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The Roman Catholic Church took advantage of the fact that it received criticism and went on to produce new and better interpretations of the Bible, without damaging the image of Roman Catholicism.
Throughout time, those who came against Roman Catholic theological interpretations of the Bible received little support from influential members of society and rarely represented a worthy adversary for the church. In contrast, Roman Catholic theologians were provided with resources that were almost unlimited and were supported by some of the most notable members of the Roman Catholic Church. Mostly because of the support they received, Roman Catholic theologians were better prepared to deal with interpreting the Bible and in certain cases produced versions that were too accurate for critics to condemn. It is difficult to determine the level of freedom that Roman Catholic exegetes are provided with, especially considering that some leading members of the exegesis movement have…
Ayres, Lewis and Fowl, Stephen E. "(Mis)reading the Face of God: The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church," Theological Studies 60, no. 3 (1999): 513
Binde, Per "Nature in Roman Catholic Tradition," Anthropological Quarterly 74, no. 1 (2001)
Burton, William L. "Buried Treasure: Why Catholics Should Learn More about Scripture," Commonweal, 6 April 2007
Firth, Frank J. The Holy Gospel: A Comparison of the Gospel Text as it Is Given in the Protestant and Roman Catholic Bible Versions in the English Language in Use in America [book online] (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1911, accessed 7 January 2011), 240
piety in the oman Catholic faith and the Protestant faith. The writer examines the meaning of piety in both spiritual faiths and contrasts their differences. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Throughout the history of religion there have been many differences and similarities. Many of the popular faiths of the western world believe in a higher power named God and they believe that Jesus Christ was the son of God. In addition they also believe that Jesus Christ died for the sins of man. Two spiritual paths that believe these things are the Protestant and the oman Catholic faiths. They each believe in the same God the same Jesus and the reason Jesus was crucified. At first glance it appears that the two faiths are the same. When one looks more deeply into either of the churches however one will find distinct differences in their foundational structures.…
Why do Catholics wear a crucifix and the Protestants wear a plain cross?
Piety Without Hysterics http://www.useless-knowledge.com/columnists/danielmryan/article27.html
Although Catholics and Protestants share a fundamental belief system, their theologies as well as their forms of worship differ greatly. Roman Catholic piety is generally expressed through the intermediary bodies of the Church, its hierarchy, and the various sacraments. Moreover, Catholic prayers are directed to intercessors such as the saints or the Virgin Mary. On the contrary, Protestants generally ascribe to an individualistic piety, one that is removed or independent from a church body. One's relationship to God or Jesus Christ is developed without the aid of teachers other than the "word of God" as it is expressed in the Bible. Although there are a multitude of different Protestant sects, they generally agree on a few basic tenets that set these denominations apart from the Roman Catholic Church. One of these tenets is the belief in a "universal priesthood" in which all Christians have the potential to approach theological…
Horton, Michael. "Reformation Piety." ModernReformation.org. http://www.modernreformation.org/mr02/julaug/mr0207reformation.html .
Wilhelm, J. "Protestantism." Article in the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. 2003. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12495a.htm .
Eucharist in Catholicism and Calvinism
Our word "Eucharist" is derived directly from the Greek of the New Testament: etymologically, it derives from the word for grace (charis) with a prefix (eu) meaning "good" or "well," but the original Greek word "eucharistia" means, simply enough, "thanksgiving" -- like our word "thanksgiving" it is a noun that derives originally from an equivalent verb describing the action involved (i.e., the giving of thanks). The Eucharist is intended as a sort of commemoration of Christ's Last Supper. The story of the Last Supper is attested to in three of the four canonical Gospels: Matthew 26:26 -- 28; Mark 14:22 -- 24; Luke 22:17 -- 20. (John's Gospel lacks a similar account but does include relevant statements that become important to later Eucharistic practice, such as John 3:36, "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life.") Yet it is the fourth…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at: http://www.newadvent.org/summa/index.html
The Holy Bible. Print.
Bouwsma, William. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988 Print.
Calvin, John. Institues of the Christian Religion. Web. Accessed 20 Feb 2011 at: http://www.ccel.org/ccel/calvin/institutes.html
In order to establish a constructive trust, one must look at whether a duty exists between the two parties. A fiduciary duty can arise from the circumstances of a conveyance. Furthermore, when parties have a relationship of trust and confidence, a duty can exist outside of normal fiduciary duties. The Court held that it could not examine the relationship between the Maffeis and the representatives of the RCAB without examining religious issues outside of the purview of the First Amendment. However, the Court did not have to examine the religious relationship between the plaintiffs and the RCAB to find a legal basis that they shared a special relationship. For example, criminal law has long respected the right of clergy, of any religion, not to be compelled to testify against criminals who have confessed to them in their role as clergy. In this way, clergy are differentiated from laity in the…
Unlike some other Christian faiths, Catholics can approach the concept of evolution from a scientific standpoint. For example, Catholics can believe in evolution as a scientific hypothesis which "seeks to determine the historical succession of the various species of plants and of animals on our earth... [and, which] does not consider the present species of plants and of animals as forms directly created by God." (Knight). However, this scientific theory does not concern itself with determining the origin of life, and leaves room for people to believe that life originated with a supreme being. Therefore, the scientific theory of evolution is not incompatible with Catholicism, with regards to plants and non-human animal life. However, Catholics believe in the creation of man by God, and do not believe that man could have evolved from brute animals, because, unlike other animals, humans have souls. (Knight).
Catholicism, like many of the…
Adherents.com. "The Largest Catholic Communities." Largest Religious Communities. 2005.
Adherents.com. 13 Aug. 2008 http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_romcath.html .
Bogle, Joanne. "Women Priests- No Chance." Catholic Education Resource Center. 1997.
CatholicEducation.org. 14 Aug. 2008 http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/apologetics/ap0001.html .
Throughout the period after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, there was a split between the Christian Church along East-West lines. In the East, Orthodox Christianity became the dominant form while in the West, Roman Catholicism ruled. But in the 15th century the Western Christian Church suffered a series of uprisings against Roman Catholic supremacy which resulted in a split of the Western Church called the Protestant Reformation. "Religions of the World: Protestant Christianity," narrated by Sir Ben Kingsley, explains the causes and results of the Protestant Reformation.
Beginning with Martin Luther, there was a series of protests over what many called abuses of the Catholic Church, leading to groups refusing to accept the authority of the Pope and the establishment of new Protestant Churches. The two main issues were the Protestant belief in the supremacy of scripture and the belief that salvation did not have to…
It is also recorded that the first utterances of Jesus in the public was that where he proclaimed that he had been anointed to preach the good news to the poor. In that public speech, Jesus also gave a warning to the rich that they have already received their consolation. In a parable, Jesus also warned his followers against greed and the reliance on riches when he narrated the story of the man who had his life taken away from him when he tried to secure wealth for himself (O'Brien & Shannon 71). The story of Lazarus and the rich man is also used as a warning against excessive riches. The pope John Paul II used this parable as a warning to the rich and prosperous. He warned them not to be blind to their great poverty despite their numerous possessions.
