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(Brownmiller 470) Hemorrhaging blood, Brownmiller was afraid -- but her fear did not make her question her choice.
Of course, pro-life activists like Dew would argue that no matter how desperately women might want abortions, they have no right to end another human being's life, regardless of their circumstances. But Dew's line of argumentation raises serious questions about the ethics of forcing another human being to subject their bodies to the rigors of pregnancy (which has far greater risks than a legal abortion) and to harbor another human being within their body against their will. Of course, a woman might choose to have sex -- but the ability of a young girl to fully understand the implications of her decision to have intercourse, and the fact that the male in question does not have to endure a pregnancy, suggests that the 'fairness' of outlawing abortion, regardless of the status of…
Brownmiller, Susan. "Abortion is a woman's right." In Voices of a People's History of the United States, 2nd Ed. Edited by Howard Zinn & Anthony Arnove, 1999.
Dew, Diana. "It's a child, not a choice." Diana Dew's essays on life issues. 1998. [August 7,
They would subsequently call them at home, leave literature and fetus dolls at their door, and even call families and distant relatives of the patients to inform them of the patients' plans to ask them to intercede. The Pro-Life advocates argued that they were lawfully exercising their right of free speech on public property (such as across the street fro doctors' offices) to verbally attack patients by name as they exercise their equally important right to personal physical autonomy under the recognized privacy penumbras.
The Value of the Legal Approach Suggested by the Article
The Yale Law Journal article (Clapman, 2003) explained various ways that the general right of free speech is limited by more important privacy rights. For example, truth is ordinarily an affirmative defense to defamation. However, existing law already recognizes that certain statements, despite being truthful, serve no valid purpose besides injuring another person, such as by…
Clapman, A. "Privacy rights and abortion outing: a proposal for using common-law torts to protect abortion patients and staff." The Yale Law Journal. Yale University,
School of Law. 2003. Retrieved May 25, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,
The right of autonomy is also influenced by individualistic ideology of capitalism which other feminist point out is male-biased. Feminists seek to free themselves from perspectives that devalue women and deny them opportunities to explore their thoughts and experiences. For this reason, some feminists have joined the anti-abortion side because the issue of autonomy is not acceptable in a liberal society. According to olf-Devine, she argues that abortion is the response of men to deal with problems caused by unwanted pregnancy and will therefore be problematic for those trying to support feminist perspective as the moral response and that even the feminist perspective on abortion generates strong presumptions as a way of reacting towards unwanted pregnancy Moghadam 91()
The killing of an unborn baby can never be justified under any circumstance because it does not provide a solution to the situation that lead to conception. Illegalization of an abortion implies…
Work cited http://celiawolfdevine.com/pdf/Abortion-and-the-Feminine-Voice.pdf >Bernstein, Richard J, and Christopher J. Voparil. The Rorty Reader. 2010.
The pro-choice group really does not have an argument other than the right to choose. It is, unfortunately, not much of a choice when it involves killing a living thing without reason. The political ramifications have reached such a point that the abortion is the only medical procedure that has no age restrictions (or require parental consent). Abortion also goes against the scientific laws of nature. In the creative scheme of things, after God, women occupy a very important place. Such power cannot be misused. Even atheists would concede the powerful natural forces at work here. A woman's body goes through significant changes as it readies it self to create a brand new human being. Abortion cuts this process short.
Then there are guilt feelings and burdens of society. Obviously, a woman who goes through abortion merely for convenience would be guilt ridden for a long time (if not for…
Callahan, Joan C. "The Fetus and Fundamental Rights." The Ethics of Abortion: Pro-Life vs. Pro-Choice. Eds. Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum. Rev. ed. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993. 203-09.
ChristianAction. "Prolife: 10 Arguments against Abortion." 2009. Christian Action. org. April 11, 2009. .
Noonan, John Thomas. "The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives." The Morality of Abortion; Legal and Historical Perspectives. Ed. John Thomas Noonan. Cambridge, Mass.,: Harvard University Press, 1970. 51-59.
Steyn, Mark. America Alone: The End of the World as We Know it. Washington, DC
The history of Planned Parenthood is voluminous and extensive. It has been filled with controversy, legal spats and struggles for acceptance and funding from the United States government. Even nowadays, the organization is threatened with budget changes or cuts from the federal government and many people have turned to violence against Planned Parenthood and similar groups over the years due to opposition to abortion or other birth control options that Planned Parenthood is known for providing or at least advocating for. What follows in this report is a history of Planned Parenthood as well as some of the pivotal events and outcomes that have occurred over the years. While Planned Parenthood is an organization with a lot of detractors, they also have a huge amount of support from some very loyal and entrenched groups around the country.
