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One could be important in Roman society either by doing something great, or simply by being born into high status. In other words, Romans valued both accomplishment and privilege. hich of these two do you think was more prominent in Roman society? Argue for one over against the other. Your argument must incorporate an analysis of two things: a specific historical event or institution, and the point-of-view of a Roman writer.
Polybius, was a Greek military commander in Roman service who spent many years on campaign with the Roman Republican armies in the second century B.C.E. The core values are the descendant of Greek views on virtue and the Greek value of competitive individual excellence. In Polybius' opinion, this excellence was exhibited repeatedly and most excellently in the Roman military organization.
His emphasis upon the importance of the Roman Army and individual achievement there frames his entire concept of…… [Read More]
Rome vs. Christianity
In order to understand the importance of Jesus' claim as the King of the Jews, it is important to understand Judaism at the time of the New Testament. This can be done by looking at the New Testament, but also by looking at contemporaneous historical documents. However, it is important to realize that, from a theological standpoint, Christian theology is separate from its counterparts in the Roman Empire, deriving solely from Jewish tradition, specifically the Old Testament.
If one is going to state that the Bible is a historical document, then one must examine it like a historical document. What make the Bible unique is that, unlike many other origination mythical stories, the Bible has an identifiable foundation in history. While not all of the events in the Bible can be verified through outside historical sources, many events in the Bible can be verified by looking at…… [Read More]
G32: [Marcus Pe]tacius Dasius, freedman of Marcus. [To Marcus Pe]tacius Severus, son of Marcus, of the Menenian tribe, his son; to Petacia Vitalis, freedwoman of Marcus, freedwoman.
Article G32 in Pompeii is an epitaph from a tomb. As Cooley and Cooley (2004) point out, "inscriptions carved in stone on public and private monuments were intended to perpetuate the memory of the individuals concerned," (p. 1). Tomb carvings like this one can be used to "provide a vivid picture of life in an ordinary town" in ancient Rome (Cooley and Cooley, 2004, p. 2). Although some parts of the original inscription were missing, indicated by Cooley and Cooley (2004) with brackets in Pompeii, the reader understands fully the context and multiple meanings of the epitaph. The most notable feature of the inscription is the fact that it refers to a freedman, a freedwoman, and their child.
The epitaph therefore raises…… [Read More]
Another sign of his forward looking and industrious nature was the city wall which he began. This attitude also extended to political affairs. He was responsible, for example, for increasing the number of senators to three-hundred and for increasing the number of knights.
His death as ascribed to treachery by the sons of Ancus Marcius.
6. Servius Tullius
The legend goes that the sixth king of Rome, Servius Tullius, …had been marked out for a great future by a miraculous fire which played round his infant head as he slept in the palace.
He became prominent in society and married one of the daughters of Tarquinas.
When he became ruler of Rome he completed the establishment of the city walls and was responsible for initiating many permanent institutions. The wall that he built, extended for about three-quarters of a mile from the Colline gate, and the townwall which enclosed the…… [Read More]
"The price of grain climbed so much that a measure that cost two coins in a.D. 200 cost 330 coins just a century later. (...) the resulting fear and unrest further rocked life in the empire."(pg.166) the plague coming from China on the trade road diminished the already low number of Romans. (id.), and the transmutation of the capital of the empire to Constantinople was a sign of the weakness of the Roman world.
Another matter that contributed to the transformation and the decline of the Roman world was religion. At first Christians were persecuted, starting with Nero who set the precedent for their execution. (pg.177) "The relatively small number of Christians grew consistently thought the first centuries after the death of Jesus (...). The small but growing number would periodically come in conflict with the power of Rome."(pg.177). "Early Christians seemed to violate the traditional Roman social order by…… [Read More]
D.) military conscription could be avoided with the payment of a commutable tax, since the Eastern Han Dynasty preferred the usage of a volunteer army. The volunteer army was known as the Southern Army, and burgeoned its ranks in times of war to assist the activity of the Northern Army, which was the immobile set of soldiers deployed near the dynasty's capital. The Northern army was made up of five regiments of thousands of soldiers each, although in times of martial activity the Northern army was stratified into divisions which were then divided into regiments which colonels and majors would lead. Each regiment was split into companies headed by captains, which were comprised of platoons, the smallest cadre of troops.
The difference between the military strategy and the army's perception by the people of both the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty is fairly stark. The Roman Empire employed troops…… [Read More]
Iulus, on the other hand, represents continuity. The continuity of the Trojan race, the continuity of his father's bloodline, and the continuity of the mission to establish the Roman race in Italy.
