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Under the ruling of their new king, Alaric, the Visigoths decided that they deserved gold in order to live in decency. Since the Roman government refused to support the Germanic tribe, the Visigoths marched on Rome, defeating the numerous forces gathered to defend the city. In spite of the fact that the Romans were better experienced in warfare they did not stand a chance before the more powerful Germanic troops and Rome was rapidly conquered and robbed by the barbaric invaders (Salvian).
The citizens of Rome could not understand how a city as powerful as Rome could have fallen so quickly and how its greatness could be turned to dust by a group of unsophisticated individuals. St. Jerome describes the sacking of Rome and of the whole Eastern Roman Empire, depicting how the greatest and strongest Roman settlements turned into ruins consequent to being conquered by "nations innumerable and most…
1. Africa, Thomas W. The Immense Majesty: A History of Rome and the Roman Empire (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1991)
2. Diocletian (284-305 C.E.) & Constantine (308-337 C.E.): Efforts to Stabilize the Economy
3. Gibbon, Edward. (1841). "The history of the decline and fall of the Roman empire, 1: with maps." Library of Catalonia.
4. Herodian of Syria (3rd Century C.E.): History of the Emperors: - How Didius Julianus Bought the Empire at Auction, 193 C.E.
c However, the road infrastructure, the cultural achievements, as well as other aspects of Roman influence were only possible as a result of strong and constant policies undergone by the Empire. In this sense, it was clear for Rome that the army was of crucial importance. Therefore, all soldiers enlisted in the Roman army benefited from the same rights and advantages as the ones being stationed in the Capital, for the simple reason that the Roman army from the capital could not ensure its detachment for every threat at the boundaries of the Empire. Therefore, conditions were created that soldiers formed the territories and provinces conquered would enlist in the Roman army and therefore defend the boundaries of the Empire from any perpetrators. This enabled an extremely efficient means of defense for a very large empire.
Furthermore, the Roman empire was known for its extremely efficient Latin law created in…
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: Since 1300. Boston: Wadsworth, 2006.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994.
Religion was also of little importance to the people of Pompeii and in addition to the fact that they did not even express an exceptional interest in their gods; they were not connected in any way to Christianity, which greatly influenced the Eastern part of the Roman Empire. "The locations of much of the erotic art, which will be discussed, were discovered within patrician villas, bathhouses, brothels, and taverns" (Hnut, 3). The brothels in particular contained open eroticism, most probably with the purpose of arousing clients. One can consider the erotic art present in brothels to be a form of advertisement, meant to attract customers, given that most would be unable to resist the temptation of entering such a place consequent to seeing the erotic artistic character in it (Hnut, 4).
The Byzantine world was nothing like Pompeii when concerning its dedication to exploiting eroticism. The Eastern Roman Empire is…
1. Hnat, Ryan. (2009). "Eroticism of Pompeii: Allegory, Absurdity, and Advertisement." Retrieved October 21, 2010, from the Ryan Hnat Website: http://ryanhnat.com/papers/pompeii.pdf
2. James, Liz. (1997). "Women, men, and eunuchs: gender in Byzantium." Routledge.
Roman Empire. There are three references used for this paper.
The Roman Empire managed to maintain its stronghold for five hundred years in the west, and nearly one thousand year in the East. It is interesting to explore why their dominance lasted so long, and to compare the Roman ways of Empire building with those of the Assyrians.
Beginning of an Era
The Romans "built up one of the biggest and strongest empires the world has ever seen (Suggitt). It took many years for Rome to achieve this distinction, which provides truth to the "old saying 'Rome was not built in a day'. In 700 BC Rome was just a tiny Italian village, and over time the Romans took over the land around them. By the year AD 117 they controlled almost the entire world, as it was known at the time (Suggitt)."
Rome grew from a small village…
(History of the Assyrians. (Accessed 07 December, 2004).
Melleusih, Gregory. "Blainey, Europe and the World." Quadrant. (2000): 01 December.
Suggitt, Phil. "The Growth of the Roman Empire." The Hutchinson Encyclopedia. (2003):
The enemies of Rome had quickly taken advantage of the situation and marched towards the great city without encountering great resistance in their way. The last days of the Roman Empire had been in the year of 476 a.D. with the deposition of Romulus Augustus, the last emperor of the great empire.
Similar to the Romans, the Americans have managed to build a great country and to be the leaders of the world. Colonizing the American continent and gathering together people of all nations, the settlers had managed to make the New Land a hospitable place. As the Romans defeated and conquered many nations, the Americans defeated the Native Americans and took their lands away from them. Both the Romans and the Americans had helped other nations by modernizing their countries and bringing civilization to the locals. The power of the U.S. citizens rapidly expanded over the north of the…
Morey, C. William. "Outlines of Roman History." New York, Cincinnati, Chicago: American Book Company (1901)
1997). "The Roman Empire at its Greatest Extent." Retrieved February 19, 2009, from John's Vanderspoel's Web site: http://www.ucalgary.ca/~vandersp/Courses/maps/basicmap.html
HISTORY of the ROMAN EMPIRE." Retrieved February 19, 2009, from History World Web site: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac58
e. The voies who argue that Ameria should and ould be an imperial superpower, but laks sound pratial judgment.
The thesis of this paper is that the history of the Roman Empire an be mathed to that of the United States in terms of eonomy, politial power, as well as aspirations. In this sense, present day Ameria is very similar to fourth of even fifth entury Rome; this poses one stringent yet logial question: Will Ameria follow in the footsteps of anient Rome and meet its demise in a similar fashion? Although this paper annot possibly answer this question, it will examine the urrent politial, eonomi, soial and ultural situation in Ameria and ompare it to the irumstanes leading to the fall of the Roman Empire. This paper will also inlude a brief history of the Roman Empire, followed by an analysis of the fators whih have brought its deline,…
cited in Faulkner: Barbarians). The leadership cult played an important part in propaganda. The ruler was depicted everywhere so that Roman citizens would constantly be aware of this presence. In fact, the cult, whose embodiment was the emperor, centered on the idea that the ruler was to be worshipped alongside Jupiter. In provincial towns, the emperor was worshipped in sanctuaries just like Roman gods. Money was a tool of propaganda but in a different manner than it is today. The image of the emperor had to reach all of the corners of the vast empire, so his face was stamped on every coin. The combination of politics and religion has always been the strongest. Even during the era of the Roman Empire, a bond was forged between the emperor and the church. Roman emperors were presented "as agents of God on Earth" (Faulkner: The Crusades). Their power was divine, and so was their determination to crush paganism and heresy, and to remain the number one defender of Christianity. This relationship between God and the emperor is obvious if one looks at the coins, frescos, mosaics and even the jewelry of the time on which the face of the emperor is depicted alongside symbols of the Church, most commonly the cross. In exchange for imperial benevolence, the bishops preached loyalty to the emperor (Ibid). Constantine seized control of the Church through the Council of Nicaea whose purpose was to regularize Christianity so that it would be compatible with imperial government. Indeed, the emperor ceased to be considered a god and became godsend, a human form representation of the divinity. The diversity of American society - from the cultural point-of-view - ensures that everyone can live comfortably irrespective of their religious choice. Indeed, religion is a private matter. Nonetheless, in politics things change because the old concept of the American political system is based upon the ideals of unity; thus, religion is not an acceptable principle for political division. In the United States government and religion do not share an official bond. Aside from the connection with religion, American politics also relies on emotional appeal. In fact, there is a strong connection between religion and the use of the emotional appeal in political rhetoric, but also an underlying moral evaluation of events which in the end, is also religious since it utilizes religious criteria. The emotional appeal technique is the most effective as far persuading the audience as it determines the audience to relate emotionally and not logically or ethically to the message in question. In the case of the war in Iraq, it is simply easier to generate an emotional response than one based on critical and rational thinking which in turn, requires strong arguments from the person or people making the claim, in this case, the Administration. The audience generates a quicker and much stronger reaction to the emotional appeal since the basis of this approach is to instill