While the major decision that exists regarding abortion occurred with…
Even more than that, she should choose whether she bears a child or not, because she is the one who will have to raise it, take care of it, and support it, unless she gives it up for adoption. Thus, she should have the freedom to make her decision based on what is best for her, not according to laws that do not pertain to most of the people who create and legislate them. Politicians should not be able to make the decision for anyone; they should have the freedom to make that very difficult decision on their own.
Before oe vs. Wade, when abortions were illegal, it did not stop women from having them. They simply had them illegally, and suffered infection, internal damage, and even death as a result. To return to those days by outlawing abortion would be a return to "back-alley" abortions and death. Young women…
CDC. Abortion Surveillance: Preliminary Data -- United States, 1994. MMWR 1997; 45:1123-7. Last Updated: 11/03/06. 28 Nov. 2008.
Doerr, E.. Roe V. Wade at Thirty. The Humanist, March/April, 2003, 63, 40+.
Roy, L.S. Roe and the new frontier. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 2003. 27(1), 339+.
They also had the power to decide the merits of evidence and arguments. In the 19th century, judges gained greater control over juries and the role of juries became what it is currently; hearing evidence presented on both sides and determining the guilt or innocence of the accused.
The advantages of the jury system lie in the foundational elements articulated and supported by amendments and the Supreme Court. The Sixth Amendment provides that "in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial" (Landsman & Hastings 1992). A speedy trial was emphasized to avoid the accused languishing in prison for extended periods of time prior to a trial, or have the accused fate put off for an indeterminate amount of time. Further, the Sixth Amendment guarantees every citizens right to an impartial jury. The intent is that the prospective juries not enter into the…
Ackerman, B. (1993). Neo-federalism? Constitutionalism and Democracy, Cambridge:
Allan, T. (2001). Constitutional justice: A liberal theory of the rule of law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Decent, E. (2010). Democratizing common law constitutionalism, McGill Law Journal, 55(3), 511-535.
Hogue, A. (1986). Origins of the common law. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…
Action in America. (2012). Drug war cost clock updated 2011. Retrieved on February 10, 2010
from http://actionamerica.org/drugs/wodclock.shtml .
Appel, D. (2004). Why can immorality be legislated more easily than morality in America
Free Leadership Thoughts. Retrieved February 5, 2012, from http://authenticleadershipinc.com/free.html
Women in the United States faced many difficulties before the legalization of abortion. The case of oe vs. Wade is famous as this case allowed for the legalization of abortion K. Jones & Chaloner, 2007.
Before the legalization of abortion, there were women who still aborted illegally, and all that legalization provided for was a safe environment for the women to perform abortion. Legalization of abortion provided women with a choice in regards to keeping the pregnancy to term or terminating the pregnancy. This choice is and has been a controversial one, which results in many debates for and against abortion. The debates regarding abortion have not favored women as it was earlier thought, since there are women who still cannot access abortion services. Women of color were mostly disadvantaged before abortion was legalized, but the situation did not change after abortion was legalized. Colored women…
Avalos, L.R. (2003). Abortion in the Web of Relationship. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(2).
Bartlett, L.A., Berg, C.J., Shulman, H.B., Zane, S.B., Green, C.A., Whitehead, S., & Atrash, H.K. (2004). Risk factors for legal induced abortion -- related mortality in the United States. Obstetrics & gynecology, 103(4), 729-737.
Cates, W., Grimes, D.A., & Schulz, K.F. (2003). The public health impact of legal abortion: 30 years later. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 35(1), 25-28.
Fried, M.G. (2013). Reproductive rights activism in the post-Roe era. American Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 10-14.
Abortion takes away the fundamental, unalienable right to life; therefore, it is legally wrong. Its effects on unborn children and women are both traumatic and long-lasting, which makes abortion the wrong choice physically and emotionally. Because it results in an unnatural and unnecessary death, abortion is morally wrong. For these reasons, abortion is wrong and should be made illegal.
Even though the verdict of Roe vs. ade was rendered in 1973, the issue of abortion continues to be extremely controversial today. It is always a popular and important issue during presidential elections. Most people have a firm belief in whether or not abortion should be legal. hile there are many other factors and issues, the debate about whether or not abortion should be legal is deeply rooted in differences of belief in two main areas. These differences are when human life begins and where government jurisdiction ends (Cozic and Petrikin…
Cozic, Charles P., and Jonathan Petrikin, ed. The Abortion Controversy. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1995.
