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Richard III was one of Shakespeare's earliest plays, and possibly aside from Titus Andronicus, one of his most brutal. This violence is contrasted with Shakespeare's use of supernatural elements such as dreams and curses, because these supernatural elements grant certain characters power who would otherwise be powerless in the face of the physical violence upon which Richard and his rise to power depend (even though Richard himself shies away from violence). However, in the 1995 film adaptation of Richard III, these supernatural elements are largely removed due to the fact that the fascist Britain in which the story is set has no room for the supernatural; by definition, under fascism the state itself takes on the status of an ultimate, divine power. hile this is a necessary consequence of the "transposition and cutting of entire scenes" that is required when adapting Shakespeare to film, the change actually manages to reveal…
Arnold, Aerol. "The Recapitulation Dream in Richard III and Macbeth." Shakespeare Quarterly
6.1 (1955): 51-62.
Jackson, Russell. "From play-script to screenplay." The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare
on Film. By Jackson, Russell. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 15-
This version is different from the first two interpretations in that Al Pacino and his actors needed to break down the barriers, which render Shakespeare's history complicated and intimidating. Al Pacino allows his viewer to go behind the scenes and witness the actual process of acting. The heavier aspects of the play are made mild by informal shots of actors dealing with their roles in either a comic or heated forum. Al Pacino's methods of analysis are insightful, amusing and engrossing. He transcends the barrier between actors and their audience as he stands in London's legendary Globe Theater and the halls of New York City's Cloisters Museum (Richard III Society).
It illustrates how the actors move in and out of character through their struggles, debates and revelations about the play (Richard III Society 1996). At the same time, Al Pacino also acquires and measures public opinion about Richard III through…
1. Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data. (2000). The Tragedy of Richard III by William Shakespeare (c 1591-3). Oxford University Press.
2. Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios. (2006). Richard III. Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios, Inc. http://www.mgm.com/title_title_do-title_star=RICHARD3
3. Moorhen, W.E.A. (2006). Richard III. Society Research Office, Society of Antiquaries. http://www.richardIII.net
4. Richard III Society, American branch. (1996). Looking for Richard by Al Pacino. http://www.r3.org/pacino
Richard III: Shakespeare's Humbert
Literature is filled with characters that are designed to be lovable. For instance, Cordelia from Shakespeare's "King Lear" is the good sister: She cares not about Lear's bequest, but rather only focuses on her love and caring for her father. She is veritably sainted against the deep contrast of her mercenary sisters. Then there is Pnin, Vladimir Nabokov's lovable absent-minded and foreign professor of the novel by that name. Pnin is constantly stymied by the insensitive and impersonal nature of American society and we as readers have no choice but to love him and feel for him.
The Nabokov example is selected because of another -- much more famous -- Nabokovian character, Humbert. A pedophile and accused murderer, Humbert is -- on the surface -- on of the least likable characters in literature, and a definite questionable selection as a protagonist.
However, Nabokov wields his magic…
Biography Channel. 2005. Rich List . www.thebiographychannel.co.uk.
Bookrags. 2005. Biography of Richard, III. www.bookrags.com.
Britannia. 2005. Monarchs of England: Richard III. www.britannia.com.
Richard III and Macbeth
In the plays of illiam Shakespeare, certain themes seem to appear over and over again. In both the stories of Richard III and Macbeth, very ambitious men use nefarious means in order to achieve leadership of their countries. Each man is in line for the throne, but has to deal with other people who are closer to the crown than he is. So, the title character takes it upon him to eliminate all the people who stand between him and ultimate power. It doesn't matter if they are family members or friends. Anyone who stands in the way is done away with either through murder or by framing the person for murder. hat often happens when a man or woman uses bloodshed to get ahead in the world is that the deaths come back to haunt them, often in a physical form. This haunting, whether real…
Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. The Norton Shakespeare. New York: W.W. Norton, 2008.
Shakespeare, William. Richard III. The Norton Shakespeare. New York: W.W. Norton, 2008.
This reinvention has continued in every era since, including in the modern film adaptation of Richard the Third starring Ian McKellan. Set just prior to orld ar II and with Richard as a fascist dictator who often appears quasi-Naziish, this film version gives much darker political overtones to Richard's climb and eventual reign than appear in Shakespeare's text. Though this makes the depth of Richard's evil far more profound and influential, it also has the effect of somewhat ruining the original impact of the play (or script) by making the outcome too serious.
There is, of course, no lack of seriousness in the political effects of the play or the grief of the many characters that Richard wrongs on his way to the throne, but it is tempered throughout the script by Richard's sense of his own dastardliness, and his completely self-serving attitude. In the script, he does desire to…
Barton, Anne. "The London Scene: The City and the Court." The Cambridge
Companion to Shakespeare. New York: Cambridge University Press 2001.
Evans, G. Blakemore and M. Tobin, eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Grady, Hugh. "Shakespeare Criticism: 1600-1900." The Cambridge
They want to be king so badly that they can justify any action that helps them achieve their goal. These actions include murder. Both men become villains in different ways - Richard seems to have been born villainous and Macbeth seems to prove that villains are not born but made from outside influences. Shakespeare proves both assertions valid when we see Macbeth reach the same level of conniving and ruthlessness as Richard. The dream of power and the intense thirst for ambition lead both men to murder. In addition, both men not only murder but also commit cold-blooded murder to get what they want proving that we are not so different from one another.
Bloom, Harold. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books. 1998.
Bradley, a.C. Shakespearean Tragedy. New York: Fawcett Premier Books. 1991.
Greenblatt, Stephen. ill in the orld. New York .. Norton and…
Bloom, Harold. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books. 1998.
Bradley, a.C. Shakespearean Tragedy. New York: Fawcett Premier Books. 1991.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World. New York W.W. Norton and Company, Inc. 2004.
Shakespeare, William. I Henry III. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Vol. I. New York: Nelson Doubleday, Inc. 1853.
Garrick and Kean as Richard III
David Garrick in the eighteenth century and Edmund Kean in the early nineteenth would both make their reputations on performing the title role in Shakespeare's Richard III, but as with the stage history of King Lear in the same time period, they were not performing Shakespeare's text unaltered but in the adaptation of former poet laureate (and Alexander Pope's King of the Dunces) Colley Cibber. Nicoll relates that Garrick became an overnight sensation playing the crook-backed usurper: the morning after his debut, Garrick wrote to his brother "Last Night I play'd Richard ye Third to ye Surprize of Every Body & as I shall make very near 300 pounds p Annum by It & as it is really what I doat upon I am resolv'd to pursue it" (Nicoll 1). Meanwhile Green notes that "Richard III was Kean's most popular role, and he played…
SHAKESPEAE'S ICHAD III AND TEY'S ICHAD III
This paper explores the differences between Shakespeare's account of ichard III and Josephine Tey's Account of the same. The paper reasons out the causes of differences.