The Roman Catholic Church has adopted practices pertaining to…
Caffara, Carlo. Living in Christ: Fundamental Principles of Catholic Moral Teaching. San Francisco::
Ignatius Press, 1987, Print
Hollenbach, David and R. Bruce Douglass. Catholicism and Liberalism. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 1994.Print
They reminded readers that Father Cutie joined the priesthood under those rules, with full knowledge of the requirements of priesthood, but that he placed himself above church law (Mayo, May 14, 2009).
Still earlier, in 2006, the Catholic Church in Australia became embroiled in a debate over whether the small and struggling Catholic Church there should cease insisting on clergymen's celibacy when a priests' association said that doing away with the requirement might reverse the decline in the number of priests. More than 40 bishops in Australia and half the Catholic clergy (1,650 in number) wrote to the Vatican's Synod of Bishops requesting they consider changing the requirement to allow married priests to be ordained and to allow priests who had left the church to marry to be reinstated. Father Hal anger pointed out that in Australia many priests converting to Catholicism were married and were allowed to remain married…
Abbott, Elizabeth, (2001). A history of celibacy, New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 382-385.
CNN, (2009). Florida priest removed after beach photos with woman published. Reviewed on June 26, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/U.S./05/06/florida.priest.photos/index.html?iref=newssearch. May 6, 2009.
CNN, (2009) Priest who broke celibacy vow joins Episcopal Church. Reviewed on June 26, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/U.S./05/28/florida.priest/. May 11, 2009.
Deffinbaugh, Robert, (2008). Sex and the Spiritual Christian: True Spiruality: A Study in 1 Corinthians, Reviewed on June 26, 2009 at: http://bible.org/seriespage/sex-and-spiritual-christian-1-cor-71-7 .
However, Cardinal Gibbons, even after this encyclical by the Pope, "took a dim view of strikes (by the Catholic immigrants)" and any "concrete action by American Catholics was slow in coming, (due to) the conservatism of the clergy and the parochial concerns of the lay leaders" (Carnes 654).
The Catholic church responded in other ways to the crucial needs of immigrant Catholics in the United States, especially in the area of social reform and support. Mother Frances Cabrini, an Italian immigrant, founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart in order to teach Italians in the parochial schools run by the Catholic church, to care for the thousands of homeless children that had been forced to live in the streets because of the deaths of their parents from hatred, and to place nurses in hospitals. Such organizations as the Saint Vincent de Paul Society made it possible for Catholics to…
Carnes, Mark C. And John A. Garraty. American Destiny: Narrative of a Nation, Volume II, Since 1865. Boston: Longman Publishing, 2002.
Evanston, J.K. The Catholics in America. New York: Random House, 1965.
Hennesey, James. American Catholics: A History of the Roman Catholic Community in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Thomas, William A. Catholicism and Hatred in America, 1860 to 1900. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1975.
Of course, since these views are ased on those who are high-ranking memers of the church, Hennesey's narrative is somewhat iased, yet it does provide an excellent overview of many important topics related to American Catholicism.
Hurley, M. (2002). The unholy ghost: Anti-catholicism in the american experience.
Huntington, IN: Sunday Visitor Press.
In this carefully-documented study of prejudice against Catholics in the United States, Bishop Mark Hurley examines the entire history of prejudice from the 1700's and up to the present day. There are three sections to this work, eing 1776 to Vatican II, post-Vatican II and a final section which focuses upon the issue of aortion and how American Catholics feel aout this very controversial topic.
McAvoy, T.T. (1942). The catholic church in the United States etween two wars. Review of Politics, 4(4), 409-431.
Although somewhat dated, this essay examines in great detail and with much insight how the…
Redmont, J. (2002). Generous lives: American catholic women today. Liguori, MO:
In this excellent study of American Catholic women, Jane Redmont explores through a number of detailed chapters first-person accounts by women of all ages, nationalities, economic backgrounds and social standing related to their own personal experiences with the Catholic Church, some dating back to the early 20th century, and with reminiscences by both secular and members of the Church, especially nuns.
Thomas, J.D. (1987). A century of american catholic history. U.S. Catholic Historian,
Cross Culture Catholic Case Study
The impacts of culture on a society can be measured in the collective behaviors that manifest from those who celebrate some sort of culture. Culture is a combination of many aspects, but in totality suggest a background environment of impulses and forces which lay out a pathway of behavior for an individuals. These pathologies are not healthy or unhealthy in themselves, but serve as backdrops or roles for humans to play and interact within society.
Cross cultural psychology aims to examine the impact of culture on mind behavior. The strength and efficiency in which organized religion plays within one's culture cannot be argued. The spiritual content of human beings cannot be denied and the aims of religion is to make sense of these spiritual urges and blend them within our total and whole being. Organized religion makes this very difficult in many aspects and the…
Plante, T.G. (1996). Catholic priests who sexually abuse minors: Why do we hear so much yet know so little?. Pastoral Psychology, 44(5), 305-310.
Terry, K.J. (2008). Stained Glass The Nature and Scope of Child Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(5), 549-569.
Terry, K.J., & Ackerman, A. (2008). Child Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church How Situational Crime Prevention Strategies Can Help Create Safe Environments. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(5), 643-657.
They believe that God exists in a trinity, made up of Father, Son and the Holy Spirit. They believe Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary. There is an emphasis upon the sacraments (communion, etc.) to unite the believer with Jesus as the Savior (ibid).
Abortion is against Church doctrine and it is very pro-family. Groups such as the Franciscans work with the poor. Catholic Charities is one of the largest social welfare groups in the country (ibid).
hile there are groups within the Roman Catholic Church, they all recognize the Pope as the leader of the Church that is the successor to the Apostle Peter, the "rock" upon whom Jesus founded his movement (Matthew 16:18). The group sees itself as the original Church, dating back to the time of Jesus (ibid).
The Church is organized into bishops who head up geographical entities called dioceses, priests, deacons and the laity.…
Matthews, Warren. World Religions. 4th ed. New York, NY: Thomson Learning, 2004.
"Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana." California Missions Online. Mission San
Fernando Rey de Espana, n.d. Web. 12 Dec 2010.
In 1924, the American Congress greatly reduced immigration with the Immigration Act, but this system was removed in 1965 which allowed for a huge wave of immigration from parts of Asia, such as the Philippine Islands, Japan and China; also, immigrants from Haiti and Mexico flooded in and greatly increased the population of American Catholics. With the arrival of the 1960's, five events are of high importance. First, John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic President of the United States in 1960 which "due to his popularity, charisma and personal integrity reassured non-Catholic Americans that Catholicism was legitimate and that Catholics could be trusted" (Emerson, 256).
Second, Pope John XXIII who had been elected as Pope in 1958 became one of the most popular and beloved Catholic Pope in modern history, due to his attempts to bring Catholics and non-Catholics together in friendship and appreciation. Third, John XXIII also convened…
Ellis, J.T. Catholics in Colonial America. New York: Helicon Press, 1965.
Emerson, Charles W. The Story of Catholics in America. Rome: Paulist Press, 1978.
