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But Mary and her husband, living in the Dublin section of Paterson, launched an Italian-language newspaper (the Italian Voice); there were about 42,000 Italians living in Paterson at the time, Burstyn writes. Mary and her husband also started the Colonial Sentinel (carrying legal notices and news in English) and in their papers they featured women of Italian descent on the front page (Burstyn, 231).
But by the 1940s the Augusto couple took an anti-fascist position in their papers (notwithstanding the fact that Italy had been taken over by fascist Mussolini) and Mary had a column called "The Parrot" which "combined political and social commentary," Burstyn explains on page 231. hile she had her newspaper job during the day, it didn't stop Mary from working the "late shift at a nearby right Aeronautics defense plant." hile working in a Rosie the Riveter capacity, Mary "…mastered the process of precision grinding and…
Barker-Benfield, G.J., and Clinton, Catherine. 1998. Portraits of American Women: From
Settlement to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press.
Burstyn, Joan N. 1997. Past and Promise: Lives of New Jersey Women. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse
Honey, Maureen. 1984. Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender, and Propaganda during
However, once it became clear that this would entail tremendous amounts of sacrifice, is when many women began to start working in positions left behind by men. During the course of the war, they began to have a sense of satisfaction from their contributions that they were making. While at the same time, these individuals had new found sense of liberation with their new roles. Once this occurred, it allowed many women to be seen as someone who is self-sufficient and strong. This helped to create more liberal views about the role of women within society. ("The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter," 2007)
However, once the war was over is when these women were expected to return to their traditional roles. This created a conflict in many of these individuals. The reason why, is because they were provided with respect and sense of freedom during war. Now that…
The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter. (2007). Clarity Films. Retrieved from: http://www.clarityfilms.org/rosie/
omen felt oppressed and men felt the need to take back their pre-war status as head of the household. These dynamics created a power-play between men and women that eventually culminated with the omen's Liberation Movement of the 1960s and 1970s. Men struggled to retain their power, while women struggled to recapture what they had a taste of in the 1940s.
Although most of the women of the omen's Liberation Movement were not around during the war and were not Rosies themselves, they had listened to the rhetoric and talk from their mothers and grandmothers. The existence of this movement is evidence that other social influences were able to override the images portrayed on television and in magazines. The battle ground for this war between the sexes was family values and the home. The Brady Bunch was the ultimate stereotype of this era. One of the key factors in this…
Davidson and Lytle, After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill,
Jung, J. And Lennon, S. Body Image, Appearance Self-Schema, and Media Images. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 32, No. 1, 27-51 (2003).
Rubenstein, S., and Cabellero, B. (2000). "Is Miss America an Undernourished Role
Model?" Journal of the American Medical Association 283:1569.
Representations of War in the Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan
Hollywood's depictions and interpretations of the events that transpired on D-Day have long captured the attention of audiences worldwide. Though Hollywood depictions of the events that occurred prior, during, and after the invasion of Normandy may vary, they still aim to convey a similar message, one that assures the evil forces in the world will be overthrown and the world will be a much safer place. The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan aim to present the events that lead up to the invasion of Normandy on D-Day in an artistic and creative fashion while attempting to maintain an air of realism. The approaches taken to depict the invasion of Normandy in The Longest Day and Saving Private Ryan are a positive contribution to the combat film genre. Though creative licenses were taken in each film, the manner in…
Beevor, Anthony. D-Day: The Battle for Normandy. New York: Viking Penguin, 2009.
Churchill, Ron. "Saving Private Ryan" a real life drama." UB Reporter 30, no. 2 (September
D-Day: June 6, 1944. http://www.army.mil/d-day / (accessed May 23, 2011).
Women Voting Rights
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief essay that centers on a few particular topics as it relates to women and their place and function within the suffrage movement as well as other pushes for equal rights including in the military, the workforce and so forth. The particular events and topics that will be touched upon will include women and work, women's new deal, working for victory: women and war, women in the military and working women in war time. While women are still facing equality-related struggles now, it was much worse for them in the 1800's and beyond and even into some of the 1900's.
When it comes to women and work, the reasons for their slow progress over the duration of the existence of the United States as well as beyond that is not hard to figure out. Indeed, women…
Multimedia History omen Primary source videos a rich source information a historical time period, portray assumptions minutia daily life a text . This true Hollywood films footage actual events.
This essay discusses with regard to women during and consequent to the Second orld ar. The essay relates to a series of videos and interviews in an attempt to shed more light on the role of women during this period. By emphasizing the fact that women developed a strong connection with the military as a result of the conflict and because of their tendency to exploit the matter to their own advantage, the paper is meant to demonstrate that orld ar Two actually assisted women in removing many stereotypes and in society as a whole acknowledging that it was wrong for it to discriminate on account of gender.