COMPAISON OF SHAKESPEAE'S ICHAD III AND TEY'S ICHAD III
Shakespeare's descriptions of ichard III have been the most popular historical account.
He describes ichard to be a physically deformed individual with his deformities eating away at his mind and soul turning him into a loathsome character. Moreover, he depicts ichard to be greedy for throne so much so that he went about on a murdering spree. In Shakespeare's account, ichard killed his own brother George whose turn it was in the line of succession within the House of York. Moreover, he had the queen's brothers, ivers and Gray and his wife Anne murdered too with the aid of the conspiratorial Buckingham. But, as depicted by Shakespeare, his…
Moore, James A (1995). Historicity in Shakespeare's Richard III. Richard III Society. March 5, 2002. http://www.r3.org/bookcase/moore1.html#fn1
Tey, Josephine (1952). The daughter of time. New York, Macmillan, 1952, 204
Shakespearean and Tey's account
Dreams in Shakespeare's Richard III
Whatever view we take of Richard III as depicted in Shakespeare's play, his dominance of the action cannot be doubted. He is the central figure of the story, a demonic force that energizes the plot and constantly makes things happen. The very fact that he begins the play by asserting that all is well in England except with himself, and proceeds on the basis of his own discontent to undermine the content of the nation, demonstrates clearly his own self-centered vision. "I am determined to prove a villain" [act I, scene 1, line 30] is his declaration in his first speech and that is precisely what he does -- not merely "appear" a villain or "be regarded" as a villain, but actively "prove" a villain. Richard, however much he may be a villain to the world, is the hero of his own story, and his…
William Shakespeare, Richard III, edited by E.A.J. Honigman (London: Penguin, 1968).
King Richard III and King Henry V
William Shakespeare is one of the brightest play writers throughout ages. His contribution to the world literature is immense and raises a lot of important questions for the mankind. In his plays Henry V and Richard III Shakespeare tried to analyze the historical role of a king, showing him as an ordinary human being one side and a powerful king on the other. It seems that Shakespeare shows the difference between being a man and being a king and how the personality may influence the ways in ruling the country. At the same time he delightfully shows the inner world of the kings with all its virtues and evils, desires and fears and their reflection on the social and political life of their country.
The main characters of the books, as it has been mentioned before are both kings. Richard III and Henry…
They fear Richard because he is a great warrior, I thought. Although Richard tried to deny it, Queen Margaret described how he slew my husband without pity. Indeed, I suppose the good have no place in this world, no place in politics. Henry VI and my husband should have been monks or shepherds, not rulers. But then what of myself? What will happen to me? I wondered this as I tossed and turned at night. I had already seen too clearly how women are treated during times of war and strife.
There is no place for tenderness in this world, I thought, no place where a woman can rest easy -- and then, for the first time in my life, I felt regarded. I felt as if I was not a woman who was a political pawn, but truly seen as a woman. Richard said, to me, Anne:
Duke of Gloucester
Shakespeare's ichard III, The Duke of Gloucester, may not bear much resemblance to the real king in character and appearance but in this play, he is certainly the most dominant and a fully developed figure that serves as both the protagonist and villain of the play. For critics, it is hard to decide whether ichard III can actually be called a tragedy because here the protagonist appears less a tragic figure and more a vain, cruel and malicious king who was ruthlessly ambitious and killed people not for the love of his country, as most other tragic kings did, but advance his own objectives.
It is widely believed that Shakespeare's ichard III was based on Sir Thomas More's description of the king. Other historians have often described him as a courageous and warm king, a description widely different from the image we get from Shakespeare's play. In…
1) Sir Thomas More, The History of King Richard III, ed. By R.S. Sylvester (1963), pp. 7-8
2) Harrison, G.B., ed. Shakespeare: the complete works. New York: Harcourt, 1968
3) Donna J. Oestreich-Hart "Therefore, since I Cannot Prove a Lover." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. Volume: 40. Issue: 2. 2000. 241.
Richard III and the Odyssey
The focus of both, Shakespeare's "Richard III" and Homer's "The Odyssey," is the struggle between good and evil. Each work shows the consequences of following temptations and how in the end good triumphs over evil.
Richard is evil personified. Due to his lack of any compassion or humanity there is no other conclusion to draw except that Richard is psychopathic. He is basically a serial killer with a self-promoting plan (Shakespeare 1996). His every intention is to be in complete control at any cost, nothing and no one is going to stand in his way. Although in the beginning Richard might easily be taken as simply a jealous cripple out to take revenge on his older brother, by the end of the play, he has become a monster, the epitome of evil, feeding on power and death in a mad frenzy to obtain his goal…
Homer. The Odyssey. Noonday Press. November 1998.
Shakespeare, William. Richard III. Washington Square Press. 1996.
Daughter of Time
"Everybody knows that Richard III, the last of the Plantagenet kings, murdered his two nephews. But everybody could be wrong -- according to Scotland Yard's Inspector Grant, who studies 500-year-old evidence to try to determine who really killed these two heirs to the British throne…"
(Harris, 2001, p. 1).
On the initial page of author Josephine Tey's book, The Daughter of Time, the author (whose real name is Elizabeth MacKintosh and who also uses the name Gordon Daviot) embraces the quote, "Truth is the Daughter of Time." That is an appropriate use of the proverb because much of the discussion of Tey's fictitious historical novel centers on the concepts of truth and perception when it comes to King Richard III.
Summary of the Book
One of Tey's characters that she uses in this novel, and in several of her other books, Alan Grant, is an inspector with…
DuBose, Martha Hailey. Women of Mystery: The Lives and Works of Notable Women Crime
Novelists. New York: Macmillan, 2000.
Gale Online Encyclopedia. "Overview: Daughter of Time." Retrieved July 28, 2012, from Literature Resource Center.
Harris, Karen. "The Daughter of Time." Booklist, 97.17. Literature Resource Center, 2001.
Marius notes, "More was not above wrenching a historical tale around to make it prove what he wanted to prove." (pg. 104)
As with any published academic endeavor, Marius has opened himself (or opened himself, since he has been dead since 1999) to inevitable criticism from other (perhaps jealous), scholars with differing opinions.
But ultimately, Marius proved his merit repeatedly. Not only did he continue to further his research and engage interest in More through articles, but he also went on the speaking circuit. All of this validated what he initially wrote in his More biography.
Marius examines other prominent figures and important scholars of the time, including Erasmus and Martin Luther (Marius wrote a biography on latter, too).
If Marius demonstrates any bias, it's the concerted effort he makes to present More as a whole person, flaws and all. He carefully cites incidents, some more documented historically than others,…
Two of the significant internal threats that Charles V failed to appreciate came from his Spanish subjects and from the spread of Protestantism. As was discussed, Charles V failed to understand, or perhaps did not care, how his Spanish subjects would react to his decisions to replace their countrymen in top posts, raise taxes and force them to bear much of the human loss of his military endeavors. The end result, of course, was an uprising among the Spanish people that caused much bloodshed. Eventually, the Spanish did accept Charles V, but his early mistakes caused hardship.