Marino, Anthony. The Catholics in America. New York: Vantage Press, 1960.
Trisco, Robert F. Catholics in America, 1776 to 1976. Boston: Committee of the National
fall of the Roman Empire?
The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered unchallenged leader of the Mediterranean to a rather weary empire surrounded by a myriad of enemies. Rome experienced a number of significant military defeats over the time. The most significant contributor to the fall of the empire though was the economic policies adopted by the emperors. The decline is noted to have started with the rule of Septimius Severus in 193 AD. The rulership engaged in excesses and spent too much on the military. The currency was debased and inflation rose to crisis levels. Further, the time of poor economic policies coincided with a time when civil wars were commonplace. Assassinations were rife. Army generals made attempts to stage coups and assume ruler ship. The soldiers often murdered the emperor when…
Euggipius. The Life of St. Severinus. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1913.
Ferryl, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.
St. Jerome, trans by F. Wright. Select Letters of St. Jerome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
Judaism and Christianity
The religion of Judaism is one that goes back centuries and includes a description of the creation of the world, as found in the Book of Genesis. According to Judaism, the world was created by God, ho also created man in his own image. Being Christian, my religious tradition actually builds on the Judaic religious tradition. It refers to the Scriptural books pre-Christ as the Old Testament, and the writings of the Apostles of Christ as the books of the New Testament. It views Jesus Christ as the Redeemer of mankind, the one hom the Jews were meant to expect, as prophesized in the Old Testament. The Jews, however, do not recognize Christ as the Redeemer or as the Son of God. Thus, this paper will describe Judaism and its tenets and developments and compare and contrast it to my own religious tradition.
The history of…
Hays, J. D. "Applying the Old Testament Law Today." Bibliotheca Sacra vol. 158, no.
629 (2001): 21-35.
"Jerusalem Special Report -- The Building of the Third Temple." Youtube, 2010. Web.
5 Dec 2015.
Attitudes Towards Dance in the Catholic and Christian Traditions
A History of Church Attitudes Toward Dance
The Historical Attitudes of the Church
Throughout history, dance has been a part of the human experience. so too, religion has played a fundamental role in that experience. It may in fact be truthful to say that dance and religion are essential parts of what define us as human beings. Both dance and religion rely on the belief that we as human beings have souls, and as such, these souls contain the essential parts of our psyche. Both dance and religion contend that our souls' desires cannot be expressed through superficial means. Other than dance and religion, no other human endeavour offers a more thorough and personal opportunity for this expression. Religion offers us the opportunity to commune with our god through the reading and recitation of his word. It offers us the opportunity…
American Antiquarian Society. A History of Social Dance in America. 2007. 23 November 2010 .
Coleman, Lucinda. "Worship God in Dance." 1995. The Australian Christian Network of PastorNet. 23 November 2010 .
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. "The History of Western Dance: Christianity and the Middle Ages." 1995. Encyclopaedia Britannica . 23 November 2010 .
Gerrie, Bona. "Dance in the Bible." 7 July 2010. Worship in Dance. 23 November 2010 .
St. Augustine's "Confessions"
The idea that sex should be equated with sin is a Catholic tradition that has its roots in the writings of Saint Augustine. Prior to this there was little opposition or shame associated with sexual activity, especially in the Classical world. Augustine's Confessions is a book that detailed the early part of his life, his paganism, his obsession with sex, and his ultimate conversion to Christianity. Although born into a world where sex was a common and open part of life, Augustine seemed to transfer his obsession with sexual activity into an equally vehement campaign for celibacy. To Augustine, sex had been the focus of his pagan life but upon his conversion to Christianity sex became equated with the sinfulness of paganism and the corruptibility of humankind. In this role sex plays an important part in the Confessions and Augustine's Christian philosophy.
Augustine was born into a…
Saint Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine. Trans. Edward Bouverie
Pusey. Web. 12 April 2014.
2012 annual meeting of the Catholic Bishops of the United States, Dorothy Day, already officially named a "servant of God," was unanimously recommended for canonization, the first step on the path to sainthood. Pope Benedict XVI, in one of his last public speeches said that this remarkable woman was a "…model of conversion." (Forest) Although never raised a Catholic, Dorothy Day would convert to Catholicism and become a major figure in the Catholic orker Movement, a social movement that used Catholic teachings to address the needs of the poor. It would seem that the communist, anarchist, and socialist groups to which she once belonged lacked the spiritual aspect of service that she needed in her life; something she discovered in the Catholic Church. But as she came to the Church as an outsider, she was able to view the institutions of the Church with a more discriminating eye and was…
Day, Dorothy. "From Union Square to Rome." 1938. Catholic Worker Movement.
Web. 20 April 2013.
Forest, Jim. "Servant of God Dorothy Day." Catholic Worker Movement. Web.
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…
Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4 [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].
Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.
Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.
Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.
St. Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, and was consecrated in 1626 (Saint). It is among the largest of the world's churches and is considered to be one of the holiest of Catholic sites on the planet. The church's namesake, St. Peter, is buried there, as well, and believed to be located directly below the altar (Saint). There has been a churched located on that site since oman Times, which is part of the reason St. Peter's in seen as so valuable when it comes to architecture and its place in the Catholic Church. Liturgical functions are held there, and it is also a common and very famous place for pilgrimage.
When the Pope gives services there, several times per year, between 15,000 and 80,000 people come out to hear him speak (St. Peter's). Even those who are not Catholic or religious in any way have often heard of…
Bannister, Turpin. "The Constantinian Basilica of Saint Peter at Rome." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 27(1): 3 -- 32. 1968. Print.
Frommel, Christoph. "Papal Policy: The Planning of Rome during the Renaissance in The Evidence of Art: Images and Meaning in History." Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 17(1): 39 -- 65. 1986. Print.
Saint Peter's Basilica. Vatican City State. 2014. Web.
Scotti, R.A. Basilica: the Splendor and the Scandal -- Building of St. Peter's. NY: Plume. 2007. Print.
At the time, the question-and-response format seemed an ideal way of instructing converts and children 'correctly.' The text originally began as a preacher's reference, rather than was intended as a pedagogical instrument (25). As pointed out by Herbert Lombaerts, the catechism arose as a reaction to the Protestant eformation -- as a way of purifying the new Catholic faith, and distilling its very essence from the trappings of the cult of the saints and papal authority. The catechism itself, however, became a kind of holy relic, and the words and structure of the text took on symbolic value, beyond their actual meaning (Lombaerts 1986: 5).
Studying a mid-1970s classroom text for use in Australian Catholic entitled Here and now reflects a far different concept of the student than the rote repeater of dogma of the pre-Vatican II era. In the textbook, the student is asked to make a list of…
Lombaerts, Herbert. (1986). Religious education today and the catechism. Word in Life.
Marthaler, Bernard. (1978). The modern cachetical movement in Roman Catholicism: Issues and personalities. Religious Education: S77-S90.