In spite of the fact that society progressed significantly during the early twentieth…
Cook, Bernard A., "Women and War: A Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present," (ABC-CLIO)
Hepburn, Stephanie, James Simon, Rita, "Women's Roles and Statuses the World Over," (Lexington Books, 2007)
Hacker, Barton, and Vining, Margaret, "A Companion to Women's Military History," (BRILL, 17.08.2012)
"Early Women Soldiers," Retrieved June 7, 2013, from the Army.mil Website: http://www.army.mil/women/history.html
The disparity in income of male vs. female heads of household is striking. Analysis of census data revealed that, in 1949, approximately thirty percent of households headed by white males were living in poverty, compared to just under thirteen percent a decade later. For women, more than half lived in poverty in 1949; by 1959, that figure declined to thirty-eight percent. The prosperity of the 1950s was not universally enjoyed. Female heads of household at the end of the decade were not better off than their male counterparts had been ten years earlier.
Financing for decent, inexpensive homes was readily available to servicemen returning from World War II. Coontz (1992) argued that this boom in home ownership led to "increasingly pervasive and sophisticated marketing [that] contributed to socially constructed perceptions of "need" and to unprecedented levels of consumer debt (Edwards, 2001). It was new consumer values that helped propel mothers…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. [Amazon
Kindle editions version.
Delmont, S. (1996). A woman's place in education. Great Britain: Avebury.
Edwards, M.E. (2001). Home ownership, affordability, and mothers' changing work and family roles. Social Science Quarterly, 82 (2), 369-383.
The lack of a critical analysis of race created a divide between feminist and black activists, as chronicled in the words of feminist and scholar Beverley Guy-Sheftall: "Coming out of the Civil Rights era, black feminism was a contentious, debatable, demonized and divisive notion. It was perceived to be a pro-white, anti-male doctrine that would destroy black families and prohibit unity. I can remember going to all-black gatherings and people asking me whether or not I was a lesbian, because being pro-female translated into a hate for men" (Ofori-Atta 2010). In her book, Ain't I a oman? bell hooks noted that under slavery, abolitionists often said that black men were 'wronged' because slavery emasculated the men and denied them the right to defend their wives against the advances of slave-owners. But this did not recognize the impact that the threat of rape had upon black women. Simply the phrase "the…
Hooks, bell. Ain't I a woman? Boston: South End Press, 1999.
Ofori-Atta, Akoto. "The Root Interview: Beverly Guy-Sheftall on Black Feminism." The Root.
November 2010. December 9, 2010.
However, although the 1950s may have prohibited sexual 'deviance' outside of conventional sexual norms, in the form of out-of-wedlock births and homosexuality, it was highly approving of sexuality within the bounds it defined as acceptable -- the age of newlyweds plummeted according to the natural average, and the birthrate skyrocketed. Marrying young and having children enabled "Americans to thumb their noses at doomsday predictions" and also signified the end to an era when Americans were afraid to get married, for fear of providing for a new family (May 23). 'Containment' is the other key word of May's text, containment of communism and sexuality -- experts advised that it was better for teens to marry young than to relieve their urges in other ways. Sexual looseness outside of marriage and political deviance were also lined in the popular imagination.
Interestingly, May does not see the 1950s as traditional but as futuristic…
But even May admits that images such as the bomb shelter do not always convey an accurate picture of reality, given that few Americans built such shelters in their homes, although the images of the media might suggest differently, and the way people respond to surveys does not always reflect their lived experience (May 107).
May's analysis thus seems to fall into validating 'Leave it to Beaver' cliches about the 1950s, even when her own data contradicts it. She does remind the reader that the image of the 1950s as normal and iconic is in error: "It was not, as common wisdom tells us, the last gasp of 'traditional' family life...it was the first wholehearted effort to create a home that would fulfill virtually all its members' personal needs through an energized and expressive personal life" in American history (May 11). Some of the most interesting parts of her book…
They did not have the same degree of patience, however, as the more subdued feminists, and they wanted change now. They wanted to choose whether they had children, whether they got married, and whether they could or could not perform a certain task instead of allowing a man or group of men (the government, for example) to choose for them. They stuck by the posters of 'Rosie the Riveter' that were around during the war and depicted a woman doing a man's job - and doing it well.
