" The Senate was compelled to name him to such a position based on the power he displayed in ruling the Roman army, the successful completion of his military campaigns, and the overwhelming popularity Caesar enjoyed with the Plebians of Rome. It was not a situation the Senators enjoyed, many believed that Caesar was setting himself up to pass on his power to his son. Soon, a conspiracy was hatched, and twenty two senators stabbed Caesar to death. News of this murder, did not do what it was intended to do. Many of Rome's citizens now clamored for the heads of those senators and Octavius (Caesar's great-nephew) stepped in to take charge of the government and quiet that clamoring. The murder was of such disrepute, that many citizens lost faith in the government, and allowed Octavius the power that Caesar was said to have sought.
From that point until the…… [Read More]
Roman Republic, which took place over a century from the end of the Punic Wars in 146 BC to the establishment of autocracy and military dictatorship under Julius Caesar after 45 BC, and then Octavian-Augustus from 31 BC, one of the most important questions would be: what were the main causes for its failure? There are no simple answers to that, of course, although almost certainly socioeconomic factors were critical. Of course, for ancient civilizations, hard and fast statistics about population, demography, distribution of wealth and incomes and social castes and classes are few and far between. Historians have the written evidence of contemporary observers, almost always written from an elite or aristocratic viewpoint, and even then many of these records have survived the last 2,000 years in only fragmentary form. In the ancient world, the existing evidence indicates that life was indeed nasty, brutal and short for most people,…… [Read More]
In science, medicine and law, Byzantium took the Greco-Roman culture and added some of the Middle Eastern ideas to have one of the most advanced cultures of the time. While a Christian Empire, it was never united under Christianity, even though the state church became known as the Eastern Orthodoxy. Arianism and Judaism were significant minorities, and there were many sects of Christianity that ebbed during the Byzantium period (e.g. Nestorianism, Myaphysite, etc.).
Part 4 - Prior to the 600s (rise of Islam), the Arabian Peninsula was populated by a largely autonomous group of clans/tribes with differing political, social and religious views. The area was governed, albeit loosely, by Persia and Rome at different times and different areas prior to the Islamic unification, and, as today, there were numerous desert dwelling nomadic Bedouin tribes. Prior to the rise of Islam, the peninsula was divided politically, culturally, socially, and economically. The…… [Read More]
2. What were the military, social, and economic events that led to the Gracchan land reforms (discuss one event each of military, social, and economic)? How did the Gracchi attempt to resolve these problems (discuss three)? How effective were they?
When Tiberius Gracchus was elected tribune, the social structures that had nourished the Republic as it developed from an independent city-state were already breaking down. The consolidation of public land under the emerging latifundia system had turned roughly 7% of the population (Last, 1932a, p. 9) into indigents as displaced peasant farmers flooded Rome and other cities, only to find demand for their labor limited at best. Meanwhile, the army was starving for recruits as the traditional citizen military class proved too small to police the vast Roman frontier and quell slave revolts closer to home. Finally, relations with the Italian and even the Latin allies had become increasingly strained.…… [Read More]
The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…… [Read More]
The people under the rule of the Roman constitution were not themselves certain if they were living in an aristocracy, a despot, or a democracy. The rules of the legislature would indicate that the people were in control of the government, however only those with money or familial power were able to take part in that government. Polybius illustrates that the Consul and Senate which are responsible for administration and were in charge of the state's coffers. However, at the same time, he tries to underscore the importance of the average person in Rome. He shows several ways in which the people have power, such as in honoring heroic acts and punishing evil ones. He also claims that the people are responsible for war and peace because the other branches would need the consent of the people in order to act. In his writing, Polybius seems adamant that…… [Read More]
After this, there could have been very little perceived threat left; not only were the Carthaginian's surrendering rather peacefully, but they were even giving up their means of waging war effectively. The giving up of weapons in an age when manufacture and shipping -- the two methods by which any commodity, military or otherwise, can be obtained -- took an extended period of time meant that the Carthaginians were showing themselves to desire peace not only in the short-term, but as a general social principle.
Their submission to the Romans, then, should have been the end of the war. If the reason behind Rome's military invasion of the Carthaginian territory was the possible threat the area presented to Rome, then its disarmament would have solved that problem. The Romans refused to let the issue go, however, demanding that the entire city of Carthage be destroyed right to the ground.