a sense of fear, which in turn generates a strong emotional response. The emotional appeal can also be based upon presenting a unilateral and rather simplistic version of an event or tragedy, such as 9/11. In this case for instance, by invoking the loss of human life, feelings of rage are generated which replace the soundness of solid argumentation. America's imperialism must be discussed from the perspective of its foreign policy. This analysis can provide answers as to the United States' interest in ensuring global domination by establishing areas of influence from Colombia to Iraq. The attacks on September 11 launched the "war on terror" which was followed by the war in Afghanistan and the American invasion of Iraq. This allowed the United States to establish temporary basis in Central Asian countries formerly part of the Soviet Union, and to have military bases in Romania and Bulgaria - countries that are part of the East European Bloc. The U.S. also sent forces to suppress insurrections in Yemen, Georgia and the Philippines which has generated numerous allegations that the U.S. was not interested in helping local governments deal with insurgencies, but to gain strategic influence in the area (Eland: 13). In a similar manner, the United States Department of Defense funded the training of Azeri military forces and the acquisition of U.S. arms which later turned into an acknowledgment that the help provided to Azerbaijan was in fact an attempt to secure access to Caspian Sea Oil (Ibid.). America's active participation in the war against Serbia in 1999, as well as the two wars waged against Iraq, and the war in Afghanistan have largely contributed to the enlargement of United States' sphere of influence. Moreover, the U.S., hidden under the social plague of "narcoterrorism" (Ibid.) has sent anti-drug funds to Colombia. The war in Iraq was launched as a response to alleged accusation that Saddam Hussein was developing weapons of mass destruction. No weapons were ever located. The Iraqi war is relevant to this paper from two points-of-view: first of all, it is an example of American ignorance as to the political culture of other nations. The democratization of Iraq is both costly and inefficient because America cannot force democracy upon a nation and a people who do not desire it. From this point-of-view, the mission that G.W. Bush has taken on is highly unrealistic. Secondly, it illustrates the imperialistic endeavor America has engaged in which has only worsened international relations from the point-of-view of the United States that no longer benefits from international support. Furthermore, the Iraqi intervention has only increased the level of hatred for Americans with populations of the Middle East being without a doubt, the center of this hatred. One of the major claims that supporters of the occupation have formulated is that the U.S. troops are contributing to the creation of a stable and democratic Iraq (Preble: 45). Moreover, they have argued that governments in neighboring countries could follow in the path of Iraq and adopt peaceful democratic regimes. This is however easily contradicted by a few historical and social considerations. Ethnic and religious cleavages prevent such a scenario from ever becoming reality. Since its creation, Iraq has been a nation torn between immense social inequalities and religious differences. Iraq has no experience in liberal and pluralistic government hence America's attempt to create and impose such a regime is likely to fail. It is extremely difficult to craft a regime that will also function when put into practice especially when it is imposed through military intervention. The process of democratization largely depends on historical developments and cannot be reduced to a matter of imposing the right institutions in Iraq. Democracy is based upon political freedom which can only be acquired by a state when the latter benefits from economic growth, a solid level of education and a coherent national identity (Preble: 49). Given the ethnic turmoil, low rate of education and the high percentage of Iraqi people living below the poverty line, it is obvious that the United States cannot simply change the political life of the country. The presence of American troops has not considerably changed the situation in Iraq where democracy has still not penetrated the collective conscience or the political system. In fact, American involvement in Iraq might actually suppress such political and social development. The violence has spread from Sunni to Shiite communities (Preble: 54) and from central Iraq to regions in the south and west (Ibid.). A study conducted in 2003 has shown that only 4 of the 16 military operations through which the United States aimed at changing a government resulted in the establishment of democracy (Pei, Minxin; Kasper, Sara in Preble: 46).
Military spending largely contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. Army funding was extremely demanding from the financial point-of-view, and in time, this manifested itself as a drain on the government budget. Soon, there was no money for other vital needs such as providing public housing or the maintenance of infrastructure. In turn, this determined social and moral decay as Romans did not want to defend the Empire's borders any longer. The government was forced to turn to foreign soldiers and even to the mob in order to ensure the safety of its boundary lines. Not only was the new army unreliable, but it was also extremely costly. The high cost of the military determined tax raises which in turn, raised the inflation rate. To conclude, the fall of Rome was inevitable as a vicious circle had been created. One of the conclusions regarding the fall of the Roman Empire is that although they possessed impressive skills as far as warfare, architecture and engineering, they lacked a science of economics. The principles of the market are universal and apply to all complex economies that rely on trade and manufacturing. It is now possible to say that any society fostering the same conditions and restrictions as the Roman one would fall into economic stagnation and decadence, and would probably have the same fate. Ancient Rome was destroyed under the gigantic weight of statism which grew and reached enormous proportions because Roman society lacked the principles of individualism. In this sense, one prediction is allowed as far as modern civilization. It will not find its demise as in the case of Rome because modern societies are based upon the principles of commercial vitality and individual freedom.
Some harsh critics of the current's Administration foreign policy argue that the American foreign policy of the 21st century still reflects the same very American desire to dominate the world which is so often referred to as "American imperialism." These voices are somewhat more radical, and argue that for the past two centuries, America has built its imperialistic foreign policy upon the basis of "racism, aggression, genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, war crimes and slavery" (Boyle: 11). This view provides the conclusion that the United States has succeeded in building a sign of authority comparable with that of Rome or Alexander in the sense that it has turned into "the Emperor of the world" mainly through claiming that those who resist its authority are "terrorists and criminals" (Ibid.). Some historians, political scientists and international lawyers have argued that the collapse of the Soviet Union meant that America was the "only superpower" or "hyper power" of the world (Boyle: 173); this status implies that America is capable of launching an offensive attack upon any adversary. Their main argument is that the "national missile defense" program is in fact, a critical objective of the current administration.
Terrorist attacks against the United States have re-shaped American foreign policy. September 11, the anthrax attacks, bombings of Oklahoma City, World Trade Center in 1993, and of the U.S. embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998 have determined a different list of priorities as far as American foreign policy. Nonetheless, there have been countless debates on whether or not the issue of terrorism should indeed be at the forefront of American public interest. The U.S. counterterrorism policy and organizational mechanism were built to counteract both state-sponsored and independent terrorist groups, and its main tool has been military intervention. I believe that the much talked about military interventions in Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan were the product of American exceptionalism. In fact, I tend to think that American foreign policy in its entirety was built upon this very concept which holds that America has the duty to wage preemptive war and to promote democratization. Nonetheless, American exceptionalism should not be regarded as a negative feature of the American political thought. However one needs to go back to the definition that Alexis de Tocqueville provided in the nineteenth century i.e. The values that were crucial to America's success as a democratic republic: liberty, individualism, laissez-faire, egalitarianism and populism, otherwise knows as "the American creed."
Fall of the Roman Empire Due to Christianity
The fall of Roman Empire due to Christianity
The research paper first makes a brief general overview of the ancient Roman Empire mainly looking at its' leadership structure, division of regions, senatorial and equestrian order in the empire, the religious history detailing its earlier religious practices and beliefs. The highlights or the transformations that took place before the empire finally collapsed shall also be mentioned from the third century up to the fifth century where it finally collapsed.