These women saw themselves as strong and capable and tough, and they were also much more in tune with their sexuality than past generations had been. They were not afraid of being women. The sexuality issue was confusing and uncomfortable for a lot of men. Men saw women as sexual objects, but they were not comfortable with the idea that they women…
The main Woolworth's store was already on strike, and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees Union (HERE) was threatening to escalate the strike to all of the stores in Detroit." (Cobble, 2003)
Myra had been nicknamed the: "attling elle of Detroit" by media in the Detroit area because Myra is said to have:.." relished a good fight with employers, particularly over the issues close to her heart. A lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) she insisted, for example, on sending out racially integrated crews from the union's hiring hall, rejecting such standard employer requests as 'black waiters only, white gloves required." (Cobble, 2003) Myra was involved in many more organized protests and strikes and is stated to "consider herself a feminists...outspoken about her commitment to end sex discrimination...lobbied against the ERA until 1972...chaired the national committee against a repeal of women-only state labor…
Cobble, Dorothy Sue (2003) the Other Women's Movement: Workplace Justice and Social Rights in Modern America. Princeton University Press. Chapter One online available at http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i7635.html
Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. By Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),
Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)
Louise Newman, White Women's Rights (1999)
Espionage was also a seious domestic concen, which was emphasized in postes admonishing gossip and iesponsible convesation. These postes caied themes like "Loose lips sink ships" and the enemy is always listening."
Question D. What acial, ethnic and gende steeotypes can be found in these postes? What attitudes towad the Gemans and Japanese did the postes pomote?
Domestic watime postes typically potayed the enemy in the wost steeotypical images, such as caicatues of Japanese that emphasized thei diffeent physical featues, including vey exaggeated negative taits. Postes of Japanese efeed to "Japs" and Nips" and pictued potuding at-like font teeth and idiculously thick eyeglasses.
Likewise, postes potaying Gemans included efeences to "Kauts" and depicted the enemy as obese, bee-guzzling chaactes dessed in "leidehosen" and holding taditional Geman bee mugs in one hand and stings of Geman sausages in the othe. Altenatively, postes of the Geman enemy featued caicatues of Adolph Hitle…
references to "Krauts" and depicted the enemy as obese, beer-guzzling characters dressed in "leiderhosen" and holding traditional German beer mugs in one hand and strings of German sausages in the other. Alternatively, posters of the German enemy featured caricatures of Adolph Hitler and the Nazi party members.
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
Fashion: a Reflection of Society's Attitudes.
Fashion is not just art, it is a measure of social attitudes for a particular period in history. Today, a woman cyclist will most likely be wearing spandex and skin-tight bicycle shorts. Her male counterpart will be wearing the same. hat is acceptable now would have been scandalous in our mother's time. This paper will illustrate through example that fashion is a reflection of societal attitudes.
A British perspective shed some light on the idea of moral decency and on ideas about woman's dress in the beginning of the nineteenth century. Richard Gooch in Bad Fashion and Poor Dental Hygiene of American omen., New York, 1834 said the following.
"Perhaps one reason for American ladies wearing such short garments is that they are generally admired for small and pretty feet. Nevertheless, it is impossible for an English eye not to be shocked at the…
Fields, Jill. Fighting the Corsetless Evil: Shaping Corsets and Culture, 1900-1930. Journal of Social History. Winter 1999. Complete reprint accessed February 2002. Found on http://womenshistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fin darticles.com%2Fcf_0%2Fm2005%2F2_33%2F58675450%2Fp1%2Farticle.jhtml
Richard Gooch. Bad Fashion and Poor Dental Hygiene of American Women. New York City.
1834. Reprinted in its entirety at Women in America 1920-1842. Accessed February,
World War II was carried out on the home front, how it was presented to the American people and conducted in America. World War II never really touched American shored, but it certainly made a difference in American lives.
On December 8, 1941, President Franklin D. oosevelt addressed congress and asked them to declare war on Japan after their unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7. He called December 7 "a date which will live in infamy," and it brought Americans directly into the war, and their lives changed. As soon as oosevelt declared war, thousands of patriotic and emotional Americans hurried to enlist and help fight the war. These young people were angry about the Japanese attacks, and they wanted to defend their country. Young men enlisted in the Armed Forces, and young women signed up as nurses, and even pilots, helping to ferry airplanes from one…
Daniels, Roger. "10 Bad News from the Good War: Democracy at Home During World War II." The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Eds. O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. 157-167.
O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons, eds. The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
advertising through the years in the popular magazine, The Ladies Home Journal. The writer uses examples of ads as well as a discussion about advertising changes to explore the way history dictates advertising. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
From the beginning of the advertising industry, ads have been historical records of the history of the nation. Whether it is a cleaning product, a service, or other advertising need, the tone and look of the ad is dictated and driven by society. The Ladies Home Journal has been a mainstay in America when it comes to print ads. It presents a classic roadmap of historic changes in societal attitudes through the advertisements that it has printed. Through the 1930's 1940's and 1950's the ads in the magazine portray the changing attitudes regarding women and their place in society.