Hadley, Janet. Abortion: Between Freedom and Necessity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.
Reardon, David C. Aborted Women: Silent No More. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1987.
Tribe, Laurence H. Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes. New York W.W. Notron & Company, 1992.
Sandra Day was born on March 26, 1930 in El Paso, Texas to Harry and Ada Mae, owners of the Lazy--Cattle ranch in Southeastern Arizona, where Sandra grew up (United States Supreme Court 2003) as an only child until she was eight. In those early years, her family lived in isolation and with strained resources. The ranch did not have electricity and running water until she was seven years old and their nearest neighbors lived 25 miles away. Her loneliness forced her to make friends with the ranch's cowboys and pets. She read vigorously, learned to drive at seven, could fire rifles and rode horses well. ecause the hardiness of the ranch prevented her from attaining a formal education, her parents sent Sandra to her maternal grandmother in El Paso (U.S. Supreme Court). Her grandmother was Mamie Scott Wilkey.
She went to the Radford School for girls from…
Cook, Beverley, rev. 1997. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor: Strategist on the Supreme Court. By Nancy Maveety. Landham, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Vol 7 # 4 pp 142-145. http://www.unt.edu/lpbr/subpages/reviews/maveety.htm
Gearan, Anne. 2003. Supreme Court's Day: Gay Rights Cases Up. Monterey County: Associated Press Wire
O'Connor Urges Law Grads to Volunteer
Hedding, Judy. 2004. A Brief Biography of Supreme Court Justice Sandra O'Connor. About, Inc. http://phoenix.aboutcom/cs/famous/a/oconnor.htm
A normal pro-life campaign is less complex than Catholic anti-abortion principles because of the religious aspect of the matter. The connection between the Catholic Church and morality has come to be stronger in the recent years in spite of the fact that it does not essentially function based on morality alone. To a certain degree, one might be inclined to consider that the Church is wrong in promoting anti-abortion simply because it wants to follow Christian tradition. Catholic teachings are essentially derived from the Bible and "whatever the "moral" teaching of the Church might be, it is, in the final analysis, a function of how to read the Scripture. Christian morality is not, in short, a "stand-alone" moral position" (O'Brien 92). In promoting anti-abortion messages, Catholic representatives practically go against the general message that the Gospel is trying to convey.
Catholics have recently been more determined than ever to fight…
Faundes, Anibal and Barzelatto, Jose, "The human drama of abortion: a global search for consensus," Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.
John Paul II, "Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life," St. Pauls Publications, 2009.
Mitchell, Alan C. "Choosing life: a dialogue on Evangelium vitae," Georgetown University Press, 1997.
O'Brien, George Dennis, "The Church and abortion: a Catholic dissent," Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.
The short-term effects of only one year.
hat this researcher also found enlightening was that the population of those working in the psychological field can accept many 'syndrome' type findings, but when it comes to a syndrome espoused by those who believe women who have abortions are affected by a post-abortion depression syndrome, those same psychological experts show scorn and disdain for such espousals.
One study agrees, stating that; "since the 1960's mental health professionals...have recognized disorders such as postpartum depression....can have a negative psychological impact on both mother and child these same constituencies have almost universally rejected the existence of Post Abortion Syndrome because of the lack of supporting scientific evidence or strong political support. (Psychology pg 117).
Other studies show that women no longer feel that abortion is anything more than an everyday procedure.
One study; "presents evidence that abortion is not likely to be followed by severe…
Adler, N., David, H., Major, B., Roth, S., Russo, N., Wyatt. G. "Psychological Factors in Abortion" American Psychologist 47.10 (1992) 1194-1204.
Kero, A., Hogberg, U., Lalas, A. "Well Being and Growth: Long-term Effects of Legal Abortion." Social Science and Medicine 58.12 (2004): 2559-2569.
Psychological Effects of Abortion and Motherhood." Psychology of Women Quarterly 30.1 (2006): 117
Instead, considering the more empirical medical and social considerations at hand, the Supreme Court established the position that stands today.
In spite of this precedent, pro-life groups have mounted powerful, ongoing and determined opposition to this constitutional position. Indeed, the political relevance of abortion can mostly be attributed to this determination, which reflects a belief on the part of the conservative population of the United States that abortion is wrong, that it should be regarded as murder and that the failure of the nation to intervene on the behalf of its unborn children is a fundamental sin. This is a view which has resonated with many Republican office-holders and Christian community leaders in recent years, who have battled aggressively to shift the public perspective to a place of rejection of these values.
