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Rituals and Magic of 'Deep Play' of Past and Present Eras
It is common in our present location and age, perhaps except for those minority religious subcultures or communities who identify themselves as part of iccan or Goddess worship organizations, to view ritual magic as a legitimate practice only of the far past. Though millions read their horoscopes daily, and wear lucky talismans, there is a common intellectual currency amongst both scholars and the public at large to see rather than a system of belief structure that still has echoes in our present modalities of belief and being.
This is one reason why the anthropological works of Catherine Allen regarding the Runa, upon its publication in the 1980's, initially struck its readers with such force. The Runa are a small group of townspeople who adhere to customs of ancient Incan and colonial Spanish civilization. The book's most recent…
Allen, Catherine. The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community (Smithsonian Series in Ethnographic Inquiry, No 12. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press: 1988. New Afterward 2002.
Gmelch, George. "Baseball Magic." Retrieved on March 24, 2004 on http://students.faulkner.edu/depts/sbs/readings/an1301/baseball.htm
Geertz, Clifford. "Deep Play: Note on the Balinese Cockfight." Accessed on March 24, 2004 on http://webhome.idirect.com/~boweevil/BaliCockGeertz.html
Furthermore, under most circumstances, these variations in Muslim belief do not have a negative impact on how Muslims interact; instead, they manage to live peacefully side-by-side in most settings. This may have to do with the idea that all Muslims believe that the Quran (Qur'an, Koran) is the holy text for Muslims. They believe that the Quran reflects the word of God. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God. It is possible for a Muslim to hold that the Koran uses symbolic language and is describing the essence of things, not their technical form, but it is difficult to hold that the Koran reflects the views of our more distant ancestors" (Sedgewick 2006, p. 40).
Mohammed plays a central role in Islam. He is the most important prophet and many facets of modern day Islam are based, not simply on the Quran,…
Hassan, R 2008, Exploring Islamic consciousness, Inside Muslim minds, Melbourne University
Press, Carlton, Vic, pp. 24-61.
Jupp, J 2009, Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders in the Encyclopedia of religion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, pp.69-118.
McBrien, R 1982, the nature and use of power in the church, Proceedings of the annual convention, 37, CTSA Editorial Offices, Yonkers, NY, pp.38-49.
For example in her essay on "Pagans, Converts, and Backsliders" Mary Young argues that a dialogue did occur between white and native culture, not simply in terms of a trade of goods and land, but also of religious worldviews.
According to Young, to view 'the native mindset' as a monolith is an error. Natives took a multifaceted view of their own religion, often creating a synchronistic faith of Christianity and traditional native movements and there is no "single metaphysical outlook" that can be characterized as Indian (Young 79). This sense of cultural dialogue stands in profound contrast to Martin, who refers to what he calls "the scythe of Christianity" cutting out Native American religion entirely from the history books as well as history itself (Martin 218). Additionally, Vine Deloria's essay, also included in the collection, on "Revision and Reversion" cautions against Martin's view of Native American thinking as impenetrable, arguing…
Fixico, Donald Lee. The American Indian Mind. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Martin, Calvin, editor. The American Indian and the Problem of History. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1986.
Neither of the above rites of passages, though both are important and definitely bound by rules of magic, are especially ritualistic in a participatory sense. In this regard, the many layers of security that Harry and his friends must get through in order to arrive at the Sorcerer's Stone is the most clear example in the book. Each trial on the way to the room that contains the Stone tests some of the skills and knowledge that Harry, Ron, and Hermione have begun to acquire on their journey through adolescence and to adulthood, making the journey past each obstacle a very literal interpretation of a rite of passage. Each of these obstacles ends up requiring some literal form of the world's magic, usually in the form of a spell, in order to be overcome, tying magic to the rites of passage in a manner that is at once quite explicit…
Being a Muslim is an overriding cultural feature that cuts across a large number of races and nationalities, but many have the same common traits of gender segregation, emphasis on cleanliness and the same schedule of life.
During the ritual I observed at the mosque, I was able to notice how the ritual impacts society. The first distinction is that there was a clear line created between those who are members of the in-group and those who are not. While I was welcome to be there, I was clearly in the latter group. I was welcome to observe, but not to participate in, the rituals. The performance of the rituals allows on to become a member of the society.
It was interesting to see that elements of modern life have crept into the rituals, however. One example is that I observed younger members of the mosque texting outside…
itual to ecord is not the first attempt of Allen Guttmann at sports analysis and writing. He has written three books and many articles on a variety of topics but mostly connected with history and literature. His passion for history probably propelled him in the direction of sports writing in this book where he studies the growth of sports in various cultures and focuses on the concept of modern sports. The author has done a great job at studying the phenomenon called modern sports in the broader context of cultural change and modern America culture. The thesis of the book revolves around modern sports and what makes it distinct and unique. The author argues that since sports have existed since time immemorial, the one thing that sets modern sports apart from ancient and pre-modern games is the "is the scientific world-view." Guttmann maintains that while sports existed in every part…
1) Guttmann, Allen. From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…
Grissom, Harold J. "Ritual Practice in American Religious Sects." The Journal of Religion. (April 2006): 239-48.
Hall, Manley P. The Psychology of Religious Ritual. Los Angeles: Philosophical
Research Society, 2003.
Harvey, Graham. Ritual and Religious Belief. UK: Equinox Publishing, Ltd., 2005.
Take trail mix... It is an energetic, "idealized" snack food. This comes primarily from the target populations the manufacturer focuses it is marketing. Other channels for influence include consumers looking for "quick" fixes, such as families looking for fast and fun food. It would be interesting to explore the link marketing of "fast" snack products such as this have on families with young children, and compare this with the influence the product had on the political and behavioral habits and beliefs of the college students consuming it.
Lastly, symbolic systems help us better understand how products are systematically introduced and marketed to consumers. This helps shapes attitudes and beliefs. Also important to note however, as learned in class, is whether societies tend to accept or reject certain items even if marketed well. For example, oark (2007) noted that in many cultures certain foods or animals are taboo. Consider for a…
Chex Mix Peanut Lovers" Taquitos.Net (2007), Reviewed 7, June, 2007:
Coen Flynn, Karen. Food, Culture, and Survival in an African City, New York,
NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.
relationship myth ritual Using myth Demeter Persephone the relationship a myth a ritual important understand. The myth Demeter Persephone relationship. Myths read context actual ritual. Myths created explain orgination specific activities ancient culture.
There is a strong relationship between myths and rituals, as some of history's oldest cultures have devised myths with the purpose of describing events that are part of rituals. In order to have a complex understanding of a myth, one needs to focus on looking at the respective legend in an association with the ritual that it is meant to refer to. The Homeric hymn describing the life of Demeter and her daughter, Persephone, is intended to provide a mythical account concerning seasons and about why vegetation experiences a state of decay for several months each year.
