forms of medication frequently employed by older adults may favor dehydration or require adequate body water for proper metabolism, hence emphasizing the need for a balanced fluid consumption.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be asserted that, in the instance where one of the many types and degrees of dehydration affect an individual, his/her metabolism will slow down and begin a chain process meant to gradually depress many of the body's functions, starting with thermoregulation and continuing with heart rate, kidneys, muscles and joints. Finally, pediatric patients have a faster and more sensitive reaction to dehydration than adult individuals due to their fast metabolism and proportionately large body surface area, whereas geriatric patients are similarly vulnerable to the phenomenon through their medication routine and overall complicated health spectrum.
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Nursing Critique Today's Nurses Have

Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 377117

The data gathered is subjected to statistical analysis using statistical methods of linear regression and chi square testing.

The main purpose of the study was to confirm the hypothesis that consultation with CNS or RN in a drug-monitoring clinic has a significant positive impact on the well being of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study involved a single blinded randomized controlled trial over a period of three years. Subjects were chosen from the rheumatology out patient setting in a district general hospital with a drug monitoring service. A total of 71 subjects who were starting out on anti-rheumatic therapy were randomly assigned to either the interventional or the control group. While the interventional group was supervised by the CNS to assess patient needs (using Pendelton's framework) alongside drug safety evaluation, the control group was seen by an outpatient staff nurse purely for drug safety concerns. oth the groups were assessed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Teri Britt Pipe; Kay E. Wellik; Vicki L. Buchda; Carol M. Hansen; Dana R. Martyn, 2005, "Implementing Evidence-Based Nursing Practice," Urol Nurs. 25(5): 365-370, Available at, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/514532

Ryan, S, Hassell, a.B, Lewis, M, & Farrell, a. (2006). Impact of a Rheumatology Expert Nurse on the well-being of patients attending a drug monitoring clinic. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(3), 277 -286.

Considine, J. & Botti, M. (2004) Who, when and where? Identification of patients at risk of an in-hospital adverse event: Implications for nursing practice. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 10: pp. 21-31

Other references
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Abbott Labs Stock Analysis Abbott

Words: 2418 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2262490

The first component is as follows: Net Margin = Net Income/Sales. How much profit Abbott laboratories makes for very $1.00 it generates in revenue, and the higher a company's profit margin the better. The second component is as follows: Asset Turnover = Sales/Total Assets. The amount of sales generated for every dollar's worth of assets. This measures Abbott's efficiency at using assets, and again, the higher the number the better. The final factor of the Du Pont analysis is as follows: Leverage Factor = Total Assets/Shareholder's Equity. The higher the number, the more debt the company has. Abbott's Du Pont analysis is computed using the following equation:

In this case, for the end of 2006, Abbott Laboratories reported a net income of $717 million dollars, sales of $22,476 million, total assets for 2006 of $36, 178 million, and equity of $14,054 for 2006. Placing these figures into the equation above…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abbott. (2007). About the Company. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at  http://www.abbott.com .

Epsicom. (2007). Abbott Medical Device Company Intelligence Report. Retrieved November 9, 2007 at http://www.piribo.com/publications/medical_devices/companies/abbott_medical_device_company_intelligence_report.html.

McKinnell, H. (2003). Performance Report. Bayer AG 2003 Annual Review: 1-30.

Rogers, M. (2003). Risk Management in Real Options-Based Pharmaceutical
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Diet Attention Step Obesity Is

Words: 1270 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76516851

One of the functions of the lymphatic system is to be the body's "sewer system," drawing toxins from the cells and dumping them into the blood. The heart powers the blood system. Body movement powers the lymphatic system. Therefore, metabolic waste products cannot be completely cleared unless you are physically active. A second important reason for exercise is perspiration. The skin is a major outlet for waste products; when you perspire, you are disposing of waste products through the skin. A third benefit of an active lifestyle is to retain muscle mass. Muscle cells are where fat is burned. T he more muscle cells a person has and the stronger he/she is, the more fat he/she burns (http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1,2004).

Visualization Step

With all facts and figures presented, it can be realized that in order to somewhat prevent more the entire America from burden of obesity thus preventing the American people from…… [Read More]

Reference List

CDC. (2002). Overweight and Obesity: Obesity Trends among Adults -- 1985-2001. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

Crane, Milton G.M.D. 2004.The Massive Problem of Degenerative Diseases. 2002.Get Healthy Get Smart, http://www.gethealthygetsmart.com/articles/degenerative_diseases.asp

Middleton, J. 2006. "Extreme obesity in women and associated risks." JAMA. 5;296(1):79-86.