However, most of the evidence available to us suggests that abortion is a critical right which must be…
California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: • Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.
Dreaper, J. (2007). Divisions Deep Over Abortion Ban. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7041048.stmCalifronia Mecianl
Even the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (2001), a worldwide organization opposed to prostitution, supports regular health checks, and governmental provisions for regular health checks, for prostitutes. Further, as Prorock (1999) states: "Legalizing prostitution nusually relies on monitoring practices, that decrease the transmission of STD's and unwanted pregnancies. Any way you look at it, STD's are a problem in almost any situation, but competent monitoring in a licensed service provides a certain measure of security" (p. 2). Liberator (2003, p. 12) concurs with: "There is a strong rationale for legalizing prostitution by regulating the industry, thereby monitoring sex workers and consequently the clients they serve. Allowing prostitution to remain invisible only perpetuates the spread of sometimes-deadly sexually transmitted diseases. A containment model based on managing the problem is better than an abolitionist model based on ignoring it, hoping it one day goes away all by itself."
Keeping prostitution Illegal Does…
Carlson, P. (2000). Opposing forces. Unification News for February 2000. Retrieved Dec. 13, 2004 at http://www.tparents.org.UNNews/unws0002/Carlson_OppForces_.htm.
Coalition Report (2001). The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW). Retrieved Dec.12, 2004 at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:3xGAJTSGO6sJ:action.web.ca/
Killingsworth, M. (2002). Column: Health, safety important reasons for legalization.
ight to Privacy
Being a citizen of the United States comes with many benefits in comparison to citizenship in other countries. Through the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of ights we are granted certain rights -- the right to free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly -- just to name a few. However, despite the 27 amendments the Bill of ights that guarantee American protections and liberties, there is no explicit law that guarantees protection to a citizen's right to privacy (Davis, 2009). It is more of an assumed protection, although most Americans do not realize it.
In 1928, Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis referred to the right to privacy as the "right to be left alone" (De Bruin, 2010). This assertion is often supported with a citation of the 14th amendment which states: "No State shall make or enforce any law which…
Cowan, J. (2010). Why we'll Never Escape Facebook. (Cover story). Canadian Business, 83(10), 28-32.
Davis, S. (2009). Is There A Right To Privacy? Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. 90(4), 450-475.
De Bruin, B. (2010). The Liberal Value of Privacy. Law & Philosophy, 29(5), 505-534. doi:10.1007/s10982-010-9067-9.
Doyle, C., & Bagaric, M. (2005). The right to privacy: appealing, but flawed. The International Journal of Human Rights. 9(1), 3-36.
Indeed, the death penalty is one of the most divisive issues in the entirety of the criminal justice system as it currently exists within the United States of America. Although many polls do suggest that a majority of Americans ultimately do support the employment of the death penalty, it faces stern and strong opposition from a violent minority that radically opposes the death penalty for a variety of reasons, including the concerns that it is unfair for the state to deny an individual of his life, that it is racist in its employment, that it is more likely to be applied to defendants that cannot afford their own counsel, and that it is a terrible practice because mistaken executions are irrevocable and no fitting reparations can ever be made. Indeed, the concerns are so great that the United States Supreme Court even instituted a death penalty ban during…
Carlson, Margaret. "Don't Give Him the Satisfaction." Time Magazine. April 22, 2003.
Retrieved November 19, 2003, at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/article .
Shapiro, Bruce. "Dead Reckoning." The Nation. August 6, 2001. Retrieved November 18, 2003 at
life [...] legal and ethical issues of the beginning and ending of life. Legal and ethical issues abound surrounding how we begin and end our lives. Abortion and euthanasia are two of the most controversial subjects facing Americans today, and how we resolve them indicates what type of society we will perpetrate and uphold.
Abortion has been legal in this country since 1972 when the Supreme Court ruled on oe vs. Wade, but the decision has remained contentious for a number of reasons, and anti-abortionists continue to fight for an abortion ban. The ethics of abortion for each side are quite clear. Pro-choice proponents of abortion believe it is a woman's right to choose what happens to her body and her unborn child, while anti-abortion proponents feel it is the right of the unborn child to live. One expert writes, "Throughout the history of the United States, religious revival has…
Alexander, Mary S. (1993). Defining the abortion debate. ETC.: A review of general semantics 50.3: 271+.