The obvious mistake of Charles V's rule, however, was his failure to quash the growth of Protestantism during its infancy. There is some speculation as to why this occurred. Some historians believe that Charles V was intent on reconciling the Protestants with the Catholic church and bringing them back together under the same…
Charles V (No date). Retrieved April 5, 2007, at http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/more/more4feb/24carl5/241500c5.html .
Charles V, Holy Roman emperor (2005). The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 3, 2007, at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ch/Charles5HRE.html .
Chronology of the Crusades (No date). Retrieved April 4, 2007, at http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/christian/blchron_xian_crusades13.htm .
History of the Ottoman Empire, an Islamic nation where Jews lived (2004). Retrieved April 5, 2007, at http://www.sephardicstudies.org/ottoemp.html .
Allestree indicates that flattery is a form of mental slavery and says that love and friendship are far too valuable to prostitute them. In addition, he believes that flattery is harmful because, by failing to point out a man's flaws, or by transmuting those flaws into assets, one condemns the man to continue in those faults. Furthermore, he points out that flatterers are often treacherous, because their affection ends when the one that they have flattered falls out of favor. In fact, when the formerly adored friend falls out of favor, the flatterers are often the first to point out their faults to those who are coming into favor.
In section nine, Allestree speaks about boasting. Boasting is not limited to people speaking bombastically about themselves, but also includes people who cannot hear talk on any subject without trying to turn that subject towards them. Therefore, it becomes clear that…
Victor inwardly becomes a monster himself." (Kain, par. 5)
On the other hand, ichard III was written by William Shakespeare. It is the story of ichard who secretly desired the throne of his brother. Although ichard is unattractive and considers himself as such, he is very charismatic. He has a strong personality and he is brilliant with his words and his arguments. In his desire for the thrown of his brother, King Edward IV, ichard was willing to kill anyone just to obtain it. Being intelligent and skillful, he was able to deceive the people around him in order to manipulate them. In order to get married, he manipulated Lady Anne. And then he used his political power by manipulating and deceiving the people around him to have his other brother, Clarence, executed. He used manipulated his older brother, Edward to feel guilty about Clarence's death. This contributed to the…
California State University, Northridge. 2007. 9 June 2009.
Donnelley, Connor. Conscience with the New Millenium. 8 June 2009 < http://www.sma.org.sg/sma_news/3202/ethics.pdf >.
Hall, Richard, Dennis, Carolyn Brown, Chipman, Tere. The Ethical Foundations of Criminal Justice. New York: CRC Press, 1999.
Kain, Joseph. "The Human Situation in Creators of Life and Their Creations." Lehigh University Digital Library. 9 June 2009 .
The question of leadership and government has always been a subject that concerned political theorists. ne of the first political theorists to brake up with the Medieval tradition regarding rulers and the ethics of government, Niccolo Machiavelli, presented his theories related to the rules a prince should follow in order to be able to govern a state and stay in power as long as possible. Machiavelli left the question of ethics completely for religious subjects and treated his topic form a rationale point-of-view destined to prescribe the best recipe for a political ruler to follow in order to succeed. Shakespeare's Richard III and George rwell's The Animal Farm present two different political regimes, the former focusing on dynastic battles in England in the fifteenth century and the latter on fictional animal characters that resemble real life characters form the early twentieth century revolutionary Russia. Despite the fact that…
Orwell, G. Baker, R. Animal farm: a fairy story. Signet Classic, 1996
Richard III, film, 1955.
Textbook. Machiavelli, N. The Prince
Tragic Motivation in Romeo and Juliet and the Life and Death of Richard III
One may argue that people behave the way they do based on their motivations, which can be complicated and interwoven in the psyche of human nature. Often, simplifying what motivates people helps define those motivations, such as the examination of good and evil, or love and hate. Engaging characters developed by authors to tell compelling stories often are given those elements that define the human condition, and are an examination of what motivates people to act in the way they do. In Shakespeare's plays, Romeo and Juliet and The Life and Death of Richard III, there is a stark difference in the motivation of the primary characters demonstrated by their words and actions. The difference in the concept of nobility is given through motivation, whether through honorable intentions or claimed entitlement.
Motivation of Love
"Richard III: Entire Play." The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. 11 Dec. 2010 .
"Romeo and Juliet: Entire Play." The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. 11 Dec. 2010 .
"Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare and "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labe both talk about love, as so many sonnets do. Their respective techniques however, differentiate them from each other. Shakespeare uses a rhyme scheme that became known as Shakespearean rhyme scheme or English rhyme. He writes about love in a sarcastic manner though. He is mocking the traditional love poems and the usual expressive manner in which women are often compared to. It is ironic in a way because Shakespeare himself also uses the very techniques in his previous writing when he is writing from a man's point-of-view and describing a woman. But in this sonnet he uses the technique of mocking this exaggerated comparison. Usually women are compared to having skin as white as snow, however, in reality, Shakespeare points out, women don't really fit this description, "If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun."
Josephine Tey's 1951 novel The Daughter of Time is a mystery novel. Alan Grant is a Scotland Yard inspector who undertakes an ambitious project of solving the mystery of who King Richard III really was and why he had been disparaged by the Crown. Like the lead character in Alfred Hitchcock's movie Rear indow, Alan Grant becomes obsessed with the mystery because his leg is broken and he is off-duty. Grant finds a portrait of King Richard III and muses that the man's visage appears kindly, in stark contrast to Richard's characterization by Shakespeare. Shakespeare in fact called King Richard III "this poisonous bunch-backed toad," "that foul defacer of God's handiwork," and "this carnal cur," (cited by Yardley). As Remick points out, Richard III was viewed as a "wicked uncle and murderer!" Alan Grant takes it upon himself to clear Richard III's image and reputation. The title of Josephine…
Remick, Lynne. "Daughter of Time by Josephine Tey: A Book Review." Retrieved online: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/romance_through_the_ages/31254
Tey, Josephine. The Daughter of Time. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Yardley, Jonathan. Josephine Tey, Sleuthing Into The Mystery of History." The Washington Post. March 12, 2003; Page C01. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A13181-2003Mar11.html
Juliet herself, though ostensibly a virgin, is certainly not innocent in this regard; though certain strains of chauvinism have been purportedly found in this and others of his plays, Shakespeare certainly cannot be accused of granting males a monopoly on lust. In the shorter monologue that she delivers in the same scene, unaware of Romeo's presence, she famously asks, "hat's Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot, / nor arm, nor face, nor any other part / Belonging to a man" (Riverside 1114, II. ii. 40-2). She does not mention a mind, a spirit, or any other intangible qualities that might make her protestations of a deep, emotional love somewhat more believable, but instead focuses on the physical aspects of Romeo (including the suggestive "any other part belonging to a man") -- the true root of her desires.