Seven Key Factors that Determine Health or Illness. 2004. Connecticut Center for Health. http://www.connecticutcenterforhealth.com/health-factors.html#sec1
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Health Effects of Obesity it

Words: 2244 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80234345

Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.

Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/nut/obs.htm

How to Pick a Nutritional Plan. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from PDR Health. Web site: http://www.pdrhealth.com/content/nutrition_health/chapters/fgnt04.shtml

Koop, C. (2000) Retrieved from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2. Web site: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/72/2/503S

Preventing Childhood Obesity. RWJF President and CEO Reflects on Institute of Medicine Action Plan. Retrieved November 22, 2004 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/news/special/risaObesityInterview.jhtml
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Analyzing Generics Biologics and Biosimilars

Words: 795 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87564564

Generics, Biologics, and Biosimilars

Properties of Generic Drugs, Biologics, and Biosimilars, with Examples and Usage

Generic drugs

Generic drugs denote pharmaceutical products that are typically meant to be substituted with some innovator product manufactured with no license from innovator, and sold in the markets after exclusive rights (such as patents) expire (WHO, 2016). Some of the properties of these drugs include;

Generic drugs are usually sold at prices considerably lower than branded price; and They are bioequivalent or identical to branded drugs in their strength, form, dosage, safety, quality, administration route, intended use, and performance characteristics.

Some generic medicine examples, together with their usage:

Paracetamol: this is the chemical constituent of numerous branded painkillers; it is, however, marketed as generic medicine, too, and utilized for pain alleviation.

Ibuprofen: his is employed for reducing fever and treating inflammation (swelling/irritation) or pain resulting from a number of conditions, including headache, back ache,…… [Read More]

References

Amgen. (2015). The Power of Biologics. Retrieved from Amgen Biosimilar Inc.: http://www.amgenbiosimilars.com/the-basics/the-power-of-biologics/

Bio.org. (2010, November 10). How do Drugs and Biologics Differ? Retrieved from Biotechnology Innovation Organization: http://www.bio.org/articles/how-do-drugs-and-biologics-differ

FDA. (2015, July 14). Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA): Generics. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/HowDrugsareDevelopedandApproved/ApprovalApplications/AbbreviatedNewDrugApplicationANDAGenerics/

FDA. (2015, August 28). Biosimilars. Retrieved from U.S. Food and Drug Administration: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/HowDrugsareDevelopedandApproved/ApprovalApplications/TherapeuticBiologicApplications/Biosimilars/
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Stem Cells Are Non-Specializing Cells

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11451725

Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,

"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).

The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).

Conclusion

Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html

"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html

"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html

Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
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Patient Who Walks Into the

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99013790



Common risk factors for chronic liver problems include: intravenous drug use, overdosing on acetaminophen, engaging in risky sexual behaviors like having multiple sexual partners and unprotected intercourse, eating contaminated foods, traveling to an area where certain diseases are common, living in a nursing home or rehabilitation center, having a family member who recently had hepatitis a, using or abusing alcohol, being an organ transplant recipient, having HIV or AIDS, having received a blood transfusion before 1990, being a newborn of a mother with hepatitis B or C, being a health care worker, including dentist and dental hygienist, because of blood contact and receiving a tattoo (Hepatitis Health Article, 2010).

Eighty percent of those people who have Hepatitis C go on to develop chronic liver disease, liver failure or liver cancer. Hepatitis C is the number one reason that people received liver transplants in the United States. Permanent liver damage, liver…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Hepatitis Health Article." 2010. Healthline. Web. 24 May 2010.
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Oral Hygiene Needs of the

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18458817



Another caution that exists for people suffering from lupus is to exercise caution before and after receiving dental treatment. Lupus patients could develop serious heart infections from the streptococci that might be released into their bloodstream during routine dental procedures, even bi-annual teeth cleanings (Blau and Schultz, 174). The infection can travel to the heart when the patient has certain other manifestations of lupus, and, if the patient has developed a condition called verrucous endocarditis, then it can be deadly if the streptococci infect the heart (Blau and Schultz, 174). Therefore it is strongly recommended that prior to and following dental procedures and cleanings that lupus patients receive antiobiotics that can help them to be prepared to defend their body against the streptococci (Blau and Schultz, 174-175).