The myth of Demeter and her daughter, Persephone, involves the latter being kidnapped by Hades, the god of the Underworld,…
Communion with nature can come in the form of visual art and craft; in the form of storytelling; or in the form of dance. Each of these modes of creative expression invokes the unknown, powerful forces that underlie creation. Even though science can measure, explain, and manipulate nature it cannot answer the ultimate questions of why and how nature -- or human beings -- exist in the first place. Religious rituals offer human beings a way to seek answers to life's biggest questions through direct experience.
Different cultures have approached nature differently but traditional cultures share in common a reverence for the natural world that is all but absent in modern, industrialized societies. The religions that have sprouted up in modern nations parallel the worldview that human beings should triumph over nature rather than work with nature. In Baraka, devastating footage of death and destruction show what human beings are…
Saving the Cows, Starving the Children" by Sonia Faleirojune and the article entitled "Food Price Inflation in India: Causes and Cures" by Pradeep Agrawal and Durairaj Kumaraswamy in the Indian Economic Review available from JSTOR both address food issues in India. These articles appealed to me because I find India to be a fascinating country where there is so much potential for greatness yet so much inherent contradictory actions and agendas that frustrate the country's advances. Faleirojune focuses on the contradiction at the heart of India's policy towards banning beef: cows are literally everywhere in India and could be used to help feed the nation's poor and malnourished, but the government won't allow the sale of beef in many states -- neither will it permit state schools to offer eggs to school children as part of a meal plan. Even though eggs would be a good solution to the problem…
The Chistmas tadition, be it the length of time of its evolution o the desie by each subsequent cultue to make it an accepted eality, is not so open and obviously evolving, unless one eally looks at it, as Hutton has done.
Lastly, afte looking at Hutton's epesentation of the histoical undepinnings of the vaious aspect of the myth, itual and language of Chistmas one might look at how it continues to evolve in the pesent. The pesent meaning, moden day, with its myth, itual and language suounded by pomp, cicumstance and especially the gift giving (and eceiving) pat suounding what most people and especially Chistians believe Chistmas to eally be in thei histoy. I might add hee, that thee is a moden tend among Chistians to take Chistmas back to its histoical undepinning, o the believed histoical undepinnings of the holiday. What is inteesting about this is that when…
references. (Coman, 2009, p. 3)
Then one could say to a large degree because in many ways the present accepted myth, ritual and language are accepted as not only historically accurate but fundamentally immutable the media tends to represent it as it is. Yet, Christmas is evolving, it is continually becoming more and more secularized, in the sense that it is becoming a modern representation of the consumer society in which most modern Christians reside or as a time for those who have more seek to aide those who have less, all modern media adaptations of Christmas as a cultural tradition. Christmas is therefore, like all other cultural artifacts created by each generation anew, through language, myth and ritual that better reflect the society we currently live in.
Coman, M. (2009). Media and Ritual: A Challenge for the Anthropological Thought. Conference Papers -- International Communication Association, 1-23. Retrieved from Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
Higgins, J., & McAllaster, C. (2004). If You Want Strategic Change, Don't Forget to Change Your Cultural Artifacts. Journal of Change Management, 4(1), 63-73. doi:10.1080/1469701032000154926.
collective ideals, religion is reinforced through ceremonies and rituals," (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p. 199). One of the most important ceremonies that reinforces cultural norms and institutions is the wedding ceremony. I had the opportunity to attend a wedding at a church recently, providing an opportunity to analyze Durkheim's sociological theories and apply them to daily life. I selected this ritual because I do not attend many other rituals that have a religious context like this one, and because I have attended two other weddings and none of the three were from the same religious tradition. Therefore, my observations highlight some of Durkheim's core theories about the ways social bonds are reinforced through ritual, regardless of the technical manifestations of those rituals. My observations also show how even in modern, secular societies, the concept of the "sacred" remains salient for individuals and their communities.
The wedding I attended took place…
Calhoun, C. et al. (2012). Classical Sociological Theory. 3rd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Greenwald, D.E. (1973). Durkheim on society, thought, and ritual. Sociological Analysis 34(3): 157-168.
Lynch, G. (2012). Emile Durkheim: religion, the very idea. The Guardian. Dec 24, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/dec/24/emile-durkheim-religion-ritual-ancient-modern
I think this baptism also has changed my relationships and the way I look at my sister and brother-in-law. Before, we never really talked about religion, and I did not realize how important it was to them, and how they wanted to raise their children in the Church. It just did not seem to mean that much to me. However, after I saw the baptism, I would not say that I got more spiritual, but I did understand my family better and their goals for their children. I saw it was important to have goals and ideas about how you want to raise your children, and I saw that it made me feel closer to my sister, her husband, and my nephew. Now, I have ideas and goals about my own family, when I have one. I also try to spend as much time as I can with my nephew.…
Religious Ritual and Cooperation: Testing for a Relationship on Israeli Religious and Secular Kibbutzim," authors Richard Sosis and Bradley J. Ruffle investigate the link between religious ritual and group solidarity among a sample of kibbutzim in Israel. Sosis is a faculty member of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Connecticut at Storrs. Ruffle, on the other hand, is an economist with the Ben-Gurion University in Beer Sheva, Israel. Ruffle's contacts and familiarity with Israeli kibbutzim were invaluable in facilitating this research.
The theoretical basis of this research was Emile Durkheim's pronouncement that religious rituals functioned to promote group solidarity. Durkheim argued that religious rituals help to maintain social cohesion and to promote social stability within their community. Though this idea is widely-accepted in social science circles, few empirical studies have actually been conducted to test this theory. Furthermore, no empirical studies have been conducted to see how religious…
Sosis, Richard and Bradley J. Ruffle. 2003. "Religious ritual and cooperation: Testing for a relationship on Israeli religious and secular kibbutzim." Current Anthropology. December. 44(5): 713-722.
Burial ituals: The Early Chinese
From Early Chinese periods, starting roughly from the Shang Dynasty, the Chinese community have been of the belief that the souls of those who demise subsist in another world. This world is referred to as the netherworld and that graves were their earthly dwellings (China Highlights, 2016). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the different burial rituals and customs that were practiced in the ancient Chinese period.
The appropriate manner of the burial ceremony has always been an aspect of great significance to the Chinese. A person's soul was believed to leave the physical body at the time of death, with the purpose of taking its place in the spirit realm. Therefore, according to the Early Chinese, an elaborate funeral provided the spirits in the subsequent world, together with the bereaved persons left behind, a proper indication of the rank of…
Bradley, J. (2016). Traditions of Ancient China Regarding Death. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://classroom.synonym.com/traditions-ancient-china-regarding-death-7976.html
China Highlights. (2016). A Grave Day -- the Culture of Death! Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/article/death-culture.htm
Clydesdale, C. H. (2009). The Vibrant Role of Mingqi in Early Chinese Burials. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mgqi/hd_mgqi.htm
Lagerwey, J., Kalinowski, M. (2009). Early Chinese Religion: Part One: Shang Through Han (1250 BC-220 AD) (2 Vols). Netherlands: Brill.