It is not love, then, that causes these two teenagers to be…
Clemen, Wolfgang. A Commentary on Shakespeare's Richard III. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Evans, G. Blakemore and M. Tobin, eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Rose, Herbert. A Handbook of Greek Mythology. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Shakespeare, William. Richard the Third. In the Riverside Shakespeare.
Battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485) took place because at that time Henry Tudor was able to mount a serious challenge to the position of King Richard III. He was able to do so because during the preceding two years Richard's position had been weakened by his own acts and by rebellion and discontent among the English nobility, and because Henry had been able to secure his own place as the head of the Lancastrian tendency and the only credible challenger to Richard's throne.
This was despite the very real weakness of Henry Tudor's claim. Henry's royal blood was real enough but illegitimate, and his claim to the throne was not a particularly strong one; it was based on his descent from the Beaufort line, illegitimate offspring of John of Gaunt's union with his mistress Kathryn Swinford. John of Gaunt was son of Edward III and held the title…
Evans, Robin, 'The Battle of Bosworth Field: A Welsh Victory?', History Review, Decmeber 2002: 4-7.
Haigh, Philip A., The Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses (Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 1997).
Jacob, E.F., The Fifteenth Century, 1399-1485 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1976).
Richmond, Colin, 'The Battle of Bosworth', History Today, August 1985: 17-22.
Machiavelli and Shakespeare:
The Influence of Machiavelli on Shakespeare's Plays
The Italian enaissance-era philosopher and political adviser Nicolo Machiavelli is one of the most famous and infamous writers on the subject of politics. Despite the common use of the synonym Machiavellian for evil, Machiavelli's seminal tract The Prince was considered so ground-breaking because of his emphasis on the practical nature of holding principalities versus a philosophy of the divine right of kings. Cunning rather than religion was the reason leaders triumphed, according to Machiavelli. Machiavelli was not necessarily opposed to democracy but rather advocated strong-armed techniques because simply from the prince's perspective that these methods were superior in holding territories. Machiavelli offered hard-headed words of wisdom versus ethical theories. Machiavelli's unsentimental and irreligious attitude towards kingship was very controversial at the time and influenced many of the depictions of villains in the Elizabethan playwright William Shakespeare's plays, including Julius Caesar,…
Machiavelli, N. (2013). The Prince. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved from:
Shakespeare, W. (1993). Julius Caesar. Shakespeare Homepage. Retrieved from:
Olivier's philosophy of taking a body of work, molding it into an actor's own style and visual taste, and then regurgitating it in a way that incorporates both classical theater and modern dramatic actions and reactions, was something he was famous for. He remained true to Shakespeare's intentions of his plays acting as both entertainment and as warnings to humankind that in the proper settings and situations, human interactions can become quite insane or illogical. This is the eternal message that Shakespeare intended be delivered by the actors that would play his roles both in the old times and in more modern times (Cottrell, 199). Olivier makes good on his promise as an actor to deliver these messages of humanity to every audience member.
Overlap and Conclusion
Nearly all of Olivier's work overlaps in some ways. Many impersonators, including Peter Sellers were able to take Olivier's style and dramatic character…
Cottrell, John. Laurence Olivier. London: Hodder Stoughton Ltd., 1977.
Spoto, Donald. Laurence Olivier: A Biography. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
William Shakespeare and Robert Burns are both iconic figures in the UK. Also known as the Bard of Avon, Shakespeare is often regarded as England’s national poet. Shakespeare is also considered the world’s greatest English writer and dramatist. During his time, Shakespeare authored tens of plays, over a hundred sonnets, and several narrative poems and verses (Marche, 2012). Shakespeare’s work has been translated into virtually all major languages of the world. Also, his work is performed more regularly than any other work. Robert Burns, born close to one and a half centuries after the death of Shakespeare, was also a prominent poet. Similar to Shakespeare, Burns is regarded as Scotland’s national poet (Hogg, 2008). Referred to as the Bard of Ayrshire, Burns is also recognised worldwide for his work (Cairney, 2000). As poets and playwrights, both Shakespeare and Burns have substantially influenced English literature and language as well as…
Value of Shakespeare
The works of illiam Shakespeare are staples in our educational system at least from secondary through college levels. This has been true in some degree for more than 400 years, virtually since these works were first performed. In Shakespeare's time, many of these plays were very popular, and they were reprinted and performed over and over in the centuries since. The use of these works in education shows that they are valued and that they impart some of this value to students, raising the question of how these plays have affected and changed society and what values they nurture in students today.
These plays first have contributed much to our language. illiam Shakespeare contributed to the language by perpetuating a large vocabulary -- which is why many have cited the large vocabulary of the plays as evidence that the largely uneducated Shakespeare could not have written the…
Lederer, Richard, "Looking at Language: Drawing Inspiration from Shakespeare." The Patriot Ledger (April 20, 1996), C3.
McArthur, Tom. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Neumann, Anne Waldron. "Should You Read Shakespeare?" Meanjin 56(1)(1997), 17-25.
Papp, Joseph and Elizabeth Kirkland. Shakespeare Alive! New York: Bantam, 1988.
The years in which the Romantic Era had its great impact -- roughly 1789 through 1832 -- were years in which there were "intense political, social, and cultural upheavals," according to Professor Shannon Heath at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (Heath, 2009). The beginning of the Romantic Era actually is traced to the French Revolution, and though that tumultuous event was not in England, illiam ordsworth and others sympathized with the French Revolution -- at least at the beginning of the Revolution.
The demands for democracy in the Era were manifested through poems that reflected solidarity with principles of "equality and individuality," Heath explains. The principles of fairness and equality were needed in England as well as in France, and Heath suggests that poets were not just responding to revolutions but rather were critiquing English government. According to Giovanni Pellegrino the struggles for democracy and the "political…
Heath, S. (2009). The Culture of Rebellion in the Romantic Era. Romantic Politics. University of Tennessee at Knoxville. Retrieved April 24, 2014, from http://web.utk.edu .
Pellegrino, G. (2011). Romantic Period in England. Centro Studi La Runa. Retrieved April 24,
2014, from http://www.centrostudilaruna.it .
The setting up the king's supremacy instead of the usurpations of the papacy, and the rooting out the monastic state in England, considering the wealth, the numbers, and the zeal of the monks and friars in all the parts of the kingdom, as it was a very bold undertaking, so it was executed with great method, and performed in so short a time, and with so few of the convulsions that might have been expected, that all this shews what a master he was, that could bring such a design to be finished in so few years, with so little trouble or danger (Slavin, 19)."
Cromwell's position was no less tenuous than that of his predecessor, olsey. Henry did not become a tyrant without warning. Ridley reports that even as a young man, before he succeeded his father as king, Henry was prone to outbursts of anger and bad temper…
Haigh, Christopher. English Reformations: Religion, Politics and Society Under the Tudors. Oxford University Press, Inc., 1993.