It…… [Read More]
Their plays were similar to the Greeks and many of them were just translated versions. Theatre was an instrument used by the administration to keep the public from devoting much time to the political affairs. Thus any mentioning on stage regarding the political situation or activities would have serious consequences for the author for writing it and the actor for agreeing to perform it. In addition it also served as a purpose to get away from everyday life and worries. It was a part of their life and civilization. As time passed by the theatre evolved but women were not allowed to take part in it for a very long time. With the establishment of churches and the influence of popes, women faced yet another problem in getting accepted as being part of the society. oman theatre was a major influence on the later European theatre and they learnt much…… [Read More]
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…… [Read More]
Also, that the people as the public body, having elected their representation according to the laws of Rome, failed to compel the Republic to adhere to the laws, and thus, met with its demise. As Nifong discussed, the first tenet of the principle of natural law is the premise that promises made will be kept.
Heitland identified the indicators of the fallen republic by these marks:
The rise and predominance of Antony
The return and progress of Octavian
The relations between Antony, Octavian and Cicero
The collapse of Cicero's policy, and the formation of the Triumvirate and the doings of the Triumvirs
Given Heitland's depictions of the indicators of the fall of the Republic, and for the sake of argument ruling out other factors, what was the mood of the people that they allowed their republic to slip away from them? if, as Nifong's discussion on natural law suggests, the…… [Read More]
Bust of Antinous
The piece of Roman art being discussed is the bust of Antinous Mondragone, which is now in the Louvre in Paris, and it came from the Mondragone villa, located in Frascati, Italy. The artist is unknown, but it is thought to have been sculpted around 130 AD. This beautiful sculpture represents much of Roman art at the time, and it represents a larger cultural context, as well.
The arts were becoming popular during this time in the Roman Republic, and sculpture was becoming increasingly popular after the Romans captured Syracuse during the Second Punic Wars and brought back much of the island's sculpture to display in Rome. Roman sculpture often copied classic Greek statutes, because the artists and people admired Greek art. The sculptures were often of Roman rulers, indicating how important they were to the culture, and how they were held up by the people as…… [Read More]
Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus
The wall painting of The Initiation ites of the Cult of Bacchus at the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii (c. 60 BC) is a work of oman art that exemplifies the oman culture in the time just before Christ -- rich, ornate, elaborate, bordering on decadence, yet with still enough refinement to see a nobility and purpose in the spiritual life. Here, in the villa of a wealthy oman's vacation home near Mt. Vesuvius (which would fatally erupt just a century later, burying under ash and avalanche the wealthy in their very lap of luxury) can be seen the Greek influence on the oman culture.
The mural depicts a number of scenes in the ite of the Cult of Bacchus across three walls within a room of the Villa, near which was a wine press, used to make wine from the local…… [Read More]
Republic of China in Taiwan and People's Republic of China, have been engaged in an age-old conflict since the Xinhai Revolution. The two sides have since been divided on ideological grounds fueled by foreign elements. After defeating Taiwan in the war of liberation, China has maintained dominance over Taiwan till date.[footnoteRef:1] [1: Hutchings, Graham. Modern China: A Guide to a Century of Change. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.]
The Taiwan crisis has become an ongoing issue. At present, there is rising tension between the two sides amid growing talks of Taiwan's independence. The hypothesis of the escalating situation in the order of most likely are 1) diplomatic solution, 2) limited intervention, or 3) direct attack.
Section II -- Most Likely to Occur: Diplomatic Solution
There is indication based on evidence that the Peoples' Repubilic of China and Taiwan will resolve the crisis by direct or multi-lateral negotiations. Hu Jintao, though…… [Read More]
ome, whose beginning can be traced in 753 B.C., is the capital city of Italy. Initially, kings ruled the city; however, the last king, Tarquin the Proud, was overthrown. ome, then, became a republic for the next four hundred years. During this time, the republic was ruled by a Senate. The people to do different jobs in the senate were called Senators (Buckleitner, 58). However, not everyone was allowed to vote in these elections: women, slaves, and poor people were not allowed to vote. Those oman people who were not slaves were called 'citizens'.
In 55 B.C. The oman general Julius Caesar conquered France (At the time the country was called Gaul, and the omans called it Gallia). The Gauls fought hard against the omans and had been helped by Britain. Caesar was disappointed by their assistance and attempted to invade Britain, first in 55 B.C. And then…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
Chile, officially known as epublic of Chile, is a South American country with Peru, Bolivia Argentina as its neighboring countries. The Pacific Ocean borders it on the west and south. Santiago is both its capital and the largest city. The country is primarily urban as 1/3 of the total population inhabits the areas in and around Santiago and Vina Del Mar. Almost ninety percent of the Chileans are oman Catholics whereas Spanish is the official language of the country ("Chile," 2012). This country in South America has a landscape filled with "dry deserts, snow-capped mountains, sandy beaches, and thick temperate rain forests" (au, 2007).