The antibiotic -- usually amoxicillin, or another member of the penicillin family, or erythromycin in cases of penicillin allergy -- is taken an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91348305

Blau, Sheldon Paul, and Dodi Schultz. Living with Lupus: All the Knowledge You Need to Help Yourself. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1993. Questia. 21 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91348486.

De Rossi, Scott S. DMD, and Glick, Michael, DMD. Lupus Erythematosus: Considerations for Dentistry. Journal American Dental Association, vol 129, March, 1998, 330-339.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111488560
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Patient Noncompliance in Patients Advanced

Words: 4937 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60710636



These studies demonstrate that there are several factors associated with patient noncompliance, regardless of the disease being treated. Medication side effects represent only one of these issues. Nurse practitioners could help to resolve many of these issues by being proactive and asking questions about side effects in patients at risk for becoming noncompliant. They may also be able to predict noncompliance in patients that are prescribed medications with known side effects. By informing the patient of the side effects and giving them practical ways to cope with them, the nurse practitioner can play an active role in helping to eliminate patient noncompliance.

Education was found to play an important role in patient noncompliance. The overall educational level of the patient was found to be important. The nurse practitioner can take positive action by being aware of the patient's overall educational background. Extra care must be taken with those of low…… [Read More]

References

Barber, N., Parsons, J., Clifford, S., Darracott, R., & Horne, R. (2004). Patients' problems with new medication for chronic conditions. Quality and Safety in Healthcare. 13(3): 172-175.

Chatterjee, J. (2006). From compliance to concordance in diabetes. Journal of Medical Ethics. 32(9): 507-510.

Chisholm, M., Lance, C. & Mulloy, L. (2005). Patient factors associated with adherence to immunosuppressant therapy in renal transplant recipients. American Journal of Health- System Pharmacy. 62 (17): 1775-1781.

Eastern, J. "Dismissing Patients Properly." 1 Jun 2006. OB/GYN News. Accessed 11 Sept. 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYD/is_/ai_n26906768.
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Atomic Testing Though Modern People

Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33269463



The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
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U S Healthcare The Need for

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5160982

Hillary Clinton proposes that every American should be required have coverage, as most health care analysts agree that mandated coverage is necessary, so that the care and contribution of the healthy can effectively balance out the care of the sick. Obama would not require individuals to have coverage, merely require all children to have health insurance, and require employers to offer employee health benefits or contribute to the cost of the new public program. McCain, much in the tradition of Bush before him, says that he would provide tax credits to individuals to buy insurance ("2008 Candidates Health Care Proposals: A side-by-side summary," Health08.org, 2008).

The McCain proposal would do little to eliminate high co-pays, however. One of the arguments for co-pays is that it discourages the overconsumption of medical care, the so called moral hazard aversion: "twenty-dollar co-payment for a visit to the doctor, or when your plan includes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2008 Candidates Health Care Proposals: A side-by-side summary." Health08.org. 6 Mar 2008. 22 Apr 2008. http://www.health08.org/sidebyside_results.cfm?c=5&c=11&c=16

Gladwell, Malcolm. "The Moral Hazard Myth." The New Yorker. Aug 29, 2006

22 Apr 2008. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/08/29/050829fa_fact

Kolata, Gina. "Co-Payments Go Way Up for Drugs With High Prices."
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Cola Is Bad for Kids

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47001711

And one cannot stop wondering: in a world where there are enough dangers among which drugs, murders etc., do we really want our children to become addicted to some product even from infancy? In a world where there are other addictive factors such as TV, computer games, fast-food, and which, combined, produce illnesses (both physical and psychical) are we to let our children drink coca cola? Are we to add another product to the list of things which tend to destroy our children health?

eferences

Adams, Mike. "The unauthorized history of Coca-Cola (satire)." January 14, 2005. NewsTarget.com. June 2007. http://www.newstarget.com/003228.html

LaBudde, obert. "Is Coke really bad for you, if so what are the ingredients that make it?" Mar 6, 2001. MadSci Library. June 2007 http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/feb2001/983940377.Ot.r.html

Leland, Elizabeth. "Addicted to Coke." Sep. 28, 2003. Charlotte.com. June 2007. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/DietCokeAddict.htm

