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Nature Culture and Progress

Words: 2239 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 810359


Jean-Jacques ousseau on the Origin of Inequality

There are apparent relations that exist between human beings and nature and also among themselves. In these relations also exists differences especially among human beings which attract a lot of attention and need explanations since if all are human beings then why the differences that exist among them. If all mankind have the same will and are from the same source, be it the evolutionary or the supernatural source, then there should be equal opportunities that would make man have equal chances and hence same lifestyle within the community, however, this is not the situation hence the need to get an explanation as to why these differences and discrepancies that exist between people. There have been various attempts to explain what brings the differences between people and among the philosophers that have given famous and renowned explanations is Jean-Jacques ousseau in his…… [Read More]


Dickinson, E., & Vendler, H. (2010). Dickinson: Selected Poems and Commentaries. Cambridge, Mass: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Dickinson, E., & McNeil, H. (2002). Emily Dickinson. London: Phoenix Poetry.

Collins, B., Hobson, C., & Pacific Editions. (2002). Taking off Emily Dickinson's clothes. San Francisco: Pacific Editions

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (1754). A dissertation on the Origin and Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from Http://
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Education of Young Children John

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2363274

" [EU: I.III, 3]

Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.

However ousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in ousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. ousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a…… [Read More]


Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. New York: Oxford UP, 1975.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Emile, Julie and Other Writings. Edited by R.L. Archer. New York: Barron, 1964.

Rousseau, Emile, Julie and Other Writings, 80.
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Realist Liberal Critical Theorist

Words: 1627 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68801795

ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist

ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?

What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?

There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)

Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…… [Read More]


Froese, Katrin. "Beyond Liberalism: the moral community of Rousseau's social

Contract." Canadian Journal of Political Science 34 (2001): 579-581.

Hall, Cheryl. "Reason, passion, and politics in Rousseau." Polity 34 (2001): 69-89.

Merriman-Webster. "Realism" and "Liberalism." 30 Nov. 2004.
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Political Philosophies

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98524724

Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice. Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes. As both…… [Read More]

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Life Is Revealed in This

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 36233528

Rousseau believes that people have unalienable rights that each form of government will have to guarantee these rights in order to survive. He finds it of paramount importance that people are able to obtain a status of personal freedom that enables them to express their own political will and to elect a government that will respect the will of the people. This form of government did not exist when the treatise was published in 1762. Rousseau disapproves of the then form of French societal order. He tries to develop a social and political concept that solves the tension between balancing the individual rights of people against the restrictions they had to endure. Rousseau asks for a form of government that will defend and protect the individual person and its property on the one hand and will guarantee on the other hand that each person, while "uniting himself with other citizens…… [Read More]

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Solutions to Current Public Problems

Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42470022

So I am glad to see something slow this massive reform down.

Nietzsche: Piddle! "Man does not repudiate suffering… he desires it" (598). He heaps guilt upon himself as a means of achieving meaning. hy should I pay for anything to benefit my fellow man. A pox on healthcare reform!

Rousseau: As I have written, "the sovereign cannot impose on subjects any fetters that are of no use to the community" (33). e do have some obligation to help each other out, and through doing so, help ourselves with the cost savings proposed. I am sad to see abortion offered as an obstacle.

Machiavelli: ell, princes should not be afraid of being seen as mean to those whom they are not likely to get anything from anyway (XVI, 1). So by passing reform in spite of objections, they get the dual benefit of being seen by liberal by those whom…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adamy, J, and Hitt, G. (2009, December 7) Abortion Emerges as Top Bill Threat. WSJ. Retrieved from .

Ball, J, and Forrell, C. (2009, December 7). Business Fumes Over Carbon Dioxide Rule. WSJ. Retrieved from .

Locke, J. (1980). Second Treatise of Government. Indianapolis, Hackett.

Miachiavelli, N. (n.d.) The Prince. Retrieved online at .
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John Kotter Confucious Machiavelli and

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39141893

He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:

Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kotter, John. Biography. Harvard Business School, 2007. Website: .

Kotter, John. Leading Change. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.

Kotter, John. Power and Influence. New York: Simon & Schuster Free Press.1985.
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Organizational Behavior in the New

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36976257

he findings in the article are persistent in that they show that these themes are important. However, whether they are persistent in the sense that they appear in every organization and are changing with the culture is harder to say. here are so many organizations today, big and small, and they all operate in different ways. No two organizations are completely identical and this must be taken into account more carefully, because one cannot make a blanket statement regarding organizational behavior and culture.

Research that is done into organizing is not only building upon but also extending many of the traditional concepts that have been seen in the field (Rousseau, 1997). his must continue. here are also some assumptions of organizational behavior research which are now finally being superseded by those people and ideas and assumptions that are more responsive to a new era in organizational behavior (Rousseau, 1997). hat…… [Read More]

There are several key research themes in the article, and these include emerging employment relations, goal-setting and self-management, managing the performance paradox, organizational learning, organizational change, individual transitions, discontinuous information processing, and implications for change based on work-nonwork relationships (Rousseau, 1997). The findings in the article are persistent in that they show that these themes are important. However, whether they are persistent in the sense that they appear in every organization and are changing with the culture is harder to say. There are so many organizations today, big and small, and they all operate in different ways. No two organizations are completely identical and this must be taken into account more carefully, because one cannot make a blanket statement regarding organizational behavior and culture.