Amulius and Numitor
The brothers Numitor and Amulius, descendants of Aeneas and Iulus, continue the establishment of the Roman race. Numitor, the King of Alba Longa, is overthrown by his brother Amulius overthrew him and took the throne. The story revisits the Aenean theme of familial piety. Amulius violates the code of piety by throwing out his brother and King Numitor. However, familial piety is restored when Numitor's grandsons Romulus and Remus reinstating their grandfather Numitor as king of Alba Longa after killing the offender Amulius.
The story of Numitor and Amulius is also marked by the themes of integration and disintegration. Amulius represents the theme of disintegration . First, he partitioned the brothers' inheritance into two parts,…… [Read More]
However strong the imperial leadership in ome, it became increasingly difficult to maintain the peace.
2. The fall of ome cannot be traced to a singular cause. As the empire's boundaries expanded from Great Britain to the Near East, social and political control became increasingly difficult. Conquered peoples often revolted or refused to pay tributes. Inefficient and corrupt centralized government could not maintain political control over distant territories. The spread of Christianity throughout oman lands threatened the integrity of the empire by calling into question oman values, social order, and religious tradition. As ome's tenuous grip on its remotest territories weakened, the empire became increasingly susceptible to invaders: especially the Germanic tribes.
3. Christianity sprouted when Judea was a oman territory and thus, the most powerful empire at the time would feel the political implications of the new religion. Had Christianity evolved elsewhere it might not have played such a…… [Read More]
The invasion of the Gauls in 390 BCE is one of the events that shaped the history of Rome since it struck the Roman people hard. The invasion, which resulted in the capture and sack of Rome, had devastating impacts to an extent that some Romans thought of abandoning their city and relocating permanently to Veii, a recently conquered Etruscan city. Much of the Roman population supported the move on the premise that Rome was so destroyed to an extent it could not be rebuilt. While some Romans migrated to Veii in search of new beginnings, the conqueror of Veii, Marcus Furius Camillus, was against the move. Through his efforts that sought to protect the religious integrity of Rome, the Roman people did not abandon their city.
Camillus efforts played a critical role in safeguarding the religious integrity of the Roman people and ensuring they did not abandon their city.…… [Read More]
As happy as he is to have found a job he needs a bicycle in order to keep it. The bicycle permits Ricci to work as a poster-hanger, striking paste on walls to put up film flyers. On his first day someone steals the bike. So he runs, the director made sure to have the music set off the journey, to find his bicycle to keep his job. What happened for him to get the bike, pawning his wife's sheets, seeing all the sheets of other families that pawned theirs, and then getting a job after days online, makes the bike that much more meaningful as its his only means to stability.
The best part of this movie was the ability of the director to show a stark, barren, disheartening Rome that most people when viewing Rome are not used to. The movie took the audience on a tour whilst…… [Read More]
By about 400 AD, the old social and physical structures of Rome were in decline, the city losing power both within its own empire and within the est as a whole (Miles 41). The decline of the old order in Rome allowed a space for the ascension of Christianity, which began in the first century AD. For the first two centuries of the Christian era, Roman authorities classified Christianity as simply a sect of Judaism and so did not react to it as if it were its own distinct religion.
To the extent that Christians were persecuted in the first few centuries after the beginning of the Christian era, it was only by local officials, with the imperial government warning those officials not to do so. However, in the first century of the Christian era, there was considerable anger at Christians in some quarters of Rome, especially after the Emperor…… [Read More]
Summary of the Punic Wars
The Punic Wars refer to the collective names of a series of three separate wars between Carthage and ome, which took place from 264 to 146 BC. The wars were fought between the two strongest contenders for control over the central Mediterranean Sea of the time. These wars ended with the destruction of Carthage, thus ending the city's period as an independent power and an important trade center. The city would later become an important trading center inside the oman Empire.
Bagnall, N. 2002. The Punic Wars: 264-146 BC. Botley, Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
Cottrell, L. 1992. Hannibal: Enemy of ome. Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press.
Goldsworthy, a. 2002. The Punic Wars. London: Cassell Publications.
Goldsworthy, a. 2004. The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265-146 BC. London: Cassell Publications.
Huby, P. 2003. Carthage. Stockport, England: Dewi Lewis Publishing.