A ritual is an observable behavior that is exhibited by a society. There are many different types of rituals, ranging from simple ones, which a person submits to on a day-to-day basis, to more complex ones such as a rite of passage ceremony in which boys are turned into adults (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2016). esearcher Kastenbaum (2012) defines dying as one of the many transitions that everyone must experience. He goes further to state that death often commences as a psychosocial incident, then organ systems shutdowns. However, death itself is felt in the social and personal spheres of an individual's life (p. 112).
Practices Associated with Death and Dying in the United States
Kastenbaum explains that death and dying have been medicalized in the United States. And that the medicalization of death has worked to insulate medical doctors and policymakers from appreciating the mortal realities of death. There are…
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2016). Ritual. Retrieved February 27, 2016, from ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA: www.britannica.com
Gire, J. (2014). How Death Imitates Life: Cultural Influences on Conceptions of Death and Dying. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. Retrieved February 27, 2016 from www.scholarworks.gvsu.edu
Kastenbaum, R. J. (2012). Death, Society and Human Experience. New Jersey: Pearson.
This particular notion of reconnection with lost loved ones helps many people recover from the loss of loved ones. On the other hand, those who do not believe in religion or in any gods might argue that such beliefs are delusional and actually interfere with a more realistic acceptance of death for what it actually is. Nevertheless, it is difficult to argue that religion provides a valuable coping mechanism for many people in connection with death, irrespective of whether or not it is actually an accurate representation of reality.
The ole of Grief Counseling
Sometimes, people have a particularly hard time coping with the loss of loved ones, especially in circumstances where that loss is unexpected (such as the loss of a child), where it occurs much earlier than is ordinarily the case, or where the survivors actually witnessed the traumatic death of a loved one. Understandably, all of these…
Deits, Bob. Life after Loss: A Practical Guide to Renewing Your Life after Experiencing
Major Loss. New York: Bantam. 2004.
Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn
and Bacon. 2006.
Ritual Murder Accusation at Blois
Ephraim Ben-Jacob wrote an article titled "The Ritual Accusation at Blois" during the "History of the Relationship" era. The excerpts from the book have been acquired from "A Book of Historical Records," and "The Jew Medieval orld," pages 127 to 130. The writing of the article is precisely during the medieval era. The author started the article with questions like "hat shall we say before God? hat shall we speak? How can we justify ourselves?" He appears to claim and justification that "God must have found out our iniquity" (Rose 62).
In late May of 1171, the Jewish community living in Blois is massacred because they were believed to have carried out a ritual murder on a Christian child. This is the first blood rebel example within the European during this time. This act came soon after Jews living in Norwich had been accused of…
Johnson, Hannah R. Blood Libel: The Ritual Murder Accusation at the Limit of Jewish History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2012
Rist, Rebecca. Popes and Jews, 1095-1291., 2016
Rose, E M. The Murder of William of Norwich: The Origins of the Blood Libel in Medieval Europe., 2015
.....ritual and opens with McDonald's amazing success within the time frame of twenty-five years. The writer opens with rituals and the earnest aspect of it compared to plays where actors portray rather than believe in the actions they commit in scenes. While some may assume rituals and plays are similar in the sense of a performance, the author is quick to note differences. "Plays have audiences rather than participants; actors are only portraying something, whereas ritual performers- who make up congregations- are in earnest" (Kottak, 1978, p. 522). There's a form of repetition as well in rituals that invite people to participate in what is traditional and cultural.
It seems the article uses ritual to introduce the notion of tradition and culture in McDonald's. Through uniformity and consistency, some anthropologists define the act of getting food from McDonald's as a ritual. Like football and the act of cheering for a…
Social Collectivism in Religious Rituals: The Cases of Judaism and Islam
Religion, as a sacred engagement of an individual to a spiritual experience, is laden with numerous elements that reinforce and inculcate within the individual the philosophies and teachings of the religion. One manifestation of these philosophies and teachings are through religious rituals, which are activities that an individual or group engage in to "personally experience" their faith and identity as member of the religious group. As a personal experience, religious rituals provide an individual with "a feeling of rebirth and renewal," where faith is reinforced and new meanings experienced by his/her socialization with the religious group are created (91). Apart from being a personal experience, religious rituals are also ways in which people can reinforce religion unto themselves and to others. Collective manifestation of religious faith serves as proof not only of unity, but understanding and harmony among its…
Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.
The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.
In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…
American Indian Education. http://www.osseo.k12.mn.us/special/stusupport/stuserv/AmInd/LilBuffalo/catalog.htm (Accessed April 30, 2005)
THE IROUK CHARACTER. http://www.icculus.org/~msphil/mythus/campaigns/aerth/irouk / (Accessed May 1, 2005) www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21005756
Frank G. Speck, and Alexander General, Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 70.
One of the most curious aspects of American culture to residents of other industrialized democracies is the American attitude towards freedom, as currently expressed in the healthcare debate. Americans have articulated a great deal of hostility about being 'forced' to buy health insurance, despite the fact that 1. National and state government-run programs already exist in the form of Medicare and Medicaid and 2. Healthcare is a necessity. Bankruptcies due to health-related issues are nonexistent in nations such as Great Britain and Canada, where participation in the national system of health insurance is mandatory, yet in America there is a tendency to view that 'what you get is what you deserve,' and those who fall behind in their healthcare bills are somehow exhibiting moral failings regarding their ability to budget or to find work that provides health insurance.
Given that self-employed businesspeople often lack health insurance, while the…
Belief systems and social perception structures. (2011). Leading Edge International Research
The definition of ritual. (n.d). Anth 311. University of Waterloo. Retrieved:
There is great variation in the ways orthodox Jews practice their religion, and in what they believe. Many of the variations depend on cultural factors, as Jews are scattered all over the world. However, the basic tenets of the religion are all rooted in monotheism (belief in only one supreme God). The principles of the religion also include a firm belief in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) as being the word of God. This means interpreting the Torah in a manner that impacts daily life choices and lifestyle, including the observance of Kosher dietary habits and the Sabbath day. The practice of Orthodox Judaism emphasizes ritual and tradition, family and community life.
Life is sacred, but there are no hard rules about when life begins. egarding abortion, "even among Orthodox Jews it may be construed as 'a personal matter," ("What do Orthodox Jews think about abortion and why?" 2000).…
Baeke, G., Wils, J.P. & Broeckaert, B. (2011). There is a time to be born and a time to die. Journal of Religious Health 50(4): 778-795.
Donin, H.H. (1991). To Be a Jew. Basic.