Diocletion attempted to stabilize the Roman Empire by splitting it into two (and later four) regions with four rulers -- also known as the Tetrarchy, with each ruler picking a successor (Mathisen). Since the time of Caesar, it had essentially become too big to be governed by one ruler. Thus, Diocletian's re-ordering of the empire was a way to make governance more practical and possible (Khan Academy). He himself took over governance of the Eastern half with its base in Constantinople while appointing a co-ruler for the Western half. Later to keep out the Visigoths, Diocletian also appointed two more rulers to help keep the barbarians from invading. In doing so, Diocletian began the practice of subdividing provinces into dioceses -- and creating a hierarchy of governance from the local level on up to the imperial level. This is where the Catholic Church adopted its diocesan rule from.…
CATHOLIC BAOQUE VS. THE POTESTANT BAOQUE IN NOTHEN EUOPE
Catholic Baroque in Italy vs. the Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe
The following study compares the theatricality of the Catholic Baroque in Italy to the Protestant Baroque in Northern Europe. The discussion will focus on Caravaggio's "the Crucifixion of Saint Peter" to embrandt's "The eturn of The Prodigal Son." It also extends to include the way each artist handles the religious subject reflecting both the different sensibilities of these two artistic styles and the religious thinking of these two areas.
The Baroque period is argued to have taken place between the 1500s and 1700s. As the 16th approached, Western Europe experienced a reformation that divided Christianity between Protestants and Catholics. Most countries in Northern Europe (Switzerland, Holland and Britain) became Protestants whereas Southern countries (Spain and Italy) became Catholics. The sharp divide caused different art styles. In their churches, the Protestants…
Forster M. R. (2001). Catholic Revival in the Age of the Baroque: Religious Identity in Southwest Germany, 1550-1750. New York: Cambridge University Press
Franchot J. (1994). Roads to Rome: The Antebellum Protestant Encounter with Catholicism. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press
Kleiner F. S. (2015). Gardner's Art through the Ages: Backpack Edition, Book D: Renaissance, and Baroque. New York: Cengage Learning
Kleiner F. S. (2016). Gardner's Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume 2. New York: Cengage Learning
Catholic Priests and Sexual Abuse Issues
The ongoing sexual abuse scandal involving Roman Catholic priests and other church officials continues to shock the Christian world and has led to prosecutions, prison sentences, international embarrassment for a major world religion, and to the paying out of millions of dollars in reparations by the Church. This paper reviews the sexual abuses perpetrated by the Church, the number of cases involved, the impact of this abuse and the response to the abuse by the Church, the media, and the public.
Overview of the Abuse of Young Boys by Priests
The first public reports of sexual abuse by Catholic priests in the United States were published in 2002, according to a peer-reviewed article by Karen J. Terry. At first it seemed that the perpetrators were American priests, but in a few years the scandal took on international implications, but the investigative journalism in the…
Barrett, D., and Squires, N. (2014). Pope Francis says about 8,000 pedophiles are members of Catholic clergy, including bishops and cardinals. The Telegraph. Retrieved April 14, 2015, from http://www.news.nationalpost.com.
Dale, K.A., and Alpert, J.L. (2007). Hiding Behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 16(3), 59-72.
Terry, K.J. (2015). Child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church: a review of global perspectives. International Jou8rnal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.
The Philippines is a band of islands running north to south between the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea. The country lies to the south of Taiwan, the east of Vietnam and to the north of Indonesia. Prior to colonization by the West in the 16th century, the Philippines consisted primarily of individual tribes. With the Spanish takeover, these tribes were either conquered or converted to Catholicism and brought under the secular rule of the Spanish crown and the spiritual rule of the Roman pontiff. This paper will describe the cultural experience of what is still today Catholic Philippines and what that experience is like.
The Philippines is very much a combination of Eastern and Western cultures, as it consists of an Asian people who have been settled and colonized by Western societies for centuries. Thus, there is a major Catholic presence and culture in the Philippines…
The interaction between the two is also symbolic of the innocence of the prewar state. Before the war, interactions and romantic interludes between Jew and Caucasian were no problem. During the war, however, Jews were marginalized to the point where they were no longer recognized as human beings. This is symbolized by the harsh treatment of an old Jewish man by a Nazi soldier, also during the beginning scenes. The man is ordered to walk away from the sidewalk and into the gutter, where he steps into water. This contrasts with the pleasure that zpilman and the blonde derives from their interaction. Visually, the contrast between the Jews and Germans is symbolically depicted by the physical differences between zpilman and the girl, which would become symbolic not only of ethnic differences, but also of the way in which these differences are used to justify the death of hundreds of thousands…
Chang, Chris. 2002, Nov-Dec. "The Pianist." Film Comment. Findarticles.com:
Cunneen, Joseph. 2003, Feb. 14. "In a Maelstrom: two movies explore the horrors of Nazi power." National Catholic Reporter. Findarticles.com:
Constantine the Great was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and to make Christianity the official religion of Rome. This makes him one of the most important figures in estern history, and in fact, world history. Prior to Constantine's conversion, Christians were widely persecuted throughout the Roman Empire (Herbermann and Grupp). Making Christianity the official religion of Rome led to the downfall of the Roman Empire and the birth of the new Holy Roman Empire. Because of Constantine's conversion, Christianity became a dominant religious, political, and economic world power.
Constantine was born in Naissus, a city in the Moesia Superior region of the Roman Empire. Moesia Superior is modern day Serbia, and Naissus is the modern-day town of Nis. Constantine the Great's father was the Emperor Constantius. Constantine's mother Helena was a commoner but was later named as a Christian saint. Immediately after the death of his father…
Gill, N.S. "Constantine the Great." About.com. Retrieved online: http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/people/p/constantine.htm
Herbermann, Charles, and Georg Grupp. "Constantine the Great." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 18 Feb. 2013
Pohlsander, Hans A. "Constantine I (306-337 A.D.)." De Imperatoribus Romanus. Retrieved online: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm
Culture & Religion
Roman Catholic: The Roman Catholic religion believes in the Holy Trinity of a creator God the Father; Jesus Christ, His Son; and the Holy Spirit. Other beliefs that characterize the religion are the original sin; the forgiveness of sin; the second coming of the Lord; and life after death (CIM, 49). Given its belief in sin, the religion offers the hope of salvation through its sacraments and baptism. Infant baptism is encouraged to erase the original sin and as a start to a spiritual life through the Church. In addition, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the mass is a continuation of the sacrifice made by Christ and thus teaches the doctrine of transubstantiation or that the bread and wine at communion actually become the body and blood of Christ (Biblical Discernment Ministries, 1997). Generally, the religion has no dietary restrictions. However, it advocates abstaining from meat…
The Rise of the Papacy
The Middle Ages, so called because of their position between the ancient and the modern eras, are often termed medieval or even dark. This period of time is marked by a dearth of non-church art, and by the domination of the Roman Catholic Church over all of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia. This was a far-reaching kingdom that was financed by the kings of subject countries, and was ruled by a variety of men. This was also a time when the people bowed under the weight of the growing Catholic oppression that regarded all religions but their own as sacrilegious and the Catholic Church as sacrosanct. This paper looks at the church's rise to power during and after the demise of the Roman Empire, how that rise affected the people of Europe, and what the apex of that power looked like..