Lazenby, J.F. 1998. Hannibal's War. Norman,…… [Read More]
Literature, learning, and scholarly life wad preserved within the monastery, even while the previous areas of ome were left in disarray.
Perhaps most importantly, the monasteries began to give hope to those devastated by the fall of ome. Individuals who had once been prosperous now found themselves destitute, and the religious beliefs of the monasteries provided hope for eternal life and salvation. Further, these monasteries provided health care to the wounded or ill, and used these circumstances to further their religious agenda.
Through their cultural maintenance, political status, scholarly ways, and promises of eternal life, the monasteries were able to secure a position in the world following the fall of ome. Further, through their relations with society in terms of health care and learning, the monasteries held a crucial role in the history of Europe.
McKay, J., Hill, B., Buckler-Ebrey, P. (2004). History of World Societies. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin…… [Read More]
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…… [Read More]
eligions of ome
Throughout history, religion has been having a major impact on the societies around the world. In the case of the omans, they had numerous religions that were practiced throughout the reign of the empire. To fully understand these ideas requires looking at the chapter titled Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome. This will be accomplished by summarizing the various points and discussing a broad theme from the chapter. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how specific practices from other cultures affected various oman religions.
In Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome, it is talking about the worship of the sun god name Sol. He was a mythological figure that was considered to have the most power among the various oman pagan gods. This is because the omans believed that the sun was a vital…… [Read More]
Indigenous populations in epublican ome (ca. 500 BCE -- 31 BCE)
Citizenship in colonial era
IV Comparison and Contrast
The issues citizenship of indigenous populations in the oman epublic and during the colonial era in Europe provides comprehensive information regarding how the indigenous populations were treated by Europeans. The right to get justice and to self-determine their politico-social life is the main issues that political philosophy is confronted with (Kabeer, 2002). The internationalization and globalization phenomenon has increased the debate on the issue as the indigenous population demands the rights that only citizenship status grants to individuals. espect and rights are demanded by the indigenous populations and these are accompanied with obligations as well, that being argued by the nation states and expansionist regimes. Citizenship has been regarded as a humane word with plethora of rights and obligation associated to it. The oman epublic is considered as a spearhead of…… [Read More]
Carthage and Rome
Comparing Carthage and Rome
One of the greatest wars Rome ever fought was against Carthage -- and it was actually a war that happened three times. Called the Punic Wars (Punic another name for Phoenician -- the nationality of the men who founded Carthage), the contests revealed much about both nations, and created heroes and legends for all antiquity to marvel over. This paper will compare and contrast the two civilizations of Rome and Carthage from the standpoint of "persons within the community," showing just how such persons helped both powers came to be and how they went on to fare when they both began to war with one another.
Started near Tunis at around the end of the ninth century BC, Carthage took over the rule of "leader" amongst the colonies of Phoenicia nearly three hundred years later when in the sixth century BC Tyre…… [Read More]
rise of Rome and how it differed from other empires of the ancient world. There are six references used for this paper.
There have been a number of different empires since the beginning of time. It is interesting to look at how Rome broke with the Etruscans and succeeded as a powerful empire, as well as its differences from other empires of the time.
The Etruscans settled into central Italy prior to 800 B.C, dominating the lands from the PO valley to Campania, and "established a prosperous empire with a complex culture, while reducing the indigenous population to servile status (unknown, Italy)."
The Greek culture was a strong influence on the Etruscans, "their city-states were ruled by kings and their territory included Rome until it shrugged of the Etruscan yoke (Cavendish, foundation)." They were driven from the Po Valley by the Celts in the 4th century B.C.
Breaking…… [Read More]
In both ancient Greece and ancient Rome, women were idealized or demonized in storytelling. Tales of "glamorous mistresses" and "adultresses" characterize some of the ancient Roman literature (Dixon). Like ancient Greek literature, ancient Roman literature also portrayed domesticated women as being highly virtuous to convey social norms and ideals for female behavior.
omen's work was defined and restricted by their gender. omen in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome did household work. In both societies but especially ancient Rome, "women were expected to be involved in cloth production: spinning, weaving and sewing," (Dixon). In ancient Greece, the only public role for women was reserved for a select few: the priestess (Rymer). Only one "authentic voice" of a female poet has survived: that of Sappho (Blundell 66). In ancient Rome, "a few examples of women in higher-status positions such as that of a doctor, and one woman painter is known," (Dixon).…… [Read More]
Ancient Rome and the Events of the Late Republic (end of the Republic), you will create a timeline of major events that led to the end of the Republic. Your timeline should have at least 7 events.