The climate in the country is as varied as its natural features. Aside from the apparently intense climatic conditions in some parts, the country enjoys a comfy and moderate climate ("Chile").
The southern part of the Chilean region was controlled by the Araucanians long before…… [Read More]
" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.
III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME
The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.
IV. RULE…… [Read More]
After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…… [Read More]
The text deals at length and often with a great variety of matters which bear on the human condition, but there are matters which would certainly have no place in a modern treatise on politics"
Therefore, it is rather hard to determine the extent to which Plato used this means of communication, the dialogues, to point out to the actual necessities of the society he lived in and the aspects that needed changes. In particular, the arguments he provides from the realities of the time are provided by Plato to merely support his own line of thought related to the philosophical ideas on happiness and justice.
An aspect that firmly relates to the way in which the "Republic" is constructed and that uses the arguments on the ideal state is related to the role the state may have in providing its citizens (here, the term "citizen" must be understood as…… [Read More]
erlin: Symphony of a Metropolis
The Weimar Republic represented a period of tumultuous upheaval for Germany politically and economically, but culturally as well. Following World War I, the public was only beginning to come to terms with the emerging pathologies and conflicts of Modernity and industrialization, and avant-garde art offered a means of approaching these issues apart from, but not outside, both the prevailing political rhetoric of the past as well as the discourse provided by a new generation of political actors and agitators. Walter Ruttman's 1927 film erlin: Symphony of a Metropolis (erlin: Die Sinfonie der Grosstadt in German) is one such piece of avant-garde art, because it attempts to show, over the course of a day, the life of a contemporary city as it blends, sometimes forcefully, the new and old worlds of the early-twentieth century. Examining Ruttman's film in detail will offer important insights into Wiemar-era cultural…… [Read More]
Lastly, a loss of Ajaristan (Ajaria) would weaken Georgias buffer with Turkey and increase loss of lack Sea shoreline:
In the conflict between the Ossetians and Ingush, the Russian government favored the "always loyal Ossetians" over the discontented Muslim Ingush. The conflicts with the Georgians in the south and the Ingush in the west have fueled the growth of Ossetian nationalism, but the majority hope for autonomy, not full independence, fearing the loss of Russian protection in the volatile region they have inhabited since ancient times. The Ossetians, although needing Russian protection in the mostly Muslim region, continue to work for the unification of their small nation in a single political entity. In 1996, the governments of North and South Ossetia signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation. Relations between the South Ossetians and the Georgian government improved in the late 1990s. The Georgian government of Eduard Shevardnadze proposed in…… [Read More]
The Corporation must have cross-boarder transactions. Which of the following would be classified as Cross-Boarder?
(a) a merger wherein at least two companies are governed by the laws of different member states
(b) the conversion into an SE of an existing company that for at least ONE year has had at least one subsidiary in another member state
(c) the formation of a parent company where each of at least two of the companies is governed by the laws of different member states.
(37) What is the minimum share capital required to convert to an SE?
(a) 120,000 Euros
(b) 200,000 Euros
(c) 300,000 Euros
(d) There is no capital requirement to convert to an SE
(38) the process of registration includes the following EXCEPT:
(a) Bank Accounts must be established after notarization of the Articles of Association
(b) Cash Contributions must be paid AFTER corporate registration
(c) Directors must…… [Read More]
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]
Indigenous populations in epublican ome (ca. 500 BCE -- 31 BCE)
Citizenship in colonial era
IV Comparison and Contrast
The issues citizenship of indigenous populations in the oman epublic and during the colonial era in Europe provides comprehensive information regarding how the indigenous populations were treated by Europeans. The right to get justice and to self-determine their politico-social life is the main issues that political philosophy is confronted with (Kabeer, 2002). The internationalization and globalization phenomenon has increased the debate on the issue as the indigenous population demands the rights that only citizenship status grants to individuals. espect and rights are demanded by the indigenous populations and these are accompanied with obligations as well, that being argued by the nation states and expansionist regimes. Citizenship has been regarded as a humane word with plethora of rights and obligation associated to it. The oman epublic is considered as a spearhead of…… [Read More]
Robert L. O'Connell. The Ghosts of Cannae: Hannibal and the Darkest Hour of the Roman Republic (Random House, 2010).