The research topic which is Christianity as the reason for the fall of the empire is in the third section of the paper. Various factors that were brought along with formalization of Christianity as an official language of the Roman Empire and contributed to its' downfall will be critically analyzed. Other documented causes that led to the fall of Roman Empire will also be…
Adena, L. "The 'Jesus Cult' and the Roman State in the Third Century," Clio History Journal (2008):16-24
Bury, J.B., History of the Later Roman Empire, (New York, 1958), 23-57
Baynes. H. Norman. "The Decline of the Roman Power in Western Europe. Some Modern Explanations," The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 33, Parts 1 and 2 (1943), 29-35.
Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and fall of the Roman Empire, (Chicago. 1952), 12-56
Christianity as a Prime Reason for the Fall of the Roman Empire
Some scholars place the founding of Rome to April 21, 753 B.C., but others dispute that date. As to Rome's demise, one scholar of note, historian Edward Gibbon, places the date of the fall of Rome on September 4, A.D., 476. Gibbon, who published what is considered the most authoritative book on Rome's downfall (The History of the Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire, Volume 4), has credibility that few historians have, so his date could be considered close to reality. Notwithstanding the exact date of Rome's fall, this paper delves into why Rome fell.
This paper asserts that a major reason for the fall of the Roman Empire was Christianity's emphasis on a spiritual kingdom, which weakened Roman military virtues and led to the demise of the Empire.
Several Reasons for the Fall of Rome
Addis, W.E. (1893). Christianity and the Roman Empire. Digitized by Harvard University
Brown, P. (2012). Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gill, N.S. (2010). Reasons for the Fall of Rome: Decay, Christianity, Vandals and Religious
decline of the Roman Empire came as a result of various social, economic, and military causes. One of the main factors influencing the eventual "fall" of the Empire was the invasion of Europe by the Mongolian Huns. These warriors forced the otherwise fierce Germanic tribes to seek solace within the borders of Rome. Because Rome had already begun to accept mutually advantageous relationships with Germanic border tribes, the sudden influx did not immediately threaten the Empire. However, the long-term effects of this migration would eventually be felt as a shift in ethnic and cultural dominance in the Empire. A declining Roman population was to be replaced by a growing Germanic one.
A second major factor in the "decline and fall" of the Roman Empire is economics. The Romans, no longer being able to afford an adequate army, grew more and more dependent on the federate tribes for military might. While…
Constantine and Eusebius
There are many great rulers in history, among them men and women of great fortitude, power, allegiance, wealth and intrigue. Yet, there are few who ring more interesting to a modern reader than Constantine I, who is widely held as the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and spread its favor across the then known world. This work will briefly discuss Constantine I (27 February 272 -- 22 May 337 AD) and his only remaining biographer Eusebius (263-339 AD) who was really writing the history of the church rather than on the greatness of a single human leader. The work will first briefly explore who these men were, according to history then it will discuss their relationship to one another, the impact that relationship had on each and finally how that relationship influenced the enculturation of Christianity in the Roman Empire.
Constantine the great (Flavius Valerius…
Ferguson, Thomas C. Past Is Prologue: The Revolution of Nicene Historiography. Leiden, NLD: Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. p 15
Gonzalez, Justo L. 1984. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1. San Francisco CA, Harper Collins.
Grafton, Anthony; Williams, Megan. 2006. Christianity and the Transformation of the Book: Origen, Eusebius, and the Library of Caesarea. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2006.
Morris, Randall J. 2012 Constantine: The Emperor of Tolerance. Amazon Digital Services
oman Empire could be related to its downfall. The oman Empire, as stated by the greatest historian Edward Gibbon, "...comprehended the fairest part of the earth and the most civilized portion of mankind..." (Goode, 1998); its disintegration was caused largely by the underlying parasites, than what surfaced in historical records. Modern scholars have taken up the task of questioning some previously avoided reasons that set forth a quiet process of decline before it actually took place.
In the 5th Century, Italy was thrown in discord by the invasions of Goths (410) and later by Vandals leaving the empire devastated. The Mediterranean was robbed of her 5 centuries of peace as raiders and traders now took over her. Troubles continued through the next century, in shape of prolonged and lamentable wars between Goths and the forces of surviving East omans or the Byzantines with their capital, Constantinople. With only…
Stephen Goode, August 10, 1998, Decline and fall of Roman Empire - includes related excerpt from 'The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire', Insight On the News.
Bryan Ward-Perkins, June 2005, The End of the Roman Empire: Did It Collapse or Was It Transformed?, History Today, Volume: 55, issue:6, pg:12+.
Edward Gibbon, 1900, The History of decline and fall of the Roman Empire -- Vol. 7 Publisher: Methuen. Place of Publication: London.
H.W Cocker III, June 19, 1987, The fall of Roman Empire: the military explanation-book reviews, National Review.
ise of Christianity Amongst the oman Empire
This is a paper letter written to the oman Emperor Diocletian, on the various aspects and causes for the rise of the Christian religion in light of the book, "The ise of Christianity" by odney Starks. It has 3 sources in MLA Format.
Of the oman Empire
Sub: ISE OF CHISTIANITY AMONGST THE OMANS,
CAUSE FO CONCEN
The rise of the Christian religion amongst our oman people is indeed a serious cause of concern, and I have, upon your esteemed orders carried a detailed study on the numerous causes of this new religion's success. Please allow me to present some of these causes, which I am certain will be a source of enlightenment for you as well as the other leaders of our great oman Empire.
As my present letter will explain, some of the important reasons for…
Stark, R. 1996. The rise of Christianity. Princeton, NJ: The Princeton University Press.
Brown, Charles M., Bible Verse Women Cannot Go to Heaven, 1997 at http://csf.colorado.edu/mail/socgrad/sep97/0141.html
Author not available, 2 Corinthians 4:7-9, accessed on 10.16.02
Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire
According to historians, the key to the establishment, survival and fall of historical societies is their use of resources and surplus income (Perkin 2002). Except for the most primitive, no society "would be able to afford the protection, law and order, administration, defense, spiritual advice, personal services, cultural production" and other essentials without "the extraction, by the elite, of products surplus to immediate requirements, such as food, arms, luxuries and other goods and services produced by farmers" (Perkin 2002).
Moreover, before conquerors, such as the Romans, are able to take over a society, it must already be organized and to make it worth the effort of the conquerors, the society must also be at a level of material production (Perkin 2002).
The fall of early empires was due to the fact that the elites were greedy and took more than their share of…
Dorrington, Adrian. "The Fall of Rome." http://ancienthistory.about.com /library/bl/uc_dorrington1.htm.(accessed 11-14-2003).
Gibbon, Edward. "General Observations on the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West."
Medieval Sourcebook. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/gibbon-fall.html .(accessed 11-14-2003).
Gibbon, Edward. "The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." http://www.ccel.org/g/gibbon/decline/volume1/cntnt29.htm .(accessed 11-14-2003)
Praetorian Guard and the Political system
The Praetorian Guard (cohors praetoria) was established in Rome as an elite squad of personal bodyguards of the Roman emperors. They accompanied the Emperor on all his campaigns. There are a number of factual reports regarding the involvement of the Praetorian Guard in the political system of Rome. In the Roman Empire, the ruler who controlled the army, the legions and more importantly, the Praetorian Guard had better control over his empire.