200 CE: The rise of populist or democratic sentiments and political philosophy. Rome was not a democracy, although it was a Republic. By the 2nd century CE, populist tribunes started to make waves on the Roman political scene. These populist tribunes were mirrored by the uprisings by local governments and communities in Roman-acquired territories throughout the vast empire. With such a vast empire, and such a relatively weak method of centralized governance, it became increasingly impossible to achieve harmony and authoritative rule. It was not as if Rome usurped idyllic ways of life, so much as populist leaders did recognize the need to start "reclaiming public land and putting landless poor citizens back…… [Read More]
The Roman people regarded themselves as highly religious. They linked their success as a powerful force in the world to their cordial relations with the gods. The victory by the Romans was essentially a religious occasion in which the generals exhibited their piety and zeal to serve society by dedicating a fraction of their fortunes to the gods. Jupiter was particularly called to attention in such circumstances because he was the god of justice in leadership. Following the Punic wars fought between 264 BC and 146 BC in which Rome fought hard to assert its power as a dominating authority, magistrates built many temples in honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war (Religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology).
How Ancient Rome Practiced Religion
Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but…… [Read More]
Religions of Rome
Long before the mythological figure of Romulus founded Rome, Rome was already being influenced by other religions, specifically the Greek religion when it was occupied by King Evander. King Evander was said, in common folklore, to have shown the escaping Trojan hero Aeneas the city, and the idea that Aeneas was a 'proto-founder' of Rome who brought his household gods to the city became a commonly-accepted part of the city's mythology. It was another great hero, Tarquin the Great, who laid the foundation for the city's temple to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, three of the most important gods in the Roman pantheon. y the time of the deposition of Tarquin the Proud, the structure of the Roman religion had been established.[footnoteRef:1] Thus, one of the most striking characteristics of the early Roman religion was that, unlike other religions of many early civilizations, no single family or leader…… [Read More]
hen in Rome
The film hen in Rome deals with a young woman has lived a fairly sheltered life and has had limited experience with relationships. The romances she has had have made her feel that love and romance are unimportant in her existence. This changes when she goes to Rome for her sister's wedding and meets her love interest. The male character proves to be Beth's ideal partner. However, since this film is clearly in the genre of romantic comedy, there has to be complication which separates the would-be lovers. In this case, Beth (Kristen Bell) becomes angry when she sees Nick (Josh Duhammel) kissing a woman after they have had encounters indicating mutual attraction. So, she takes several coins out of the Fountain of Love which mythology states will make the owners of the chips fall in love with her. As it turns out, there were several…… [Read More]
One obvious parallel between the tale of the brothers and earlier legends is that of Achilles, the great warrior who was the son of a goddess who was almost supernatural in his greatness. Another parallel is that of Oedipus, who was abandoned when he was a boy because of the fearful prophesy foretold about his future. But unlike these previous mythical characters, rather than coming to a bad end, Romulus overcomes the difficulties of his circumstances and triumphs. There are also many versions of the Roman foundation story which contain non-Greek elements, like the idea of a 'phantom phallus' impregnating the boys' mother, which could suggest a kind of immaculate conception (iseman 60). The death of Remus at the hands of his brother for disobediently jumping a wall is also a unique and somewhat perplexing aspect of the story: why did Romulus 'need' a twin?
Q3. To what extent is…… [Read More]
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…… [Read More]
Roman history like Augustus, Charlemagne, and Pericles have soared into Western historical tradition while others like Commodus have received a far less respected legacy, being banished and disgraced with stories of megalomania and decadence. Of the character portrayals of Commodus both in film and literature, only two primary literary sources of Commodus exist. They are from Herodian and Cassius Dio. With such little information available of how Commodus truly was, much was left to the imagination. What could have been a great Roman emperor is now a hedonistic caricature depicted by films like Gladiator and writers like Dio. ut why was Commodus depicted in that way? Was he truly a megalomaniac or a man wishing to gain true power?