Berger, Joyce, ed. (1990). To die or not to die? Cross-disciplinary, cultural, and legal perspectives on the right to choose death. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Fletcher, Joseph. (1967). Moral responsibility: Situation ethics at work. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
Jacoby, Kerry N. (1998). Souls, bodies, spirits: The drive to abolish abortion since 1973. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
On pages 88-89, right in the middle of a 1972 national debate of this issued, Greenhouse reports that Justice Blackmun was given the job by his colleagues of writing a draft opinion on Roe v. ade. How was a doctor to know if "death was imminent" should a mother not have an abortion? There were so many conflicting questions to be asked about the laws that had brought Roe v. ade before the Court. It was a struggle for Blackmun, and he was under intense pressure. He was influenced by public opinion; on page 91, Greenhouse explains that Blackmun saw a ashington Post story that said "two out of three Americans think that abortion should be a matter for decision solely between a woman and her physician." Sixty-four percent said it was up to a woman, in a poll in the newspaper that Blackmun read. Slowly Blackmun re-wrote his opinion,…
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. Becoming Justice Blackmun: Harry Blackmun's Supreme Court
Journey. New York: Times Books / Henry Holt & Company
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues of RU 486
Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. Even from the practical prospective the abortion pill RU486 has not been a breakthrough and instead of making abortion a private and safe method it has only increased the physical discomfort and the psychological ordeal for the woman.
Abortion is the one of the most debated social issues of this century. The controversy as to the right that man has over the life of a baby in the fetus and in controlling its entry into the world is a much-debated topic. Abortion is nothing but putting an end to…
Designed by 'RU486.com', "Abortion Procedures," Accessed on March 10th, 2003
BBC News, "Roe v Wade: Key U.S. abortion ruling" January 16, 2003 Accessed on March 12th, 2003
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
The question of whether or not abortion should be legal depends entirely on who is asked, and what type of moral reasoning is being used. Likewise, the question of whether abortion should be legal or not depends on the definition of abortion -- which stage the abortion can or should take place. Perhaps more importantly, the answer to the abortion question relates to one's definition of a fetus. The answer to the question also depends whether abortion legality is maintained at the state as well as the federal level. These are some of the many factors influencing the abortion debate in the United States. Abortion has become a central political topic, not just in the United States, but in other countries as well. In the United States is the added dimension of states' rights, and whether states should be allowed to determine their own abortion policies. The arguments presented…
British Pregnancy Advisory Service (2013). What is an abortion? Retrieved online: http://www.bpas.org/bpasyoungpeople/what-is-abortion
Faux, M. (2000). Roe v. Wade. Cooper Square Press.
Roe v. Wade, 1973. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
Savage, D.G. (2013). Supreme Court vote upholds Texas abortion law. Los Angeles Times. 19 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-scotus-abortion-texas-20131120,0,3988621.story#axzz2lcd6QVfk
Bakke v. Regents of the University of California
The so-called Bakke decision was the earliest in which the United States Supreme Court addressed affirmative action. The case certainly did not mean and end to the issues involved, and there have been several attempts to overturn the Bakke decision since. It has been referred to as a reverse discrimination case, and it was of great import when it was decided in the late 1970s after nearly a decade of affirmative action to bring more blacks and members of other minorities into the mainstream of work and academic life through programs of recruitment and special assistance to redress historical imbalances and discrimination. The issue of affirmative action remains a difficult one for Americans to this day. Affirmative action is often characterized as a quota system, though quotas need not be part of affirmative action at all. The Bakke case was an early…
Bresler, Robert J. "The Courts Close in on the Diversity Rationale." USA Today Magazine 130(2680)(January 2002), 13.
Burka, Paul. "Fight Bakke." Texas Monthly 24(5)(May 1996), 228.
Gose, Ben. "Supreme Court Rejects Appeal of a Decision That Cited 'Bakke' to Defend Affirmative Action." Chronicle of Higher Education 47(39)(6 June 2001), A24.
Gratz v. Bollinger (122 F. Supp.2d 811 [E.D. Mich. Dec. 13, 2000]).
Supreme Court Chief Justices Warren and ehnquist
Compare and contrast approaches to criminal procedures by U.S. Supreme Courts:
The Warren vs. The ehnquist Court
A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices (often called strict constructionism) is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren. "Following his appointment in 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…
Byellin, J. (2013). John G. Roberts: Conservative yet apolitical consensus building chief justice.