Madison, Josh. "Coke Experiment." 14 December 2003. Joshmadison.com. June 2007. http://joshmadison.com/misc/projects/coke_nail/

Martini, Betty.…… [Read More]

References

Adams, Mike. "The unauthorized history of Coca-Cola (satire)." January 14, 2005. NewsTarget.com. June 2007. http://www.newstarget.com/003228.html

LaBudde, Robert. "Is Coke really bad for you, if so what are the ingredients that make it?" Mar 6, 2001. MadSci Library. June 2007  http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/feb2001/983940377.Ot.r.html 

Leland, Elizabeth. "Addicted to Coke." Sep. 28, 2003. Charlotte.com. June 2007. http://www.acs.appstate.edu/~kms/classes/psy5150/DietCokeAddict.htm

Madison, Josh. "Coke Experiment." 14 December 2003. Joshmadison.com. June 2007. http://joshmadison.com/misc/projects/coke_nail/
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Johnson & Johnson's Marketing Mix

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79906587

Specifically focused on products for each phase of a persons' life, this business segment is the most mainstream in terms of promotional strategies. Skin Care, OTC and Nutritionals have successfully given JNJ a permanent marketing strategy for selling to women in the 25-34 and 25-45 segments, two of the fastest growing demographic markets for these products.

Product Strategy

The biggest challenge for JNJ is the ability to quickly develop and launch products across all of their business units. This is the most challenging task internally for the entire company to coordinate on, specifically in the area of pharmaceuticals where Federal Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and the need for compliance are very high.

The costs of producing a new drug can be well over $800M according to AM esearch (2004). An analysis of each phase of the development of a new drug is shown in the following graphic from PhMA (2005).…… [Read More]

References

AMR Research (2006) - Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences Industry Overview. AMR Research Alert. Monday June 5, 2006. Hussain Moorai and Roddy Martin.

Credit Suisse (2006) - Johnson and Johnson Research Brief. January 24, 2007.New York, NY.

Life Science Analytics (2007) - Life Science Analytics Johnson & Johnson Pipeline Report. January 3, 2007. Boston, MA

PhRMA (2005) - Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) Conference Proceedings. Accessed from the Internet on February 10, 2007 at  http://www.phrma.org/innovation/
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Dangers of Marijuana Is a

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3899599

, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.

Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154

Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.

Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.

Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors

Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.

Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.

Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall

Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.

Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
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Abbott Laboratories Abbot Laboratories Overview

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11584772

Abbott Laboratories is also a major supplier of hand-held point-of-care diagnostics and blood glucose monitoring devices that enable health care professionals and patients manage a wide range of disorders (Abbot.com, 2011).

Current Challenges and Problems

On May 26, 2011, the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute terminated a clinical trial of Abbot Laboratories' cholesterol drug Niaspan a full year and a half earlier than scheduled (Loftus, 2011). That decision was based on specific concerns over data indicating that Niaspan failed to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes in connection with its combination with statin drugs. That study also suggested that Niaspan could be a potential factor in the unexplained increase in ischemic-stroke rates among study participants. Last year, Abbott generated Niaspan sales totaling $927 million and had projected sales in excess of $1 billion this year. According to industry analysts, the early cessation of the government study…… [Read More]

References

Abbott.com. (2011). About Abbott. Accessed 4 July 2011 from:

 http://www.abbott.com /global/url/content/en_US/10:10/general_content/General_Content00004.htm

Loftus, P. "Prescriptions for Abbott's Niaspan off after Negative Study." (28 June 2011).

Accessed 4 July 2011 from the Wall Street Journal public website at:
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Bristol Myers Squibb SWOT Weaknesses and an Analysis of Their Accounting Policies

Words: 564 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19659008

SWOT Analysis: BRISTOL MYERS SQUIBB

Bristol Myers Sqibb SWOT:Weaknesses and an analysis of their accounting policies

Bristol-Myers Squibb was formed after the merger between Bristol Myers and Squibb Pharmaceuticals. The merger took place in 1989, this merger created the second largest drug company in the world. The company headquarters are in New York City and has a workforce of over 35,000 employees. Since the merger, Bristol-Myers Squibb has endeavored to be the leading developer, marketer and licenser of pharmaceutical healthcare products that are used for treatment of cancer, HIV / AIDS, cardiovascular diseases, hepatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

The company has been facing some challenges especially in regards to loss of market share for their biggest selling drugs to the generic drug companies. This mostly happens when the market exclusivity period of the drugs they have invented expires. This forces the company to invest so much in Research & Development so…… [Read More]

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Family Theory Application the Purpose

Words: 1595 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6216315

Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.