Leuba, Jean-Louis. "Papacy, Protestantism and Ecumenism." The Ecumenical Review 46.4 (1994): 467-475.
Logan, F. Donald. A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London: Routledge, 2002.
Moorhead, John. "Bede on the Papacy." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 60.2 (2009): 217-232.
Power, Amanda. "Franciscan Advice to the Papacy in the Middle Ages." History Compass 5.5 (2007): 1550-1575.
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
Trees take in carbon dioxide (which includes pollution in the air) and give off oxygen so we can all breathe, and so God's plan can be carried through. The teaching of values, morals, and discipline must be part of the program for a Catholic teacher, and also the involvement of parents brings the school, the Church, the children and the families together in a fellowship of learning and praying.
As was mentioned earlier in this section, involving parents in their children's learning activities is a powerful way to keep our faith strong and growing in the context of education and Christianity. This is particularly poignant because on page 9 of the "Our Catholic Schools" one of the major issues facing Catholic education is the "…inadequate home and parish involvement with schools," and we can mitigate this problem by working closely with children to get them inspired enough so they want…
Dall, Mary Doerfler. (2000). Children Discover the Mass. Notre Dame, in: Ave Maria Press.
Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations.
Ontario's Catholic Schools. (2007). Our Catholic Schools 2006-2007 / Summary Report.
Catholic Church in Mexico underscored both its conquest and its independence. Organizationally, the church prior to the liberation theology of the 20th century has always been more cogent than the Mexican government. The church has traditionally been amalgamated with conservative interests that include the military and wealthier landowners. The institution of tithing and the role of the church as a colonizer through its missions helped to make the church the most powerful pre-revolutionary institution in Mexico. Additionally, at a time before the existence of broad-based commercial lending, the church not only acted as the principal lender in the colony and early republic, but served as the nexus for all public activity in many smaller communities. However, the influence of the church was severely limited under liberalism. Although the iaz government returned to the Catholic church some of its former glory, the 1916 Constitution ultimately spelled an end to the church's…
Despite this relatively recent accommodation, the Church has not remained quiet on the issue of poverty. Historically, as the government failed to care for the people, the Church assumed greater responsibility and became more vocal in complaining about the government's shortcomings. Today the Church, which once strove mainly to preserve its own authority, has emerged as an outspoken opponent of the government. Yet aggressive Church actions were evident early in the century, both in opposition to the anti-clerical language of the 1917 constitution and in the violent Cristero rebellion of the 1920s. From 1926 to 1929 Mexico faced strong resistance by Catholics who opposed the anticlerical component of the Constitution of 1917 that regulated the affairs of the Catholic Church. After the emergence of liberation theology among Latin American Catholic priests in the 1970s, Mexican clerics became vocal in their condemnation of oppressive government policies. In 1991 clerical officials leveled a broad range of charges against the government including torture, abuse of prisoners, political persecution, corruption, and electoral fraud. These charges were repeated by Pope John Paul II in his 1999 visit when he called for an end to "violence, terrorism, and drug trafficking." The Church has been critical of the government by supporting the rebellion in the southern state of Chiapas. Tension between church and state emerged again as recently as 1994 when the government attempted to blame the Chiapas uprising on the language and actions of various clerics.
Traditionally regarded as a woman's issue, birth control has become a mainstream political issue since the 1970s. After all, through the combined effects of cultural expectations to raise large families and the Catholic Church's ban on birth control, the population grew dramatically. Women who chose not to have children resorted to crude abortions. In 1970, the year Luis Echeverr'a became the first Mexican president to call for a reduction in the nation's population, as many as 32,000 Mexican women died from abortion complications. Although discussions of population control have long been taboo by the Catholic Church, 1972 saw a reversal when Mexican clerics called for reduced family size. Thereafter government support enabled family planning clinics and educational programs to be developed. By 1988 the Mexican annual population growth rate was nearly halved, to 1.8%.
Women in Mexico have been pushing for significant changes within the political and social arenas, and they are slowly gaining access to previously male-dominated spheres. For example, they are now elected as state governors and as representatives in the Chamber of Deputies. Increasingly they are leaving bad marriages in spite of condemnation from the Church and hostility from their own families. Indeed, there is growing liberation from the traditional roles and expectations for women in Mexican society.
It can be presumed that in any dogmatic definition to come the pope will never act without the fullest consultation with the Church, as is seen to-day with regard to the Assumption of the Virgin. This however does not alter the fact that from 1854 as de facto date and from 1870 as the date de jure, the pope is the normal organ of dogmatic definition for the Church. (Miegge, 1955, p. 130)
Church doctrine as a bond of communion, as an expression of piety, as the development of a confession of faith, forms the conception of dogma in the history of religion. "It has been said with reason that the doctrine of the Last Judgment was at once "the care and also the consolation of the Middle Ages." (Petry, 1956, p. 334) Doctrine is the written expression and beliefs that as proposed in the Bible. One does not speak…
Chantepie De La Saussaye, P. (1891). Manual of the Science of Religion (Colyer-Fergusson, B.S. & Mudcller, M., Trans.). New York: Longmans Green.
Miegge, G. (1955). The Virgin Mary: The Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine (Smith, W., Trans.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
Petry, R.C. (1956). Christian Eschatology and Social Thought: A Historical Essay on the Social Implications of Some Selected Aspects in Christian Eschatology to a.D. 1500. New York: Abingdon Press.
Testaments to Truth
Roman Catholicism and Mormonism Compared
There are many varieties of Christianity, some of them very old, and some of them of quite recent origin. The Roman Catholic Church boasts an uninterrupted existence of two thousand years. Its hierarchy, and its beliefs, have adapted to changed conditions. Yet truth is not so easily discovered. Rome may have purified her Church during the Counter Reformation, but not all were satisfied. The Protestant Churches of estern Europe spawned an even greater number of sects in the New orld. Some of these creeds held beliefs similar to those of the Roman Catholic Church, while others developed in remarkably different ways. In mid-Nineteenth Century New York, Joseph Smith was privileged to receive an entirely new Revelation. This Book of Mormon was at odds with the teachings of virtually all other Christian denominations. The followers of this brand new Church of Jesus Christ…
Barlow, Philip L. Mormons and the Bible: The Place of the Latter-Day Saints in American Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Coates, James. In Mormon Circles: Gentiles, Jack Mormons, and Latter-Day Saints. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991.
Guelzo, Allen C. For the Union of Evangelical Christendom: The Irony of the Reformed Episcopalians. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994.