Robert O'Connell's The Ghosts of Cannae is a narrative history for a general audience, based on ancient sources like the historians Polybius and Livy. It describes the invasion of Italy by the Carthaginian armies of Hannibal during the Second Punic War and the battle of Cannae on August 2, 216 C in which the Roman armies were surrounded and annihilated. One of the bloodiest battles in history, nearly 50,000 Romans died that day and 20,000 were captured and sold into slavery, compared to Hannibal's losses of 6-8,000.[footnoteRef:1] Although the Romans were temporarily demoralized by this immense defeat, they rebounded and eventually pushed Hannibal out of Italy by using a guerilla warfare strategy under Fabius Maximus. In the end, Hannibal went down in history as the type of commander who "won…… [Read More]
Mahiavelli's Understanding of the Populae in the Prine and the Disourses
The fous of this study is Mahiavelli's Understanding of the Populae in the Prine and the Disourses. This study will answer the question of what makes the populae of his ontemporary era different from that of other plaes and times. Seondly this work will ompare the populae of Mahiavelli's ontemporary era with past soieties and republis.
Mahiavelli's Understanding of the Populae in the Prine and The Disourses
Mahiavelli stated in 'The Prine' in Chapter Three that when dealing with the publi or the populae that it is better to either aress or to rush them beause if only minor damage is done to them they will seek out revenge however, aording to Mahiavelli "if you ripple them there is nothing they an do." (p.9-10) It was the belief of Mahiavelli that are two diretions whih a Prine may take…… [Read More]
" Pericles said that Athenians did not have to be forced to chose the lot of the soldier, they loved the land that gave them the freedom to chose to live the way they wanted, rather than to fulfill a predetermined ideal and thus, when necessary: "They resigned to hope their unknown chance of happiness; but in the face of death they resolved to rely upon themselves alone." In a democracy, the citizen's sense of self-reliance is its life-blood. Values are created and chosen by consensus and the consent of the governed, not by a single, 'philosophical' intelligence and thus the values are more enthusiastically believed, and because they exercise choice from birth, people more able to undertake creative intellectual change, as they did in ancient Athens. The limits of Yahoo society, although it seems to be more socially stable than most democracies, is that people will not believe in…… [Read More]
Harris (1979) noted that the work of Polybius on oman Imperialism can be viewed to be a much more closer/realistic account of the process that any other 20th century historians. Polybius was therefore very honest and at the same time reliable with his work on oman history (Davidson, 1991, p.10).
Polybius' contribution to the establishment of the U.S. constitution
The contribution of Polybius to the establishment of the U.S. constitution is well documented. His work on the separation of powers is indicated to have immensely influenced the U.S. Founding Fathers (Lloyd,1998). His work can therefore be regarded as one aspect of classical contributions to the U.S. constitution (Bederman,2008).The concept of separation of powers concerns the need for having separate and very distinct legislative, executive as well as judicial branches of a given government. This is one of the central features of the U.S. Constitution. Through this process of separation of…… [Read More]
Sumptuary Laws in the Roman Empire
The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire were both grandiose and both are a major part of the history of the world. However, they were quite different in many significant ways but they were also similar in some ways as it relates to social structure, the way people dressed and how society proceeded and developed. The major difference between the two was that the Senate and people had a lot of power in the Republic while the Emperor reigned supreme in the Roman Empire. However, the differences are a lot deeper than that in some ways. hile some people conflate the Roman Empire and Roman Republic, there is a lot more than meets the eye when it comes to Roman History.
The main differences between the Roman Empire and the Roman Republic are fairly easy to list. hen it came to the Roman…… [Read More]
This is clear enough from the play in which the man said, "Let them hate provided that they fear." He found to his cost that such a policy was his ruin.
When Antony and Octavian later reconciled, forming the Triumvirate with Lepidus, the young Caesar made no real effort to save Cicero when Antony immediately proscribed him. He had been informed, privately, of Cicero's quip to friends that the young man "must get praises, honors and push." In December, 43, almost two years to the day from his dinner with Caesar, Cicero was caught by Antony's soldiers in a halfhearted escape attempt. His brother Quintus and nephew had already been murdered. Cicero died bravely. His head and hands, cut off, were brought back and nailed to the ostra from which he had so often moved the crowd. Fulvia, Antony's remarkable wife, drove pins through the golden tongue which had so…… [Read More]
Estruscans refers to a sophisticated and seafaring persons from Asia Minor who appeared in Italy about 800 BC settling in Etruia, North of Latium. This group soon gained control of the Latins thus the introduction of the Greek cultur to the more primitive Romans. The influence was vital in the domination of the Roman interaction and way of life for two critical centuries. The group was also great at business transactions thus the opportunity to utilize its interactions while trading with other entities or culture in the form of maritime system. They also contributed towards the development of sewer systems, construction of the temples, and paved streets hence realization of the rapid development of the society. Estruscan were vital in teaching the Romans how to work in pottery, metal, and leather industry. They also participated in the development of crafted weapons, and furniture as well as implementation of the alphabet…… [Read More]
Ancient Rome and the Events of the Late Republic (end of the Republic), you will create a timeline of major events that led to the end of the Republic. Your timeline should have at least 7 events.
