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Estruscans Refers to a Sophisticated and Seafaring

Words: 3245 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84085082

Estruscans refers to a sophisticated and seafaring persons from Asia Minor who appeared in Italy about 800 BC settling in Etruia, North of Latium. This group soon gained control of the Latins thus the introduction of the Greek cultur to the more primitive Romans. The influence was vital in the domination of the Roman interaction and way of life for two critical centuries. The group was also great at business transactions thus the opportunity to utilize its interactions while trading with other entities or culture in the form of maritime system. They also contributed towards the development of sewer systems, construction of the temples, and paved streets hence realization of the rapid development of the society. Estruscan were vital in teaching the Romans how to work in pottery, metal, and leather industry. They also participated in the development of crafted weapons, and furniture as well as implementation of the alphabet…… [Read More]

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History War and Peace in

Words: 1381 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9109352

Another explanation and reason of the necessity of war in Ancient Rome is economical.

There are several different perspectives on this. First of all, the Roman society was essentially a society using extensively slave labor as the most important form of labor in existence. This basically ranged from constructions to simple chores around the house and often to farming as well, entertainment of its citizens and in other battles. A society relying so much on slaves for its own economic benefits could only necessarily force wars and battles in order to constantly keep a thorough supply of slaves available for work.

Indeed, in general, the population of a nation that had been defeated in battle would have either perished in the fights or would have been enslaved. Enslavement meant not only work in the city of Rome (or elsewhere in the empire), but also the possibility of being sold in…… [Read More]


1. Millar, Fergus. Emperors, Frontiers and Foreign Relations, 31 BC to AD 378.

2. Harris, William. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome. Clarendon Press. Oxford Millar, Fergus. Emperors, Frontiers and Foreign Relations, 31 BC to AD 378.

Harris, William. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome. Clarendon Press. Oxford
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Margaret Fuller 1848 Revolution in

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93852418

The fact that she was an advocate for woman's rights can be felt in her description regarding conditions in Rome.

Fuller does not only see the rebellion from the perspective of a journalist, as she also recognizes the potential such a movement would have in the case of women and the way they were seen by her contemporary society. Observing that it was essential for her to decide which side she would take in the conflict, she put across great tension and relief that she came to consider such an important fact.

In Fuller's eyes, the nationalist movement in Rome is passionately devoted to its cause, in spite of the fact that most of its members are not yet prepared to contribute to the situation effectively. She is aware that the people she so ardently appreciated were inclined to let their behavior be governed by their unstable enthusiasm and thus…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Fuller, Margaret. (1860). "At home and abroad, or, Things and thoughts in America and Europe." Brown, Taggard and Chase.
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Monolithic Theories of Myth Much

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60263652

They are instructive but do not attempt to provide information about origination or purpose beyond informing the population of potential consequences for not abiding by the cultural customs. Malinowski suggested that instead of natural or explanatory reasons, a more logical explanation for the prevalence of mythology in Ancient Greece and Rome had to do with the reinforcement of customs and traditions already existing in the society. The myths would be created to justify accepted social customs as opposed to the actions of the society being dictated by the myths (Kirk 1974). The myth does not try to provide an explanation for why the custom must be performed but instead creates a precedent for the custom to insist that it is continually performed. An example of this would be proper burial rituals of Ancient Greece. It is written for example that bodies are to be properly buried and if they are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kirk, GS 1974, The Nature of Greek Myths. Overlook. Pp. 38-68.
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Ancient Roman Civilization and the Gladiator Games

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65998199


In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…… [Read More]

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Livias Garden the Technical Symbolic

Words: 3646 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16395215

Lusnia characterizes this concept as the persistence of signs that foretell of one's "imperial destiny." (517) Namely, this refers to the adoption of personal signs and symbols with some likely connection to historical imperial iconography and suggesting the principles of strength, virility, valor and divinity. hether present or not throughout the life of the figure in question -- Augustus in this case -- the recurrence of certain specific images such as the laurel, retained within recurrent thematic contexts such as the Octavian 'garden,' would truly be intended to insist upon the hereditary and theological entitlement of Augustus to a seat atop the Roman Empire.