Roman emperor had to earn the respect of his subjects; and, at the same time, expect his commands to be obeyed. The Praetorian Guard acted as intermediaries between the emperor and the people. The Guard commanded a stature higher than the Roman legions and the auxiliaries. Their role was to maintain order in Rome. They also acted as the police force for the country of Italy. They were normally recruited from the…
Empyreans Online. "Empyreans Praetorians. http://www.silverselene.com/empyreans/culture/guard.html
Fielden, Jerry. "The Praetorian prefecture under the Julio-Claudians - path to power or dead-end job?" 1999
History Alive Online. "Reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire All left Rome open to outside invaders" http://killeenroos.com/1/Romefall.htm
Greek and Roman History
The Greek and Roman civilizations each played an important part in shaping the history of today.
It is interesting to look at these two cultures and the major contributions of each.
The Greek civilization was defined in the 5th century BC by the Golden Age. Athens was home at this time to "statesmen such as Pericles, Solon and Lycourgos.
Pericles, who lived from 495 to 429 B.C., was responsible for bringing democracy to Athens and building monuments such as the Parthenon atop the Acropolis. Under his leadership, Athens reached the pinnacle of its power in ancient times (unknown, Cemetery)."
Thucydides, who is 'considered one of the greatest of the ancient writers (unknown, Cemetery)," and the Greek philosopher Aristotle who taught at the school known as the Lyceum, also lived in Athens during this time. Thucydides is known for his reference to the ancient Greek…
McHam, Sarah Blake. Donatello's bronze David and Judith as Metaphors of Medici rule in Florence. The Art Bulletin. (2001): 01 March.
Neils, Jenifer. Reconfiguring the gods on the Parthenon frieze. The Art Bulletin.
1999): 01 March.
Unknown. Historic Cemetery Uncovered Ancient Site May Hold Clues to the Golden Age of Athens. Seattle Post-Interlligencer (Seattle, WA). (1997): 09 August.
Fall of the Roman Empire
Towards the 5th century, the Roman Empire scrambled to ruins as one of the greatest world super powers. Since then, the reasons for the fall of the empire remain a controversial topic prompting the rise of various popular explanations for its decline. Historians have blamed the collapse of this great empire on differing factors such as social complexity, natural disasters, climate change and military failures just to mention a few. Even as of now, other historians still contend that the Roman Empire did not actually fail because part of it later continued to exist but in the form of Byzantine Empire. In this essay, I present the strongest historical theory used to explain the collapse of this most legendary Empire.
Joseph Tainter (1990) pioneered the explanation and theorization of the Roman Empire collapse (Tainter 11). This American anthropologist holds that given technological levels yield implicit…
Diocletion attempted to stabilize the Roman Empire by splitting it into two (and later four) regions with four rulers -- also known as the Tetrarchy, with each ruler picking a successor (Mathisen). Since the time of Caesar, it had essentially become too big to be governed by one ruler. Thus, Diocletian's re-ordering of the empire was a way to make governance more practical and possible (Khan Academy). He himself took over governance of the Eastern half with its base in Constantinople while appointing a co-ruler for the Western half. Later to keep out the Visigoths, Diocletian also appointed two more rulers to help keep the barbarians from invading. In doing so, Diocletian began the practice of subdividing provinces into dioceses -- and creating a hierarchy of governance from the local level on up to the imperial level. This is where the Catholic Church adopted its diocesan rule from.…
fall of the Roman Empire?
The decline and eventual fall of the Roman Empire happened in the third century. Rome had made many enemies and grew from a revered unchallenged leader of the Mediterranean to a rather weary empire surrounded by a myriad of enemies. Rome experienced a number of significant military defeats over the time. The most significant contributor to the fall of the empire though was the economic policies adopted by the emperors. The decline is noted to have started with the rule of Septimius Severus in 193 AD. The rulership engaged in excesses and spent too much on the military. The currency was debased and inflation rose to crisis levels. Further, the time of poor economic policies coincided with a time when civil wars were commonplace. Assassinations were rife. Army generals made attempts to stage coups and assume ruler ship. The soldiers often murdered the emperor when…
Euggipius. The Life of St. Severinus. Cambridge,: Harvard University Press, 1913.
Ferryl, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation. London: Thames and Hudson, 1986.
St. Jerome, trans by F. Wright. Select Letters of St. Jerome. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.
This allowed the landowner to have more land worked by more people for less since it was not his responsibility to provide for these people as he would have to in order to maintain a slave, now would they have to invest in the initial purchase of such laborers as he would a slave. Once this trend started many farmers preferred not to invest into slavery because they saw it as a declining market. Naturally the slaves themselves were considered eligible for liquidation of assets, so if a farmer were to invest a large sum to purchase a slave and yet not have the potential to sell this same slave for a higher price (because of the skills and training they had received while working in their household) at a later date then this would logically be seen as a bad investment. Eventually the laws of supply and demand took…
Kagan, Donald, Steven Osmet, and Frank Turner. The Western Heritage. New Jersey: Prentice
2. What were the military, social, and economic events that led to the Gracchan land reforms (discuss one event each of military, social, and economic)? How did the Gracchi attempt to resolve these problems (discuss three)? How effective were they?
When Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune, the social structures that had nourished the Republic as it developed from an independent city-state were already breaking down. The consolidation of public land under the emerging latifundia system had turned roughly 7% of the population (Last, 1932a, p. 9) into indigents as displaced peasant farmers flooded Rome and other cities, only to find demand for their labor limited at best. Meanwhile, the army was starving for recruits as the traditional citizen military class proved too small to police the vast Roman frontier and quell slave revolts closer to home. Finally, relations with the Italian and even the Latin allies had become increasingly strained.…
After this, there could have been very little perceived threat left; not only were the Carthaginian's surrendering rather peacefully, but they were even giving up their means of waging war effectively. The giving up of weapons in an age when manufacture and shipping -- the two methods by which any commodity, military or otherwise, can be obtained -- took an extended period of time meant that the Carthaginians were showing themselves to desire peace not only in the short-term, but as a general social principle.
Their submission to the Romans, then, should have been the end of the war. If the reason behind Rome's military invasion of the Carthaginian territory was the possible threat the area presented to Rome, then its disarmament would have solved that problem. The Romans refused to let the issue go, however, demanding that the entire city of Carthage be destroyed right to the ground.
Ancient Romans wanted to compensate for their lack of experience in the world of medicine through their dedication to keeping healthy by promoting hygiene and physical exercise. Surprisingly, the technological progress experienced by Ancient Rome did not seem to be of any importance to its people, as they were only attracted to keeping their health through any means possible. The fact that hygiene and physical exercise were interconnected when regarding people in Ancient Rome and their desire to keep healthy can be observed by looking at the way gymnasiums were built next to public baths.
Aqueducts were yet another technological advancement in Ancient Rome, but in spite of their greatness and of the fact that they provided people with fresh water and with an ingenious method of irrigating crops, most Romans were satisfied with exploiting them, and not with analyzing how they worked. There were numerous techniques Romans used with…
Roman view of Christianity
Early Christianity did not develop in isolation, but within a complex landscape already occupied by belief systems, social networks, systems of identity, and political institutions, and it is essential not to regard it 'as somehow independent, as if the church were an entity existing apart from Christians living in particular times and places. Such a treatment neglects how the history of Christianity was influenced and shaped by its cultural environment.'
Foremost among the factors making up that environment was the Roman Empire, itself an amalgam of peoples, creeds and societies. The relationship between Christianity and pagan Rome was a complex and evolving one. This paper will examine Roman hostility to Christianity during this period, and aspects of Roman criticism of Christian belief.