Of the primary sources available, the information provided from these sources can lead someone to assume partial inaccuracy. Cassisus Dio for example, worked under Commodus as a senator. He wrote an…… [Read More]
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…… [Read More]
Chapter six is a detailed examination of the iconography of the Roman god Sol, particularly the depiction of the rays, or radiant energy associated with the sun god. Many historians automatically assume that any artwork that contains a depiction of symbolic light must be associated with Sol, but the author, Steven Hijman, explained how the only acceptable forms of symbolic light that are associated with Sol are rays, radiate nimbi, and radiate crowns without lemnisci. ut while depictions of Sol will have one of these forms of symbolic light, they were not used exclusive in relation to Sol. And this is the central theme of the chapter, whether or not "rays alone always constituted a 'solar quote' in Roman Imperial art."[footnoteRef:1] To demonstrate how solar allusions are not always necessary when depicting an image of Sol, there were three examples of Roman Imperial artwork presented to…… [Read More]
After this, there could have been very little perceived threat left; not only were the Carthaginian's surrendering rather peacefully, but they were even giving up their means of waging war effectively. The giving up of weapons in an age when manufacture and shipping -- the two methods by which any commodity, military or otherwise, can be obtained -- took an extended period of time meant that the Carthaginians were showing themselves to desire peace not only in the short-term, but as a general social principle.
Their submission to the Romans, then, should have been the end of the war. If the reason behind Rome's military invasion of the Carthaginian territory was the possible threat the area presented to Rome, then its disarmament would have solved that problem. The Romans refused to let the issue go, however, demanding that the entire city of Carthage be destroyed right to the ground.
It…… [Read More]
With power comes responsibility, and with great power comes great responsibility. The acquisition of empire generated great responsibility for Rome, and as well as they entrenched the empire in history, the relatively rapid downfall of Rome signals the inability of the empire to anticipate what needed to be done to manage such a vast amount of territory with as culturally diverse a subject population. Although Rome attempted to monitor territorial acquisitions via a central governing authority, the increasing pragmatic need for decentralization of power led to several problems.
During the beginnings of the Roman empirical era, the annexation of new territorial acquisitions only meant vaster accumulations of wealth. Therefore, it seemed as if there would be no problems with Roman imperialism. Whether from natural or human resources, Rome stood to gain much and lose little from its exploits. A false sense of invincibility might have been the first real problem…… [Read More]
Rise to Power of Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, Trajan Emperor of Rome
This is an essay on Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, Emperor of Rome. It discusses his rise to power and rein as emperor. Two sources are used. MLA.
Trajan Emperor of Rome
Marcus Ulpius Trajanus was born on "the fourteenth day before the kaleds of March" or in other words, September 18th, probably in the year AD 52 at Italica near Seville, Spain. Being of Spanish origin made him the first emperor who did not come from Italy, even though he was from an old Umbrian family from Tuder in northern Italy. Having chosen to settle in Spain, the family was not a purely provincial one (Empire, pg).
Trajan was the son of a Senator, Consul, and Governor of Asia and Syria. His father, also Macus Ulpius Trajanus, commanded the Tenth Legion "Fretensis" in the Jewish ar of AD 67-68. He…… [Read More]
This is when a housewife used her sexual prowess to seduce an Assyrian general. At which point, she beheads him and effectively cuts the Assyrian army off from its command and control. In the confusion, they are forced to abandon their attack on Israel. As a result, Michaelangelo Merrasi de Caraviggio (the artist) is taking a realistic perspective when it comes to showing this event. (Brown)
Violence and the sex are used to create a shift in thinking. This is taking place by showing Judith as a seductive temptress who lost her husband. At the same time, she is Jewish woman who wants to protect her home at any cost. To achieve these objectives, she is willing to do whatever is necessary. In this situation, Judith will use sex to lure in General Holoferness. Then, once she has him in a compromising position, is when she will behead him. (Brown)…… [Read More]
Estruscans refers to a sophisticated and seafaring persons from Asia Minor who appeared in Italy about 800 BC settling in Etruia, North of Latium. This group soon gained control of the Latins thus the introduction of the Greek cultur to the more primitive Romans. The influence was vital in the domination of the Roman interaction and way of life for two critical centuries. The group was also great at business transactions thus the opportunity to utilize its interactions while trading with other entities or culture in the form of maritime system. They also contributed towards the development of sewer systems, construction of the temples, and paved streets hence realization of the rapid development of the society. Estruscan were vital in teaching the Romans how to work in pottery, metal, and leather industry. They also participated in the development of crafted weapons, and furniture as well as implementation of the alphabet…… [Read More]
Another explanation and reason of the necessity of war in Ancient Rome is economical.
There are several different perspectives on this. First of all, the Roman society was essentially a society using extensively slave labor as the most important form of labor in existence. This basically ranged from constructions to simple chores around the house and often to farming as well, entertainment of its citizens and in other battles. A society relying so much on slaves for its own economic benefits could only necessarily force wars and battles in order to constantly keep a thorough supply of slaves available for work.