200 CE: The rise of populist or democratic sentiments and political philosophy. Rome was not a democracy, although it was a Republic. By the 2nd century CE, populist tribunes started to make waves on the Roman political scene. These populist tribunes were mirrored by the uprisings by local governments and communities in Roman-acquired territories throughout the vast empire. With such a vast empire, and such a relatively weak method of centralized governance, it became increasingly impossible to achieve harmony and authoritative rule. It was not as if Rome usurped idyllic ways of life, so much as populist leaders did recognize the need to start "reclaiming public land and putting landless poor citizens back…… [Read More]
In 46 B.C., once again Sallust was given an opportunity to shine or fail, as he was made a practor and sailed to Circina where he proved himself by stealing the enemies' stores. In return, Caesar rewarded Sallust with the title of proconsular governor of all of the province of Numidia and Africa. Others with a much stronger background were expecting this position, but it may have just been that Sallust showed a greater skill at organization. Sallust, however, takes advantage of this situation and when returning to ome was cited for extortion. [footnoteef:16] Caesar quickly acquitted Sallust, but that was the end of his political career. It appears that Caesar may have made a deal with Sallust that if he quietly disappears, he would not be tried. [16: Ibid.]
At this point in Sallust's life, he says he made the decision to give up his political career. Or,…… [Read More]
In Bellum Iugurthinum he claimed that the state will gain more advantage from his otium than from the negotium of contemporary politicians
SALLUST'S HISTOICAL WOKS
Sallust wrote several historical works, but the two monographs that remain intact are the Bellum Catilinae and the Bellum Jugurthinum. There are also four speeches and two letters as well as approximately 500 parts of his Historiae that was published in five books. It is believed by historians that "Sallust's merits as an artist have obscured, or made his readers willing to forget, his faults. As a historical authority he is at best second rank…Yet Sallust's value to us is considerable, mainly because his writings contain an interpretation of oman history during the late epublic often differing from that in our other sources and opposed to optimate tradition."
Even his speeches are valuable historically, adds Laistner,
for they are full of ethos and convey Sallust's…… [Read More]
(Polybius 6.42). He contrasted this with the Greeks, who placed their camps according to the advantages and disadvantages conferred by the terrain. (Polybius 6.42). In this way, the Roman soldiers could rely on military protocol and camp life being the same even no matter where they were and who was commanding.
Another outcome of Rome's system of military organization was the remarkable discipline of the Roman army. Only property-owners were allowed to serve in the Roman military, which meant that all Roman soldiers had extra incentive to obey commands, to never retreat and to never desert, for fear of squandering their property and reputation back home.
Roman military units were designed in a Gestalt style which reduced the effect of externalities such as inadequate troop strength, partial routs, or bad commanders. Polybius described the virtues of the Roman Maniple:
"The order of a Roman force in battle makes it very…… [Read More]
Lex on Praetorian Provinces
The oman administrative system changed after C. Gracchus' reform in the year 122 B.C.; this followed the introduction of a provincial reptundarum (Brennan, 2000). There was an annexation of new territorial provinces which lead to permanent developments in the city of ome. Cilicia was annexed as a oman provincie, which deemed it a self-contained administrative unit; this was seen in a special command during the late second century. M. Antonius, who was a praetor of 102, received a commission which was against the region's maritime pirates (Gargola, 1995). Antonius had crossed Pamphylia through a transit from Greece to Cilicia. With good weather, he had a legatus pro-praetor to bring the fleets behind him. This is important to know about when looking into the praetorian commander who first delegates imperium. The Cilician waters were then cleared of all pirates, this triumph was earned later in 100 (Gargola,…… [Read More]
If someone living 2,000 years from now wanted to know what took place in the year 2005, it would be necessary to go through impossible amounts of information. Today, scores of individuals with varying agendas write about day-to-day events. Thousands of publications and electronic media maintain records. Before the Common Era the situation was naturally much different. Because so few accounts exist of this time period, anthropologists and historians have to make educated guesses to fill in the blanks. This same problem exists with early ome and Italy. No account written earlier than the late 3rd century exists and no continuous account recorded before the age of Augustus now survives. Thus, most of the information concerning the Etruscan traditions either comes from individuals such as the oman historian Livy, the Greeks, and archaeological finds.