Posner, Richard A. Sex and Reason. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
In the lines of the Apostles, Bishops of particular Churches throughout the world in charge of particular diocese are part of the Church and form the College of Bishops when the College is united as a decision-making body under the leadership of the Pope. The College may exercise power over the Universal Church by coming together in an ecumenical council when the council is recognized by the Pope, the successor of St. Peter. Additionally, "certain bishops are granted special status and position within the Church by being elevated to the College of Cardinals. The primary role of the College of Cardinals is to act as special advisors to the Pope and to come together on the death of a Pope to vote for his successor" ("The Catholic Church Hierarchy," Catholic Pages, 2007). Finally, there is also a counsel, created after Vatican II known as the Synod of Bishops. This formal…
The Catholic Church Hierarchy." Catholic Pages. 2007. December 7, 2008. http://www.catholic-pages.com/church/hierarchy.asp
History and Development of the Papacy." Religion Facts. 2008
Murphy, Donald. "Islam's Sunni-Shiite Split." 2007. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0117/p25s01-wome.html
Finally, the rise of science and technology due to industrialization militated against institutionalized religion (Bruce, 2002, p. 18). As people became more educated and reliant on science and technology in their everyday lives and work lives, religious disagreements with science and led people to abandon institutional religions as unscientific and backward. People knew that science and technology worked; therefore, religious arguments against science and technology tended to be rejected. In sum, the religious and secular teachings of the Protestant Reformation caused people to move toward greater secularization for religious, economic, social and intellectual reasons.
The Protestant Reformation significantly contributed to both Capitalism and Secularization in the est. By eliminating or reducing the Roman Catholic Church's underpinnings, including the Sacraments and obedience to Church authorities for salvation, the Reformation caused individuals to search here on earth for signs that they were saved and to rely on themselves rather than…
Bruce, S. (2002). God is dead: Secularization in the west - (Religion and spirituality in the modern world). Malden, MA: Blackstone Publishing, Ltd.
Stepan, a.C. (October 2000). Religion, democracy, and the "twin tolerations." Journal of Democracy, 11(4), 37-57.
Weber, M.A. (2003). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
Treasure of Montsegur
The novel The Treasure of Montsegur by Sophy Burnam (Harper/San Francisco, 2003), set in France in the year 1252, uses as its setting and historical backdrop the atmosphere of southern France during the 13th Roman Catholic Crusade led by Pope Innocent III, against a Christian sect of southern France, the Cathars. A Cathar woman, Jeanne of Beziers, is the main character. Historically speaking, Catharism:
was a religious movement with Gnostic elements that originated around the middle of the 10th century, branded by the contemporary Roman Catholic
Church as heretical. It existed throughout much of estern Europe, but its home was in Languedoc and surrounding areas in southern France.
According to ikipedia, not much is known about daily lives of the medieval Catharists, or about their specific religious or moral practices. However, "hat is certain is that they formed an anti-sacerdotal party in opposition to the Catholic…
Burnham, Sophy. The Treasure of Montsegur: A Novel of the Cathars. San Francisco, CA: Harper/San Francisco. 2003.
'Cathar." Wikipedia. Retrieved October 2, 2005, from: http://184.108.40.206/
search?q=cache:6pCv6hdo-HoJ:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathar+Cathar& hl=en html>.
Gies, Frances, and Joseph Gies. Women of the Middle Ages. New York:
A normal pro-life campaign is less complex than Catholic anti-abortion principles because of the religious aspect of the matter. The connection between the Catholic Church and morality has come to be stronger in the recent years in spite of the fact that it does not essentially function based on morality alone. To a certain degree, one might be inclined to consider that the Church is wrong in promoting anti-abortion simply because it wants to follow Christian tradition. Catholic teachings are essentially derived from the Bible and "whatever the "moral" teaching of the Church might be, it is, in the final analysis, a function of how to read the Scripture. Christian morality is not, in short, a "stand-alone" moral position" (O'Brien 92). In promoting anti-abortion messages, Catholic representatives practically go against the general message that the Gospel is trying to convey.
Catholics have recently been more determined than ever to fight…
Faundes, Anibal and Barzelatto, Jose, "The human drama of abortion: a global search for consensus," Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.
John Paul II, "Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life," St. Pauls Publications, 2009.
Mitchell, Alan C. "Choosing life: a dialogue on Evangelium vitae," Georgetown University Press, 1997.
O'Brien, George Dennis, "The Church and abortion: a Catholic dissent," Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…
Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.
Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed
Ecumenism: A brief history
Ever since the beginnings of the history of Christianity, there have been profound divisions within the faith regarding the best and right way to profess one's belief in Jesus Christ. The Apostle Paul speaks of the division between those who believed that it was necessary to follow the practices of the ancient Hebrew in the form of Mosaic Law to be a Christian, versus those who did not; there were also divisions between the Gnostics (who believed that the material world was inherently evil) versus what we would call today the more orthodox Christians who rejected the Gnostics as heretics. Although the intensity of these controversies (such as the notion of whether God was conceptualized as a trinity, the legitimacy of particular popes, and eventually the split between estern and Eastern Christianity) waxed and waned in the Middle Ages, divisions once again were ripped open with…
Campbell, David, E, & Putnam, Robert, D. "America's grace: How a tolerant nation bridges its religious divides." Political Science Quarterly, 126.4 (2011), 611-640.
Grundy, Terry. "First Anglican bishops join Catholic Church under new structure." Christian
Century. 14 Jan 2011. [1 Mar 2013]
The Pope and the leadership guide us in our interpretation of scripture and tradition.
As stated previously, Roman Catholicism is truly a lifetime experience. From cradle to grave, Holy Baptism to the Anointing of the Sick, we are surrounded by these life giving and soul building acts and rarely appreciate them fully. This investigation has not only, truly deepened the author's knowledge of the sacraments by choosing Holy Eucharist, Baptism and Penance. They are an organic whole that represent the totality of our lives and with the spread of the Church's doctrines will hopefully encompass humanity as a whole.
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & right, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved…
Benedict 16th, (2009, June 14). Angelus. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2009/documents/hf_ben-xvi_ang_20090614_en.html
Catechism of the catholic church. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3E.htm
Consequences of original sin for all humanity . (1986, October 1). Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/alpha/data/aud19861001en.html
Knox, James, & Wright, John. (1977, March 31). A letter from the vatican: first penance, first communion.. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_cclergy_doc_19770331_penance-communion_en.html
agrees that ethics is an important part of effective leadership in the field of health care but there is no universally accepted understanding of what constitutes ethical leadership (Milton, 20004). The concept of ethical leadership has been addressed in the literature of a wide variety of fields associated with the health care profession but none have been able to clearly define its terms. The purpose of this paper will be to examine what ethical leadership means to me and how my personal viewpoints and attitudes have been affected by my background and experience.
Having been raised in an Irish family my Irish heritage is an important aspect in the formation of my ethical viewpoint. Although I have lived in the United States for nearly forty years, I cannot escape the lessons and values that I learned growing up in the Irish countryside. My family lived in an Irish…
Benner, P. (2000). The roles of embodiment, emotion and lifeworld for rationality and agency in nursing practice. Nursing Philosophy, 5-19.
Catanzaro, A.M. (2001). Increasing Nursing Students' Spiritual Sensitivity. Nurse Educator, 221-226.
Fry, S.T. (2002). Ethics in Nursing Practice: A Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hussey, T. (1996). Nursing Ethics and Codes of Professional Conduct. Nursing Ethics, 250-258.