Moss, A. (n.d.). Organ donation. Chabad. Retrieved online: http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/635401/jewish/Organ-Donation.htm
Rich, T.R. (2011). Olam Ha-Ba: The Afterlife. Retrieved online: http://www.jewfaq.org/olamhaba.htm
Nutrition, Rituals, Spirituality, And Health Care Practices of the Samurai Culture, As Depicted ithin the Movie The Last Samurai
According to Tom Stovall and Dustin Granger, "The ancient Samurai, Miyamoto Musashi wrote in his "Book of Five Rings,": "It will be difficult for you to succeed unless you look at things on a large scale'" (PharmaCafe). Similarly, within the movie The Last Samurai (2003), director Edward Zwick shows various ways in which the Japanese Samurai of the late 19th century looked at and holistically practice nutrition; prayer, war, and death rituals; spirituality, and health care practices, all on a scale with nature. These holistic practices, in turn, promoted the Samurai's own inner harmony: mentally, physically, and spiritually. For example, The Last Samurai depicted various nutritional practices, prayer, pre-war, death and other rituals; attitudes about spirituality and the meaning of life, and medicinal philosophies and practices within the Samurai culture. All…
The Last Samurai. With Tom Cruise and Ken Watanabe. Dir. Edward Zwick.
Warner Brothers. 2003.
Stovall, Tom, and Dustin Grainger. PharmaCafe. Retrieved May 24, 2005,
My morning ritual begins at 7:30 A.M. when I wake up, wash my face, apply fresh make-up, fix my hair, put my clothes on and let the dogs out. This is a weekday ritual that I have performed everyday, except Saturday and Sunday, for seventeen years. I know that it takes me exactly twenty minutes to get myself ready for work.
At 7:50 A.M., I woke up my 4-year-old grandson and dressed him for Daycare, then I gave him his vitamins and fed him his breakfast, which consisted of an apple and apple juice. hen he has finished eating, he goes to the restroom.
At 8:20 A.M., I let the dogs back into the house and two minutes later my grandson and I walked outside, picked up the newspaper, and headed for Daycare. e arrived at 8:30 A.M. And after goodbyes, I leave the Daycare and stopped at the…
"Excerpt from C. Wright Mills, 'The Sociological Imagination.'"
Native American Symbolic Rituals
Three Pronged Symbolic System of the Totem Pole, Potlatch and Tamanawas Dance
The people who originally migrated to the North American continent came here tens of thousands of years ago. They brought with them many different customs such as the ability to move quickly from one place to another, a love of the Earth that they inhabited, and a reverence for life. These people became what are now termed Native Americans. Native because they were settled here thousands of years before people from any other location came here. The different groups that crossed the land bridge from Siberia moved down the coast and spread out to different inland locations as they moved. Some settled along the estern coast of Canada and the United States and developed traditions that have remained through the millennia. Among those traditions are the construction of totems, the ceremony of the potlatch,…
Legends of America. "Native American Legends: Native American Totems and the Meanings." Legends of America, 2010. Web.
Syzgvastro. "The Potlatch Ceremony (To Give Away)." (2008). Web.
U'Mista Cultural Center. "The Potlatch Collection History." U'Mista Cultural Society, 2006. Web.
The superimposition may then change the meaning of the ritual. What after all is "pure" worship? As Smart remarks, the utterance of a group of ritual words complete with the relevant bodily postures made during the worship service. This can also be seen in readings of the Holy Quran where the opening verse is read out loud some thirty times per day. Much of this can be seen as pure worship with no ritual imposition. This practice literally is pure prayer and has no other interpretation, but given our definition of prayer as a ritual object is included, if nothing more for the fact that the quotation is from a literal book, that is, the Holy Quran (ibid., 74-75).
It is in the above way that Smart points out that the ritual is integrated into and becomes a part of a person's ritual life. In this way, worship is…
Ninian smart's seven dimensions or religions. (2010). Retrieved from www.maccray.k12.mn.us/css/../NinianSmart7demensions.pdf.
Smart, N. (1996). Dimensions of the sacred: An anatomy of the world's beliefs. Berkeley, CA: Harper
The Nacirema occupy a broad and diverse geographic zone between Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Their highly developed market economy belies, or perhaps informs, the evolution of elaborate body rituals. The body rituals of the Nacirema are diverse and usually gendered. The underlying assumptions of the Nacirema body rituals are that the human form in its natural, unadulterated or unadorned state, is inherently profane, impure, and aesthetically unpleasing. Therefore, the Nacirema set up shrines in their home. The shrines contain magical serums, lotions, and potions with mysterious properties. Wealthy Nacirema may have several shrines, elaborately designed, and many set aside special shrines for individual members of the family. Less well-to-do Nacirema may have only one body ritual shrine in the home, shared among all family members. Nacirema also have public body ritual shrines located in important areas of social or political importance, including the places in the hubs of their…
It must be recognized that religion in East Asia has had a complex and long history, including its influence upon the law. itual and religion in the region have been much more integrated and for a much longer time in history than has been the case for the Western paradigm. Hence, although the country appears to have adopted the basic paradigms of Western legislation, it is also true that the heart of the region remains in its history, and is likely to be extracted only by time and patience.
Xinping notes that there are two opinions that relate to the religious paradigm as it relates to the Chinese context specifically. The first views religion in the country on a positive and active platform; where religion adapts itself the socialist and contemporary society of the region. eligion is thus easily and actively able to adapt itself to the applicable laws of…
Glenn, H. Patrick. Legal Traditions of the World: Sustainable diversity in law. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Qin, Guoji. The Thinking Way of Confucianism and the Rule of Law. Journal of Politics and Law Vol. 1, No. 1. March, 2008.
Xinping, Zhuo. Religion and Rule of Law in China Today. Brigham Young University Law Review. 1 May 2009. http://www.allbusiness.com/society-social/religion-spirituality-religion/13411800-1.html
The Navajo Indians also referred to as Dine are semi-nomadic people. It is interesting to note that Navajo people are at times known as 'Holy Earth People (Iverson, 2002). This comes from their beliefs in supernatural beings as well as traditional practices of ritual songs and dance. Navajo people are found in north-eastern areas of Arizona and north-western region of New Mexico (Iverson, 2002) .the regions where the Navajo people live in arid and desert areas that have minimal rainfall. The Navajo people are highly family oriented people, and have a rich culture that is full of ceremonies and other traditions. This paper looks at the history of pastoralists of the Navajo people, their beliefs and religious practices and kinship, sickness and healing, which are important elements with the culture of Navajo people.
The traditions and practices of a society, which are to some…
Haile, B (1993). Origin Legend of the Navaho Enemy Way: Text and Translation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Iverson, P. (2002). Dine: A History of the Navajo. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Kluckhohn, C and Leighton, D (1960). The Navaho. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sander, D (1979). Navaho Symbols of Healing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.
Influence on America
Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played…
Crowe, F. (2003). Things a Freemason should know. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Decker, E. (Unknown). Masonic rituals for the Blue Lodge. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from Saints Alive in Jesus.