Research that is done into organizing is not only building upon but also extending many of the traditional concepts that have been seen in the field (Rousseau, 1997). This must continue. There are also some assumptions of organizational behavior research which are now finally being superseded by those people and ideas and assumptions that are more responsive to a new era in organizational behavior (Rousseau, 1997). That is important because it shows a lot of progress, but there are still questions to be answered. The most pressing of these questions is whether the changes that are taking place apply to all types of organizations or whether the size of the organization and the culture of it are larger factors than the 'fact' that the organizational behavior seems to be changing overall. Without being able to look at organizations from all different types of groups and cultures it is truly very difficult to say that organizational behavior overall is really that different. One must have a clear definition of what makes up an organization, what kind of behavior that organization had in the past, and then how it changed and why in order to really present a clear picture of the entire issue.

Rousseau, Denise M. 1997. Organizational behavior in the new organizational era. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 515-546.
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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
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Reconciliation of the Liberties

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66459065

Reconciliation of the Liberties

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosopher in the eighteenth century who wrote about topics as varied as religion and politics. He famously worked on a treatise with respect to government that attempted to explain what government should be. His thoughts, called "On the Social Contract," were an attempt to reconcile the liberties of the ancients and the moderns (as they were called being, as yet, modern to Rousseau). His belief was that actual government should be as close to true human nature as is possible. This nature, he said, was such that it wanted no government, but that it needed to be a part of a collective to receive both protection and goods. He related that there were ancient societies which tried to do this, and that the liberty of the moderns was much the same because people did not change. The general nature of man had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Constant, Benjamin. Political Writings. Trans. Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.

Habermas, Jurgen. "Three Normative Models of Democracy." in, Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political, Seyla Benhabib (Ed.) Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. pp. 21-30. Print.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. On the Social Contract. Trans. G. DH Cole. Dover, UK: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. Print.
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Affect of the Enlightenment on the French Revolution

Words: 3655 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73628922

Enlightenment on the French evolution

evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.

Introduction to the French evolution

When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…… [Read More]


Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." Department of English, Washington State University (May 2000).

Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Durham: Duke

University Press, 1991.

Fieser, James. "Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at
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Noble Savage in Age of Atlantic Revolutions

Words: 4909 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93388118

noble savage..." etc.

The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution

When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…… [Read More]


Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: ]

Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: ]
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The Romantic Child and Emile

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Seminar Paper Paper #: 25084304

This is one of the major aspects of Romanticism, a notion that was entirely missing from raising children up to this point.
ook II of Emile describes the educational framework of a child's formative years, most likely from the approximate ages of seven to eleven or twelve, within Rousseau's philosophy. In this theory, education in this stage should take place within the context of personal experiences and interactions with the outside world. The emphasis should be on developing the senses and drawing inferences from them. ook III has the child successfully integrated with the physical world and ready to make a decision regarding his trade, which Rousseau believed was necessary in order for him to search out the appropriate role models and focus on the necessary skills.
ook IV is the section that interests this writer the most. The child is now physically strong and able to carefully observe and…… [Read More]

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. (1979) Emile (or On Education). Translation by Bloom, Alan. New York: Basic Books.
Stroup, William. (Jan. 2003-Dec. 2004) The Romantic Child. Literature Compass. Volume 1, Issue 1.
Ferguson, Frances. (Winter 2003) The Afterlife of the Romantic Child: Rousseau and Kant Meet Deleuze and Guattari. The South Atlantic Quarterly. Vol. 102, No. 1, pp. 215-234.
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Social Contract and Discourses on

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 59809768

The Sovereign can only demand from the citizens those services that serve for the purpose of the community (ousseau, 15).

ousseau explains why the general will "is always in the right" in a civil society (idem). The society is always conditioned by "the true principle of equity" (idem) that should guide its laws. A civil society binds its citizens under the same conditions and gives them the same rights. The absolute power of the body politic, that is, the Sovereign, is legitimate in making an act of sovereignty because "it is based on the social contract, and equitable, because common to all" (idem, 16).