Indeed, in general, the population of a nation that had been defeated in battle would have either perished in the fights or would have been enslaved. Enslavement meant not only work in the city of Rome (or elsewhere in the empire), but also the possibility of being sold in…… [Read More]
The fact that she was an advocate for woman's rights can be felt in her description regarding conditions in Rome.
Fuller does not only see the rebellion from the perspective of a journalist, as she also recognizes the potential such a movement would have in the case of women and the way they were seen by her contemporary society. Observing that it was essential for her to decide which side she would take in the conflict, she put across great tension and relief that she came to consider such an important fact.
In Fuller's eyes, the nationalist movement in Rome is passionately devoted to its cause, in spite of the fact that most of its members are not yet prepared to contribute to the situation effectively. She is aware that the people she so ardently appreciated were inclined to let their behavior be governed by their unstable enthusiasm and thus…… [Read More]
They are instructive but do not attempt to provide information about origination or purpose beyond informing the population of potential consequences for not abiding by the cultural customs. Malinowski suggested that instead of natural or explanatory reasons, a more logical explanation for the prevalence of mythology in Ancient Greece and Rome had to do with the reinforcement of customs and traditions already existing in the society. The myths would be created to justify accepted social customs as opposed to the actions of the society being dictated by the myths (Kirk 1974). The myth does not try to provide an explanation for why the custom must be performed but instead creates a precedent for the custom to insist that it is continually performed. An example of this would be proper burial rituals of Ancient Greece. It is written for example that bodies are to be properly buried and if they are…… [Read More]
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…… [Read More]
Lusnia characterizes this concept as the persistence of signs that foretell of one's "imperial destiny." (517) Namely, this refers to the adoption of personal signs and symbols with some likely connection to historical imperial iconography and suggesting the principles of strength, virility, valor and divinity. hether present or not throughout the life of the figure in question -- Augustus in this case -- the recurrence of certain specific images such as the laurel, retained within recurrent thematic contexts such as the Octavian 'garden,' would truly be intended to insist upon the hereditary and theological entitlement of Augustus to a seat atop the Roman Empire.
That unification, rebirth and flourishing growth would be themes of the Augustan rule should suggest to us that the images contained in Roman life and in the visual depiction of Roman life were not chosen in idle vanity. Instead, the must be a core psychological imperative…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
If someone living 2,000 years from now wanted to know what took place in the year 2005, it would be necessary to go through impossible amounts of information. Today, scores of individuals with varying agendas write about day-to-day events. Thousands of publications and electronic media maintain records. Before the Common Era the situation was naturally much different. Because so few accounts exist of this time period, anthropologists and historians have to make educated guesses to fill in the blanks. This same problem exists with early ome and Italy. No account written earlier than the late 3rd century exists and no continuous account recorded before the age of Augustus now survives. Thus, most of the information concerning the Etruscan traditions either comes from individuals such as the oman historian Livy, the Greeks, and archaeological finds.
Born in Northern Italy in 59 BC, Livy wrote a 142-book history of ome called…… [Read More]
" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.
III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME
The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.
IV. RULE…… [Read More]
high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]
Venice During Renaissence
Renaissance literally meaning re-birth was a cultural movement that started at the end of middle Ages from 14th to 17th century. The movement started from Italy and spread into whole of the Europe. The age of renaissance is attributed to a heightened sense of toleration and reasoning in every aspect of life. Arts, craft, literature, politics, and science, all were re-shaped in the renaissance era. hile the birth of renaissance is widely attributed to Florence, Venice was another city of Italy that presented an interesting but challenging outlook to a historian. Venice during the renaissance era was an oligarchy but was called Republic of Venice. ith hardly any resemblance with modern day democracy, Venice enjoyed affluence and abundance due being the gateway of trade activities in Europe.
The republic also enjoyed a relatively stable political environment and trade activities thrived in the era. Glassworkers, woodworkers, artisans, and…… [Read More]
film Spartacus, its historical background, the significance of the movie being made and shown in 1960's America, the real-life events occurring in the U.S. In the 1960's, the historical significance of the slave revolt of Spartacus, how gladiators and slavery in Rome relate to the movie, and background information about Rome at the time of Spartacus, including the slave revolt, and the rise of Roman generals to positions of power.