Legal Solutions. Retrieved from:
Liptak, A. (2012). Supreme Court upholds healthcare law 5-4, in a victory for Obama.
students opportunity discuss a key political science concept, show a basic understanding academic research reporting skills.
Define "loose construction" and "strict construction" methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal vs. informal methods of change.
The 'strict construction' view of the Constitution has traditionally been aligned with conservatives such as Robert Bork who argue that "a judge interpreting the Constitution" should only consider "the words used in the Constitution [as] would have been understood at the time [of enactment]" (Linder, citing Posner, "Theories"). In contrast, the 'loose construction' view (traditionally aligned with more liberal politics) stresses the need to interpret the Constitution in a manner beyond the letter of the law. There are a number of factors which justices traditionally consider when making constitutional interpretations, including the text itself; likely intentions of the founders; precedents; consequences of the decision in the 'real world;' and so-called 'natural…
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Conservatives embrace judicial activism in campaign finance ruling."
The L.A. Times. 2010 Jan 22. [2014 Apr 6]
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Exploring Constitutional Law. [2014 Apr 6]
He declares the baby in her womb is the "child's body and not the woman's" (Finnis). This is true. That body may need her body for protection and growth but the body itself does not belong to the mother. Finnis also states that pro-abortion positions are "mere (understandable) bias, mere (understandable) self-interested refusal to listen to the very same claim ('This body is my body') when it is made by or on behalf of another person" (Finnis). The pro-abortionists use the "body belongs to the mother" position when it is convenient for them but the truth is it backfires on them because the mothers only own her body and not the baby's body.
Abortion kills, plain and simple. If abortion was acceptable, why don't pro-choice supporters call themselves pro-abortion? I believe this is because the word itself is ugly and the movement must hide behind another word or phrase that…
Baumgartner, Fritz. (2005) Life Begins at the Beginning. Pro-Life America. Site Accessed
January 29, 2009. http://www.prolife.com/life_begins.html
Finnis, John. (1973) The Rights and Wrongs of Abortion: A Reply to Judith Thomson. JSTOR
Resource Database. Site Accessed January 29, 2009
Tribe refers to what Ronald Dworkin says later in the book. Dworkin holds that everyone is an originalist now but that they are not seeking what the lawmakers expected but what they meant to say in their law, suggesting perhaps that they may not be writing laws as clearly as could be or that the vagaries of language often make it difficult to do so without some form of originalist mind set. Tribe points out that what both originalists and textual critics are doing is to try to determine what is intended over what is expected, meaning that a law could be written to say one thing but would have unintended consequences just the same. here Tribe differs is in the fact that he does not believe it is possible to discover which provisions are which by a close reading of the text or by legislative history. Tribe also does…
Brennan, William. "Construing the Constitution." 19 University of California-Davis Law Review 2 (1985).
Rehnquist, William H. The Supreme Court. New York: Vintage, 2001.
Scalia, Antonin. A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1997.
Statement of the Policy
The policy of the United States on abortion was one set forty years ago in a landmark decision, in the 1973 case oe v. Wade, which legalized abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Brief History of the Policy
In the case of oe v. Wade, a single woman by the name of oe brought class action that challenged the constitutionality of the criminal abortion laws in the state of Texas. In this case a licensed physician by the name of Hallford, who had state prosecutions against him pending was allowed to intervene. A childless couple, known as the Does, attacked the laws and based the alleged injury on the future possibilities of contraceptive failure, stating that were not prepared for becoming parents and the health of the wife. The court ordered the abortion statutes void "as vague and overbroadly infringing the plaintiff's…
Roe v. Wade (1973) SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 410 U.S. 113. APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS. No. 70-18 Argued: December 13, 1971 - Decided: January 22, 1973. Retrieved from:
Catholic Perspectives on Culture, Society and Politics (2007) Vox Nova. Retrieved from: http://vox-nova.com/2007/05/22/abortion-and-economics/
Dionisio, L. et al. (2006) A Political, Public & Moral Look at Abortion. Retrieved from: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jackson/social.issues/papers/AbortGrI.html http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
Norrander, B. And Wilcox, C. (1999) Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy. Policy Studies Journal, Vo. 27, No. 4, 1999. Retrieved from: http://academic.udayton.edu/grantneeley/Morality%20Policy/norranderandwilcox-psj.pdf
The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals (NWHRC 2005). They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.
Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. Phase I establishes the maximum safe dosage; Phase II, its effectiveness; Phase III, its use on a broad population; and Phase IV, post-FDA insights on the effects of its long-term use (NWHRC).