Wearin' of the Green
An Irish-American's Journey
Margaret-Mary clutched her daughter's tiny hand. Watched with pride as the five-year-old waved the little Irish Flag in her other hand. It was a cold, blustery day, but then it always was on St. Patrick's Day. Yet as Margaret-Mary braved the wind and the crowds, she didn't feel the least bit cold. Never did, but especially not today. It wasn't just that today she was sharing a special moment -- a communion if you will -- with all her Irish brothers and sisters the world over. No, it was more than that. This was a day long looked forward to, a day that had demanded special preparations like getting up at five in the morning, wrapping Colleen in the embracing warmth of a sweater of real Irish wool -- green of course --and rushing off into the frigid pre-dawn to wait for the…
The death penalty is therefore morally and ethically necessary not only for an ordered society but as a necessary means to protect the innocent from evil.
Secondly, from a Catholic point-of-view this stance is supported by centuries of Church doctrine and by references to iblical test, as discussed above. This also refers to the view that many modern Catholics take; which in turn refers to the contemporary emphasis on the right to life as a sign of the decline of religion and the growth of secularization. This reflects the view that the growing opposition to the death penalty"… has gone hand in hand with a decline of faith in eternal life." ( Dulles)
The above discussion has outlined the two central arguments for and against the death penalty from a Catholic perspective. There is little doubt that this topic has also crested intense debate within the Church. This…
Dulles A. Catholicism & Capital Punishment. Sunday. 3 Oct. 2010
( http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/religion/re0461.html ).
Gonzales A. Pro-life and Pro-Capital Punishment Contradiction in Terms? 3 Oct. 2010
( http://www.roman-catholic.com/Roman/Articles/CapitalPunishment.htm )
I've always been proud of my family heritage. Growing up Catholic isn't always easy, and growing up Italian has its own set of difficulties on top of that. However, the love and camaraderie that I experienced as a child will always remain with me as I get older. For an Italian, family takes priority over all other things, and there is a strong sense of respect for our parents and elders. However, this also entails frankness, openness, and honesty, which can lead to lost tempers or heated arguments at the dinner table. After all, Italians are known for their emotional natures. Furthermore, I realized growing up that our family's parties always centered on a lot of food; food served an ultimately social function in our family. Food is also almost always fresh and delicious. Another pleasant side-effect from being Roman Catholic and Italian is that I befriended many people…
Thus, for many people in Hispanic society, especially women, playing a role in the Church gives their life additional meaning and purpose, and it only increases their faith and belief in the Church and its doctrines. Increasingly, the Church is relying on laypeople, representative of their respective communities and parishes, to help spread and maintain the message and support of the Church. Many of these laypeople are women, and it offers additional meaning and purpose to their lives - spiritually and personally.
Besides being actively involved in the Church, it is often the women of a family that establish and maintain the traditions, and pass on the beliefs and traditions associated with religion. These authors continue, "My grandmother and the women of her generation exercised their religious leadership in the Hispanic community as healers, prayer leaders, and dispensers of blessings. They were also the main persons responsible for passing on…
Burgaleta, Claudio. "Preaching the Teaching: Hispanics, Homiletics, and Catholic Social Justice Doctrine." Theological Studies 67.3 (2006): 702+.
Deck, Allan Figueroa, Yolanda Tarango, and Timothy M. Matovina. Perspectivas: Hispanic Ministry. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1995.
Warren, Mark R. "Chapter 4 How Social Capital Contributes to Democratic Renewal." Religion as Social Capital: Producing the Common Good. Ed. Corwin Smidt. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2003. 49-68.
Greek bishops could also marry, although such alliances prevent them from rising in position in the church, where Roman priests took celibacy vows. Regarding doctrine, some could Latin approach as more practical and judicial, while the Greek was more speculative about the nature of the Godhead.
Martin Luther founded the Lutheran branch of Protestant Christianity. Luther rejected the authority of the Catholic Pope. The Bible alone was the ultimate authority for Luther. Salvation was by grace and by faith alone in Jesus Christ. Luther retained the sacraments of baptism, penance and Holy Communion and he held that in the Holy Communion the consecrated bread and wine are the Body and Blood of Christ
However, he rejected the ideas of purgatory, indulgences, invocation of the Saints, and prayers for the dead.
In contrast, while John Calvin also rejected the Pope, he believed that God alone could dispense salvation, holding to…
Muslim reaction to the Enlightenment was less harsh than that of the Catholic Church, yet less adoptive than that of Protestantism. One such reaction, posited by S.H. Nasr, holds that the Enlightenment was not as widely embraced in traditional Muslim countries because there is no inherent separation of reason and religion within this faith, and that Islamic science has always included divine revelation. Another Islamic viewpoint of the Enlightenment, most convincingly stated by Ziauddin Sardar, contends that many principles of philosophy, math, and science, including the very University concept known in Arabic as the adab system, actually come from Islamic countries and indicates their significant contribution to the movement.
But if the Muslim world contributed a majority of the intellectual concepts which gained popularity during the Enlightenment, the Christian world can be thought to have taken some necessary logistical measures to implement them by downplaying the Church's value and further…
1. Tillich, Paul. "The History of Chrisitan Thought." Religion-Online. n.d.
2. Sardar, Ziauddin. "The Erasure of Islam." TPM: The Philosopher's Magazine. n.p. June 11, 2009. Web.
On the June 23rd, thanksgiving mass alone, over 600 people attended. Since hearing of Father Peter's departure, the Holy Cross Church has been inundated with calls from concerned and disappointed parishioners on the subject of who will replace him.
The community is disturbed because of the need for continuity between current and past policies. Father Peter has done so much work to help Holy Cross, but his mission is far from accomplished. Holy Cross is at a loss to understand why the transfer occurred at this time, given how many years of service Father Peter has committed to this specific location. While we understand the need for cost-saving and consolidation, the 'at risk' nature of the population served by the Church and its increasing numbers suggests that this is not the right time for such a move.
It must be stressed that the desire for Father Peter to remain in…
Abortion is a polarizing issue. The debate divides families as well as politicians. However, I am all too well aware of the fact that there are many individual stories that are far more complex than the black-and-white shades in which the issue is presented by the media.
Take the example of the aunt of one of my best friends from high school. My friend's aunt became pregnant: this was joyous news for her and she wanted to keep the baby. This was her third pregnancy: the first two had ended in miscarriages. By the third time she became pregnant the woman was in her early 40s, making her pregnancy extremely high-risk for both mother and fetus. The woman was very cautious and followed her doctor's advice and yet, she still had complications. By the end of the third trimester she was in tremendous physical pain and the fetus was unlikely…
"Catholic pro-life committee E-Alert: The distinction between direct abortion and legitimate medical procedures. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 23 Jun 2010. Web. 3 Dec 2013.
Eckholm, Erik. "Bishops sued over anti-abortion policies at Catholic hospitals."
The New York Times. 2 Dec 2013. Web. 3 Dec 2013. .