Summary and Conclusion

While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.

The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm

The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm

Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Emily-Rose Had Just Turned 36 and Was

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 640390

mily-Rose had just turned 36 and was in her first semester at university when her world began to crumble. This could not have come at a worse time as she has always looked forward to doing a Health Studies degree. Her friends and family were alarmed at the sudden moodiness, insomnia, fatigue, headaches, confusion, joint and muscle pain, nausea & #8230;and above all, the enduring feeling of tiredness she complained of.

mily-Rose has suddenly changed from a happy woman to someone who battled daily episodes of what she calls extreme tiredness and anxiety. In the first three weeks of starting university, her husband Harry and sons, Brian and Bob have put this down to overwork at university and firmly told her to "slacken up a bit." Although she tried a new relaxation regime suggested by her friend Anita, she still complained of daily episodes of overwhelming tiredness and general malaise.…… [Read More]

Even in the west we have a relatively new field, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) that suggests a connection between mind and body. In 1964, psychiatrist George Solomon noticed that patients with rheumatoid arthritis got worse with depression. His reasoning was that the mind has an impact on inflammation and on the general immune system.

Another physician, Herbert Benson, later showed how medication could affect blood pressure and he coined the term "relaxation response." Mind -- body connection was becoming increasingly popular and reached further publicity when Robert Ader in 1975 showed the impact that the mind (and cognitions as well as mental state) had on the immune system.

Today, the mind has achieved a larger place in Western medical practice, although conventional medicine still battles with its principals and, in many places, denies its exclusive veracity. There are some areas that are still in doubt
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Grand or Mid Range Theory

Words: 3055 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90388700

ange Theory

MID ANGE THEOY OF SPIITUAL WELL BEING

Middle ange Theory of Spiritual Well Being in Illness

Nurse meta-theorists have recently been very much concerned about the different seasons of the patient's life, which has supported and promoted the development of middle range theories in the field of nursing. This is due to the reason that these theories focus on the specific health and illness issues instead of discussing the general issues. These specific health and illness issues focused in the mid range theories are extremely important for the practicing nurses as they spotlight on the particular problem and its solution.

History of Theory Development in Nursing

The practicing nurses started incorporating the nursing theories into their research and practically applying them to real situations during 1970s and 1980s. Majority of the early nursing theories fall in the category of grand theories of nursing because the concepts that described…… [Read More]

References

Barss, K. (2012). T.R.U.S.T: An affirming model for inclusive spiritual care. Journal of Holistic

Nursing. 30(1). 23-35.

Burkhart, L and Hogan, N. (2008). An Experiential Theory of Spiritual Care in Nursing Practice.

Qualitative Health Research, 18 (7), 929-940.
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Marinol Medicine Is Designed to Treat the

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97178475

Marinol

Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.

Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.

Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief

Group: Princeton, NJ.
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Management of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Words: 3435 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7686776

Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3

Patients…… [Read More]

References

1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
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Jnj and Inflammation and Its Role in

Words: 2767 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16597287

JNJ and Inflammation

Inflammation and its role in disease

Inflammation is a primary contributing component to the pathophysiology of allergies asthma (Barbers et al., 2012). Inflammation along with remodeling are defining features present with mild to severe asthma. Inflammation due to allergies causes structural and functional changes to blood vessels within the respiratory tract. These changes include increased blood flow, vasodilation, angiogenesis, and higher vascular permeability in airways of asthmatics (Jang et al., 2012). emodeling is defined as the structural changes that occur within airways such as increases in vascularity, increased smooth muscle mass within the airways, subepithelial fibrosis, and hyperplasia of goblet cells within the proximal and distal airways (Barbers et al., 2012). Furthermore, remodeling is a process involving a multitude of factors including complex interactions among cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factors (Jang et al., 2012). esearch has suggested that the structural changes that occur due to…… [Read More]

References

Barbers, R.G., Papanikolaou, I.C., Koss, M.N., Patel, A., Katagihara, E., Arenas, M., Chan, K., Azen, C.G., Sharma, O.P. (2012). Near fatal asthma: clinical and airway biopsy characteristics. Pulmonary Medicine, 2012, 829608.