That unification, rebirth and flourishing growth would be themes of the Augustan rule should suggest to us that the images contained in Roman life and in the visual depiction of Roman life were not chosen in idle vanity. Instead, the must be a core psychological imperative…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caneva, G. & Bohuny, L. (2003). Botanic analysis of Livia's villa painted flora. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 4(2), 149-155.

Flory, M.B. (1989). Octavian and the Omen of the 'Gallina Alba.' The Classical Journal, 84(4), 346-356.

Gabriel, M.M. (). Livia's Garden Room at Prima Porta.

Hoover, M. (2001). The Fine Art of Roman Wall Painting. San Antonio University. Online at
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Ancient Roman Religion

Words: 3936 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33196915

Roman Religion

Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]


Ando, Clifford. The Matter of the Gods: Religion and the Roman Empire. Berkeley: University

of California Press, 2008.

Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price. Religions of Rome, Volume 1: A History. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1998.
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Etruscans if Someone Living 2 000 Years From

Words: 3381 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43197328


If someone living 2,000 years from now wanted to know what took place in the year 2005, it would be necessary to go through impossible amounts of information. Today, scores of individuals with varying agendas write about day-to-day events. Thousands of publications and electronic media maintain records. Before the Common Era the situation was naturally much different. Because so few accounts exist of this time period, anthropologists and historians have to make educated guesses to fill in the blanks. This same problem exists with early ome and Italy. No account written earlier than the late 3rd century exists and no continuous account recorded before the age of Augustus now survives. Thus, most of the information concerning the Etruscan traditions either comes from individuals such as the oman historian Livy, the Greeks, and archaeological finds.

Born in Northern Italy in 59 BC, Livy wrote a 142-book history of ome called…… [Read More]

References Cited

Bloch, Raymond. 1965. Etruscan Art. New York: Cowles. London: Thames

Bloch, Raymond. 1969. Etruscans. New York: Cowles.

Bonfante, Larissa, ed. 1986. Etruscans Life and Afterlife. Detroit: Wayne State.

Bryce, Trevor. 1999. Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Ancient Roman History the Objective

Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1078821

" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.


The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.

IV. RULE…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Charlemagne (2006) Lucid Cafe Website. Online available at

Rome (1986) New Standard Encyclopedia. Standard Educational Corporation Chicago, Illinois.

Durrant, Will (nd) a Story of Civilization. Online available at

Ancient Roman History
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High Degree of Misinformation I Had Received

Words: 3132 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33587097

high degree of misinformation I had received from traditional teachings about the church and the beginning of Christianity. Moreover, I was struck by the notion that most other people in the Western world receive this same degree of intentional misinformation, so much so that I have even heard people defend the idea that knowledge of the historical church is irrelevant to modern Christianity. Reading through the class material, I was struck by how critical this historical information was to the understanding of the actual church. One critical piece of information is the idea of Jesus as the head of the church, despite him not establishing Christianity as a separate religion. Another critical idea was that prophets could play a continuing role in Christianity, when my traditional understanding had suggested that after Jesus there would be no more Jewish prophets. I also found myself wondering about the very obvious and significant…… [Read More]

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Venice During Renaissence Renaissance Literally Meaning Re-Birth

Words: 1769 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87490483

Venice During Renaissence

Renaissance literally meaning re-birth was a cultural movement that started at the end of middle Ages from 14th to 17th century. The movement started from Italy and spread into whole of the Europe. The age of renaissance is attributed to a heightened sense of toleration and reasoning in every aspect of life. Arts, craft, literature, politics, and science, all were re-shaped in the renaissance era. hile the birth of renaissance is widely attributed to Florence, Venice was another city of Italy that presented an interesting but challenging outlook to a historian. Venice during the renaissance era was an oligarchy but was called Republic of Venice. ith hardly any resemblance with modern day democracy, Venice enjoyed affluence and abundance due being the gateway of trade activities in Europe.

The republic also enjoyed a relatively stable political environment and trade activities thrived in the era. Glassworkers, woodworkers, artisans, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bouwsma, William J. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty: Renaissance Values in the Age of the Counter Reformation. University of California Press, 1984.

Manchester, William. A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance-Portrait of an Age. Little, Brown, 1992.

Mason, Antony. Everyday Life in Renaissance Times. Creative Company, 2005.