Web site: http://www.saintsalive.com/freemasonry/blue_lodge/blue_lodge_index.htm
How it began. (1998). Retrieved April 13, 2009 from Grand Lodge a.F. & a.M. Of North
Language and Religion
I visited the Anglican Church in my community, who congregates every Sunday at 10am. To gain access, I telephoned the Secretary of the church, who explained to me that services were open to any members of the public. She indicated that I would be most welcome and she sounded very friendly as well. She invited me to also speak to the Reverend and gave me his number. I followed her advice and telephoned the Reverend with my request and the reasons for wanting to attend the assembly. Like the Secretary, the Reverend was extremely friendly and open to my request. He asked a few questions about my research as well, and seemed interested in what I had to say. He struck me as a very warm person who truly believed in what he was doing. So, the following Sunday, as decided, I woke up early, dressed according…
Most of the world's religions have many common thoughts and underlying beliefs, including commonalities in beliefs about developing good character and the importance of love and compassion. This essay will attempt to create a new religion (called the Harmony) that is inspired by the commonalities seen in many world religions. Rituals, commandments and beliefs will all be examined, and where applicable, outlined for this new religion.
Stand up comedian George Carlin's comedy routine "Complaints and Grievances" reflects a great many North American's attitudes about faith and sex. The premise of his discussion of the Ten Commandments is that Ten Commandments are an artificially inflated number designed to invoke authority, and that the commandments should be revised down to a minimalist number that are more logical and workable. At the end of his discussion, Carlin gives his list of two commandments. They are, 1) "Thou shalt always be honest and…
Carlin, George. 2001. Complaints and Grievances. Atlantic.
Shreve, Mike. Celebrating Commonalities. The True Light Project. "In Search of the True Light" ©2002 copyright by Mike Shreve. 28 March 2004. http://www.thetruelight.net/commonalities.htm
The overall theme that such rituals convey is the elemental nature of the Vodou religion. Specifically, within Vodou it is believed -- much like in Hinduism -- that there is one, ultimate spiritual being, known as God. However, this overarching spiritual force cannot be comprehended or experienced directly be human beings. This is the reason why the lwa is essential to the ritual life of people practicing Vodou. The lwa is the connection between the perfectly divine realm of God and the lesser realm occupied by humanity. Obviously, the in-between realm of the lwa acts upon the human realm continually; yet the rituals themselves are designed to strengthen this connection. Accordingly, possession by the lwa is of ultimate importance to be able to cross the line -- however briefly -- between the human and the divine. This interpretation of possession contrasts strongly with Christian interpretations, which almost universally view it…
American Museum of Natural History. "Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou." American Museum of Natural History, 2007. Available: http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/vodou/ritual.html .
Bellegarde-Smith, Patrick and Claudine Michel. Haitian Vodou. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.
McAlister, Elizabeth a. "Vodou." Encyclopedia Britannica's Guide to Black History, 2007. Available: http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-9075734 .
Loss of loved ones is always traumatic and always requires sort-term and long-term emotional recovery. In situations where the family has the opportunity to hold a funeral ritual and also to include the remains in whatever particular way their culture prescribes, the funeral ritual provides an opportunity to fully (and publicly) express grief in the manner that (at least) eliminates the unconscious (or repressed) grief of loss that can otherwise re-emerge long after the typical grieving process. Families who have certainty about the loss of their loved one also have the opportunity afforded by psychological closure to begin the long-term process of emotional recovery to the normalcy of life without acute emotional sorrow or worry.
By contrast, in situations where their surviving family members lack certainty about the loss and have no opportunity to hold a funeral ritual, surviving family members may not have an opportunity to fully (or publicly)…
Levine, Carol. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill. 2008.
Sagan, Carl. Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House. 1997.
Votive deposition, religion and the Anglo-Saxon furnished burial ritual." In this article, Crawford examines burial practices for what they tell us about early religious belief's systems. View the following video by the anthropologist Nick Herriman; he describes the logic underneath belief systems. He does this with a few different societies. Explain what Nick Herriman examples provides to Crawford's article which is focused on burial evidence. Overall, connect the two sources to explain the ways that anthropologists are interested in uncovering clues about a group's belief system.
Video link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpgAtylzMQE
According to Crawford (2004), gravesites are often seen as physical reflections of abstract spiritual belief systems. In her analysis she "questions the distinction between grave sites and other sacred places" and "whether deposits should only ever be interpreted as reflections of social structure."[footnoteRef:1] The focus of anthropologists upon burial grounds and surrounding rituals, as noted in the video narrated by anthropologist…
Crawford, Sally. "Votive Deposition, Religion and the Anglo-Saxon Furnished Burial Ritual."
World Archaeology, 36, no.1 (2004), 87-102.
Hornborg, Alf. "Animism, Fetishism, and Objectivism as Strategies for Knowing (or not Knowing)
the World." Ethnos, 71, no. 1 (2006): 21-32.
By the fifth millennium BCE, China had developed the basic elements that were to identify it as a civilization, such as social structure, agricultural skills and the domestication of animals (Schmidt pp). It was also developing concepts related to the order of the natural environment, to life, death, and life after death (Schmidt pp). China's cultural identity, as it is known today, can be traced to the endeavors of the Neolithic village communities of the Yangshao culture that flourished during this time (Schmidt pp). Ancient Chinese communities produced numerous vessels and objects from various mediums for use in both utility and religious purposes.
Only fragments and traces of items created in ephemeral materials remain from the prehistoric and early historic periods, yet numerous ancient Chinese objects of jade, earthenware, and metal have survived in fairly good condition, most of which were found preserved in ancient burial sites (Schmidt…
Schmidt, Carolyn Woodford. "Early Societies and the Arts: The Foundations of A
The Art of Chinese Bronzes - ancient Chinese bronze artwork.
However, Parker suggests that Demeter demands a ritual at Eleusis in order to recognize Demophon because she has served as his nurse. Either explanation suggests that Demeter demands ritual in order to recognize the role of the mother.
4. Explain the relevance of this myth to the development of agricultural communities and civilization.
Agricultural communities and civilization are dependent upon the cycle of death and rebirth that is characterized by the seasons. At its most basic element, this myth describes the seasons, as Demeter causes the death of the earth (winter) when her daughter is stuck in the underworld. However, it also explains death on a human level because it focuses on issues of mortality and whether humans actually want to be free from death. "A goddess had been willing to confer the supreme blessing of immortality on a human child. The child lost the gift through a mistake by…
Foley, H., ed. 1993, the Homeric hymn to Demeter. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Kerenyi, C. 1991, 'The lesser mysteries and the preparations for the great mysteries' in Eleusis:
archetypal image of mother and daughter, Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp.45-66.