Beermann, S., Glage, S., Jonigk, D., Seifert, R., Neumann, D. (2012). Opposite effects of mepyramine on JNJ 7777120-induced amelioration of experimentally induced asthma in mice in sensitization and provocation. PLoS One, 7(1), e30285.

Cowden, J.M., Riley, J.P., Ma, J.Y., Thurmond, R.L., Dunford, P.J. (2010). Histamine H$ receptor antagonism diminishes existing airway inflammation and dysfunction via modulation of Th2 cytokines. Respiratory Research, 11, 86.

Desai, P. Thurmond, R.L. (2011). Histamine H4 receptor activation enhances LPS-induced IL-6 production in mast cells via ERK and PI3K activation. European Journal of Immunology, 41(6), 1764-73.
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Greiving Case Study Grief Is a Powerful

Words: 1922 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5583404

Greiving Case Study

Grief is a powerful, and somewhat self-regulating condition which we face having experiences a traumatic event. The wonders of our human ody respond with pre-programmed efficiency in order to help us adjust to the reality of the new situation. In the face of a traumatic occurrence, when our emotional or mental reaction may e to shut down, or run and hide, the grieving response gives a person the needed oundaries in which they can continue to function. However, some time after the events have past into the distance, the need exists for the person to process through the grief. Only y processing the grief can the person reenter a healthy relationship with the daily responsiilities of life, and healthy relationships with others in their life.

Charley's current situation in life is a function of poor decisions in his adult life. However, these decisions are also a response…… [Read More]

bibliography

Lindemann, Erich. (1994) "Symptomatology and Management of Acute Grief." In Essential Papers on Object Loss. New York: New York UP, 1994.

Major Depressive Episode. (2004) Bravenet clinical Capsule. Accessed 18 Feb 2004. Available from: http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/mjrdepep.htm

Alcorn Jr., M. (2001, Spet. 22) Ideological Death and Grief in the Classroom: Mourning as a Prerequisite to Learning. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society/

Manveet, K. (2002, June 4) Children and grief New Straits Times;
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Client Stressors Case Study Stressors Intra According

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6587801

Client Stressors Case Study

Stressors

Intra

According to the Betty Neuman model, intrapersonal stressors are "internal environmental interaction forces occurring within the boundary of the client, between client sub-systems," (12). This commonly includes physical, psychological and emotional issues that become stressors for each particular case. The clear intra-factors in this case are the presence of a kidney infection, acute lower abdominal pain, the fact that she is not taking any medications. She has been staying hydrated, a previous back muscle injury in the past. The patient has been having heavier menstrual cycles with worse cramping, no breast tenderness, did not pass clogs, she believes she is getting close to experience menopause, no prior abnormal paps or STDs, normal mammogram and pap last year, did have surgery for PPTL in 1977 after her third child was born, does not douche, previous hospitalization for back pain 5 years ago, recently went to…… [Read More]

References

Reed, Karen S. (1993). Betty Neuman: The Neuman System's Model. Sage.
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Isabella's Sleeping Issues Diagnosed

Words: 2281 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56243656

318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.

An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).

An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders (4th Ed.) Text Revision. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric

Association.

Belleville G., Guay S., Marchand a. (2011). Persistence of sleep disturbances following cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic
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Biologic Aging Theory Explained

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66685694

Caregiver

The author of this report is put in a case study situation where a patient is aging and encountering some health issues. The patient is grumbling that her immediate family has not had the health problems that she has had. Those health problems include a heart attack within the last week, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. She is doing this grumbling while her hygiene is being attended. For the purposes of this story, it is the author of this report that is providing the hygiene and thus must give answers to these grumblings based on the perspective of an informed caregiver. The author is also charged with including the biologic aging theory in the overall answer and the patient's overall care plan. While genetics is indeed a major precursor for many major health issues, it is far from being the only one and this patient…… [Read More]

References

Jin, K. (2010). Modern Biological Theories of Aging. Aging And Disease, 1(2), 72. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995895/

Worcester, A. (2015). Social Gerontology: The Biology of Aging. Trinity.edu. Retrieved 28 September 2015, from http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/ger-biol.html
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How and Why Graves Disease Attacts Women Under Forty

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62002473

Graves' Disease

Identify the Disease

Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system that results in too many thyroid hormones being produced, a situation that is called hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormones impact many different body functions, so the " ... signs and symptoms" that are linked to Graves' disease cannot easily be zeroed in on specifically (Mayo Clinic). Anyone can be stricken with Graves' disease but it is far more common among women who haven't reached the age of 40 yet. To summarize, Graves' is actually caused by a "malfunction of disease-fighting immune system," which is, too many thyroid hormones are being produced.