McGough, Laura J. "Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 80.2 (2006): 219-246.
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Film Spartacus Its Historical Background the Significance

Words: 1830 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21358487

film Spartacus, its historical background, the significance of the movie being made and shown in 1960's America, the real-life events occurring in the U.S. In the 1960's, the historical significance of the slave revolt of Spartacus, how gladiators and slavery in Rome relate to the movie, and background information about Rome at the time of Spartacus, including the slave revolt, and the rise of Roman generals to positions of power.

Spartacus was a slave, who is famous for having led a revolt 'the slave revolt' against the Roman Republic, from 73 D to 71 C. Spartacus was born in Thrace, a region northeast of Greece, and was a member of a group of nomadic herders and later served in the Roman Army (Sinnigen, 2003). Spartacus deserted the army, but was captured and enslaved, following which, the Romans trained him as a gladiator to fight other gladiators and wild beasts in…… [Read More]


Handlin, O. (2003). The Vietnam War. In World Book Encyclopaedia, for Apple Macintosh.

Sinnigen, H.D. (2003). Spartacus. In World Book Encyclopaedia, for Apple Macintosh. 'Spartacus: Historical background'. Accessed on 26th January 2004.  of Spartacus (1960) presented on the World Wide Web by Brian Koller. Accessed on 26th January 2004. .'Spartacus'. Review of the film, and of the historical context of the film. Accessed on 26th January 2004.
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Sallust in His Historical Writings

Words: 4545 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 56288337


In 46 B.C., once again Sallust was given an opportunity to shine or fail, as he was made a practor and sailed to Circina where he proved himself by stealing the enemies' stores. In return, Caesar rewarded Sallust with the title of proconsular governor of all of the province of Numidia and Africa. Others with a much stronger background were expecting this position, but it may have just been that Sallust showed a greater skill at organization. Sallust, however, takes advantage of this situation and when returning to ome was cited for extortion. [footnoteef:16] Caesar quickly acquitted Sallust, but that was the end of his political career. It appears that Caesar may have made a deal with Sallust that if he quietly disappears, he would not be tried. [16: Ibid.]

At this point in Sallust's life, he says he made the decision to give up his political career. Or,…… [Read More]


Dorey, T.A. (Ed) Latin Historians. New York: Basic Books, 1966

Earl, Donald C. The Political Thought of Sallust. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1966

Handford, S.A. translator (1963) The Jugurthine War Middlesex: Penguin Books.

Laistner, M.L.W. The Greater Roman Historians. Berkeley: University California Press, 1963
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Sallust Is the Saying What

Words: 4295 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68955797

In Bellum Iugurthinum he claimed that the state will gain more advantage from his otium than from the negotium of contemporary politicians


Sallust wrote several historical works, but the two monographs that remain intact are the Bellum Catilinae and the Bellum Jugurthinum. There are also four speeches and two letters as well as approximately 500 parts of his Historiae that was published in five books. It is believed by historians that "Sallust's merits as an artist have obscured, or made his readers willing to forget, his faults. As a historical authority he is at best second rank…Yet Sallust's value to us is considerable, mainly because his writings contain an interpretation of oman history during the late epublic often differing from that in our other sources and opposed to optimate tradition."

Even his speeches are valuable historically, adds Laistner,

for they are full of ethos and convey Sallust's…… [Read More]


Allen, Walter Jr. Sallust's Political Career. Studies in Philology 51.1(1954):1-4.

Earl, Donald C. The Political Thought of Sallust. Amsterdam: Adolf M. Hakkert, 1966

Laistner, M.L.W. The Greater Roman Historians. Berkeley: University California Press, 1963

Levene, D.S. Sallust's Jugurtha: A Historical Fragment. The Journal of Roman Studies. 82 (1992): 53-70.
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Karim Snoussi Christoph Korner Roman

Words: 2005 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65963980

The architects are not simply referencing a general Neoclassical style but evoking specific elements of Roman architectural style that suggested wealth and success.