Lindsey, Karen. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived a Feminist Reignterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1995. Questia. 26 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6981860 .
hen the lease expired for the original location, the Burbages reassembled the theater on the South Bank of the Thames in 1599. This was considered to be one of the 'seedier' districts of London. As well as play-going (a disreputable practice in and of itself), bearbaiting, bull-baiting, and prostitution, were other popular spectator sports on the South Bank (Cummings 2003). hen the first Globe burnt down in 1613 "an auditor whose breaches were on fire" was "doused with ale," given that "liquid refreshments" at the tavern were always nearby at the Globe (Burgess 80).
Shakespeare had a financial interest in the theater, as well as acted with and wrote for the Burbage's company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Shakespeare and four other investors and actors, including John Heminges, Augustine Phillips, Thomas Pope and ill Kemp, owned the remaining 50% in equal shares and Shakespeare profited as much from owning the…
Burgess, Anthony. Shakespeare. First Published 1970. Da Capo Press, 2002.
Cummings, Michael. "Globe Theater." Cummings Study Guide. 2003. 1 May 2008. http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/xGlobe.html
Greer, Germaine. Shakespeare's Wife. New York: Harpers, 2008.
James Burbage." Elizabethan Era. 1 May 2008. http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/james-burbage.htm
William Shakespeare was born into a world of words that took him from cold, stone castles in Scotland to the bustling cities of Italy and the high seas of colonial change. An emblem of the Renaissance, the Bard of Avon was not only the conqueror of his own mind and pen, but also of the language of his own social, political, and religious reality. His theatre, the epic Globe, mirrors the stories of the early, bustling London and ever-morphing England in the duration of its own life, from plank and dirt to flame and fame.
By 1598, Richard Burbage was the practicing don of the London theatre world, extending his fingertips for production all over the lively center of British commerce and governance. His players, a collection of all-male actors, were widely recognized throughout the theatre world, one of the only sources of popular entertainment.
Burbage produced the works of…
estern Studies emphasizes on the following two topics namely, Inspirational artists during the Renaissance and England before becoming a Constitutional Monarchy. The first topic takes into account the Renaissance era and the artists produced during it where as the second focuses on how the British monarchy was established and what were the perils that were faced in establishing it. This paper also highlights certain quotes.
Inspirational artists during the Renaissance.
The Europeans regard the Renaissance as an era that completely transformed their feudal society of the middle ages into a society dominated by political institutions, in which education was pursued and liberty was the right of all the citizens. This charismatic era gave birth to many philosophers, artists, scientists and thinkers who worked to present to their people a completely new perspective of life. Many artists concentrated upon human philosophy, which became the central movement during the Renaissance.…
Fort C. How To Think Like Leonardo Da Vinci; Liberating Creativity And Igniting
Innovation In The Workplace. PR Newswire. 8 Feb. 2001.
Joseph E. Reading Montaigne. Commentary. 1 Mar. 1993.
Leonardo Da Vinci. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 1 Jul. 2003.
Lionel is not a great actor (as seen when he attempts to audition for a role as Shakespeare's ichard III) but he is a great teacher.
The budget of the King's Speech was relatively modest by lush Hollywood standards. Even after multiple Oscar wins, including Best Picture and Best Actor, its official website remains fairly stark as well, when compared with the websites of Hollywood mega-blockbusters. The main 'additional' feature the site offers is an actual recording of the historical King's real speech. However, much like Bertie himself, despite its financial odds the film was able to triumph. Despite one or two relatively sniffy reviews like the Times, most critics praised the film. Even olling Stone, which is usually no fan of period dramas, wrote: "Two men alone create an epic landscape of feeling in one of the very best movies of the year" (Travers 2010).
The King's Speech resonates…
Dargis, M. (2010, November 26). The King's English, albeit with twisted tongue.
The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2011 at http://movies.nytimes.com/2010/11/26/movies/26king.html
The King's Speech. (2011). Official Website. Retrieved March 20, 2011 at http://www.kingsspeech.com/about.html
Travers, Peter. (2010). Review of the King's Speech. Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 20, 2011
hile Shakespeare attracted his fair share of criticism during his day, it is also clear that many of his contemporaries as well as the general public viewed Shakespeare's work in a positive light. For example, Callaghan (2004) points out that, "hile we do not know how much Shakespeare was paid for the plays he furnished his company, it is clear that the greatest part of the handsome fortune Shakespeare had started to amass as early as the 1590s came from his share in the profits of his company rather than from his plays" (405). This relative affluence apparently helped to provide a sort of comfort zone for Shakespeare that allowed him to write when and what he wanted and for whatever audience he desired in ways that contributed to his ultimate success as a playwright as well as the enduring qualities of his works. For instance, Callaghan adds that, "For…
Alexander, Peter. Shakespeare's Life and Art. London: James Nisbet, 1939.
Blakeley, John. (2009). "Shakespearean Relocations: The Final Scene of John Madden's
Shakespeare in Love." Shakespeare Bulletin 27(2): 249-250.
Blayney, Peter W.M. The First Folio of Shakespeare. Washington, DC: Folger Shakespeare
It was also during this time that he started keeping a diary. The entry for that day is very relevant as to our attempt to understand what drove Orton to join the theater in hopes of an acting career. During the time he spent with the amateur theater company, Orton decided that he wanted to pursue a career in acting, and that his first step towards achieving this goal was to go to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art: "Last night sitting in the empty theatre watching the electricians flashing lights on and off, the empty stage waiting for rehearsal to begin, I suddenly knew that my ambition is, and always has been, to act." (Diary entry, April 13th, 1949: Joe Orton Online)
He quit the amateur acting company after his first role because he was not offered any other substantial roles. Although he got accepted into the Royal Academy…
Woodcock, George. The Paradox of Oscar Wilde. New York: Macmillan, 1950.
Terpening, William. "The Picture of Oscar Wilde: A brief life." Oscar Wilde Biographical Materials. 1998. http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/wilde/wildebio.html
Joe Orton Life and Work" Joe Orton Online. http://www.joeorton.org/Pages/Joe_Orton_Timeline1.html
Presidential power is thus a matter of persuasion of the public and the other branches and actors within the government. Today in particular, because of the ability of the President to invoke the information of the intelligence agencies, information which the President has special authority over, he can persuade members Congress that if they do not do his bidding, they are jeopardizing America. hen the presidential office was first created, the federal army and navy were far smaller than today -- and only Congress has the power to declare war. Yet many undeclared wars have been waged subsequently, and Congress has ceded some of its powers of controlling these institutions, from the Gulf of Tonkin resolution during Vietnam, to being persuaded by faulty intelligence it is assured it is true, as in Iraq. Presidents like Gerald Ford have limited the prosecutorial abilities of the nation by bestowing pardons, even changed…
Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern President. New York: Free Press,
Party Machines and Immigrants
For more than a century, party machines dominated the political process in many parts of the United States where William "Boss" Tweed and his Tammany Hall henchmen and their ilk controlled the outcomes of elections in many major American cities by manipulating the immigrant vote. Although these political figures were eventually displaced by other politicians, they left a legacy of corruption, back-scratching and double-dealings that persists to this day. To determine the impact of these events on modern American politics, this paper provides a discussion concerning some of the main actors involved in party machines and immigration in the United States during the 20th century, including Frank Hague, William "Boss" Tweed, Abraham euf, George Cox, ichard Daley and Vito Lopez. A summary of the research and important findings concerning party machines and their implications for immigrants are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Hamilton, C. (2012, September 4). County party chair remains powerful, if poorly understood, position. WNYC News Blog. Retrieved from http://www.wnyc.org/blogs/wnyc-news -blog/2012/sep/04/powerful-poorly-understood-county-party-chair-seat-have/.