Born in Northern Italy in 59 BC, Livy wrote a 142-book history of ome called…… [Read More]
Even so, both parts of the Empire retained their oman identity while incorporating local cultural influences.
The oman era legacy was the single most important factor in the development of a distinctive Western European culture. Latin language (from which most European languages such as French, Spanish and Catalan evolved) and oman law are perhaps the greatest legacy of the omans to the Western Civilization. After the decline of the Western oman Empire, however, there was a gradual revival of the Celtic culture and a corresponding decline of oman culture in Europe during the Middle Ages. During the enaissance, interest in the Greco-oman civilization was revived and the ancient civilization's highly developed art, literature, philosophy and language left a lasting influence-in fact, helped shape the Modern Western Civilization. (Mellor, 2006)
Mellor, onald J. (2006). "oman Empire." Article in Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. etrieved on September 14, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741502785_10/oman_Empire.html…… [Read More]
Reconciliation of the Liberties
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosopher in the eighteenth century who wrote about topics as varied as religion and politics. He famously worked on a treatise with respect to government that attempted to explain what government should be. His thoughts, called "On the Social Contract," were an attempt to reconcile the liberties of the ancients and the moderns (as they were called being, as yet, modern to Rousseau). His belief was that actual government should be as close to true human nature as is possible. This nature, he said, was such that it wanted no government, but that it needed to be a part of a collective to receive both protection and goods. He related that there were ancient societies which tried to do this, and that the liberty of the moderns was much the same because people did not change. The general nature of man had…… [Read More]
..and it is unlikely that the military will attempt to take over the executive branch by a coup." (2007) the media is not informing the citizens of what is occurring in many cases and a recent attempt to make a citizens arrest by over 8,000 individuals in Washington of President ush relating to war crimes resulted in many of those individuals being tasered and arrested.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The future of the United States, according to what is known of the history of Rome, the predecessor upon which the U.S. originally based the form of its democratic government, appears to be bleak indeed. However, there is hope that the next presidential election will progress in a democratic manner and that the newly elected president will have the stamina and integrity required to see the United States return to the democracy upon which it was based and with the least pain…… [Read More]
familiar with the adjective "machiavellian," very few are actually knowledgeable about the political philosophy of Niccolo Machiavelli. However, Machiavelli does in fact have a great deal to teach us and we should be careful not to dismiss Machiavelli's thoughtfulness and acuity as an observer of human society by relegating his contributions to a single, uncomplimentary adjective. Especially in his Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius (much more so than in the more famous The Prince), we see in this writer of the Italian enaissance a man who was truly engaged in the intellectual work required to create a system of government that was based on ideals and yet that also acknowledged the realities of human society as he understood them from his particular historical perspective. This paper examines the particular suggestions that Machiavelli outlined in Discourses for a well governed republic.
We may begin our analysis of…… [Read More]
In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:
dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)
As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…… [Read More]
Carthage and Rome
Comparing Carthage and Rome
One of the greatest wars Rome ever fought was against Carthage -- and it was actually a war that happened three times. Called the Punic Wars (Punic another name for Phoenician -- the nationality of the men who founded Carthage), the contests revealed much about both nations, and created heroes and legends for all antiquity to marvel over. This paper will compare and contrast the two civilizations of Rome and Carthage from the standpoint of "persons within the community," showing just how such persons helped both powers came to be and how they went on to fare when they both began to war with one another.