In the earliest period of the Christian church's existence within the Roman Empire, Christians were commonly referred to as troublemakers, offending against Roman order…
Henry Chadwick, Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).
Robert Doran, Birth of a Worldview: Early Christianity in its Jewish and Pagan Context (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995).
Mark J. Edwards, et al., eds., Apologetics in the Roman Empire: Pagans, Jews, and Christians (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).
John Helgeland, 'Christians and the Roman Army A.D. 173-337', Church History, vol. 43, no. 2 (June 1974).
And an owner could set his slave free as a reward for that slave's noble service, transforming this piece of property into a human being with a touch of the hands and a few words.
Plautus depicts the absurdity of this legal reality with a humorous edge, but his humor has a great deal of societal bite. Plautus' most famous play, which provides the plot of "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum," is entitled "Pseudolous." The main character and incidentally the main character in Stephen Sondhiem's musical. Pseudolous means false or "trickster" and Pseudolous is indeed a mendacious individual. However, Pseudolous is also part of a mendacious Roman society, a society which denies him rewards equal with his intelligence and his cunning and rewards the falsely pious can't of the young man's father he is attempting to help.
Plautus deals with this issue even more explicitly…
ome, whose beginning can be traced in 753 B.C., is the capital city of Italy. Initially, kings ruled the city; however, the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. ome, then, became a republic for the next four hundred years. During this time, the republic was ruled by a Senate. The people to do different jobs in the senate were called Senators (Buckleitner, 58). However, not everyone was allowed to vote in these elections: women, slaves, and poor people were not allowed to vote. Those oman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'.
In 55 B.C. The oman general Julius Caesar conquered France (At the time the country was called Gaul, and the omans called it Gallia). The Gauls fought hard against the omans and had been helped by Britain. Caesar was disappointed by their assistance and attempted to invade Britain, first in 55 B.C. And then…
Buckleitner, Warren. Ancient History: Lives and Times in Ancient Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. School Library Journal, Vol. 50, No. 2, (2004): 58.
Dowling, Melissa Barden. A Time to Regender: The Transformation of Roman Time. KronoScope, Vol. 3, No. 2, (2003): 169-184.
Dyck, Ludwig Heinrich. CAESAR'S First Great Campaigns. Military History, Vol. 20 No. 6, (2004): 50-56.
Purcell, Nicholas. The Way We Used To Eat: Diet, Community, And History At Rome. American Journal of Philology, Vol. 124, No.3, (2003): 330-358.
The public library in the baths of Caracalla was no exception to this (DeLaine, 1997).
Inside the bathing area itself, there were several components (DeLaine, 1997). One of these was a 183X79-foot cold room located under three 108-foot high groin vaults. There was also a double pool which was tepid, and a 115-foot diameter hot room (DeLaine, 1997). There were also two separate gyms where people could box and wrestle with one another. There was also a standard swimming pool in the north end of the complex. It was a roofless structure and had mirrors made of bronze mounted over it (DeLaine, 1997). This helped to direct sunlight into the area surrounding the pool for both beauty and warmth. The whole building was on a platform that was raised up twenty feet off of the ground. This was done in order to allow for the furnaces underneath the building and…
Birley, Anthony R. (1988). Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, 2nd ed. Yale: New Haven Connecticut.
Chastagnol, Andre. (1994). Historie Auguste. Robert Laffont: Paris.
DeLaine, Janet. (1997) the Baths of Caracalla. Portsmouth, Rhode Island
Meckler, Michael. (1994). Caracalla and his late-antique biographer: A historical commentary on the Vita Caracalli in the Historia Augusta. University of Michigan.
Persecution of the Early Church (pick a specific outbreak caused by a Roman emperor, the reasons for the outbreak, and the results).
The article that was written by De Ste. Croix (1963) is talking about how Christians were persecuted after the Great Fire of Rome in July 64 AD. At the time, Nero believed that they were responsible for these events in order to challenge the Emperor Nero's leadership. He was paranoid and felt that Christians were a threat to his rule. As he believed, that they intentionally started the fire to draw attention to his incompetence and encourage others to embrace their faith. This meant abandoning state sponsored religions and engaging in acts of disobedience. While at the same time, they wanted to challenge many of the large public works projects and the polices of the government. However, De Ste. Croix thinks that Nero did not use the fire…
Brakke, David. "Cannon Formation and Social Conflict." Harvard Theological Review. 87, no.4 (October 1994): 395 -- 419.
De Ste. Croix, GE. "Why were the Early Christians Persecuted?" Past and Present. 26, no.2 (November 1963): 6- 38.
Moltmann, Jurgen. "Political Theology." Theology Today. 28, no. 1 (April 1971): 6-23.
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…
Ando, Clifford. The Matter of the Gods: Religion and the Roman Empire. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 2008.
Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price. Religions of Rome, Volume 1: A History. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1998.
The rule of law is essential to commerce, and commerce is essential to wealth. To longer shall local chieftains and would-be kings rule over the Empire - they are all subject to me, no different from anybody else.
A call upon the soldiers. Military might is the key to our success, in establishing rule of law and expanding our borders. Your support is required for this endeavor and for it you will be rewarded handsomely. I call upon the administrators. You are the ones who will do my work, and ensure that our country is filled with peace and prosperity. I call upon the merchants and the traders. My reforms will give you the opportunity to become wealthy beyond belief. Support me, go forth and trade. Bring us the goods of the orient.
My subjects, all I ask of you is for your help. I need your support. Be peaceful,…
Dhammika, Ven. S. (1994). The Edicts of King Ashoka. Colorado State University.
Retrieved November 2, 2008 at http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html
No author. (2008). Qin Dynasty. TravelGuideChina.com. Retrieved November 2, 2008 at http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qin
The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…
Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…
1) Giulia De Dominicis - Article Title: The Roman Theatres in the Age of Pius VI. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 81.
2) Live Hov - Article Title: The 'Women' of the Roman Stage: As Goethe Saw Them. Journal Title: Theatre History Studies. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 61.
3) Garret Fagan - Article Title R.C. Beacham. Power into Pageantry: Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. Journal Title: Comparative Drama. Volume: 35. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 465+.
4) The Columbia Encyclopedia - Encyclopedia Article Title: Drama, Western. Encyclopedia Title: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Publisher: Columbia University Press. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2004.
persecution of early Christians under the oman Empire is a matter of great interest and intrigue to many, even today; as is the matter of distinction and distrust between early Jews and Christians. Furthermore, the ironically similar behavior of orthodox Christians towards heretics rouses the curiosity of many scholars. This paper will discuss the effect of Christianity on omans and their perceptions towards Christians, Christian perceptions and treatment of Jews. The relationship between orthodox Christians and heretics will also be discussed.
ome before Christianity
The empire of ome, at the time of Christ's birth, was one of the two greatest kingdoms and was steadily continuing to flourish and expand, even then. Soon, it covered most of what we now know as Western Europe. The conquered land began from Spain in the west and ended in Syria in the east, while the great countries of England, France and Greece, and the…
Badnewsaboutchristianity.com (n.d.). Christian Persecution of Heretics - Bad News About Christianity. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.badnewsaboutchristianity.com/gbc_heretics.htm#_edn4 [Accessed: 10 Dec 2012].
Bainton, R.H. (1960). Early Christianity. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand.
Fitzgerald, T. (1998). The Orthodox Church. Westport, CT: Praeger Publisher.
Hackl, . (2012). Israel Considers Drafting Its Arab Citizens . Christian Science Monitor, August 1.