The Los Angeles Stock Exchange on Spring St. (which no longer houses the stock exchange) includes the neoclassical elements of symmetry and alternating bands of vertical and horizontal elements. It also features three bas-relief panels carved into the granite over the central entrance that reflect Roman and Greek styles of decoration on public buildings. These bas-reliefs, like the carvings on the Continental Building are meant to summon up a certain kind of wealth and triumph, in this case the capitalist economy. Buildings in the Classical world would not have had to be so direct in broadcasting their function and stature. But the architects of this neoclassical building understood that a 20th-century clientele needed more explicit cues (Hickey). Classical buildings shared a common vocabulary that had been lost…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brain, David. Discipline and style. Theory and society 18: 807-868, 1989.

Carlihan, Jean Paul. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts: Modes and Manners. New York: Association

of Collegiate Schools of Architecture, 1979.

Christ, Karl. The Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
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Architectural Styles Between the National

Words: 1924 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21177711

Above the roundel is a frieze from a monument to Trajan depicting a battle scene, and the west end contains an image of Luna, the moon goddess, in a chariot" (Sullivan, 2005, p.1). In contrast, the more modest, but still impressive, single-barreled Valley Forge structure is resoundingly secular in its images, as befits a national, American structure in a nation where freedom of religion reigns. (Interestingly, Constantine would later become famous as the first Christian emperor, despite the fact that his triumphal arch contains images of pagan gods and goddesses. The left hand roundel on the north face of the structure even shows Constantine in the form of a recut head of an older emperor, sacrificing to the god Apollo) (Sullivan, 2005, p.2).

In the past, triumphal arches were almost exclusively used to commemorate either great men or great victories, or both in war. The Arch of Constantine thus may…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sullivan, Mary Ann. "Arch of Constantine." Rome, Italy. 2005. 5 Apr 2008. 

National Memorial Arch." U.S. National Park Service. 5 Apr 2008. 

The National Memorial Arch." Valley Forge FAQs. 5 Apr 2008.
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Auden the Amazing Moderns W H Auden Radio

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61622904


The Amazing Moderns W.H. Auden (adio Script)

"Jumpstart" radio show theme song playing.


Good afternoon girls and boys, guys and gals! This is Boom Bill Bass, a.k.a. Three B, ready to jumpstart your afternoon with my "unofficial" DJ mix and musings about prose and poetry, music and lyrics, and anything in between these things!

Listen up! We will be doing a great series in Jumpstart this month, called the "Amazing Moderns." This is a poetry series -- yes dear listeners, a poetry series this time -- showcasing the works of great poets in American literature in the 20th century. If you're wondering what 20th century means, guys and gals, it's that period when you're not yet born, oh yeah I'm kidding -- NOT! This period is between the 1900s and well before the Millennium, before the futuristic years of "2Ks" -- that's 2000 and up -- started.…… [Read More]


Auden, W.H. "The Fall of Rome." Available at: 

____. (1969). "Moon Landing." Available at:
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Caesar in the Early Days

Words: 1157 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59261981

But Augustus' real administrative breakthrough was to make the second element in the social and financial hierarchy, being the knights, into salaried employees of the State, both in civil jobs and in the army, for these men had already, over a long passage of time, been showing their talents for business and administration. But apart from their employment as judges, which was often highly contested by some senators, they had never before been systematically mobilized to occupy official posts. The knights, then, broadened the scope of Augustus' assistants in a very valuable way because they represented a whole class of new men from the towns of Italy and the provinces who felt somewhat unattached to the ideals of the traditional Republican leadership and were thus susceptible to the appeal of the new regime headed by none other than Augustus.

Unfortunately, this new system was doomed to failure, not so much…… [Read More]

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Flavius Joephus Much of the

Words: 5117 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14765313

And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)

This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…… [Read More]


Albright, William and C.S. Mann. The Anchor Bible. Matthew. New York: Doubleday, 1971

Benjamin, Jules R. A Student's Guide to History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2004

Broshi, Magen. The Credibility of Josephus. Journal of Jewish Studies: Essays in Honor of Yigael Yadin 1982 from Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies.  Accessed 10 April, 2010

Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? Random House. New York. 1961.
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Tiberius Gracchus According to Plutarch

Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5445977

It does not clearly transpire at any point during Plutarch's account what the author's real opinion of Tiberius Gracchus is. The only instance where the author explicitly introduces his view is when he ventures to suggest that the fate of Tiberius may have been different, namely that he might have succeeded in continuing his reforming endeavors, if only his father-in-law had not been elsewhere, waging war against the Numantines, but had been present in Rome in order to support him: "And it is in my opinion that Tiberius would never have met with his great misfortunes if Scipio Africanus had been present in Rome during his political activity" (Plutarch 159). This faint trace of personal imprint is interesting because the readers could infer that Plutarch may be exhibiting a vague form of sympathy at Tiberius's plight, a presumption supported by his subtle suggestion that the politician perhaps just happened to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Plutarch. Plutarch's Lives. Ed T.E. Page. Trans. B. Perrin. Vol. X. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. Print.