Howe, F.C. (1915). The modern city and its problems. Chicago: C. Scribner's Sons.
Judd, D.E. & Swanstrom, T.R. (2012). City politics. Pearson.
Luthins, R.H. & Nevins, A. (1954). American demagogues: Twentieth century. Boston: Beacon
pun in the first two lines relate to the contrast between winter and summer. Winter here is used in a metaphorical sense. "Our discontent" is an emotional state that is shown through the image of winter, whereas the "sun of York" is the concrete sun shining on the country. The pun is then embedded in the fact that a concrete sun is used as an image to warm an emotional state.
The "he" refers to a personification of the war that the country as been enveloped in. This is another metaphor to show the change that has come over the country from a grim depression to a lighter mood. This personification could also refer to the mood of the soldiers returning from war. They were grim-faced when entering the battle. Upon returning, the mood is lighter, and the frowns have been smoothed.
Richard says that "he" is using the…
Exoticism in Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth Century Opera
The objective of this study is to answer as to what is meant by exoticism in nineteenth and early-twentieth century opera and as to what the appeal of exoticism to European librettists and composers. This work will take two operas as case studies and explore both the ways in which the librettists handle their subject matter and the ways in which the composers attempted to represent exoticism in musical terms. For the purpose of this study, the opera Salome by Richard Strauss and Aida by Giuseppe Verdi are chosen. This study will first examine Salome followed by an examination of Salome.
Salome the Opera
It has been said that Salome is the "most important event in German opera since the work of Richard Wagner." (Manitoba Opera 2011-2012) In fact, according to critics 'its concentrated power, eerie and sinister harmonies, and extraordinarily exotic orchestration…
Aida by Giuseppe Verdi (2011) Calgary Opera Study Guide of Aida. Retrieved from: http://www.calgaryopera.com/Aida%20Study%20Guide.pdf
Aida Giuseppe Verdi (2010) Canadian Opera Company. Retrieved from: http://files.coc.ca/studyguides/aidastudyguide.pdf
Guarracino, S. (2010) Verdi's Aida Across the Mediterranean. California Italian Studies. 2010. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9tj7h4wv#page-5
Tydeman, W. And Price, S. (nd) Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from Google eBooks at: http://books.google.com/books?id=TaFB0epfdmQC&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=Aida+and+Salome:+exoticism&source=bl&ots=MVipLVcbF2&sig=YDLezJXbNciquCepaebOkq6tecY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=QcwQT9_SMsnb0QGC6uSPAw&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=Aida%20and%20Salome%3A%20exoticism&f=false
This final dinner scene and the ensuing bloodbath wrings ever last possible ounce of gory drama out of the script; the talking ceases for a time while the camera observes the members of the dinner party all enjoying the pies that contain the blood and bones (and possibly the meat, although this isn't made explicit in either the script or the film) of Tamora's two sons. This makes the extremity of this cannibalistic act far more heightened than the script alone suggests, but it is exactly what the script requires. The perfection of the setup, and the well-coiffed appearance of everyone in attendance, makes the horror of the act and of the play that much more intense.
This scene, as well as others in both the script and the film, calls Titus' sanity into serious question. Neither source makes it clear whether or not he is crazy, and again this…
Evans, G. Blakemore and M. Tobin, eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Shakespeare, William. Titus Andronicus. In the Riverside Shakespeare.
Teams Don't Work
Idea in Brief
While conventional wisdom might dictate otherwise, teams aren't always the most effective means for accomplishing goals within your organization.
How to Make the Most from your Team:
Designate a Deviant: this is the person who will prevent the team from acting in a too conventional manner. This person will ensure that the team doesn't fall into some sort of rut when it comes to creative thinking.
Avoid double digits. No team should be bigger than nine, as then it can be too easy for some team members not to contribute and for others to dominate.
Keep the team together: the members of the team should remain consistent and not change constantly. Such a thing keeps the entire process on the straight and narrow.
Be ruthless about membership: decide who can and who cannot be a member of the team. Only allow members who genuinely…
Hackman, J.R. (2009). Why Teams Don't Work. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…
Blues music however did not cross racial lines, with the majority of famous blues musicians still residing in New Orleans and various other well-known black music entertainment venues of the South.
Gospel music has been an African-American church tradition with influences from traditional African music and especially prevalent during the slavery era. Later (most likely because of those particular ignominious associations and all they implied, especially in the South) gospel music was strongly discouraged within mainstream society and actively suppressed.
Similarly, blues music represented a blending of black musical traditions with a centuries-long history originating from the earliest days of American slavery. Sammy Davis Jr. And Nat King Cole, were and remain today among the best-known of early black entertainers within the (then) up-and-coming rock 'n roll genre of the 1940's. Each had a heavy influence upon Elvis himself.
Obviously, though, the blending of Southern musical traditions was not started…
African-American Musical Tradition." (June 9, 1998). Retrieved January 9, 2007,
From: http://www.questia.com/html .
Bane, Michael. White Boy Singin' the Blues: The Black Roots of White Rock.
Harmondsworth, Eng: Penguin, 1982.
The Kula provides a different perspective on the purpose and function of economics. One could imagine our ancient ancestors beginning trade as a social event. When we lived in small bands, every band was self-sufficient and had to supply their own basic needs. I had never thought of economics as a purely social function until reading this article. It changed my perspective on the purpose of economics.
Article Summary #14
Radcliffe-rown, a. (1940. On Joking Relationships. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill.
Joking and teasing is a cultural construct that has different rules among different cultures. The purpose of this article is to examine the purpose and function of joking relationships among African Tribes. The author discovered that joking relationships among in-laws helps to relieve tension and diffuse what could be volatile social relations. Joking is not random and has a…
Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill
Looking at art and historical artifacts can tell us immense amounts of information regarding the society and culture from which these objects came from. Art can be revealing and informative in the same manner that books can tell readers about history and cultural conventions, many times providing specific details about its origin. These details can then provide viewers with an informed and comprehensive view of cultures and societies. Art is a reflection of not only the artist which creates the piece, but also a reflection of the atmosphere in which the artist lived. These reflections through art can point to specific themes and subjects that were important during the times that these artists lived. Power and Status are themes that can be considered universal in virtually all cultures regardless of their respective geographical location or historical era.