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…
Art and architecture of the Early Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Middle_Ages
Art: Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/m/middleages.html
Middle Ages. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/middle-ages
Roman art. Retrieved from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/R/roman.html Siddiqui E.
Around the year of 1200 B.C. all off the three important Mediterranean civilizations had stopped from their remarkable advance and collapsed with no actual information regarding to the reason for their ending. Archeological findings show that all three nations had been preparing for war during the period and that an enemy that is unknown to this day had defeated all Mediterranean empires.
Consequent to the collapse of some of the greatest empires in the world, the Greek empire had been surfacing as a nation of great potential and wisdom which gave birth to several of the world's philosophers.
The Roman Empire had appeared differently from the previous empires that surrounded the Mediterranean Sea. Rome had not began their society independently, but it had managed to defeat their superiors, the Etruscans, after more than two centuries in which the Etruscans ruled over Rome and other communities from within the Latin League.…
Sinopoli, Carla. "The Archeology of Empires." 159-180.
Smiley, Francis. "The Rise of Mediterranean Empires in the First Millennium B.C." 1-9.
wealthy Roman, a villa a retreat stresses public life? I asked role villa life a wealthy Roman a definite conclusion. as a villa a retreat, a number roles. I appeal evidence drawn Roman literature, Horace Pliny, Younger.
The Roman Villa
Romans considered villas to be more than just locations where they could live on a daily basis, as these buildings served a series of other purposes. City life imposed a great deal of stress on the wealthy and intellectual members of the Roman community and thus they needed a place where they could escape colloquial duties. City streets were dirty, unwelcoming, and filmed with violence, as they practically contrasted villas and their surrounding environments. In order for a villa to satisfy its inhabitant to its maximum potential, it had to be in accordance with his personal desires, both inside and outside. Also, the scenery where the villa was located needed…
Melmoth, William, "Elegant epistles, or, a copious collection of familiar and amusing letters: selected for the improvement of young persons, and for general entertainment, from Cicero, Pliny ... And many others," Printed for Charles Dilly, 1790, New York Public Library.
Rykwert, Joseph and Schezen, Roberto From Ancient to Modern, New York: Abrams Books, 2000
"Sketches of the domestic manners and institutions of the romans," Printed for Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821, Complutense University, Madrid.
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…
Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I
At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.
The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.
During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…
Conflicting National Interests
Military Casualties of W.W.I http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm
History of the Habsburg Empire,1273-1700
The historical work of Jean Berenger titled, "A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273-1700," is beneficial in understanding the Habsburg Dynasty of this time period. hile there has been many works that have also been helpful when completing studies on this topic, Berenger's work is a successful addition to previously published research.
Berenger is a respected professor of history. His writings display a vast knowledge of the most recent as well as the older literature on Habsburg history. His knowledge is not limited to just the French and Austrain works, but he is also in command of the most recent English fellow. In this work, Berenger undertook an enormous task of explicitly explaining the colorful tapestry that is woven of the individual nations of the monarchy. He didn't take any stand for only one side, but equally gives information concerning all involved.
Berenger explains the…
Berenger, Jean. (1997). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1700-1918. London: Longman.
" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.
III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME
The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.
Charlemagne (2006) Lucid Cafe Website. Online available at http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96apr/charlemagne.html.
Rome (1986) New Standard Encyclopedia. Standard Educational Corporation Chicago, Illinois.
Durrant, Will (nd) a Story of Civilization. Online available at http://www.chronique.com/Library/MedHistory/charlemagne.htm
Ancient Roman History
One of the most brilliant contributions of the Byzantium is its contribution to modern music and the development of what the world has come to appreciate as the foundations of classical music. The Byzantine "medieval" (Lang, 1997), in fact, the Byzantium influence is considered to be critical to the development of the Greek music and the relative genius behind Greek music (Lang, 1997)
The quoted sovereign melody (Lang, 1997) is the oft punctuated contribution to the sovereign nature of today's music throughout the world. The Byzantium facilitated the sovereign method of music ostensibly from what would be the earlier influences to the Byzantine Empire. Lang continues to point to such influence as having its origins in the Orient (Lang, 1997).
Sports were a major part of the Byzantine Empire and are representative of the development of competition within the Roman Empire and subsequently to the importance of sporting events within…
Engineering the oman Colosseum
While the Colosseum stands, ome shall stand; when the Colosseum falls, ome shall fall; when ome falls, the world shall fall. -- The Venerable Bede quoting an Ancient Anglo-Saxon Peasant Prophecy
Perhaps the most enduring symbol of the greatness of the oman Empire can be seen today in the ruins of the Colosseum. This massive amphitheatre is situated in the middle of modern ome near the oman Forum and has become an iconic representation of the oman Empire at its zenith. Although estimates vary, analysts believe that at least 50,000 and perhaps as many as 80,000 spectators were accommodated in its capacious dimensions and the Colosseum has become the benchmark by which all subsequent stadia have been judged. Flush with the treasures and riches of Jerusalem, the builders of the Colosseum spared no expense in its design and construction, but despite its impressive seating capacity and…
Barbi, Gulomar, "The Colosseum," The World and I, 22(9) (2007, September), 37-40.
Burn, Robert, Roman Literature in Relation to Roman Art, London: MacMillan, 1888.
"Colosseum building materials," The Colosseum [online] available: http://www.the-colosseum.net /architecture' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Constantine the Great was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity and to make Christianity the official religion of Rome. This makes him one of the most important figures in estern history, and in fact, world history. Prior to Constantine's conversion, Christians were widely persecuted throughout the Roman Empire (Herbermann and Grupp). Making Christianity the official religion of Rome led to the downfall of the Roman Empire and the birth of the new Holy Roman Empire. Because of Constantine's conversion, Christianity became a dominant religious, political, and economic world power.
Constantine was born in Naissus, a city in the Moesia Superior region of the Roman Empire. Moesia Superior is modern day Serbia, and Naissus is the modern-day town of Nis. Constantine the Great's father was the Emperor Constantius. Constantine's mother Helena was a commoner but was later named as a Christian saint. Immediately after the death of his father…
Gill, N.S. "Constantine the Great." About.com. Retrieved online: http://ancienthistory.about.com /cs/people/p/constantine.htm
Herbermann, Charles, and Georg Grupp. "Constantine the Great." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 18 Feb. 2013
Pohlsander, Hans A. "Constantine I (306-337 A.D.)." De Imperatoribus Romanus. Retrieved online: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm
With power comes responsibility, and with great power comes great responsibility. The acquisition of empire generated great responsibility for Rome, and as well as they entrenched the empire in history, the relatively rapid downfall of Rome signals the inability of the empire to anticipate what needed to be done to manage such a vast amount of territory with as culturally diverse a subject population. Although Rome attempted to monitor territorial acquisitions via a central governing authority, the increasing pragmatic need for decentralization of power led to several problems.
During the beginnings of the Roman empirical era, the annexation of new territorial acquisitions only meant vaster accumulations of wealth. Therefore, it seemed as if there would be no problems with Roman imperialism. Whether from natural or human resources, Rome stood to gain much and lose little from its exploits. A false sense of invincibility might have been the first real problem…
Francisco Pizarro: The Conqueror of the Inca Empire
The Inca Empire was a vast tract of territories that stretched up and down the western seaboard of South America. It was connected by roads through the Andes Mountains to the capital of Cuzco in Peru. Pizarro and his men made friends with natives in these territories who were tired of the civil war between the ruling brothers of the Inca Empire. ith their help and the help of the in-fighting of the Incas (as well as his own cunning and trickery) Pizzaro was able to gain control of the Emperor, capture him and execute him and his top general. In this manner Pizarro gained control of the capital of the Empire. But control of the vast fortune made his friend Almagro jealous and Almagro attempted to seize the fortune by laying siege to Cuzco after an exploration southward ended in…
Hemming, J. The Conquest of the Incas. NY: Harcourt Brace, 1970. Print.