Richardson, Keith. Daggers in the Forum: The Revolutionary Lives and Violent Deaths of the Gracchus Brothers. London: Cassell and Company Limited, 1976. Print.

Scullard, H.H. From the Gracchi to Nero: A history of Rom 133 B.C. To a.D. 68. New York: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1959. Print.

"The Reforms of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus." Western Civilization: Volume a: To 1500: To 1500. Vol. 1. 2008. Print.
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Rise of the Papacy

Words: 1754 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99978703


The Rise of the Papacy

The Middle Ages, so called because of their position between the ancient and the modern eras, are often termed medieval or even dark. This period of time is marked by a dearth of non-church art, and by the domination of the Roman Catholic Church over all of Europe and parts of Africa and Asia. This was a far-reaching kingdom that was financed by the kings of subject countries, and was ruled by a variety of men. This was also a time when the people bowed under the weight of the growing Catholic oppression that regarded all religions but their own as sacrilegious and the Catholic Church as sacrosanct. This paper looks at the church's rise to power during and after the demise of the Roman Empire, how that rise affected the people of Europe, and what the apex of that power looked like..

Rise…… [Read More]


Leuba, Jean-Louis. "Papacy, Protestantism and Ecumenism." The Ecumenical Review 46.4 (1994): 467-475.

Logan, F. Donald. A History of the Church in the Middle Ages. London: Routledge, 2002.

Moorhead, John. "Bede on the Papacy." Journal of Ecclesiastical History 60.2 (2009): 217-232.

Power, Amanda. "Franciscan Advice to the Papacy in the Middle Ages." History Compass 5.5 (2007): 1550-1575.
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Rise of Cato the Elder

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33370118

"When he had reduced the whole area of land between the river Iberus and the Pyrenees to a hollow, resentful, and temporary obedience, he turned his attention to administrative reforms, and increased the revenues"

3. Cato's success in the Roman Empire

For centuries now, historians have searched for answers as to why was Cato able to reach such powerful positions within the Roman Senate. First of all, there was the rather permissive constitution which allowed members of the plebeians to overcome their social status and participate in the process of ruling. This of course with the condition that they prove worthy of it.

Second of all, Cato's social ascension was also aided by his and his family's military career and reputation. Cato himself, his father and his grandfather had courageously fought in the Roman legions, facts which later on supported Cato's political career as both the Senate and the people…… [Read More]


The Roman Republican Constitution, Executive Branch - The Elected Magistrates, 

Wikipedia, The Free Online Encyclopedia, November 2006, Cato the Elder,last  accessed on November 28, 2006

The official web site for the Roman Empire, Cato the Elder,, last accessed on November 28, 2006
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Figures of Legend in History

Words: 3464 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90699573

Conventional literature would
come to see Cleopatra as an exploitive whore, responsible for the downfall
of virtuous men like the Ptolemies, Julius Caesar and, inevitably, Marc
Antony as well. So is this reported by historical accounts such as that by
Cassius Dio who reflected that "Indeed she so enchanted and enthralled not
only Antony but all others who counted for anything with him that she came
to entertain the hope that she would rule the Romans as well, and whenever
she took an oath, the most potent phrase she used were the words, 'So
surely as I shall one day give judgement [sic] on the Capitol.'" (Cassius
Dio, 39) The argument given here in defining her persona would be the
clear understanding of her imperialist intent, so to say that it had been
always an ambition for this ruler to extend the Egyptian influence to new
heights. The Roman perspective…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ashmawy, A.K. (1995). Cleopatra: The Last Pharoah, B.C. 69-30. History
of Alexandria. Online at <>

Burstein, S.M. (2004). The Reign of Cleopatra. Greenwood Publishing
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Tacitus Bias Opinions the Roman

Words: 1553 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32371205

The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to show compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. (Tacitus, Book V, a.D. 70). Some of the Jewish customs, such as the burying of the dead instead of burning them, unlike the Romans, are presented by Tacitus as borrowed from the Egyptians. Tacitus describes the Jewish customs and ways of expressing their religion without pretending to understand it. Although disgusted by most of their habits completely strange to him, he is also showing his admiration for these people who proved to be able to stick together at all times and endured since immemorial eras. He is also critical to some of what the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Tacitus, Cornelius. The Annals of Imperial Rome. Trans. Michael Grant. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1956.