Spartacus was a slave, who is famous for having led a revolt 'the slave revolt' against the Roman Republic, from 73 D to 71 C. Spartacus was born in Thrace, a region northeast of Greece, and was a member of a group of nomadic herders and later served in the Roman Army (Sinnigen, 2003). Spartacus deserted the army, but was captured and enslaved, following which, the Romans trained him as a gladiator to fight other gladiators and wild beasts in…… [Read More]
In 46 B.C., once again Sallust was given an opportunity to shine or fail, as he was made a practor and sailed to Circina where he proved himself by stealing the enemies' stores. In return, Caesar rewarded Sallust with the title of proconsular governor of all of the province of Numidia and Africa. Others with a much stronger background were expecting this position, but it may have just been that Sallust showed a greater skill at organization. Sallust, however, takes advantage of this situation and when returning to ome was cited for extortion. [footnoteef:16] Caesar quickly acquitted Sallust, but that was the end of his political career. It appears that Caesar may have made a deal with Sallust that if he quietly disappears, he would not be tried. [16: Ibid.]
At this point in Sallust's life, he says he made the decision to give up his political career. Or,…… [Read More]
In Bellum Iugurthinum he claimed that the state will gain more advantage from his otium than from the negotium of contemporary politicians
SALLUST'S HISTOICAL WOKS
Sallust wrote several historical works, but the two monographs that remain intact are the Bellum Catilinae and the Bellum Jugurthinum. There are also four speeches and two letters as well as approximately 500 parts of his Historiae that was published in five books. It is believed by historians that "Sallust's merits as an artist have obscured, or made his readers willing to forget, his faults. As a historical authority he is at best second rank…Yet Sallust's value to us is considerable, mainly because his writings contain an interpretation of oman history during the late epublic often differing from that in our other sources and opposed to optimate tradition."
Even his speeches are valuable historically, adds Laistner,
for they are full of ethos and convey Sallust's…… [Read More]
The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]
Above the roundel is a frieze from a monument to Trajan depicting a battle scene, and the west end contains an image of Luna, the moon goddess, in a chariot" (Sullivan, 2005, p.1). In contrast, the more modest, but still impressive, single-barreled Valley Forge structure is resoundingly secular in its images, as befits a national, American structure in a nation where freedom of religion reigns. (Interestingly, Constantine would later become famous as the first Christian emperor, despite the fact that his triumphal arch contains images of pagan gods and goddesses. The left hand roundel on the north face of the structure even shows Constantine in the form of a recut head of an older emperor, sacrificing to the god Apollo) (Sullivan, 2005, p.2).
In the past, triumphal arches were almost exclusively used to commemorate either great men or great victories, or both in war. The Arch of Constantine thus may…… [Read More]
The Amazing Moderns W.H. Auden (adio Script)
"Jumpstart" radio show theme song playing.
Good afternoon girls and boys, guys and gals! This is Boom Bill Bass, a.k.a. Three B, ready to jumpstart your afternoon with my "unofficial" DJ mix and musings about prose and poetry, music and lyrics, and anything in between these things!
Listen up! We will be doing a great series in Jumpstart this month, called the "Amazing Moderns." This is a poetry series -- yes dear listeners, a poetry series this time -- showcasing the works of great poets in American literature in the 20th century. If you're wondering what 20th century means, guys and gals, it's that period when you're not yet born, oh yeah I'm kidding -- NOT! This period is between the 1900s and well before the Millennium, before the futuristic years of "2Ks" -- that's 2000 and up -- started.…… [Read More]
But Augustus' real administrative breakthrough was to make the second element in the social and financial hierarchy, being the knights, into salaried employees of the State, both in civil jobs and in the army, for these men had already, over a long passage of time, been showing their talents for business and administration. But apart from their employment as judges, which was often highly contested by some senators, they had never before been systematically mobilized to occupy official posts. The knights, then, broadened the scope of Augustus' assistants in a very valuable way because they represented a whole class of new men from the towns of Italy and the provinces who felt somewhat unattached to the ideals of the traditional Republican leadership and were thus susceptible to the appeal of the new regime headed by none other than Augustus.