Leon, P. The Discovery and Conquest of Peru. Durham: Duke University, 1998. Print.
Prescott, William H. The History of the Conquest of Peru. NY: Dover Publications,
Byzantine Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean that extended from Syria, Egypt up to and across North Africa is seen to have made significant contact with the emerging Islamic world in the period from seventh and ninth Centuries. The seventh century saw the vast territories in these regions being ruled by the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople, the now Istanbul. These Southern provinces or territories were greatly influenced by the Greco-oman traditions and formed the home of Coptic, Orthodox and Syriac Christians and Jewish communities. These regions were critical to the wealth and the power of the empire. Great centers for pilgrimage saw large numbers of faithful visit the place coming from as far off as Yemen towards the East and Scandinavia towards the West. There were also major trade routes that extended all the way to India in the South that saw ferrying of silk and ivories into the region, commerce…
Cunningham & Reich, (n.d.: Pp 162). Byzantium.
Rosenberg K., (2012). Ornate Links Tethering Cultures in Flux. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/16/arts/design/byzantium-and-islam-age-of-transition-at-the-met.html?_r=1& ;
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2012). Byzantium and Islam Age of Transition. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2012/byzantium-and-islam
The origin of the Carthaginian Empire can be traced back to 814 C, North Africa where Carthage was situated towards the east of Lake Tunis where we can locate Tunisia today. Carthage was basically founded by Phoenician settlers which came from Tyre city which is now known as Sur in Lebanon. Queen Dido was credited with being the founder of this city and since the establishment of this empire; there are numerous myths that can be traced back to the association with Romans and Greeks, essentially their literature (owman).
Success of the Carthage Empire
The Carthage city was famous for trade and that proved to be the means of their survival and helped the Carthaginians gain massive amounts of power and spreading the trade routes and networking all along the Mediterranean. In the early 6th century C, Hanno, a famous Carthaginian explorer went on his trip sailing till…
Bagnall, Nigel. The Punic Wars: Rome, Carthage, and the struggle for the mediterranean. Hutchinson Publishers, 2005.
Bowman, David. The Carthaginian Empire. Bluewood Publishing Limited, 2010.
Durham, David Anthony. Pride of the Carthage. Anchor Publishers, 2006.
Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Punic Wars. Cassell Publishers, 2001.
Roman Law Concerning the Jews
Time Period: Circa early 300s AD
Location: Roman Empire, Mediterranean Era, Realm of Constantine
Constantine was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. As a reformer, he enacted a number of laws to restructure the empire and solidify power. He was the first Christian Emperor and moved his residence to Byzantium/Constantinople. His Edict of Milan degreed religious tolerance throughout the Roman Empire, but also a number of laws and rules that specifically affected Jews during the time. cholars now think that the idea of religious tolerance was primarily pointed at tolerance of Christianity by Romans.
The Jews and Rome: Constantine's Christianity resulted in his being the first Roman Empire to severely limit the rights of the Jews in the Empire. As Christianity grew in power in the Empire, more and more civil authorities tried to reduce Jewish privilege. Many scholars believe that the important significance…
Sources Used and Consulted:
Cohen, S. (2009). Legitimization Under Constantine. Frontline. Retrieved from:
Hallo, W., et al. (1984). Civilization and the Jews: Source Reader. Westport, CT:
Christianity has obviously made its make on mankind. However, the early Christians, coming from different religions, cults, and worldviews before the emperor Constantine converted the empire, would have experienced this transitions at varying levels from revolutionary to marginally different. This analysis proposes that a member of the oman society such as the Vestal Virgins saw a dramatic and revolutionary change in their daily lives. However, by contrast, not all members would have perceived the transformation as dramatically. For example, a devotee of the cult of the sun might have found rituals such as Christmas entirely familiar and consistent with previously held beliefs. This analysis proposes that although the introduction of Christianity was a dramatic change for the whole of oman, the differences were not felt by all demographics equally.
Of all the different groups that would have taken a welcoming to the conversion to Christianity in the…
Kahlos, M. (2012). Pagan-Christian Debates Over the Interpretation of Texts in Late Antiquity. The Classical World, 525-545.
Nothaft, C. (2012). The Origins of the Christmas Date: Some Recent Trends in Historical Research. Church History, 903-911.
Parker, H. (2004). Why Were the Vestals Virgins? Or the Chastity of Women and the Safety of the Roman State. American Journal of Philology, 563-601.
Pedroni, L. (2011). The Sun without Rays and the Eclipse of 272. Journal of Late Antiquity, 116-123.
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…
Haaren, J. (2010). Famous Men of Greece. NY: ReadaClassic.
This classic work by Haaren is certainly a scholarly source, as Haaren was a highly respected classics professor and president of the department of pedagogy at Brooklyn Institute. His Famous Men series has been used by educators for decades to inform students about the history of the ancient civilizations. In this book, Haaren describes the lives and times of various important Grecian figures, including Pericles and Socrates. I plan on using this source to provide information on Athens and what it achieved during its height of empire as well as how it achieved it.
Homer. (2004). The Iliad. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Homer's epic poem is a classic of literature that has been respected, admired, taught and read for centuries. It provides insight into the Grecian mind as well as how the Greeks used mythology in their own lives. I plan to use this source in order to support the argument that Athens used culture to maintain its empire -- by building temples to the gods and goddesses, by celebrating art (drama), and by memorializing the heroic deeds of its ancestors.
iblical Worldview: Romans 1-8 Teaching
My analysis of Romans chapter 1-8 will cover the following areas of interest; culture, the natural world, human relationships, and human identity. Paul was inspired to write the book of Romans by the fault line, an obvious crack in the Roman society and culture which Paul adopted in framing his letter to the Romans. My view of the world is that, the sins the Romans committed since the days of Paul have not stopped even today (Ecclesiastes 1:9). I think we can learn an important lesson from Paul's letter to the Romans in that, Rome at that time was suffering severe moral decadence and the society we have today has been ravaged by total moral decay just like Rome. In my opinion, the society generally is not likely to change and that every individual needs some kind of divine intervention and revelation and salvation to…
BibleGateway Romans 1-8"BibleGateway Romans 1-8." Biblegateway.com. Accessed April 14, 2016 from https://www.biblegateway.com/ .
Jackson, Christopher. "Worldview essay on romans chapters 1-8."2014. Accessed April 14, 2016 https://wordofGod1968.wordpress.com/2014/09/13/worldview-essay-on-romans-chapters-1-8/
Piper, John. "The Mighty and Merciful Message of Romans 1-8." 2002. Accessed April 14, 2016 http://www.desiringGod.org/messages/the-mighty-and-merciful-message-of-romans-1-8
Turner, Eddie. "A Christian's worldview from Romans 1-8." 2015. Accessed April 14, 2016 http://www.palestineherald.com/community/a-christian-s-worldview-from-romans/article_1070760e-8426-11e5-994f-2b27b8170b1b.html
Narrative of an Episode From My Travels With Paul
As a traveling companion of Paul, I have seen a number of marvels and the way in which the Christian faith of the Apostle challenges the boundaries between cultures and societies. For example, in Greece, I have seen Paul mix and mingle with Jews, with those baptized by John (and then baptized in the spirit of Christ by Paul),[footnoteRef:1] with Romans, and with every other possible number and variety of inhabitant in the islands. Paul could relate to many because his mission and view were such that he saw himself connected to everyone, even the living and the dead. I mention these latter because even a tombstone of a young girl, depicting her innocence as she holds a dove, could elicit from Paul such reverence and appreciation and praise that you would think he had personally known that girl.[footnoteRef:2] In such…
The Bear Hunt. A Mosaic at Getty Villa.