From 1999 to 2000 alone, the Food and Drug Administration approved 73 new medications (NWHRC 2005). These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of 2000, Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…
Billings, P.R. (2002). Should reproductive cloning be made available to people who want their own biologic chidren - pro and con. 2 pages. International Medical News Group: Gale Group
Deneen, S. (2001). Designer people. 9 pages. E: the Environmental Magazine: Earth Action Network, Inc.
Frankel, S., et al. (2000). The limits to demand for health care. 10 pages. British Medical Journal: British Medical Association
Hollander, D. (2005). Abortion support slipping. 2 pages. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the Allen Guttmacher Institute
"What is the role of Congress in policy making process"?
Policy is a plan to identify goal or possible course of actions with administrative or management tools to accomplish these goals. n the other hand, policy is the authoritative decision made by the U.S. executive, legislative, judicial branch of government to influence the decision of others. Government is a key player in decision-making process and congress plays important roles in decision-making . In the United States, both House of Representatives and House of Senate fulfill the congressional policy responsibilities, and congress plays important role in health policy, which includes obesity prevention measures or health insurance program. Congress is an important arm of government that makes law. Important strategy that congress uses to make policy preference is by passing a bill into law. Typically, the congress could make a decision to pass or not to the policy of the…
Oregon Department of Human Services.(2008). The impact of federal policy on Oregon's health care reform efforts: Opportunities and barriers within Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Medical Assistance Programs.
Waller, M. (2005).Block Grants: Flexibility vs. Stability in Social Services. Brookings Institution Policy Brief.
Zuckert, M.P. (2002). Launching Liberalism: On Lockean Political Philosophy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
This absolute right effectively means that the Court has determined that the fetus is not a human being prior to viability. Therefore, the effects on a fetus cannot be considered when deciding whether or not an abortion procedure is legal. The fact is that, pre-viability, even if a doctor where to completely deliver an intact fetus, it would be unable to survive outside of the womb. Therefore, a doctor performing a partial-birth abortion is not committing infanticide, as suggested by the dissent, because Roe has established that non-viable fetuses are not yet human beings.
Furthermore, while Roe and Casey recognize that states have an interest and protecting potential human life, a statute limiting partial-birth abortion does not further a state's interest in protecting potential human life. The statute in question does not proscribe abortion, but merely limits the methods by which a woman may have an abortion. Therefore, Nebraska cannot…
Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000), dissent, Kennedy.
Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000), dissent, Scalia.
Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914 (2000), dissent, Scalia; dissent, Thomas.
Different individuals may be capable of using the economic advantage accrued to them because of their superior knowledge with greater alacrity than others.
Another limit is the multicausal nature of behavior and shifts in the culture. The drop in crime can be attributed to so many factors, to draw an easy correlation between the abortion rate and a drop in crime is almost impossible, given that it was accompanied by an increase in material wealth during this period that spread to poorer segments of society, an increase in more effective policing, even a degrease in the prestige of criminal activity and a greater respect for authority in the culture. Human beings do not live in the laboratory, and the examples cited by Leavitt and Dubner tend to reduce most of human behavior to a singular causal framework. Regardless, the book is provoking and challenging in its analysis, although it is…
Dubner, Stephen & Steven Levitt. Freakonomics. New York: William Morrow, 2006.
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
On July 3, 1969, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals entered an order requiring the submission of new plans to be put into effect this fall to accelerate desegregation in 33 Mississippi school districts. On August 28, upon the motion of the Department of Justice and the recommendation of the Secretary of Health, Education & elfare, the Court of Appeals suspended the July 3 order and postponed the date for submission of the new plans until December 1, 1969. I have been asked by Negro plaintiffs in 14 of these school districts to vacate the suspension of the July 3 order. Largely for the reasons set forth below, I feel constrained to deny that relief. (396 U.S. 1218, 1218-1219).
Black pointed out that the Brown decision came 15 years before the Alexander case, but that Mississippi and other states had failed to desegregate. He blamed this on the fact that:…
Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education, 396 U.S. 1218 (1969).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Novel Guide. "Black, Hugo 1886-1971." Novelguide.com. 1995. Novelguide.com. 28 Apr.
urthermore, voter turnout for election 2004 exceeded voter turnout for 2000 by approximately 8%. However, many of those voters can be attributed to efforts of special interest groups, which appealed to voters in the extremes of both parties. If the Democrats plan to win future elections, they have to capture undecided voters in the swing states. The Democrats are not going to win the votes of the undecided by appealing to the far left of the Democratic Party.