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to the Dark Ages. Specifically, the author is asked to define what "Dark Ages" means. Second, the author is asked to ask how this society unwittingly paved the way for a preservation of literature and art from the classical era. In particular, the author is asked to identify how Ireland was instrumental in this re-emergence. Finally, there is to be a summation of the Arthurian legend and how modern ethics is driven in part by this literature and dynamic and a definition of chivalric code is also to be offered.
In terms of history, the Dark Ages is the millennia or so that followed the end of the oman Empire. It refers to the cultural and economic downfall that ostensibly happened in Western Europe after the oman Empire was reduced to…
Fordham. (2013, October 9). Internet History Sourcebooks. FORDHAM.EDU. Retrieved
October 9, 2013, from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/roland-ohag.asp
MLT. (2013, October 9). Code of Chivalry. Medieval Life and Times. Retrieved October
9, 2013, from http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-knights/code-of-chivalry.htm
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
Temple Beth Am Site Visit
For people living in prior generations, the practice of one's religious beliefs was a private expression of faith to be shared only with fellow adherents. Christians worshipped alongside fellow Christians and seldom found either the opportunity or the desire to explore the religious beliefs of neighbors and friends who happened to be Jewish, Muslim, Hindu or any of the hundreds of creeds which are followed freely in the United States. Fortunately, this exclusionary attitude towards religion has been cast aside by today's youth, and people are now encouraged to visit places of worship with which they may not be familiar. As a practicing Roman Catholic, I have always been curious about Judaism, a faith which shares many of its influences with Christianity but has evolved throughout the ages to become the distinctly unique belief system we know today. In order to fully immerse…
' At that moment, I came to realize that I have to set a good example for him by being strong and facing up to my circumstances. Remembering the special times that my mother and I shared as a little girl in our worship, I started going to church again and prayed to Him for help and guidance. Even today, I remember very clearly how I cried out to Him for help and asked Him what I should do in order to be saved. This was a turning point in my life because I felt so empty and lost but I knew in my heart that things were going to be okay.
One day not too long after this turning point in my life, I met a man who completely blew me away. At the time, I was with my friends visiting Las Vegas (I was not drinking anymore). We…
Keeping the Faith: Presentation Outline
"Keeping the Faith" is a comedy movie that shows relationship between love, friendship and faith. The writer Stuart Blumberg and director Edward Norton have presented a story of three friends who belong to different faiths but fall in love due to close friendship. Overall it is a thought provoking and a romantic comedy drama movie which shows the complexities of relations between the faiths/religions of different people.
The two central characters of this comedy drama are the rabbi and priest (Frederic and Brussat, 2012) namely Jake and Brian. Jake is a "Jew" and Brian is a "oman Catholic." These two young adults, who grew up together in the New York City, take very much interest in each other's religion and have committed their lives to their faiths. Anna is their childhood neighbor and junior school friend who meets them after several years.
In these two…
Cardullo, B. (2012). World Directors and Their films, Essay on African, Asian, Latin American
and Middle Eastern Cinema. Published by Scarecrow Press Inc., USA.
Frederic and Brussat, M. (2012). Keeping the Faith. Film Review. Spiritualityandpractice.com
Godawa, B. (2009). Updated and Expanded Hollywood World News, Watching Films with Wisdom and Discernment, Intervarsity Press.
This greater stress on order and discipline and fear of alternative influences is also reflected in the rise of anti-Semitism. The act of defining Christians against Jews, given that Judaism gave birth to Christianity is manifest in "The Life and Miracles of St. illiam of Norwich." Not only to the fictional Jews commit a ritualistic murder, typical of blood libel stories of the period, they also enact a crucifixion scene, underling the 'crime' of Jews of rejecting Christ, rather than the Judaic contribution to Christianity. Interestingly, however, the 'truth' of the blood libel myth was supposedly revealed by a former Jew who became a monk, thus showing a strange mix of hatred of Jews and Judaism, but also a kind of unstated admission that Jesus was Jewish and Christians consider the Torah as well as the Gospels holy documents.
The Life and Miracles of St. illiam of Norwich."…
The Life and Miracles of St. William of Norwich." Thomas of Monmouth. 1173. Medieval Sourcebook. 2 Apr 2008. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1173williamnorwich.html
The Rule of the Franciscan Order." Medieval Sourcebook: Translation by David Burr.
Jan 1996. Updated 22 Sept 1999. 3 Apr 2008. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/stfran-rule.html
Chile, officially known as epublic of Chile, is a South American country with Peru, Bolivia Argentina as its neighboring countries. The Pacific Ocean borders it on the west and south. Santiago is both its capital and the largest city. The country is primarily urban as 1/3 of the total population inhabits the areas in and around Santiago and Vina Del Mar. Almost ninety percent of the Chileans are oman Catholics whereas Spanish is the official language of the country ("Chile," 2012). This country in South America has a landscape filled with "dry deserts, snow-capped mountains, sandy beaches, and thick temperate rain forests" (au, 2007).
The climate in the country is as varied as its natural features. Aside from the apparently intense climatic conditions in some parts, the country enjoys a comfy and moderate climate ("Chile").
The southern part of the Chilean region was controlled by the Araucanians long before…
Chile. (n.d.). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/111326/Chile/24699/Cultural-life
Chile. (n.d.). Geographia - World Travel Destinations, Culture and History Guide. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from http://www.geographia.com/chile/
Chile from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved October 8, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-Chile/chile
Chile, the Country. (n.d.). In Chile Travel Planner. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from http://www.chiletravelplanner.com/ChileGuide.pdf
plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…
Episcopal Church "The Columbia Encyclopedia" sixth edition, Columbia University Press 2001.
Episcopal Church "Encyclopedia Britannica" Enclopedia Britannica. Inc. Retrieved. 2007
Steve Klein," The solution to Episcopal Church Problems" by Vista Church of Christ. 2007.
Sydnor William,"Looking at the Episcopal Church" USA. Morehouse Publishing.1980
Nearly all of the attempts of Catholic Church to unite Orthodox Christians failed and what they achieved are religious hatred and distrust to Catholic Church.
Nowadays Catholicism has more than a billion followers all over the world. Their spiritual leader Pope John Paul II does a great work to make a dialogue between different confessions and does a lot to reconcile the representatives of different confessions. Bartholomew I, who is the Archbishop of Constantinople, is the leader of nearly 300 million Orthodox Christians (who mostly live in eastern and Southern Europe, Middle East and North Africa). More over Patriarch of Constantinople is simply "the first among equals" and does not have any supreme power over other patriarchs. John Paul II looks for the ways to keep the dialogue with Orthodox Church and looks for the ways for reconciliation, but Orthodox Church is not really enthusiastic in this process. ussian patriarch…
Ware, K. The Orthodox Church [2nd Edition]. London, Penguin Books, 1993.
Lameygh, E. CICM "The Laity in History" in East Asian Pastoral Review, Vol XXIII No.3 1986
Baldwin, M.W. Christianity Through the Thirteenth Century, New York: Harper & Row, 1970. p.182-183
Differences between Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Christian Churches, Article the Associated Press Saturday, May 8, 1999