The intention of this essay is to provide the historical background…
"Bis Pole, Arts of Africa, Oceania and The Americas." MetMuseum.org. The New York Metropolitan Museum. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Stone, Richard E. "A Noble Imposter, The Foothil Ewer and The Early 19th Century Fakery." Metropolitan Museum Journal 32 (1997). Print.
To protect themselves, many Americans chose to avoid working with or becoming friends with those who immigrated. A lack of trust permeated everything that the Americans did in regards to the immigrants, at least with the men. This was not always true of the women, as they often got along together and shared the trials and difficulties of raising families. However, many men who owned shops and stores would not hire an immigrant laborer (Glazer, 1998).
They believed that immigrants took jobs away from people in the U.S., and they did not want to catch any diseases that these immigrants might have brought with them. The general attitude during this time period was that immigrants were so different from Americans that they could never mesh into one society, but that attitude has obviously changed, as today America is a mix of all kinds of people (Glazer, 1998; Sowell, 1997).
13 MEXUS 45, P52
21 BYE J. Pub. L. 153 P. 157
U.S.C. Section 1101(a)(15)(F)(i) (2006
U.S.C. Section 1184(g)(1)(a)(i) (2000
However, one can still see remnants of Morgan's ideals as globalization takes hold in developing nations. Although differences are tolerated, the "westernization" of the rest of the world is still a growing reality. One need look no further than modern business attire to see that western ideals are quickly replacing traditional modes of dress and modes of doing business. Morgan's work makes the modern anthropologist aware that "globalization" may be a soft sell for "westernization."
Fried, Morton H. 1960. On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill.
Fried explored the development of social stratification, as opposed to a non-ranked society. His primary purpose was to explore the reasons for changes in society that lead to changes in social structure. He compared simple forms of social organization to more complex ones. Fried explored…
LED Bulb - Marketing Plan
Marketing Situation Analysis
Implementation, Controls, and Evaluation
LED technology has made many breakthroughs in recent years. The most notable of which is its level of cost effectiveness. However, the initial investment required to implement LED light bulbs still exceeds the alternative market choices. Yet the total cost of ownership offers consumers sizable gains. The market segment that this marketing plan is catered to is composed of industrial firms who purchase items in quantity as well as consider such items as the total cost of ownership. It is reasonable to suspect that this segment will be the most receptive to LED technology.
Rationale for Research
LED lighting solutions were chosen because this technology represents the future of lighting. The LED bulbs offer better quality of lighting, have a much longer lifecycle, and require is significantly reduced amount of…
Angelie, A., 2010. Will LED Light Bulbs Best Your CFLs and Incandescents?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/environment/will-led-light-bulbs-best-cfls-and-incandescents [Accessed 8 August 2011].
CO2 Now, 2011. Earth's CO2 Home Page. [Online]
Available at: http://co2now.org / [Accessed 8 August 2011].
The author tries to take credit for making those two movies into hits.
2. Disinterested -- there is no compelling reason provided as to why the audience should care. The writer does not address the needs of the audience. Moreover, the writer has obviously not proofread the letter. The entire presentation is sloppy and unprofessional.
WHAT DOES the AUDIENCE NEED to KNOW?
What is the main idea of your message in relation to audience need?
That I offer a service that is of value to the audience
What are the additional ideas of your message that respond to audience needs?
The author has a positive history with the audience
The author was a success when employed by the audience
The author has enhanced their skills
The author has built a track record of success
The author would like to renew the business relationship
It is to the benefit of the…
This is revealed at the end of the story when Olaf realizes that Jim never intended to kill him but simply do something nice for him. It is interesting to note that while Jim drinks and spends time with prostitutes, he is the one that offers a nice gesture toward Jim. Olaf would appear to be the nicer of the two men, given that he does not drink and carry on like Jim does. Olaf seems nice and keeps most of his thoughts to himself; this is precisely why we should not trust him. Jim might be perceived as the more aggressive and frightening of the two because he towers over six feet tall. right uses these images to illustrate how looks can, and usually are, deceiving. right keeps us guessing about Jim until the end of the story; he leads us on with Olaf's thoughts and fears.
Alsen, Bernhard. "Richard Wright." African-American Authors. The African-American Experience Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 03, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com
Ellison, Ralph. Modern American Literature. Vol. III. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. 1969.
Marshall, Margaret. Modern American Literature. Vol. III. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. 1969.
Spiller, Robert. Literary History of the United States. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1974.
The lack of self-respect in particular characters in the play, like Lady Sneerwell and Joseph, sends the message that some people have higher priorities than self-respect. Lady Sneerwell's deep desire to gain Charles to marry her leads her to a chain of unrespectable acts of intrigues and backbiting, in the process, conspiring with equally dubious characters like Joseph and Snake who also follow selfish and destructive agendas of their own. Forming a derogatory School for Scandal all alone speaks against self-respect as against all of those perpetuating that School. While it seems outwardly pleasurable to prey on other people's mistakes, misfortunes and weaknesses, perpetrators of scandals and hypocrisy do not gain the superiority they want among themselves. Lady Sneerwell, Sir and Lady ackbite, Mrs. Candour and Joseph may share a common objective of destroying relationships and reputation but this destructiveness does not build them up in the real sense, but…
Cordner, Michael, editor. The School for Scandal by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Oxford World Classics: Oxford University, 1998. http://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0192825674/026-9
Creasey, Beverley, reviewer. Charming "School for Scandal." The Theater Mirror, 2000. http://www.theatermirror.com/sfsbtber.htm
Lipfest, David. The School for Scandal. CurtanUp Review, 2004. http://www.curtainup.com/school.html
Matthews, Julia. The School for Scandal Notes. The Fine Print, 1998. http://www.gashakespeare.org/plays/1997/scandl-notes.html
Crazy Horse and the Western Hero
Crazy Horse, believed born sometime in 1838, was a respected member of the Oglala Sioux Native American tribe and is noted for his courage in battle. He was recognized among his own people as a visionary leader committed to preserving the traditions and values of the Lakota way of life and leading his people into a war against the take-over of their lands by the White Man. The location of Crazy Horses birth is not conclusively known. Some sources report his birthplace as the South Cheyenne River. Other sources point to either Rapid Creek, near present day Rapid City, South Dakota, or near ear utte outside Sturgis, South Dakota.
Crazy Horse earned his reputation among the Lakota not only by his skill and daring in battle, but also by his fierce determination to preserve his people's traditional way of life. Celebrated for his ferocity…
Marshall, Joseph M. "Crazy Horse (Tasunke Witko) 1840-77."
Pautler, N.P. "We all play the hand we're dealt, honored historian says." University Week. June 22, 1995, p. 3.