Unfortunately, this new system was doomed to failure, not so much…… [Read More]
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…… [Read More]
It does not clearly transpire at any point during Plutarch's account what the author's real opinion of Tiberius Gracchus is. The only instance where the author explicitly introduces his view is when he ventures to suggest that the fate of Tiberius may have been different, namely that he might have succeeded in continuing his reforming endeavors, if only his father-in-law had not been elsewhere, waging war against the Numantines, but had been present in Rome in order to support him: "And it is in my opinion that Tiberius would never have met with his great misfortunes if Scipio Africanus had been present in Rome during his political activity" (Plutarch 159). This faint trace of personal imprint is interesting because the readers could infer that Plutarch may be exhibiting a vague form of sympathy at Tiberius's plight, a presumption supported by his subtle suggestion that the politician perhaps just happened to…… [Read More]
The Rise of the Papacy
The Middle Ages, so called because of their position between the ancient and the modern eras, are often termed medieval or even dark. This period of time is marked by a dearth of non-church art, and by the domination of the Roman Catholic Church over all of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia. This was a far-reaching kingdom that was financed by the kings of subject countries, and was ruled by a variety of men. This was also a time when the people bowed under the weight of the growing Catholic oppression that regarded all religions but their own as sacrilegious and the Catholic Church as sacrosanct. This paper looks at the church's rise to power during and after the demise of the Roman Empire, how that rise affected the people of Europe, and what the apex of that power looked like..
Rise…… [Read More]
"When he had reduced the whole area of land between the river Iberus and the Pyrenees to a hollow, resentful, and temporary obedience, he turned his attention to administrative reforms, and increased the revenues"
3. Cato's success in the Roman Empire
For centuries now, historians have searched for answers as to why was Cato able to reach such powerful positions within the Roman Senate. First of all, there was the rather permissive constitution which allowed members of the plebeians to overcome their social status and participate in the process of ruling. This of course with the condition that they prove worthy of it.
Second of all, Cato's social ascension was also aided by his and his family's military career and reputation. Cato himself, his father and his grandfather had courageously fought in the Roman legions, facts which later on supported Cato's political career as both the Senate and the people…… [Read More]
Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…… [Read More]
The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to show compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. (Tacitus, Book V, a.D. 70). Some of the Jewish customs, such as the burying of the dead instead of burning them, unlike the Romans, are presented by Tacitus as borrowed from the Egyptians. Tacitus describes the Jewish customs and ways of expressing their religion without pretending to understand it. Although disgusted by most of their habits completely strange to him, he is also showing his admiration for these people who proved to be able to stick together at all times and endured since immemorial eras. He is also critical to some of what the…… [Read More]
The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…… [Read More]
Individuals in the city of god are "predestined to reign eternally with God" (p. 7) whereas people living in the earthly city are fated to "suffer eternal punishment with the devil" (p. 7).
Order in the city of God is different from how it is in the earthly city, given that people in the former respect each-other and God and because they are not motivated by fear or by their desire to rule. In spite of the fact that Augustine aimed at associating the city of God with the Christian church and with Christianity in general while the earthly city was a reference to Ancient Rome and to the part of society that was driven by material values, he does not actually want readers to relate to a physical matter when discussing the two cities. His perspective in regard to the psychological fight between people focused on material values and…… [Read More]
However these persecutions were
different as the clergy and upper class would not renounce their faith.
These persecutions created the notion of martyrs and helped strengthen
Christianity in the empire. The 3rd persecution in 303 tried to force
Christians to worship Roman gods, but was unsuccessful in quelling the
rising popularity of Christianity.
Christianity grew as it help marginalized people within society by
promising good things after death. Christianity had an egalitarian notion
that led to its popularity, and by the early 4th century 5-10% of the
Empire was Christian. ith the Edict of Milan, Constantine announced
toleration of Christianity, but there was no evidence that Constantine
converted to Christianity at this time. However it is noted within
Christian sources that in 312 Constantine won a battle to become emperor
and saw a cross of light in the sun before victory. As Constantine
ascended to power, so did Christianity's popularity…… [Read More]
Florence aptistery North Doors
Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) was a many-sided Renaissance figure: bronze-caster, sculptor, goldsmith, draughtsman, architect, writer and historian. Among his most celebrated surviving work are the bronze doors which he created for the aptistery of the Cathedral in Florence. This paper will discuss the circumstances in which Ghiberti secured and completed the commission to design the north doors of the aptistery (1400-24) and analyse their composition and character. Ghiberti's work in Florence will then be compared to that of Gianlorenzo ernini at the baroque church of Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1658-70).
In late 1400 the officials of the Cloth-Dealers and Refiners' Guild of Florence (the Arte di Calimara) announced a competition to design a set of doors for the aptistery of the Cathedral. The aptistery is a very old structure, the primary elements of which probably date to the seventh and eight centuries AD. The exterior covering…… [Read More]