Parker, R. 1991, 'The hymn to Demeter and the Homeric hymns' in Greece and Rome,
oth religions are not technically held to be systems of belief by their adherents, but rather as systems of service or patronage to higher powers. The idea was present in African feudalism, but seems to be enhanced and highlighted in Creole religions by the slave experience. Seeking for a path away from the rule of cruel Europeans, African slaves turned to the rule of benevolent and helpful Orishas and Loas. Practitioners serve the demi-gods, and the demi-gods in turn serve the practitioners. The relationship between god and man is mainly business, although love and respect are also required. However, no true worship -- as a westerner would understand it -- is required; instead the Orishas and Loas are propitiated by sacrifices, and communicate their assistance mainly by oracles. In both Vodou and Santeria each Orisha or Loa is associated with a certain constellation of symbols, fetishes, sacrifices, and drum-rhythms…
1. Olmos, Margarite Fernandez and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert Creole Religions of the Caribbean: An Introduction from Vodou and Santeria to Obeah and Espiritismo. New York: New York University Press. 2003. Print.
2. Filan, Kenaz The Haitian Vodou Handbook: Protocols for Riding with the Lwa. Vermont: Destiny Books. 2007. Print
3. Murphy, Joseph M. Santeria: African Spirits in America. Massachussets: Beacon Press. 1993, Print.
4. Stevens-Arroyo, Anthony M. "The Contribution of Catholic Orthodoxy to Caribbean Syncretism: The Case of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre in Cuba." Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 117 (2002): p.37-58. WesScholar. Web. 10 April 2010
The possibility that such attention was paid to these event in earlier times in European cultures is obvious but absent from modern representations of rites of passage. What can be interesting is the correlation between the two rites of passage discussed here, the "sweet 16" party and the Quinceanera and their similarities to weddings. Because weddings are expected to be delayed, more so in U.S. culture but also in Mexican and other cultures, as a mark of good judgment some rites of passage and especially those for girls seem to have become mirrors or proxy weddings, where massive expenses are sometimes incurred and dress is decidedly formal.
It must first be understood that the quinceaneras is actually a religious rite performed in conjunction with a special mass in the oman Catholic Church as well a blessing and a group of ceremonies for the 15-year-old girl, 15 of her friends and/or…
Arriagada, I. (2006). Changes and Inequality in Latin American Families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 37(4), 511.
Baker, V.J. (2000). 4 Ritual Practice in a Sinhalese Village: Coping with Uncertainty. In the Nature and Function of Rituals: Fire from Heaven, Heinze, R. (Ed.) (pp. 59-79).
Fay, T.J. (2005). From the Tropics to the Freezer: Filipino Catholics Acclimatize to Canada, 1972-2002. 29.
Grimes, R.L. (2000). Deeply into the Bone: Re-Inventing Rites of Passage. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
hen it comes to Jim Jones, it is a fact that the declaration of the day of dooms 5th May, 1967 not a reality to any normal person. Jones followers were so much brainwashed to believe that Guyanese Jungle could be immune from nuclear war. Freud's believe that religions grow out of homicide are evident in Madhis movement (Hicks 64). Due to the factor that Sudan was under colonial rule, it is likely that the country experience killing and persecution of those who failed to obey the colonizers rule. This factor contributed eminently to the resign of the Madhi movement. The same is evident in Jim Jones followers. Initially majority of his followers were black and historically, most countries including United States of America were undergoing racialism. This factor made majority of the blacks join Jim Jones movement.
Freud's theory on religion explains that most people join religion because of…
Craig, William L, Antony Flew, and Stan W. Wallace. Does God Exist?: The Craig-Flew Debate. Aldershot, Hants, England, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002. Print.
Ellens, JH. Explaining Evil. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2011. Print.
Hicks, David. Ritual and Belief: Readings in the Anthropology of Religion. Lanham, Md: AltaMira Press, 2010. Print.
Kirkland, Russell. "An Introduction to the Philosophy & Religion of Taoism: Pathways to Immortality." CHOICE Current Reviews for Academic Libraries 43.1 (2006): 1617(1). Print.
Diane seems to be undergoing many different problems that are present today because of her past. The way she was treated by her family and her husband now has gone to affect her psychologically and emotionally. The combination of post traumatic stress disorder, schizoaffective symptoms and previous satanic ritual abuse is very severe and psychological intervention is greatly required.
One of her presenting complaints is post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is a form of anxiety disorder that occurs as an emotional reaction to something that occurred in the patient's life. This trauma could be pain, injury, threat, or death of a loved one. (Valente, 2010) Some common examples of traumatic disorders are natural disasters, military combat or terrorist incidents. It is normal to have an adverse or a stressed response to a traumatic event. Normally, people come to back to their usual state of mind…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Brewin, C. And Holmes, E. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical psychology review, 23 (3), pp. 339 -- 376.
Clark, D. And Ehlers, A. (2004). Posstraumatic stress disorders from cognitive theory to therapy. In: Leahy, R. eds. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford, pp. 141-160.
Clohessy, S. And Ehlers, A. (1999). PTSD symptoms, response to intrusive memories and coping in ambulance service workers. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (3), pp. 251 -- 265.
Eleusinian Cult of Demeter and the Magical Initiation ites that are part of each of those groups. The writer explores the groups and explains many of their beliefs and ways while focusing on the differences and similarities of them. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout history there have been mysterious groups, rituals and events that have only served to enhance the historic records of mankind. As the world continues to evolve it is interesting to look back and see where humans have been. One of the most interesting time periods in history involved the Eleusinian Mysteries and their magical initiation rites.
Before one can begin to understand the impact and importance of the initiation rites that were performed and endured by those in the cult of Demeter it is vital that one understand a little bit about the cult itself and its "life."
The Eleusinian Mysteries…
The Eleusinian Mysteries http://users.erols.com/nbeach/eleusis.html
Stephanus Byzantios, "Agra," in Stephanus Byzantinus cum annotationibus L. Holstenii et al. Lipsiae: Libraria Kuehnia, 1825. Vol. 1.
Stoabeus, Joannes, Anthologium, ed. A. Meineke. Lipsiae: Teubner, 1860-64. Vol. 4.
Ventris, Michael and Chadwick, John, Documents in Mycenaean Greek, 2nd. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
) These consist in offerings made at the home shrine or performing puja to the family deities whereas Nainittika occur only at certain times during the year.For instance, the celebration of festivals in temples, offering thanksgiving etc.Kamya are pilgrimages. Although optional they are ocnsidered by the followers of the faith to be highly desirable. It allows a devotee to see and be seen by the deity which is an important part of Hindu Worship. Areas of pilgrimage would be rivers (especially river Ganges, and holy places such as Banares (believed to be the home of Lord Shiva), Allahabad, etc.), temples, mountains, and other sacred sites are popular pilgrimage places
Due to the atheistic nature of Buddhism, this faith has no doctrine of a personal god. In order to arise to enlightment buddhist meditate.Meditation involves the body and the mind. For Buddhists this is particularly important as they want to avoid…
Knipe, David M. Hinduism: Experiments in the Sacred. Religious traditions of the world. San Francisco, Calif: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991. Print
Knott, Kim. Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Very short introductions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print
Living Religions of the West
Religion -- Question
Describe how an ethics may define and respond to "nature," and show how this is accomplished in the Jewish rituals of Bar and Bat Mitzvah and in the New Testament story of the rich young man told to follow self-renunciation.
Religion is often construed, especially by modern critics, as something that acts in an unnatural fashion upon the human character, especially in terms of how religious laws govern human impulses. In other words, religion is thought of an imposition, for better or for worse, upon the natural and unfettered structures of human physical and moral development. Indeed, some aspects of ethical religious traditions are monastic and see 'nature' and natural or at least bodily human impulses as inherently contrary to the moral life, and thus demand renunciation from the world and natural bodily impulses and appetites. However, religious law can also be…
he goal is not to impart information, but rather to enhance shared beliefs. It draws people together through fellowship and having and sharing something in common.
Burke notes that the importance of drama is finding a perceived similarity between the speaker and the listener. hen the audience is more likely to believe that the speaker is "talking sense." In other words, this could be called the commonality aspect of the ritual mode of communication. he more the speaker and listeners are similar, the more they will share common beliefs.
Goffman talks about how people represent themselves. If they represent themselves as honest, as they really are, then there is a greater chance for a ritual communication to take place. If they present themselves as something they are not or wear a mask of deceit, then others cannot relate to them and a commonality cannot occur.
Garfinkel discusses the order or…
The women in Jorgenson's study of engineers can have ritual communication if they find enough in common with one another to share similar beliefs and values. if, instead, they only have their career in common, there is less chance that they will be able to have a sense of agreement over a period of time.
Brown, R.H. (1992). Poetics, politics and professionalism in the rise of American psychology. History of the Human Sciences, 5(1), 47-61.
Osborne, T., & Rose, N. (1997). In the name of society, or three theses on the history of social thought. History of the Human Sciences, 10(3), 87-121
At the church I visited, many of the parents had returned to regular church-going for the sake of their children, because they wanted their children to have a spiritual foundation. However, the manifestation of their spirituality was social, not simply individual. Many of the children were part of a youth group, and knew one another as friends. They went on retreats together, bonded at prayer meetings, as well as talked and joked about non-church related things. All of the regular members had made a substantial investment of time and effort in the community, and even those who mostly came on holidays clearly felt that church-going was something they 'should' do, to show their respect for the community, their faith, and perhaps most importantly of all for the sake of a familial tradition. eligion is not something that can be performed alone: even solitary prayer connects someone to beliefs, actions, and…
Gligoff, Dan. (2010, May 31). An alternative model for Protestant politics. CNN. Retrieved July
16, 2010 at http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/2010/05/31/an-alternative-model-for-protestant-politics/
Grundy, Maureen. (2000). Syncretic religion. Post-Colonial Web. Retrieved July 16, 2010 at http://www.postcolonialweb.org/zimbabwe/religion/grundy4.html
Rives, J.R. (2007). Religion in the Roman Empire. Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved July 16, 2010
Culture and Sociology of the Nacerima
Body Rituals Among the Nacirema," by Horace Miner is an article that offers a social look at the American lifestyle. The author steps outside of the American culture and describes how somebody unfamiliar to the culture might describe it. This manages to open the reader's eyes to the fact that the American culture can be seen as just as strange as unfamiliar foreign cultures. The article is based around the concept that the, "fundamental belief underlying the whole system appears to be that the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is to debility and disease" (Miner). The culture described is based on rituals that attempt to prevent this journey towards debility and disease. The norms, institutions and material goods described are all based on health aspects. Three of these that illustrate this are teeth brushing as a norm, the hospital as…
The Emergence of Social
Complexity in Neolithic China
This work will focus on the burial assemblages of the Dawenkou site in Shandong Northern China and will revolve around the main idea that these burial sites present convincing evidence of an emerging social complexity. A second focus will be to provide proof that the Dawenkou culture played a major role in the emerging complexity of the Neolithic Chinese period.
Until recently, archaeologists had believed that the Chinese civilization began in the center of China around the Yellow River valley and eventually migrated from there. However, new discoveries have revealed an extremely more complex version of Neolithic China. It is more viable today that China developed from multiple cultures from different regions of the land as opposed to a single or bi- cultural evolution. "As in other parts of the world, the Neolithic period was marked by the development of…
Thorp, Robert L., and Richard Ellis Vinograd. Chinese Art and Culture. New York: Abrams, 2000.
Underhill, Anne P. "An Analysis of Mortuary Ritual At The Dawenkou Site, Shandong, China." Journal of East Asian Archaeology. Vol. 2, (2000):(Neolithic Tomb at Dawenkou) 93-127.
Watson, William. Archaeology in China. London: M. Parrish, 1960.
The central prophesy of the Surem ancestors of the Yoemem incorporates Catholicism. In the story of Yomumuli, a world tree speaks to the great Mother. Not unlike the burning bush anecdote of the Old Testament, the story reveals the symbolic connection between the Surem/Yoemem and Christian beliefs. Moreover, the prophesy itself foretold of the coming of the conquistadors and of their religion. Those Surem who were willing to convert, accept Jesus as savior, and move into modernity would become the Yaqui. Those who chose to retain the Surem traditions would live wild and free in the hills and sea.
Interestingly, the Yoemem did not draw value judgments from their ancestor's decisions. The Surem who live as pagans are viewed as helpers and as being close to the spirit world. The Surem are not perceived of as heathen or evil as many pagans have been labeled by the People of the…
Seyewailo: The Flower World Yaqui Deer Songs." Words and Place. Retrieved June 29, 2007 at http://wordsandplace.arizona.edu/seyewailo_background.html
Shorter, D. (2003). Binary thinking and the study of Yoeme Indian lutu'uria/truth. Anthropological Forum, 13/2 (November 2003): 195-203. Retrieved June 29, 2007 from https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/2022/303/1/shorterSN.doc
Yaqui Deer Dance." Class Notes.
Yomumuli and the Little Surem People." Class Notes.
Food History of North America Cuisine
What is the geographical location of North America and why it would have an effect on the North America cuisine? (i.e., what is the weather condition in North America and does that play an affect as to why they eat the foods they eat and what foods do they eat mostly).
North America is a vast area that has many different geographical areas and so, they have an amazing affect on the food that North Americans eat. The long shorelines provide every kind of seafood from Alaskan king crab to Maine Lobster. The interior of North America is made up of prairie, both in the U.S. And Canada, and it is fertile, flat soil that is easily farmed. The area provides food to the entire world.
Because the area is so vast, the weather is different throughout North America, and influences the foods…
Jones, Oakah L. "5 / Hacia El Norte! The Spanish Entrada into North America, 1513-1549." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 241-291.
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. "7 / A Continent Revealed: Assimilation of the Shape and Possibilities of North America's East Coast, 1524-1610." North American Exploration: A New World Disclosed. Ed. John Logan Allen. Vol. 1. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. 344-399.
Sutherland, Amy. Cookoff: Recipe Fever in America. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.
Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York, Crown Publishers, 1988.
Bird-Headed Bas Relief
Balefully staring out from a fragmentary bas-relief panel of mottled grey-brown stone, the bird- or reptile- headed creature dominates this viewer's attention: it is an Assyrian religious carving of some sort, entitled "Bird-Headed Deity," dated to 885 BCE and found in Calah, Iraq. The mottling of the stone is inherent in its quality: to a certain extent, the artist seems to have placed the figure so that the mottling would settle like an aura around the creature's head. What remains of this broken engraving from the reign of Sardanapalus, or Assurbanipal II, the last recorded emperor of Assyria, coheres in the form of a loose and lopsided pentagon -- the shape itself of the broken panel is five-sided, but tilts up toward the right, and looks like home plate at a baseball game seen in extreme perspective. The panel itself is mounted on a concrete square of…
religion class. It MLA style, Answer questions: Confucius thinks deliberate tradition
It is not absolutely necessary for an individual to be cognizant of and take part in some sort of deliberate tradition for the cultivation of virtuous individual lives. Nonetheless, such a tradition can be useful in propagating virtue. Alternatively, such a tradition can also be used to propagate vices and other nefarious forms of behavior. However, a deliberate tradition is not necessary to cultivate virtue. One can cultivate virtue simply by following the golden rule, which is to do unto others as one wants done unto oneself (Klempner). Such a mantra or formula for virtue is highly innate and is actually little more than common sense. Hence, individuals can discover this ideology on their own and practice it without expressly being told about it, or following some lengthy tradition dispelling other means of moral behavior. In light of this…
Klempner, Geoffrey. "Kant's Categorical Imperative and the Golden Rule." www.electronicphilosopher.com. 2007. Web. http://electronicphilosopher.blogspot.com/2012/03/kants-categorical-imperative-and-golden.html
Instead of verbally communicating with a live human being, people would rather press some buttons and receive the answer digitally.
The body ritual of the Nacirema demonstrates the unusual practices of certain cultures. Within this group of people, they are obsessed with keeping their bodies clean and pure of disease. As a result of this infatuation, most of their entire lives revolve around their cleaning rituals. This group of people demonstrates the impact that culture, ritual and mythology play in human sociology.
Social control is an ineffective means to justify tyrannical practices within government and other institutional forces. Propaganda is a tool to help implement this frame of mind from the controllers to the people being controlled. Through intense effort and plotting, certain aspects of the human condition are exploited by masters of human relations to help cultivate a willing and uninformed society.
Fear is the…
Group Process and Skill Selection
ecent developments at the medical industry increase the life expectancy. Census reported that 36.3 million Americans were 65 and over in 2004 and 71.5 million Americans will be 65 and over in 2030 (see, census.org). Therefore, the age related diseases and related industry (i.e. eldercare) have been taking an important part of the American society. Taking care of a person with memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease is a demanding task as it requires mental and physical strength. Social supports groups are very helpful to deal with mental and physical distress for Alzheimer's patients' caregivers. In this brief document, a social group session is discussed.
ANALYZING GOUP POCESS AND SKILL SELECTION
Garvin, Gutierrez, and Galinsky (2004) describe the social work groups in which the social workers participate as part of their professional activities either as participants or facilitators. The interaction between social workers and…
Garvin, C.D., Gutierrez, L.M., & Galinsky, M.J., (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of social work with groups. New York: Guilford Publications.
Gitlin L.N., Corcoran M., Winter L., Boyce A., & Hauck W.W. (2001). A randomized, controlled trial of a home environmental intervention: effect on efficacy and upset in caregivers and on daily function of persons with dementia. Gerontologist 41 (1): 4 -- 14.
Mitchell S.L., Teno J.M., & Kiely D.K. ( 2009). The clinical course of advanced dementia." N. Engl J. Med 361 (16): 1529 -- 38.
Molsa P.K., Marttila R.J., & Rinne U.K. (1995). Long-term survival and predictors of mortality in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. ActaNeurol Scand 91 (3): 159 -- 64.
Myth of Marriage and Children
Joseph Campbell's The Power of Myth is a book that can potentially transform the reader's consciousness. Beyond being informative, Campbell's analysis of cultural myths is profound; it provokes genuine introspection. The author refers to the spiritual in whatever he speaks about, and yet he never lapses into religious diatribe or dogma. Subjects like marriage are elevated beyond the social to the psycho-spiritual. For example, he calls marriage "primarily a spiritual exercise, and the society is supposed to help us have the realization. Man should not be in service to society, society should be in the service of man," (8).
In light of modern society, Campbell's words hold new meaning. In America, we have few true rituals because we have turned our attention outward instead of inward. The wisdom of life is being denigrated through a preoccupation with technology and material goods. There is little…
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one's death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.
After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a…
Kimura, R (1996).Death and dying in Japan. "Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal," Vol. 6, No.
4,The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 374-378.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007).The Definition of Death
They are, never taking anything for granted; never being over-confident ("over positive"), of course never being "obstinate" (for that is a truly shameful attitude to take in any personal or social circumstance); and never being egotistic (self-love, or narcissism is akin to egotism, and in Confucian thought it is repugnant).
In Book IX (28) the Master says that "he that is really Good can never be unhappy." That doesn't mean one supposes that the truly jen person, the very Good person, goes around with a smile all the time and everything always goes right. It just means, the sense of being at peace comes when one achieves a level of goodness in life, and peace in this context relates to happiness, not to overt joy or ebullience.
Book XII offers a great deal of information about Goodness, jen. Ritual plays a pivotal role here, as the Master insists that sticking…
Whaley, Arthur. The Analects of Confucius. New York: Random House, 1938.
Holi, Colors speak and people Play!
Indian culture is enriched with traditions, religious ceremonies and festive celebrations. The paper is about historical and religious significance of Holi, a spring celebration which is also referred to as the 'celebration of colors'. However, the event dates back to ancient Hindu religious celebrations. In South Asia, Holi has also gained popularity among non-Hindus. It is majorly celebrated in India, Nepal and other parts of the world wherever Hindu communities reside. The event starts a night before Holi with Holika, which is the bonfire where people gather in masses to dance and sing around the fire. The very next morning Holi is celebrated by playing with colors, singing and dancing. However, there are few symbolic elements prominently observed in Holi carnival. Every single person adorns in complete white, has water gun fight, plays with colors in the shape of dry powder and drinks "Bhang."…
Albers, Josef. Interaction of Color. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975.
Ball, Philip. Bright Earth: Art and the Invention of Color. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001.
Della Vache, Angela and Brian Price. Color: The Film Reader. London: Routledge, 2006.
Gans, H, J. Symbolic ethnicity and symbolic religiosity: towards a comparison of ethnic and religious acculturation. 1994.