Started near Tunis at around the end of the ninth century BC, Carthage took over the rule of "leader" amongst the colonies of Phoenicia nearly three hundred years later when in the sixth century BC Tyre…… [Read More]
For example, in the United States, the Civil War occurred less than 150 years ago, and yet different historians provide conflicting perspectives about the causes of the war, why it was lost, and the consequences of the war for America's history. Moreover, it was only after the Civil War and the end of slavery that one began to see widespread, reliable publication about various slave rebellions that had occurred in the antebellum South. This is interesting, because it makes one wonder if that information would be available or suppressed had the war ended differently. Moreover, the vast majority of Americans are unaware that some northern states were slaveholding states. Furthermore, when one looks at the number of Holocaust deniers, despite the overwhelming physical evidence and documentation regarding the Holocaust, one can see how intentional misrepresentation can play a role in history; there are entire countries that believe it is a…… [Read More]
Julius Caesar: Disruption and Justice
The central dilemma of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is the question of the value of republican virtues versus the value of stability. At the beginning of the play, Brutus and Cassius debate the risks of assassinating Caesar, versus Caesar being allowed to become a tyrant. Although Shakespeare’s literary version of Caesar clearly is not a bad man, the crowds who would allow Caesar to become king are all too willing to sacrifice democratic ideals for despotism, and Caesar seems unwilling to stop them. But after Caesar is killed, the government which emerges in his wake is even more tyrannical. The play is ambiguous. Caesar’s not-so-hidden desire to become a king results in the destruction of the republic, but the unlawful means used to stop it do not achieve their desired results. In fact, the unlawful attempt to stop Caesar’s illegitimate attempt at seizing power simply…… [Read More]
film Spartacus, its historical background, the significance of the movie being made and shown in 1960's America, the real-life events occurring in the U.S. In the 1960's, the historical significance of the slave revolt of Spartacus, how gladiators and slavery in Rome relate to the movie, and background information about Rome at the time of Spartacus, including the slave revolt, and the rise of Roman generals to positions of power.
Spartacus was a slave, who is famous for having led a revolt 'the slave revolt' against the Roman Republic, from 73 D to 71 C. Spartacus was born in Thrace, a region northeast of Greece, and was a member of a group of nomadic herders and later served in the Roman Army (Sinnigen, 2003). Spartacus deserted the army, but was captured and enslaved, following which, the Romans trained him as a gladiator to fight other gladiators and wild beasts in…… [Read More]
Indeed, they are both supporter of Communism and here we are already talking about the mature period of Communist in its fight against the Imperialists (certainly, these are the same imperialists that would have paid Rivera for painting Rockefeller Centre) and the meeting between the couple and Trotsky is defining for the late phase of their relationship.
Artistic practices and values
Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath and Frida and Diego are extremely relevant for this category. First of all, Frida and Diego are members of the artistic community of Mexico and not only (and we are referring here to their presence in France during a time of artistic effervescence, as well as to their trip in the United States), this is the community that influences them and from where they draw their identity as artists. Additionally, it is their art that pulls them together each time the fall apart on…… [Read More]
Similarities and Contrasts
Marcus Tullius Cicero had been born on January 3, 106 B.C.E; and he demised on December 7, 43 B.C.E. in a murder. His life overlapped with the downfall and eventually decimation of the Roman realm, during which time he has been a significant factor in political affairs, and as such, his writings are a valued source of information and knowledge regarding those events. He was a philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, among other things. To grasp the logic of his work and to appreciate his philosophy necessitates us to have that in mind. Philosophical study was important but it was even more significant as a way to a more effectual action politically, so he put politics higher than philosophical study. During times when he was inhibited to take part in politics against his will, he made his philosophical writings. St. Augustine's submission that Hortensius (an…… [Read More]
Primary Source Critique
Tacitus: "Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola"
Unlike our own period of time, the ancient Romans experienced very little angst about the prospect of colonizing a geographically and ethnically distinct people for the enrichment of their own country. As is evident in Tacitus' "Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola," the British resistance to Roman colonization is viewed as evidence of the British people's barbarity, not praiseworthy British fortitude against foreign domination. However, the Roman Tacitus also used the example of Britain not simply to praise his father-in-law Cnaeus Julius Agricola, but also to praise what he considered the true Roman values of freedom, austerity and military valor, in contrast to licentiousness and laziness, which he felt, was characteristic of contemporary Roman morality. This primary source text thus is less a fair portrayal of Britain of the era as it is an introduction to what Romans of Tacitus' class considered…… [Read More]
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…… [Read More]
The problem is that if this trend continues it will have serious consequences for the society as a whole.