The Mayo Clinic provides a list of signs and symptoms that a person may have Graves' disease. Some of the signs associated with Graves' disease include: being irritable or anxious; a fine tremor in hands or fingers; sensitive to heat and increased perspiration; losing weight though eating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Acton, A.Q. (2013). Graves' Disease: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. Atlanta,

Georgia: ScholarlyEditions.

Bahn, R.S. (2015). Graves' Disease: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians. New York:

Springer.
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Treatment of Ilds and Assessment

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36414233

Interstitial lung disease is a blanket term for a big group of disorders categorized by progressive scarring of both the lung tissue supporting and between the air sacs. This tissue is called the interstitium. The interstitium consists of the region between the alveolar space and the capillaries. The scarring causes inflammation and damage in the lung tissue followed by lung stiffness, meaning the air sacs cannot expand as much as before. Lung stiffness makes it harder to breathe. People affected by the condition are not able to get enough oxygen from the lungs into their bloodstream.

Although some potential causes have been researched, there may be no underlying cause for development of interstitial lung disease. If there is no known cause, it is called idiopathic interstitial lung disease. IPF or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains the most common type of this illness. Of the causes most widely recognized, cigarette smoking is…… [Read More]

References

Fischer, A. & du Bois, R. (2012). Interstitial lung disease in connective tissue disorders. The Lancet,380(9842), 689-698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61079-4

Maher, T. (2014). Current and Emerging Treatment Options in Interstitial Lung Disease. Pulmonary Manifestations Of Rheumatic Disease, 193-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0770-0_14

Moazedi-Fuerst, F., Kielhauser, S., Brickmann, K., Tripolt, N., Meilinger, M., Lufti, A., & Graninger, W. (2015). Sonographic assessment of interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical And Experimental Rheumatology,33(4 Suppl 91), S87-91. Retrieved from  http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/25665185
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Application of Chronic Sorrow Theory

Words: 2439 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96370577

Chronic Sorrow Theory

The term 'chronic sorrow' may be described as sadness of a persistent, periodically severe, increasing, and lasting nature. This condition may be triggered in a person because of ongoing loss, arising from personal chronic disease, a loved one's illness, or personal disability (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Olshansky (1962) first put forward the "chronic sorrow" concept when working with children suffering from physical or mental disabilities and members of their family (parents, siblings, etc.). The researcher noted that these children' parents exhibited a persistent psychological response to their experience of being the parents of a physically or mentally disabled child (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). Through inductive reasoning, the chronic sorrow theory -- a middle range model -- was developed, which was corroborated using both qualitative research and literature review. (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 98)

The chronic sorrow theory helps create a framework to comprehend individuals' reactions to…… [Read More]

References

Azar, R. & Solomon, C. R. (2001). Coping Strategies of Parents Facing Child Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Paediatric Nursing, 16(6), 418-428. doi:10.1053/jpdn.2001.27878  http://www.mta.ca/pshl/docs/copingstrategiesparents.pdf 

Cousino, M. K. & Hazen, R. A. (2013). Parenting Stress among Caregivers of Children with Chronic Illness: A Systematic Review. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jst049. http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/10/jpepsy.jst049.full

Eakes, G., Burke, M. L. & Hainsworth, M. A. (1998). Middle-Range theory of Chronic Sorrow. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), pp. 179(6).  http://www.psychodyssey.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Middle-range-theory-of-chronic-sorrow.pdf 

Isaksson, A-K. (2007). Chronic Sorrow and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Orebro Studies in Caring Sciences 12.  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:137348/FULLTEXT01.pdf&sa=U&ei=mRpOU-_jNoHdtAaX_IHADQ&ved=0CEIQFjAH&usg=AFQjCNEOnPREJrlQluN534bq57kX56S8oQ
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Unique Preventable Disease

Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26553310

FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET

Introduction to Fibromyalgia

Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

Effects of the symptoms on the body.

isk factors and preventive steps.

(1) Demographics.

Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.

Prognosis.

Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Fibromyalgia

Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…… [Read More]

References

Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740

Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms.

Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF

KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x