The ads in the Ladies Home Journal magazine through…
A Brief History of Modern Contraceptive Ads
(This site provided me with the understanding that LHJ complied with the advertisers push to manipulate females)
Advertising's Portrayal of Women in the Workplace from the 1930s to the 1950s
History of World War II: American Involvement and Social Effects of the War on America
Many people think that the United States' involvement in World War II did not actually begin until Japan infamously attacked the American navy base at Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941. However, in truth, even before the Pearl Harbor attack by the Japanese, the American President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and other U.S. military, industrial, and economic leaders had taken initial steps to mobilize the nation into a wartime economy. In terms of both mobilization at home and social effects of the war, the onset of World War II contributed greatly to changes, many of them permanent, in American society and the American way of life.
In the build-up to the war, American factories were offered economic rewards by the government for adopting wartime production modes and practices. Consequently, United States industry focused increasingly on…
History of Fashion: HO TO MARRY a MILLIONAIRE 1953 (Monroe)
History of Fashion: How to Marry a Millionaire
How to Marry a Millionaire is a 1953 romantic comedy set in New York City starring Betty Grable, Marilyn Monroe, and Lauren Bacall, directed by Jean Negulesco. The costumes of the film, as designed by Charles Le Maire, showcase the 'New Look' popularized by Christian Dior. The 'New Look' (as exemplified most prominently in the red, full-skirted gown worn by Marilyn Monroe in a scene set in a powder room) featured sweeping skirts, a tiny cinched waist, and an exaggerated bosom. It was an ultra-feminine ideal that stood in stark contrast to the more practical, comfortable, and androgynous appearance of orld ar II fashion. The style of the New Look was far more restrictive and made women look more like artificial adornments than the ideal of 'Rosie the Riveter.' omen during the…
"Christian Dior." The Design Museum. [20 Mar 2012]
U.S. Women in 1930s-1940s
Women's History and 19th Amendment
On August 26, 1920, Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby quietly signed the Nineteenth Amendment into law. By guaranteeing all Americans the right to vote "irrespective of sex," the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment capped more than half a century's worth of struggle by finally recognizing a woman's right to vote.
The Nineteenth Amendment was an important milestone in women's rights. However, the suffragettes who thought that equality would be achieved through the vote were sadly mistaken.
This paper examines how despite the passage of the right to vote, the structures of sexual and gender-based inequity continued. It examines women's experiences from the Great Depression through the Second World War, giving particular focus on the activism and experiences of poor women and women of color.
Working Women in the 1930s
In the book Gender and Jim Crow, Glenda Gilmore points to a…
Bernikow, Louise. 1997. The American Women's Almanac: An Inspiring and Irreverent Women's History. New York: Berkley.
Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. 1996. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Ito, Leslie. 2000. "Japanese-American women and the student relocation movement, 1942-1945."
Frontiers. 21(3). Proquest Database.
Embedded Communication in Advertising
"There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interest." -- JI Fowles, in Advertising's Fifteen asic Appeals
"Good advertising does not just circulate information. It penetrates the public mind with desires and belief." -- Leo urnett, Advertising Executive and Creator of the Marlboro Man
"The ability to attract new smokers and develop them into a young adult franchise is key to brand development." 1999 Philip Morris report
When the preceding collection of opinions regarding the influence of modern advertising are considered in conjunction with the iconic advertising image shown above, it becomes quite clear that, much like advertising itself, forming an informed position on this ubiquitous aspect of modern marketing is simply a matter of perception and perspective (elch 120). Corporate conglomerates and other private enterprises ascribe tremendous value to the persuasive power of advertising, bombarding the general public…
Altman, David G., Michael D. Slater, Cheryl L. Albright, and Nathan Maccoby. "How an unhealthy product is sold: Cigarette advertising in magazines, 1960 -- 1985." Journal of Communication 37, no. 4 (1987): 95-106.
Belch, George E., Michael A. Belch, and Angelina Villarreal. "Effects of advertising communications: Review of research." Research in marketing (1987).
Bovee, Courtland L., and William F. Arens. "The Indictments Against Advertising." Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education, 2008. 685-691. Print.
De Gregorio, Federico, and Yongjun Sung. "Understanding attitudes toward and behaviors in response to product placement." Journal of Advertising 39, no. 1 (2010): 83-96.
Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II: Article Review
In the article entitled “Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II” by Xiaojian Zhao, the author examines that role that Chinese American women played during WWII when they went to work for the Defense Industry and essentially acted as Chinese American versions of the famous Rosie the Riveter who was popularized during the Women’s Movement of 1970s as a throwback to the wartime era and the empowering position that women assumed on the home front as the men went off to war. Overall the works is very fascinating and provides a lot of details about the lives of many of the Chinese American women who helped make the planes and claim their piece of history in the 1940s. The author’s main purpose in writing the article was to show how Chinese American women were not left out…