Robert Warshow. The Immediate Experience: Movies, Comics, Theatre and Other Aspects of Popular Culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
White, Richard. It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
Integrated Business Plan
Brief Outline of the Business Venture
Organizational Issues and Expansion
Legal Issues and Expansion
Financial Competitiveness and Expansion
Allocation of Funds
Pro-forma Cash Flow
Net Present Value
Internal ate of eturn (I)
Profitability Index (PI)
Marketing/Sales and Expansion
Marketing Mix Analysis and Expansion
Mediums of Marketing
An Integrated Business Plan
Management is basically a synergy of four elements i.e., planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Chris & Alan, 1999). The essence of management and its particulars are very important from the perspective of an organization. Businesses and business organizations are the heart of an economy as they have a direct relationship with the long-term fragility of an economy (Chris & Alan, 1999). The basic purpose of company is to earn money and increase profit with the help of different provisions. The ratio of profit for the company is based on the level of…
Cinnamon, R & Larsen, B.H (2006), How to understand Business Finance, British Library Publications
Cinnamon, R & Larsen, B.H (2008), How to understand Business Finance, British Library Publications
Chris, B & Alan, P (1999), Strategic Marketing Communication, Oxford University Publications
Guy, M & Emma, H (2006), Innovative Marketing Communication Plan, McGraw Hill Publications
Factors that affect an organization's capacity and willingness to change need to be examined and exploited. Organizational culture, which is a set of shared values and assumptions that are followed by the members of an organization, plays an important role in affecting the attitude of an organization to change. If an organizational history has been unwelcome to change in the past, it is highly unlikely that an organization will be willing to accept change in the future. Sometimes, core competency can assist in the process of change (Porter, 1980).
Lastly, at the individual level, the process of change is completed when it is implemented within a company. The task of the general manager then becomes of envisioning the future of the change and of facilitating cooperation among the workforce. He is also responsible for implementing change at various levels of production, development and distribution. In particular, what needs to be…
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. And Thornhill, A (2003). Research methods for business students. 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall.
Seaman, C.H.C. (1987). Research Methods: Principles, Practice, and Theory for Nursing. (pp. 174) Appleton & Lange.
Sudman, S. And Bradburn, N.M. (1982). Asking Questions: a Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
Taylor, Aex III (October 12, 2009) Fortune: "Can GM Survive?" 60 (7), 60. Retrieved October 31, 2009, Proquest, ISSN: 00158259
Many young people voted for Reagan as he represented rebellion against the authority figures in society but was a rebellion characterized by valiance and effectuated through skillful communication. The approval rating of Reagan was approximately 42% when 1982 began but dropped to the record low 35% later that same year. The U.S. entered a recession. If one is to set their focus upon obtaining a chance at being the President of the United States, then that individual must take a political stance and hold a view that is somewhat differential from the opposing party. In the case of Ronald Reagan, who had been a democrat for most of his life, it was the democratic party that he must debate against in the attempt to establish a better public platform that the opposing candidate. Ronald Reagan may be viewed as a 'come-lately' at the time he entered the political scene at…
Jordan, C. (2003) Movies and the Reagan Presidency: Success and Ethics. Praeger June, 2003.
McChesney, R.W. And Nichols, J. (2002) Our Media, Not Theirs: The Democratic Struggle against Corporate Media. Seven Stories Press, 2002.
Curry, Tom (2004) Ronald Reagan, 1911-2004: An Indefatibable optimist who set American on a Consdervative Course: MSNBC Online avaialble at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3638299/
Kashani, Tony (2004) Hollywood as an Agent of Hegemony: The War Film. Dissendent Voice Online available at http://www.dissidentvoice.org/Aug04/Kashani0807.htm
Here we have an account of the definitive formation of the twelve-tribe league incorporating people who may well have had ancient ties with Israelite tribes but who only now pledge their undivided allegiance to the God of Israel."
Thus, Shechem is, according to Hillers, one of the most important place for the Covenant renewal, since it was the first that was witnessed by the united Israelite tribes.
John Van Seters, on the other hand, offers a different explanation for the origins of the text in Joshua 24. He concludes that the resemblances in form between the Covenant at Shechem and the Deuteronomy Covenant makes it plausible that the Joshua 24 has to be just an addition to the Deuteronomy work:
There is only one solution to this dilemma and that is that Joshua 24.1-27 was composed as an addition to the Dtr. work. It is post-Dtr. And was inserted before…
Boling, Robert G., and G. Ernest Wright. Joshua. AB 6. Garden City, New York.:Doubleday, 1982.
Harris, J. Gordon, Cheryl a. Brown and Michael S. Moore. Joshua, Judges, Ruth. NIBC. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
Nelson, Richard J. Joshua: A Commentary.Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.
Nicholson, Ernest God and His People: Covenant and Theology in the Old Testament. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1986.
Blue Turtle Clothing Company (BTC) is a newly established business in London, Ontario. The company showed poor financial performance in the previous season. Therefore, the owner has decided to redesign the marketing strategies of the company to boost up its sales performance in the next season. This paper presents analysis of the case using different tools and techniques; including situational analysis, market analysis, segmentation analysis, competition analysis, and financial analysis; case keys (key success factors, key contingencies, and analysis of alternative solutions); recommendations, and action plan for the short run.
The paper starts with the problem statement and discusses the situational analysis for the company in detail. The analysis includes individual goals and objectives of the owners and the company, background and forecast for the company, SWOT analysis (internal and external environment), market analysis (including business environment, current and past strategies, marketing mix, segmentation analysis, competitive environment, and financial analysis.…
Blythe, J., & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall.
Cadle, J., Paul, D., & Turner, P. (2010). Business analysis techniques: 72 essential tools for success, 1st Edition. London: British Computer Society.
Gilbert, D. (2003). Retail marketing management, 2nd Edition. New York: Financial Times.
Jobber, D. (2009). Principles and Practice of Marketing, 6th Edition. U.K: McGraw Hill.
here could be numerous reasons for the shift, including the growing trend of body fitness and overall media portrayal of the male physique.
he study conducted through Monash University has confirmed most of the findings of earlier research. here are significant opportunities for error within the study however. Since all participants are blind participants through the university website, there are almost no controls over the data and thus it is subject to many different unintended biases. Age factors should also be considered as the majority of those surveyed were college students, and are not a complete and accurate reflection of the cross sections of society. Overall, more research needs to be conducted within the area of the growth in male body dissatisfaction and factors that will help both genders deal with their overestimation of body shape.
Fallon, a.E., & Rozin, P. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape.…
Turner, S., Hamilton, H., Jacobs, M., Angood, L.M., & Dwyer, DH (1997). The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis. Adolescence, 32(127), 603-614.
Abell, S.C., & Richards, M.H. (1996). The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: An investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 691-703.
Crawford, D., & Worsley, a. (1987). Present and desired body weights of Australian adults: A cause for concern. Community Health Studies, 11.
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
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Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm