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ococo and Neo-Classical
Two styles became very popular in Europe during the 1700s. One, the ococo style was characterized by fluidity, asymmetry, and the extremely ornate. This style would come to dominate France during the period and stretch out across Europe and into ussia. ococo has come to mean "busy" in the modern vernacular and seem a criticism but at the time, this was just what fashionable people wanted. Homes were decked out with intricately scrolled metal works, porcelain figures, frills and laces, and exquisitely designed furniture. The other was the Neoclassical style. This was inspired by ancient art and architecture of Western Culture, such as the Greeks and omans. Whereas many of the period thought of Neoclassism as the anti-ococo, they both took inspiration from ancient styles.
Examples of ococo-style architecture include the Queluz National Palace in Portugal, one of the last ococo-style buildings to be constructed in Europe.…
De Goncourt, Edmond and Jules. (1981). French Eighteenth-Century Painters. Cornell: 222-225.
Riley, Noel. (1989) "The Age of Rococo" Seacaucus, NJ: Chartwell
This painting shows the philosopher, unjustly condemned to die for his beliefs by the government, as a kind of pagan saint, statue-like and stoic in his beliefs and powerful and noble in the dark, stark anatomical shadings of the work. David's Death of Marat (1793) shows the French Revolutionary hero as a kind of political saint.
One interesting contrast between the rococo and the neoclassical is the period's differing depictions of women. In the rococo, the female was often central as an object of ornamental desire. Rococo celebrated femininity, the feminine form and a color palate that enhanced the delicacy of its subjects. Even its male rococo subjects were often highly feminized. hen neoclassical works depicted women, in contrast, they tended to be idealized representations of freedom, as in the case of Marianne in the symbolic, bare-breasted depiction of Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830). "It shows the allegorical figure…
Buser, Thomas. Experiencing Art Around Us. Thompson Learning, 1995. Excerpted on Mark
Harden's Art archive "Neoclassical Art." March 8, 2009. http://artchive.com/artchive/neo_classical.html
European art: Neoclassicism." (2009). GLBTQ arts.
March 8, 2009. http://www.glbtq.com/arts/eur_art5_neoclassicism.html
The most famous genre painting by David is undoubtedly the Death of Marat (1793) which depicts French radical Jean-Paul Marat slumped over in his bathtub while holding a letter which he obviously was writing just before being killed by Charlotte Corday. The overall narrative of this painting -- the knife/murder weapon lying on the floor, the entry wound just above Marat's heart, his right arm draped over the edge of the bathtub and the writing quill and inkwell -- are all intentionally and vividly placed details intended to "sharpen the sense of pain and social outrage" over the murder of Marat, considered as one of the pivotal rebel leaders of the French Revolution. Clearly, David the artist was attempting to illustrate his own personal feelings concerning the social decay of French culture under King Louis XVI and how rebels like Marat are not exempt from the violence of human nature,…
Ancien Regime Rococo." Art in European History. Internet. http://www.bc.edu/bc_org / avp/cas/his/CoreArt/art/ancien.html. October 16, 2008.
Andersen, Liselotte. Baroque and Rococo Art. New York: H.N. Abrams Publishing, 1969.
Conisbee, Philip. French and Spanish Genre Painting in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
Smith, Claudia and Catheryn Cheal. Baroque, Neoclassical and Romantic Art. Paris:
aroque vs. Rococo
The aroque style in art dates its earliest manifestations to the later years of the 16th century, when the Catholic Church launched the Counter-Reformation. Faced with the growing wave of simple, unsophisticated art style promoted by Protestantism and the Reform, the Catholic Church opposed an opulent style, full of richness and grandeur. In architecture, for example, the constructions dating from the aroque period are richly decorated, statues, sculptures, paintings, all gathered to meet the final scope of the aroque style: achievement of a structure meant to bring forward the glory of the Church. As the aroque swept into other countries, such as France, it gave way to memorable architectural realizations, such as Versailles, used to express royal glory. aroque predominated in Catholic countries, including here Flanders with the perfect Rubens expression, but never gained ground in Protestant countries such as Holland or England, where at that time,…
1. The Illustrated History of Painting. Meridiane, Bucharest, 1973
2. La Pittura Italiana. Mondadori, 1997
3. Guide to the Borghese Gallery. Edizione de Luca. 1997.
4. Nouveau Guide Pratique de Rome et Vatican. Bonechi. 1975
This structure contains a colonnaded dome, a Neoclassical version like that found at St. Peter's in Rome. However, although the entire building, both inside and out, reflects the Roman style, it is essentially Gothic. Another example is the Virginia State House in Richmond, designed by Thomas Jefferson (1743 to 1826) which resembles a Roman temple and is based on Jefferson's "admiration for the pure beauty of antiquity and as a symbol of an idealized Roman Republic government." 6 a prime example of sculpture from this period can be found in the works of Antonio Canova (1757 to 1822), specifically his Pauline Borghese as Venus (1808) which shows "the victorious Venus personified as the goddess of love with all of her voluptuousness and exquisite beauty" and recalls the earlier Rococo style when important women of society were often represented as semi-nude goddesses. 7
After 1750, another new style of artistic expression…
De la Croix, Horst, ed., et al. Art Through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, 2001.
Williams, Arthur B. Art of Eighteenth-Century Europe. New York: Abrams Publishing, Inc., 2003.
William Blake's works included writings and illustrations, some of which were a bit moody and gothic, which also characterized this era. It was a time of modernization, when the opulence of the past simply did not seem relevant or even desirable any more, and it again illustrates just how different eras and ideas about society and money can alter art and artists' works. Art mirrors society and society's interests, which is why it has always changed through time, and will continue to do so.
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. etrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). etrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. etrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. ococo.…
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. Retrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. Retrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. Rococo. Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/rococo.html27 July 2007.
cultural movements of European art after the Renaissance, namely those style periods of Mannerism, Baroque, and Rococo. In the late sixteenth century, Mannerism was a unique artistic technique that made use of distortions of scale and viewpoint. The Baroque movement in art and architecture enhanced Europe between the early seventeenth and middle eighteenth centuries as it emphasized dramatic and at times tense affects. The Baroque artists and sculptures consistently used very bold, curving forms, and extremely elaborate ornamentation. However, unlike Mannerism, they emphasized balance of incongruent parts. The Baroque musicians of the period also flourished throughout Europe and were known for their expressive dissension and complex embellishment of tones. Rococo, which originated early in eighteenth century France and may be considered by some experts as merely an extension of the Baroque movement, was an artistic approach used to create beautiful architecture and art works that were often based on flora…
According to Henry a. Millon, the sparkling gaiety of this style "was cultivated by a new age associated with the regency that followed upon the death of Louis XIV and then with the reign of Louis XV," meaning that these two French kings and their opulent lifestyles highly influenced the art that came about during the beginning and middle years of the 18th century in Europe (156).
Essentially, the Rococo is an interior style or, in other words, pertains mostly to the decoration of objects designed for the interior of palaces and royal residencies. As compared to the art of the aroque Era, that of the Rococo style is far removed from religious and national influences. Architecturally, one of the best examples of the Rococo style can be found in the Rococo room of the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain offrand…
Millon, Henry a. Baroque and Rococo Architecture and Art. New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Tapie, Victor L. The Age of Grandeur: Baroque Art and Architecture. New York: Phadeon Books, 1966.
David, Napoleon in His Study
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries is an 1812 painting done by Jacques-Louis David. It is not just a normal painting but it is vertical in format, plus displays Napoleon standing, three-quarters life size, dressed in the uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers that showed of this blue with white facings and flashy red cuffs. Napoleon also wears his Legion d'honneur and Order of the Iron Crown features, alongside with gold epaulettes, white stockings and French-style culottes. Also, his face is rotated towards the spectator and his right hand placed inside his jacket. However, it is undoubtedly a portrait that is a political vacuum following the French Revolution. However, in this essay, this portrait of Napoleon will compared to Madame Bergeret by Boucher and then the difference between the portrayal of men and women will be discussed.
Bordes, Philippe. "Jacques-Louis David: Empire to Exile." Yale University Press., 2007. 400.
David, Antoine Schnapper. "1748-1825, catalogue de l'exposition Louvre-Versailles 1989 ed. Reunion des musees nationaux, Paris." Sur le tableau No, 2010. 474-477.
David's The Emperor Napoleon In His Study. 6 June 2010. http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/emperor-napoleon-in-his-study.html . 3 October 2014.
Madame Bergeret. 13 May 2011. http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.32681.html . 2 October 2014.
art is changed by the changes that occur in political culture. The writer presents examples and contrasts two of the following areas Baroque, ococo, Neoclassicism, and omanticism and argues the point of how the eras drive changes in artwork. In addition the writer devotes two pages to comparing three works of famous artists.
Art has always been influenced by the masses. Political culture, and change have been driving forces behind the changes in art that history has witnessed. When political and cultural changes occur it is generally because of changing attitudes of those who live in the era and drive those changes. This extrapolates to changes in many things including taste in artwork. Two periods in history provide classic examples of such change occurring and being directly related to political and cultural changes that were taking place in society during the time.
The Neoclassical period and the omantic era are…
http://www.oceansbridge.com/art/customer/product.php?productid=38385& cat=4037& page=19& maincat=M
Pierre Bonnard The Terrace
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
ather, the vines and clusters f grapes on the tree give the piece its true softness and roundness. This is mirrored by the effect of the figures' hair. Both faun and children all possess curling flowing ringlets that seem to hang as loosely as do the grapes, emphasizing a sense of liberty in the work.
The sense of softness and liberty bestowed upon the piece by the line and texture is oddly juxtaposed with the impressions created by other elements of Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children. Most obviously, the piece is composed in a way that makes the faun's posture seem unnaturally contorted, as if the scene has moved beyond teasing and into torment. The extreme angle of the head and neck, especially with the backwards-arcing back, evince more of a struggle to get away than the softer elements of the sculpture suggest. The same is true of the…
Delbeke, M., Levy, E., and Ostrow, S. Bernini's Biographies. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index. "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/09/eusts/ho_1976.92.htm
Montagu, J. Roman Baroque Sculpture. Hong Kong: Yale University Press, 1989.
Metropolitan Museum of Art Works of Art Index, "Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children," Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Metropolitan Museum of Art: The Love Letter
This paper examines the piece The Love Letter, created in 1770 by Jean -- Honore Fragonard. The painting consists of oil on canvas and is 32 3/4 x 26 3/8 in. (83.2 x 67 cm) and originates in France. The painting was originally part of a series of decorative panels which were commissioned by Madame du Barry, one of the loves of Louis XV, for her house which was located at Louveciennes. However, once the panels were finished, she rejected them as being unsuitable for her tastes. This painting was executed before the entire series as a pitch to acquire her commission. The Love Letter in many ways is characteristic of Fragonard's style as a whole: it has warm and muted coloring with a strong eroticism which is present, though somewhat hidden. Fragonard is one who made an entire career from portraying the…
Artble.com. (2013). Jean-Honore Fragonard. Retrieved from Artble.com: http://www.artble.com/artists/jean-honore_fragonard#style_and_technique
Du.ac.in. (2013). Rococo. Retrieved from Du.ac.in: http://www.du.ac.in/fileadmin/DU/Academics/course_material/euroart/hyperlinks%202/Rococo%20features.htm
It would seem that the artists and the press of the era both recognized a hot commodity when they saw one, and in this pre-Internet/Cable/Hustler era, beautiful women portrayed in a lascivious fashion would naturally appeal to the prurient interests of the men of the day who might well have been personally fed up with the Victorian morals that controlled and dominated their lives otherwise. In this regard, Pyne (2006) reports that, "hen scandalized critics attacked Rodin's nudes, Camera ork defended the drawings by a strategy of veiling the body with the soul, praising them as 'the perception of the mystery of surfaces.... The adventure of the mind in matter... The divinizing of the sensual and the materializing of the sensuous.' Stieglitz thus used a histlerian gloss of shadows and music to mystify the eroticism of Rodin's 'pagan' figures" (44).
The portrayal of women was even regarded as a…
Banta, Martha. Imaging American Women: Idea and Ideals in Cultural History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.
Clements, Candace. (1992) "The Academy and the Other: Les Graces and Le Genre Galant." Eighteenth-Century Studies 25(4):469-94 in Lathers at 23.
Danto, Arthur C. (1986, December 13). "John Singer Sargent." The Nation 243:679.
Downes, William Howe. John S. Sargent: His Life and Work. Boston: Little, Brown, 1925.
The painting captures a very specific kind of aristocratic pastoral leisure, and it accomplishes this by insinuating a number of activities without actually showing them. Firstly, while Mr. Andrews holds his gun, he does so comfortably as he leans against a bench, seemingly indifferent to the prospect of hunting. Mrs. Andrews holds a quill, but she is not paying attention to whatever she might be writing, instead choosing to glance up at the reader. The wheat and penned animals insinuate the work of a farm, but the wheat has already been collected, thus further imbuing the image with a sense of relaxation and leisure. Because it is first and foremost a portrait, the painting serves to portray its main characters as hardworking yet not at all focused on the work itself, but rather the enjoyment that comes from its completion. Furthermore, the characters' relationship with nature is a complex one,…
"Thomas Gainsborough." The National Gallery of Art. National Gallery of Art, 2011. Web. 28
Sep 2011. .
"Mr. And Mrs. Andrews ." Photograph.Wikipedia.org. Thomas Gainsborough. Wikimedia Foundation, 1750. Web. 28 Sep 2011. .
Shortly after taking charge of the project, Michelangelo viewed Sangallo's wooden model of the planned basilica. He was accompanied by Sangallo's followers who, according to Vasari,
Putting the best face on the matter, came forward and said how glad they were that the work had been given to him and that the model was a meadow that would always afford inexhaustible pasture, to which Michelangelo replied that they spoke truly, meaning, as he afterwards told a friend, that it would serve for sheep and oxen who know nothing of art.
In fact, a good part of Michelangelo's work on St. Peter's consisted of removing what work had been accomplished by Sangallo. Sangallo's hemicycle was demolished, and Michelangelo shored up some of Bramante's rather high-speed construction, until -- again in the opinion of Vasari -- "the columns, bases, capitals, doors and windows, cornices and projections, were perfect in every detail."
Elam, Caroline. "Che Ultima Mano!": Tiberio Calcagni's Marginal Annotations to Condivi's 'Life of Michelangelo." Renaissance Quarterly 51.2 (1998): 475+.
Fischel, Oskar. Raphael. Trans. Bernard Rackham. Vol. 1. London: Kegan Paul, 1948.
Hibbard, Howard. Michelangelo. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harper & Row, 1985.
Januszczak, Waldemar. Sayonara, Michelangelo: The Sistine Chapel Restored and Repackaged. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
Using the concept to redesign a chair, camper, lamp, and radio
In contrast to artistic images from eras such as the rococo and baroque, the 20th century design movement known as 'streamlining' attempted to reduce everything from homes to ordinary household objects down to their most essential, sparest forms. The popularity of this movement is embodied today in such iconic structures as Apple's iPad and iPod, where function and form are seamlessly integrated: the simplicity of the design mirrors the simplicity of using the device. Streamlining originally became popular in the 1930s, an era with many parallels to our own in terms of the political and economic unrest and fears of rapid technological change. All of this was fused into a desire for simplicity and clarity.
"America in the 1920s and early 1930s was an increasingly machine-driven culture…. The result of streamlining was not only the appearance of speed…
Venus in Art
Introduction to Venus and Aphrodite:
Throughout history, Venus has long been a source of inspiration for artists. Her representation of love and beauty has been captured in various mediums, from the visual arts of paintings and sculpture to music and drama; Venus has served as a universal symbol of beauty and has embodied the secrets of love. Central to understanding how artists have been able to use her as such a representation of love and beauty, is understanding Venus and Aphrodite's roles in history and Greek mythology.
Venus is an ancient Italian goddess closely associated with fields and gardens and later identified by the Romans with the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite. Although the question as to how Venus came to be identified with so important a deity as Aphrodite remains unanswered, Venus' identification with Aphrodite is certain and because of this is often depicted in art.…
Arscptt, C. & Scott, K. (Eds.) (2000). Manifestations of Venus: Art and sexuality. New York: Manchester University Press.
Beckley, B. (ed.) (1998). Uncontrollable Beauty: Toward a new aesthetics. New York: Allworth Press.
Hersey, G. (1996). The evolution of allure: sexual selection from the Medici Venus to the Incredible Hulk. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Goodman, E. (ed.) (2001). Art and Culture in the Eighteenth Century: new dimensions and multiple perspectives. Newark: University of Delaware Press.
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…
Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.
"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.
Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…
thinkquest.org. (1999). Retrieved March 27, 2010, from SPQR Online: http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/government.htm
Islam and Islamic History in Arabia and the Middle East. (2001). Retrieved March 28, 2010, from islamcity.com: http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/ihame/Sec12.htm
The European Voyages of Exploration. (2001). Retrieved April 5, 2010, from the Applied History Research Group: http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/index.html
Mummies and Mummification. (2003). Retrieved March 30, 2010, from Digital Egypt: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/mummy/ok.html
Herbert eed saw these bronze sculptures as "apparitions," or "primordial images projected from the deepest level of the unconscious, and they illustrate the truth that the artist is essentially the instrument of unconscious forces" (Mitchinson 1998, p. 246). Others see the uprights as Moore's reflection of World War I, or bombs cut in half lengthways to show their internal workings, giving a long, smooth and rounded shape at the back and a complex series of mechanical forms at the front. In this case, he is anthropomorphizing the bombs by adding facial parts. egardless, these sculptures are highly abstract and ambivalent, impacting people in different ways (Mitchinson 1998)
It is most likely more the case that Moore's uprights are not dark and pessimistic recreations of bombs. When he first saw the prehistoric stone monoliths at Stonehenge in the 1930s, he was elated and began to try different types of sculptures: "I…
Bazin, Germain. 1968. History of World Sculpture. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society.
Nelson Atkins Museum of Art/Kansas City Blog. Retrieved April 3, 2009. http://www.nelson-atkins.org/blog/kansas_city_sculpture_park/
Kosinksi, Dorothy 2001. Henry Moore. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Mitchinson, David. 1998 Celebrating Moore. Berkeley: UCLA Press.
The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company ith the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.
Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.
To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,
I'll choke him to death
In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).
This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar…
Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. Aesopfables.com. last Updated October 1, 2006. http://www.aesopfables.com/cgi/aesop1.cgi-srch&fabl/TheMulesandtheRobbers Accessed April 15, 2008.
Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.
CP.E. Bach's Symphony in D. reflects incredible diversity in mood, character and expression, contrasting rhythm, dynamics and articulation. His juxtaposition of strings and winds in "conversation" with each other is entertaining and creates texture and color. His changes in tempo and theme are done gracefully and skillfully, with additions of trills and small humorous variations. The slow middle movement is serene and mournful with lower register thematic repetition. It is very moving and memorable. The variations that fill the last movement reflect on the first two and complete a fitting ending to the piece. There were several solo pieces that were derived from this symphony that can be played by individuals on various instruments and, as this was the popular thing to do in the late 18th century, the piece became well-known.
Having learned his skill and having inherited his talent from such a noble father as Johann Sebastian Bach,…
Benjamin, Thomas. The Craft of Tonal Counterpoint. New York: Routledge. 2003.
Encyclopedia Britannica. Symphony. Found online at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article/27481/symphony .
Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style. New York: W.W. Norton, 1972.
The actual construction was the work of ast (Villa ast). Similar to his previous creation, classicism is captured within the "fluted pillars" and "lateral projections." Numerous ornaments, such as pearl, egg-and-dart, and leaf moldings, are incorporated. Notable sculptures include one by Anton Hanak, above the tall windows on the right side of the house. Hoffmann's geometric motifs are also detected through the verticals and latticework. The furnishings also bear geometric grid patterns. Specific features include square flowers and lozenge patterns with complementary colors of white and black (white and gold is used as well). An overall impression of lightness is also achieved, with high stairwells, freestanding marble columns, and decorative glasswork. Notably, the design of the garden was intended to give off an exclusive impression. The terraces (some semi-cylindrical, some not) and ground level disparities instigate a conservative sense. In contrast, freedom is also employed with the rich modulations of…
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
Romantic and Modern Design Styles
Comparing the Ornate and the Natural: A Study of Two Theories of Design
History often dictates societal mentality more so than current climate, yet in times of peace, it seems that the beautiful and the artful flourish. This very concept is debatable, especially in interior design, where the fashions of the time very often have a much-felt impact upon design theories and the way in which they are carried out. Yet it is in history that one finds inspiration, or the contradiction thereof. For instance, during the mid to late 19th century, it was against history that romanticism was born. Yet in the early 20th century, immediately following this period of romanticism, it was out of a societal need for simplicity prior to the two Great ars that a more natural aesthetic was born, expressed so perfectly by the architect Frank Lloyd right. The following…
1. Customer Notes -- Provided by Customer from Academic Notes and Books
2. Britannica Encyclopedia, (2012). Interior Design: The Romantic Movement and the Battle of the Styles. Retrieved from, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/290278/interior-design/74226/The-Romantic-movement-and-the-battle-of-the-styles-1835-1925
3. Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, (2012). Wright's Life and Work. Retrieved from, http://www.franklloydwright.org/web/Home.html
4. Pile, J. (1997). Color in Interior Design. McGraw-Hill: New York.
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…
Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.
Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp
Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm
Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com/ .
ichter and Gardiner in Bach's Canata ecordings
The Baroque was a style expressed in art, music, architecture and even literature from the Age of Discovery in the 16th century until the early 18th century. Most describe it as more dramatic, florid, embellished and a move away from the total religiosity of the Middle Ages and into a more secular and emotional, time frame. However, the spread of the Baroque in music, art and architecture was certainly tied to the spread of Catholicism and how art was used in the Church to help express emotion and tell the Biblical stories through painting or music for those not literate. Later in the era, the idea of music and art being reflective of religiosity became even more important with the split between Catholics and Protestants. Just like the philosophical materials that arose, the Baroque in music tending to use the past as a…
Cantata BWV4. (2008). Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved from: http://www.bach-
Buelow, G., ed. (2004). A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana
Earl of Rochester / Aphra Behn
Masks and Masculinities:
Gender and Performance in the Earl of Rochester's "Imperfect Enjoyment"
and Aphra Behn's "The Disappointment"
Literature of the English Restoration offers the example of a number of writers who wrote for a courtly audience: literary production, particularly in learned imitation of classical models, was part of the court culture of King Charles II. The fact of a shared model explains the remarkable similarities between "The Imperfect Enjoyment" by the Earl of Rochester and "The Disappointment" by Aphra Behn -- remarkable only because readers are surprised to read one poem about male sexual impotence from the late seventeenth century, let alone two examples of this genre by well-known courtly writers. In fact, Richard Quaintance presents ten more examples by lesser-known poets as he defines the literary sub-genre of the neo-Classical "imperfect enjoyment poem," written in imitation of Roman poems on the same…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Print.
Empson, Sir William. "Rochester." Argufying: Essays on Literature and Culture. Ed. John Haffenden. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1988. 270-7. Print.
Farley-Hills, David. Rochester: The Critical Heritage. London: Taylor and Francis, 2005. Print.
Hughes, Derek. "Aphra Behn and the Restoration Theatre." The Cambridge Companion to Aphra Behn. Ed. Derek Hughes and Janet Todd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 29- 45. Print.
Goya: Man and Myth
Every society has its myths, stories that explain the time-honored order of things. Humankind does what it does now because of ancient prototypes. As Man does, so did the gods. But what of a society in a state of turmoil? What of a man whose very life is filled with questions? Saturn devours his children, subverts the natural order of the universe. With brutal forthrightness, Goya used an ancient myth to capture the questions of his times and of his life. Humanity is but the plaything of a capricious fate, a helpless doll in the hands of a wild-eyed giant. Yet not only the subject of the painting, but even the manner in which it is painted speak to the horrors of Goya's age and to the hidden darkness of his own mind. Quick brush strokes, sketchy outlines, colors merging into shadow, all comprise the anguished…
Positives and Negatives from a Century of Aviation
Little did the Wright brothers know, on December 17, 1903, when they successfully tested their flying machine at Kitty Hawk, what an influential industry they were launching. They could not have known in their wildest dreams that ninety-nine years later, an airport called Chicago O'Hare would facilitate some 383,362 landing and takeoff cycles each year. Or that by 1967, sixty-four years later, aerospace would become America's leading industrial employer, with some 1,484,000 employees, and sales of $27 billion, according to author Donald Pattillo (Pushing the Envelope). Nor could the Wright brothers know that a man would fly to the moon, and walk on the moon, by 1969, just sixty-six years after that little plane at Kitty Hawk left solid ground for a few triumphant seconds.
ut though the Wright brothers' crude little aircraft got the aerospace industry off the ground to become…
Biddle, Wayne. Barons of the Sky: From Early Flight to Strategic Warfare. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Bilstein, Roger E. Flight in America: From the Wrights to the Astronauts. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
Knott, Richard C. A Heritage of Wings: An Illustrated History of Navy Aviation. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
Miller, Jerry. Nuclear Weapons and Aircraft Carriers: How the Bomb Saved Naval Aviation. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.
Classicism manifested itself in the 18th century. There are five references used for this paper.
There have been a number of cultural styles over the last centuries from Baroque to Classicism to Romanticism. It is interesting to look at Classicism and determine how it manifested itself in the 18th century.
In order to determine the 18th century's manifestation of Classicism, it is important to understand what the term means. Classicism, or Neo-Classicism is used to "characterize the culture of 18th-century Europe, and contrasted with 19th-century Romanticism (unknown, Classicism)." In "art, music, and literature, it is a style that emphasizes the qualities traditionally considered characteristic of ancient Greek and Roman art, that is, reason, balance, objectivity, restraint, and strict adherence to form (unknown, Classicism)."
Ludwig van Beethoven demonstrated Classicism during the end of his life with his string quartets. Beethoven first earned the respect of the Viennese people as…
McLellan, Joseph. Beethoven, on Balance; Ecstatic Beauty Flows Through Borromeo
String Quartet. The Washington Post. (2000): 25 May. Pp. J03.
Unknown. Antiques & Collecting: Dedicated followers of all things. Birmingham Post.
2001): 11 August. Pp. 50.
Realist Painting Style and Realism
The Realist style owes its existence to the Realist concept. "Realism is democracy in art," Courbet believed. (Nochlin, xiii) Taking that as the credo upon which the works of the artists were constructed, the style itself can be nothing if not anti-academic, anti-historical, anti-conservative. Indeed, whether brushstrokes or pen markings or etching into stone or metal form the image, the underlying attitude is one of freedom, attention to the gross characteristics of form, dismissal of mere decoration for its own sake, and obvious celebration of anything. The self-consciousness of the finely chosen brushstroke or marking is gone, in favor of a brushstroke or marking that favors expression of the interplay between what is seen and the seer. Gone is any demand from outside the artist to make things appear lovelier, grander, more stately than they perhaps really are. It is, in short, art with the…
Crook, Malcolm "French elections, 1789-1848." History Today, 1 March 1993.
Daumier, Honore. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 10 January 2004.
Dolan, Therese. Honore Daumier. (Review) The Art Bulletin. 1 March 1998.
Dorozynski, Alexander. "Audacity: 200 years of French innovation 1789-1989. (AMERICAN HERITAGE Magazine Special Report), Forbes, 24 July 1989.
Antonio Canova was an Italian sculptor from Venice who lived from 1757 to 1822. He primarily worked in marble and believed that he could use that medium to render an artistic view of human flesh. He is most famous as someone who rejected the excesses and filigree of the Baroque to return to classical style, making him one of the foremost artists of the neoclassical style. For a number of years, Canova's work was considered to be the greatest example of European sculpture -- to the point that in 1802, Canova was invited to Paris to carve marble portraits of the emperor Napoleon and family. Most art critics find that the combination of returning to mythology and discreet eroticism that flowed out of the enaissance and into the modern era, without all the unnecessary frills of the Baroque, to be his greatest contribution to art.
Canova was born in…
All-Art.org, "Introduction to Neoclassicism." Last modified April 2000. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/neocl.html .
Bindman, David. Warm Flesh, Cold Marble. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.
Durant, Will & Aiel. The Age of Napoleon: The Story of Civilization. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011.
Friedel, E. A Cultural History of the Modern Age. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 1999.
In his painting Flight into Egypt, Battista Dossi took great care to tell the story of the Holy Family at the very moment the painting shows. He evokes the urgency in the life of the traveling Holy Family as they flee for the life of their child. All that needs to be said in the painting is told with color and precision, movement and depth, and the entirely personal glimpse into the lives of the Holy Family. Battista's work is at once compelling and evocative of the situation.
The work entitled Flight into Egypt is oil on panel by the Ferrarese artist Battista Dossi, (circa 1490 to 1548) who was the younger brother of Dosso Dossi. The brothers were the primary painters in the court of Ferrara under the Alfonso I'd'Este and Ercole II d'Este. Unfortunately, most of the documented work the brothers did for the court was…
This is an essential part of understanding Seurat -- the ways in which he sought a seamless blending between art and science. He saw no barriers to doing so because his own ways of working along with his understanding of how the world worked lead him to view the world through a sort of bifocals. He viewed everything through both art and science -- through both fact and metaphor.
But while this is an essential perspective on Seurat and his work, there are other lenses through which his work must be viewed and understood. Analyses of both Seurat and generally of Impressionism and Neo-Impression tend to write about their marriage of science and art were a foregone conclusion. As if embracing the scientific and the new were the most natural pathway for artists to take.
But French artists might well have gone the way of a number of their British…
Monet used brushstrokes and many shades of vivid greens and pinks to portray the garden as if it were viewed through a mist.
In 1910, English writer oger Fry coined the phrase "post impressionism" as he organized an exhibition in London (Shone, 1979, p. 9). Just as the paintings of the impressionists caused a scandal in the art world some forty years earlier, the post impressionist work of artists such as Gaugin and Van Gogh "outraged all notions of what good painting should be" (Shone, p. 9).
The post-impression movement included, in addition to Gaugin and Van Gogh, artists such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Seurat, and the later work of Cezanne. Like the Impressionists, these artists used real-life subjects, portraying them with distinct brushstrokes, thick paint, and bright colors. Times were changing, and the post-Impressionists responded by modernizing what the Impressionists had done, imposing more form and structure to show greater depth…
Brettell, R.R. (1995). Modern French painting and the art museum. Art Bulletin 77 (2).
Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Hill, I.B. (1980). Paintings of the western world: impressionism. New York: Galley Press.
Shone, R. (1979). The post-impressionists. New York: Galley Press.
Rather than seeking to emulate an ideal, they sought instead to cobble together influences, styles, and techniques from a range of different traditions. Relying on what others have created without actually valuing those creations on their own merits is not respectful of either tradition or innovation.
The result was a hodge-podge of aesthetics that is not without merit, but that is criticized now (and for quite a time) for not having a clear focus. annerist artists neither venerated the past nor sought to create an entirely new way of seeing. They often did incorporate fantastical subjects and twisted the forms of both of these creatures and of human subjects into sinewy shapes. The effect was not so much dreamlike (or even nightmarish) but distorted.
Even as annerist artists borrowed freely from other traditions and so seemed to devalue the worth of innovation and the allure of the new, they did…
Modern art in general has had a much more positive regard for the innovative and new. The reasons for this are complicated but may reflect consequences that have arose since the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization brought about two important trends that affected the ways in which artists interact with and feel about the new. Industrialization made constant innovation a social good in a way that had never been true before. The fact that new technologies made it easier and easier to create novel objects in the commercial world bled over to a push toward the innovative in art.
The early phases of Modernist art played directly with the ideas of how technology and art intersected with each other and how the new era of the machine made it more difficult to create work that was based on the past. The machine changed everything and made it imperative for artists to re-evaluate what it meant to be an artist at all. Daumier's 1862 Nadar Elevating Photography to the Height of Art is an ironic visual exploration of the ways in which having artistic tools such as the camera made it impossible to make art as it once was. Timothy O' Sullivan's A Harvest of Death (1863) proved incontrovertibly that new technologies changed the way in which everyone (not just artists) would view the world.
The next phase of Modernist art continued the valorization of the new, although in far more ironic ways. Indeed, irony itself in many ways can be seen to be the way in which many artists chose to confront the emphasis on the new. Beginning with the (then) new century, artists tried to combine new technologies and new social mores to ensure their audiences that they were the newest and therefore the best thing. Giacomo Balla's Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912) focused on the ways in which technology affects the literal ways in which people view the world while a work like Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2 (1912) incorporating much more traditional artistic techniques with the innovative idea that art could only be defined by the artist.
psychological trauma, and how does she relate it to repression? What evidence does she supply in support of her claim? Do you agree with her stance on this basic issue?
Slater, in her usual creative style, believes the current methods of dealing with psychological trauma to be ineffective in regards to the identifying a root cause. In fact, Slater believes the act of talking about a traumatic occurrence in an individual's life actually exacerbates the problem. Recollecting past events through constant conversation, Slater believes, does nothing to address the root cause of the problem. Further, by talking incessantly about this traumatic experience, patients may actually become more ill than they otherwise were. This is particularly important when patient are asks to revisit controversial areas in their lives in order to rid themselves of the traumatic event altogether. Slater is very quick to point out that conversation actually, emblazon fear within…
Dadaism and Surrealism
It has been since centuries that the Art has existed in this world and has undergone various stages. In simple words, art has got its own historical periods whereby every period has its unique invention and significance. Art has acquired immense success, has reached several milestones and the reason of this tremendous development is due to the improvement in diverse historical periods. The present is always improved by taking history as a source for improvement. History narrates the earlier civilizations through which present learns for the future development. In the same way, art has continued to be the most imperative subject of all cultures; be they ancient or present. The different art periods of diverse varieties have existed since times unknown. In this essay, Dadaism and Surrealism, the two distinctive historical art periods will be elaborated along with their similarities and differences.
As mentioned in Columbia…
ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5038833735
Dada. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database:
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The ancient cities of ome and Florence are layered ones. If one has the chance to walk the streets of these cities it is clearly that the they have had far more than the nine lives of the feline: Layer upon layer of human life and human ingenuity is displayed in the many different styles that line the streets. While we may tend to think of ome and Florence as the classical city that they once were (and of which they still bears many elements) they are also in many ways Gothic cities, for some of the cities' finest examples of architecture date from the Gothic period. This paper examines two particular Gothic churches - Santa Maria Maggiore in ome and the church of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence is no exception. Each church is examined for the combination of specific historical forces and styles, the building…
Brown, Peter. "A Dark Age Crisis." English Historical Review 88 (1973), 1-34.
Cameron, Averil. "The Virgin's Robe: An Episode in the History of Seventh-Century Constantinople." Byzantion 49 (1979), 42-56.
Croddy, S. "Gothic Architecture and Scholastic Philosophy." The British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3), 263-272.
Davis, Michael, Science, Technology, and Gothic Architecture. Avista 8 (2) (1994/95), 3-6. http://www.area.fi.cnr.it/bivi/eng/schede/Toscana/Firenze/17cattedrale.htm
Art History ime ravel
Our first stop will be the eighteenth century, where we will investigate Neoclassical painting. We will be visiting Sir Joshua Reynolds, as he works on his 1770 oil on canvas "Portrait of a Black Man" -- and we will be asking if the heroic structure of the painting is meant to contain some sort of ideological message, for example asserting the humanity of his subject against the evils of slavery (which was then still common). We should also find out if indeed the portrait is of Dr. Samuel Johnson's servant Francis Barber, as Johnson's progressive attitude in opposing slavery (and his generous treatment of Barber, to whom he left his estate) might explain why this figure is treated heroically in the painting. hen we will visit Jacques-Louis David, as he works on his stark 1793 Neoclassical oil on canvas depiction of "he Death of Marat." We…
The time machine will stop next in the later nineteenth century, when we will investigate some Impressionist painting. Our first stop will be in London in 1875, to interrogate the American painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler about his oil on canvas study "Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket." We will want to interrogate him about the lawsuit that he filed against the art critic John Ruskin, who accused him of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face" with this daring painting. We will also interrogate Whistler as to whether he would consider the painting to be Impressionist or not -- it seems like he may have considered it to be straightforward realism (fading fireworks in the night sky do look like this painting) but chose the obscure subject to illustrate a Wildean idea of art for art's sake. We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style.
In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations of the piece (is it intended to be strongly vaginal? does it relate to her status as a woman artist?) were intentional on her part, or whether she was merely giving free rein to her subconscious as Surrealists frequently attempted. Then we will find Salvador Dali in 1954, as he completes his large and disturbing oil on canvas painting "Young Virgin Auto-Sodomized By The Horns Of Her Own Chastity." We can interrogate Dali as to the meaning of the symbolism of the painting: why would the chastity of a virgin take the form of a rhinoceros horn about to penetrate her own anus? Is Dali suggesting that sexual repression is self-destructive?
Finally in the latter half of the