Perhaps the best recent example of a moderate Democrat is Bill Clinton. Clinton was the last successful Democratic Presidential. In addition to being a political moderate, and despite the fact that Clinton was also better-educated than the average American and less overtly religious than Kerry, Clinton was seen as more in-touch with the average person. Some Democratic Party centrists have complained that Kerry's loss was due to him straying from the winning…
Fineman, Howard and Weston Kosova. 2004. Wanted: Better Donkeys. Newsweek. 15 November, 26.
Zakaria, Fareed. 2004. Writing Prose for a New Team. Newsweek, 15 November, 33.
Will, George F. 2004. The Deflation of Politics. Newsweek, 8 November, 64.
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his…
Hamilton, Alexander, "Federalist Paper 79," Independent Journal 18 Jun. 1788
Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 37," Daily Advertiser 11 Jan. 1788
Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 52," New York Packet 8 Feb. 1788
ights Accused 1.Fully defined due process origins, Completed 90-100% accuracy, 2.Fully explained due process protects accused abuses federal government. Complete 90-100% accuracy, thoroughness, logic, Used (3) reference directed.
Due process was one of the first rights that were created in the U.S. constitution. The history of due process comes from the year 1355 when the phrase was coined at the time when there was the first government. The Great Charter of the Liberties of England statute stated that no man would be imprisoned or prevented from enjoying their freedom or liberty or be outlawed or exiled unless by lawful judgment that is passed or by the law of the land. Several years later in the 28th year of the reign of King Edward III, it became a declaration that no man was allowed to be deprived of their property, be imprisoned, disinherited or killed without being charged by the due…
Holmes, N.J., & Ramen, C. (2011). Understanding the Rights of the Accused. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing Group.
Israel, J.H., Kamisar, Y., & LaFave, W.R. (2003). Criminal Procedure and the Constitution: Leading Supreme Court Cases and Introductory Text. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
Nicholaidis, N. (1989). Sixth Amendment Right to a Speedy and Public Trial. American Criminal Law Review, 26(4), 1489-1505.
Individual Researc Task. Individual Researc: Overview
Medina vs. California, 505 U.S. 437 (1992). Retrieved from Findlaw at:
Competency to stand trial (CST)
Medina was convicted of first-degree murder and in te state of California a person must establis is mental incompetency by te standard of a 'preponderance of evidence.' Te U.S. Supreme Court affirmed tis standard of a burden of proof, denying it violated te petitioner Medina's rigt to due process.
Dean v. United States (08-5274). (2009). Retrieved from Cornell University Law Scool at:
Criminal responsibility (mens rea)
Dean was convicted under a ten-year mandatory minimum sentence requirement for firing a andgun during a robbery; Dean argued tat because e did not intend to fire te gun te mandatory minimum did not apply, owever te U.S. Supreme Court eld tat even if te gun went off accidentally, Dean was still liable to te mandatory minimum.
Pennurst State Scool…
Participation in treatment and civil commitment of sex offenders
The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) requires sex offenders to register when they move out-of-state to a new state. The petitioner argued that his rights were violated given that he was convicted of his offence before SORNA was passed and thus was being subjected to ex post facto justice by being convicted for a parole violation for not registering: the Court concurred with his assessment.
In face of such measures, citizens start more and more to lose faith not only in the Government but also in its policy implicantors: ministries, police, health system, etc. Paul Wilkinson in "Terrorism vs. Democracy: The Liberal State Response" touches on sensitive issues for the UK society like over-reaction to terrorism, using too much military and less intelligence to prevent terrorism and especially the unpopular measures of surveillance, human rights abuses or control over citizens personal life -- all in the name of preventing terrorist attacks. (Wilkinson, 2006)
As pointed out before, terrorism in the UK has been treated, from the point-of-view of privacy, with over-reaction and with low proportionality, both in preventing and reacting to terrorist attacks. In the 2011 Review of Counter-Terrorism and Security Powers, the Secretary for the Home Department states that "in some areas our counter-terrorism and security powers are neither proportionate nor necessary" (HM Government,…
BBC News UK. Lord Macdonald: UK 'over-reacted after 9/11 attacks'. January 2011, viewed on 31st January 2011,
House of Lords. Surveillance: Citizens and the State, 2009 viewed on 31st January http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200809/ldselect/ldconst/18/18.pdf
HM Government, Review of Counter-Terrorism and security powers, viewed on 31st January 2011
The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution.
The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution.
John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John Locke was political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking,…