Many other great historical cultures have deteriorated and fallen as a result of a decline of social values and standards. We need only refer to the great Roman Empire for clear evidence of the link between a reduction of morals and standards and the demise of the culture. Historians refer to the view that the fall of the Roman Empire can be directly linked to a decline in moral and societal norms and that the culture was destroyed not only by the outside invaders but by internal decay and moral decline. As one expert writes,
The primary reason for Rome's fall was moral decline. Every Roman writer who chronicled the fall of the republic -- Appian, Tacitus, Cassius Dio, Sallust, Cicero, and others -- marveled at the evaporation of ancient virtue…… [Read More]
Articles of Confederation: The Articles of Confederation were approved in November, 1777 and were the basic format for what would become the Constitution and Bill of ights for the United States. There were, of course, deficiencies in the document, this was a new experiment and getting the delegates to agree in kind to pass any sort of document was challenging at best. The Articles did allow a semblance of unity, the further impetus to remain at war with the British, and the conclusion that there would be some sort of Federal government. The Articles, however, failed to require individual States to help fund the Federal (National) government, a template for an Executive and National Judicial Branch, or the issuance of paper money and a central banking system. In essence, the largest failure was the Articles' inability to allow a Federal government to regulate commerce, tax, or impose laws upon the…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…… [Read More]
Those who went took with them knowledge of Mesopotamian customs, ideas, and skills, but many chose to remain, having put down firm roots during the decades of exile (LeMiere 19). Mesopotamia itself became even more cosmopolitan than before, since not only did the Persian court at times visit and contribute to local administration, but also foreign levies and mercenaries did tours of military service there. Anti-Persian feeling in conquered lands led to scurrilous rumors, such as the tale that Xerxes destroyed the statue of Marduk-Bel in Babylon (LeMiere 20).
This story has proved to be a fabrication: the cult statue continued unscathed to embody the presence of the god in his undamaged temple in Babylon during subsequent centuries, and so Herodotos' description of the golden statue of Marduk-Bel in the time of Artaxerxes I (464-424 BC) need not be doubted. Continuity of cult and architecture are thoroughly attested by the…… [Read More]
United States Constitution concentrates on. It will address how it treated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the complaints in the Declaration of Independence.
How the Constitution Deals with Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
One key factor that has helped keep the constitution of the United States alive is the processes involved in its amendment. These processes require 2/3 majority votes from the two houses of Congress or by every state legislature. The Articles of Confederation could not be changed easily because a unanimous vote required from each of the states. As the number of the sates in the United States increased from 13 to 50, it would have been almost impossible to change the articles. No judicial system was provided for the United States by the Articles of Confederation.
In the same way, Congress lacked the legal power to enforce any laws (Morelock, n.d). Each of…… [Read More]
Interestingly, Venus is a goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, which is significant, since she was literally created from the male genitalia, and males were more strongly linked to sexuality than females, even at that point in oman history. In the rest of oman and Greek mythology, Venus/Aphrodite generally plays a benevolent role, though she does use influence women to use their sexuality in inappropriate ways, such as the willful seduction of one's own father.
Botticelli's painting captures all of the prettier elements of the birth of Venus without referencing the uglier parts of the myth. There are no castrated gods or vengeful sons in the painting, merely a beautiful, naked woman emerging from the sea, standing grown in a sea shell. The sea shell symbolized the vulva in art of that time period. Moreover, Venus was a frequent non-religious subject of paintings, because it was considered acceptable to depict…… [Read More]
Shapers and Definers
Characteristic of Modernity
It is true that renaissance was not based in sudden rediscovery of classical civilization but it was a continuation of the use of classical models to test the authority underlying conventional taste and wisdom (Garner, 1990). According to Davies, identity does not stop at a national frontier and that Europe has seen radical changes in tribal boundaries until recently of national homelands. If a peasant of the Middle Ages had been asked where he lived he would probably have replied Christendom. Equally he shows how ubiquitous nationalist inspired historical reconstruction has distorted historical reality.
In addition, in the book, a kingdom of England did exist in 1265, on the ruins of the Plantagenet Empire; but it still had stronger connections with the Continent, in Gascony and Aquitaine, than with Wales or Ireland. Its French speaking Anglo-Norman aristocracy did not yet share a common culture…… [Read More]
The size of the army reached nearly 200,000 (Everitt 2007). Augustus also instituted programs to provide additional payments to both retired and active Roman soldiers for their duties.
idespread efforts were made by Augustus to reduce unnecessary excess by government while increasing spending on beneficial programs that presented utility rather than the perception of power (Everitt 2007). Consistent with these efforts, Augustus melted down dozens of silver and gold statues constructed in his likeness to emphasis the importance of modesty and the dangers of excess (Everitt 2007).
Augustus' institution of regulated taxation provided dramatically increased revenue for Rome and allowed for the increased expenses of social reform (Everitt 2007; Suetonius, Graves, and Grant 2002). Similarly, private taxation was abolished and increased the taxation purview of the Roman governance (Everitt 2007). Augustus prudently utilized the nascent taxation reform to provide funding for the maintenance of extensive road networks throughout Italy, among…… [Read More]
For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).
The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much omanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that…… [Read More]