"Marble Relief with a Young Girl Holding Doves." Getty. Web. 20 Apr 2016.
New Testament. BibleHub. Web. 20 Apr 2016.
Roman Mosaics Across the Empire. Getty. Web. 20 Apr 2016.
Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus
The wall painting of The Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus at the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii (c. 60 BC) is a work of oman art that exemplifies the oman culture in the time just before Christ -- rich, ornate, elaborate, bordering on decadence, yet with still enough refinement to see a nobility and purpose in the spiritual life. Here, in the villa of a wealthy oman's vacation home near Mt. Vesuvius (which would fatally erupt just a century later, burying under ash and avalanche the wealthy in their very lap of luxury) can be seen the Greek influence on the oman culture.
The mural depicts a number of scenes in the ite of the Cult of Bacchus across three walls within a room of the Villa, near which was a wine press, used to make wine from the local…
Dembskey, E. J. (2009). Aqua Appia. The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Retrieved from http://www.romanaqueducts.info/aquasite/romappia/ >
Dionysian Mysteries. (n.d.). Hellenica. Retrieved from http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/LX/DionysianMysteries.html
Jackson, J. (n.d.). Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii. Retrieved from http://www.art-and-
The Aztecs, who referred to themselves as Mexica, were a powerful tribe of people speaking the Nahuatl language. They founded one of the biggest empires in Central America which is believed to have lasted from the 1300s to the 1500s. One of the most renowned cities of the Aztec empire was Tenochtitlan; this city was located in the middle of a lake where the present-day capital of Mexico, Mexico City, now stands (Johnson, 2015).
The Aztec empire was begun in the Valley of Mexico. When the Aztecs came upon the valley, they found that other tribes were already there. These tribes had occupied the best land for agriculture in the region. The Aztecs moved on to the swampy and less attractive lands on the shores of Lake Texcoco. Despite not having much to begin with, the Aztec were not bothered. The Aztecs were not only a very ingenious…
ATWOOD, R. (2014). Under Mexico City. Archaeology, 67(4), 26.
Berdan, F.F. (1988). "Principals of Regional and Long-Distance Trade in the Aztec Empire," in J. Kathryn Josserand and Karen Dakin (Editors), Smoke and Mist: Mesoamerican Studies in Memory of Thelma D. Sullivan, part ii, pp. 639-656, British Archaeological Reports, International Series vol. 42, British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Deal, T.E. And Kennedy, A.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Duran, D. (1967). Historia de Las lndias de Nueva Espana, 2 vols (ed A.M. Garibay K.). Mexico City: Pornia.
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…
Baldwin, Kate A., Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
Bookwalter, John, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1899.
Carew, Joy Gleason, Blacks, Reds, and Russians Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Davis, Raymond and Andrew Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy's First Line of Defense. New York: the Dial Press, 1942.
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…
Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.
Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association
of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.
Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
Second Punic War
The Punic wars, a total of three wars were violent clashes that took place between ome and Carthage and spanned across a timeline of almost a Century starting from 264 BC and ending in 146 BC with the destruction of Carthage. During this time, ome had established itself as the dominant power across the Italian Peninsula while Carthage was a powerful city state that was in Northern Africa had developed itself into a strong maritime power in the world at the time. In the context of this discussion however, the second Punic war will be the area of focus and in particular the causes of the war.
In the years leading to 237 BC, ome had taken over the control of Sardinia and Corsica. However, Carthage managed to establish another base of influence in Spain in 237 BC with the leadership of general Hamilcar Barca and after…
Morey W.C., (1901). Outline of Roman History: The Second Punic War (BC 218-201). Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.forumromanum.org/history/morey15.html
Tufts University, (n.d). Polybius Histories: First Cause of the Second Punic War. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0234%3Abook%3D3%3Achapter%3D9
Some of the issues that made Liu a favorite of many were the fact that he lowered taxes, he reduced the demand for labor from the state and the origin being from the peasants.
Liu appointed rich land owners as governors because of the distrust he had against merchants, he as well appointed officials that were loyal to him ensuring that he controlled all the powers within the dynasty. Liu died in 195 B.C and left a stable Han dynasty. Though there were power struggles within the dynasty after the death of Liu, they were resolved by capable leadership. The rule of Jingdi, Wendi and Wudi were predominantly peaceful, prosperous for peasants, expansion of China, art and trade thrived as well under Confucianism. The expansion saw northern Vietnam, Korean peninsula come under the Han dynasty. Trade routes to Asia were open including the famous Silk oad.
However, the wars of…
Cultural China, (2012). The Collapse of the Han Dynasty. http://history.cultural-china.com/en/183History6001.html
Rit Nosotro, (2010). The Decline of the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw07hanromecollapse33100120.htm
Socyberty, (2009). The Fall of the Roman and Han Empires. http://socyberty.com/history/the-fall-of-the-roman-and-han-empires/
The Rise of the Papacy
The Middle Ages, so called because of their position between the ancient and the modern eras, are often termed medieval or even dark. This period of time is marked by a dearth of non-church art, and by the domination of the Roman Catholic Church over all of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia. This was a far-reaching kingdom that was financed by the kings of subject countries, and was ruled by a variety of men. This was also a time when the people bowed under the weight of the growing Catholic oppression that regarded all religions but their own as sacrilegious and the Catholic Church as sacrosanct. This paper looks at the church's rise to power during and after the demise of the Roman Empire, how that rise affected the people of Europe, and what the apex of that power looked like..
Leuba, Jean-Louis. "Papacy, Protestantism and Ecumenism." The Ecumenical Review 46.4 (1994): 467-475.
Logan, F. Donald. A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London: Routledge, 2002.
Moorhead, John. "Bede on the Papacy." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 60.2 (2009): 217-232.
Power, Amanda. "Franciscan Advice to the Papacy in the Middle Ages." History Compass 5.5 (2007): 1550-1575.
In the later years of Marcus Aurelius' reign he made his son, Commodus, co-emperor. Father and son fought together briefly in an effort to forestall another German invasion in 177. The father-son co-rule was short-lived, however, as Marcus Aurelius died in 180 after ruling for 19 years.
Although Marcus Aurelius was a competent political leader and successful military leader, as well, perhaps his greatest contribution was in area of philosophy. As indicated earlier, Marcus was follower of the Stoics and he wrote a book entitled Meditations in which he set out what it meant to be a Stoic (Bowder). Like his mentor, Epictetus, Marcus professed the importance of two basic principles, Endurance and Abstinence. Further, he stressed that inner freedom is attained through a resignation to providence and a disregard for anything not in one's power.
Most of the content of Meditations was prepared in Marcus Aurelius' last years. The…
Aurelius, Marcus. Meditations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Benario, Herbert W. "Marcus Aurelius." 30 January 2001. De Imperatoribus Romanis. http://www.roman-emperors.org/lindexxx.htm . 3 May 2012.
Bowder, Diana. Who was who in the Roman World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980.
Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Facts on File, 1994.