Tacitus Cornelius. Histories. Trans Alfred John Church and William Jackson. Retrieved Nov.30, 2007. 2004 available at
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Roman Culture

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74625553

Roman Culture


The 1960 film Spartacus claims to tell the story of the famous slave revolt, also known as the Gladiator War, which terrorized Rome for years and can be pinpointed as one of the most influential causes of the eventual destruction of the Roman Republic and its descent into imperialism and tyranny. One must say "claims to be," rather than "is," in this case because the film is wildly inaccurate historically. The creators of this work were, of course, aware of its lack of historical authenticity, which is partly attributed to the artistic necessity of condensing four years of political upheaval and constant warfare into less than four hours. Indeed, condensation of time is the biggest historical inaccuracy here -- for example, many main Roman characters are rather indiscriminately condensed in time, such as Gracchus who appears to be a combination of two Gracchus brothers active fifty years…… [Read More]

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Augustine the City of God

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48990951

Individuals in the city of god are "predestined to reign eternally with God" (p. 7) whereas people living in the earthly city are fated to "suffer eternal punishment with the devil" (p. 7).

Order in the city of God is different from how it is in the earthly city, given that people in the former respect each-other and God and because they are not motivated by fear or by their desire to rule. In spite of the fact that Augustine aimed at associating the city of God with the Christian church and with Christianity in general while the earthly city was a reference to Ancient Rome and to the part of society that was driven by material values, he does not actually want readers to relate to a physical matter when discussing the two cities. His perspective in regard to the psychological fight between people focused on material values and…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Cory, Catherine a. Hollerich, Michael J. Cunningham, David S. "The Christian Theological Tradition." (Prentice Hall, 2008).

Saint Augustine. "The city of God against the pagans." (Cambridge University Press, 1998).
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ID 76061 Paper Type Unknown

Words: 408 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54053704

However these persecutions were
different as the clergy and upper class would not renounce their faith.
These persecutions created the notion of martyrs and helped strengthen
Christianity in the empire. The 3rd persecution in 303 tried to force
Christians to worship Roman gods, but was unsuccessful in quelling the
rising popularity of Christianity.
Christianity grew as it help marginalized people within society by
promising good things after death. Christianity had an egalitarian notion
that led to its popularity, and by the early 4th century 5-10% of the
Empire was Christian. ith the Edict of Milan, Constantine announced
toleration of Christianity, but there was no evidence that Constantine
converted to Christianity at this time. However it is noted within
Christian sources that in 312 Constantine won a battle to become emperor
and saw a cross of light in the sun before victory. As Constantine
ascended to power, so did Christianity's popularity…… [Read More]

Works Cited
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Mellor, Ronald J. The Historians of Ancient Rome. 2nd ed. Routledge.
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Florence Babtisitry North Doors

Words: 2130 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85689823

Florence aptistery North Doors

Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) was a many-sided Renaissance figure: bronze-caster, sculptor, goldsmith, draughtsman, architect, writer and historian. Among his most celebrated surviving work are the bronze doors which he created for the aptistery of the Cathedral in Florence. This paper will discuss the circumstances in which Ghiberti secured and completed the commission to design the north doors of the aptistery (1400-24) and analyse their composition and character. Ghiberti's work in Florence will then be compared to that of Gianlorenzo ernini at the baroque church of Sant' Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1658-70).

In late 1400 the officials of the Cloth-Dealers and Refiners' Guild of Florence (the Arte di Calimara) announced a competition to design a set of doors for the aptistery of the Cathedral. The aptistery is a very old structure, the primary elements of which probably date to the seventh and eight centuries AD. The exterior covering…… [Read More]


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