The civil society provides its members a "better and more secure life" than what they had before uniting in forming it (idem, 16). The civil society gives its citizens liberty in exchange for their natural independence, security, in exchange for the right to harm others and…… [Read More]

Rousseau, J.J. The Social Contract, a Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, and a Discourse on Political Economy. Publishing, 2006

Hobbes, T. The Leviathan. Kessinger Publishing, 2004

Locke, J. Two Treatises of Government. Kessinger Publishing, 2004
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Classic Liberalism Tradition Classical Liberalism Tradition Comes

Words: 1158 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75533953

Classic Liberalism Tradition

Classical liberalism tradition comes from a tradition of thinkers who developed an ideology, rather than a political system. Although many say that classical liberalism stopped after the nineteenth century, libertarians argue that is no interruption in the classical liberal tradition. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx offer a critique of various aspects of the Classical Liberal Tradition argument.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was somewhat supportive of the liberalism tradition, which argues that society exists in order to protect the basic inalienable rights of its citizens. However, he also disagreed with the tradition.

According to Rousseau" "Man is born free and yet we see him everywhere in chains. Those who believe themselves the masters of other ceases not to be even greater slaves than the people they govern. How this happens, I am ignorant but I believe it may be in my power to resolve the question." (p. 205)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Santoni, Ronald, Somerville, John. Social and Political Philosophy. Anchor, 1963.

Classic Liberalism Tradition
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Forced Nature Or How the

Words: 2079 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49083148

Rousseau implied that this proved the point that women ought to serve their husbands and children, and that they had no need to be educated as a man. Wollenscraft used the fact that women must bear children as evidence that they must be educated, because as they age they will need consolations of the mind to keep them satisfied as their motherhood and old age draws them away from the sensual pleasures of youth. A good mother and grandmother, she would suggest, will not be a Roussean heroine constantly hoping to passively seduce men and defining her life accordingly.

Unlike Rousseau or those scholars which based their opinion on old bones, the feminist thinkers of the Enlightenment based the core of their arguments regarding women on the same arguments which male philosophers of the era used to support universal (white) male suffrage and democratic proceedings. During this era, philosophers (including…… [Read More]

Bibliography de Gouges, Olympe. "The Declaration of the Rights of Women." in: SOURCE. pgs 124-128

Schiebinger, Londa. The Mind has No Sex. Harvard University Press: Cambrige, 1989.

Wollenscraft, Mary. "Women and the 'Rights of Man.' In: SOURCE. pgs 56-62
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Philosophical Bents of Dostoevsky More

Words: 2284 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76868854


Oddly enough, this passage paints a brighter picture of Nietzsche than popular thought attributes to him. Nietzsche here presents a direct path -- unlike Rousseau -- out of the swamps of nothingness: the path is not necessarily religion, nor is it secularism. Rather, it is a lack of contradiction.

Nietzsche urges each man to evaluate just what he believes and desires and understand for himself whether he wishes to credit God or himself. In other words, Nietzsche calls upon man to answer the age old question: fate or control?

If mankind avoids contradiction here, he is able to pick himself up by the bootstraps and re-instill into his life some of the soul and passion that Rousseau bleakly believes is missing.

In fact, Nietzsche had a great argument with Rousseau's thinking: this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. Nietzsche…… [Read More]

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Question 1 I Disagree With

Words: 783 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5892132

Rousseau is
right in this instance, as English people who vote for Members of
Parliament can no longer control the actions of their representatives once
they are voted to office. Thus, their only recourse to altering the
political landscape is the elections.
In The Social Contract, Rousseau specifies that "The deputies of the
people, therefore, are not and cannot be its representatives," thus
reflecting on the fact that Parliament members act on their own behalf and
not of the people (Rousseau). This is because the members have control and
not the people as soon as they are elected. Election day is the only day
which the people can control the outcome, yet all it does is determine who
will be in Parliament and still has no actually control over the results of
Parliament. Members of Parliament have control over the laws, regardless
of what the desires of the people are.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Laslett, Peter and W.G. Runiciman, Ed. Philosophy, Politics, and Society
(Second Series).

Oxford, United Kingdom: Basil Blackwell, 1962.

Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Social Contract. 1762. 4 Mar 2007.
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Vision for Society A Just Society the

Words: 2901 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21139932

Vision for Society: A Just Society

The Vision: A Just Society

It is a moral duty for those in immigration department to ensure that immigrants get free English classes to help them promote their own life. In AACA, there are rules that do not allow employees to help immigrants. For instance, reading letters for immigrants who cannot read and understand English is not a responsibility of AACA staff. In this regard, clients end up going back with unsolved problems because AACA staffs are not obliged to assist them. Although such acts do not form part of the organization's duty, helping these immigrants read bills and solve their problems is a moral duty that calls for commonsense. Commonsensical thoughts from Kant's point-of-view begin with the idea that what is good; is a good will. The thought of good will is a noteworthy reasonable decisive factor that Kant employs all through his…… [Read More]


Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline & Punishment. London: Knopf Doubleday Publishing


Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed: 30th anniversary edition. London:

Continuum International Publishing Group.
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How important is the idea of equality to each theorist

Words: 1911 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63683326

John Stuart Mill and the idea of equality

Society typically views the triad nexus of politicians, bureaucracies and the financial elite suspiciously, believing they breach the common man’s rights, and, consequently, strives to ensure they behave as it desires. Mills argues, “the government, whether completely responsible to the people or not, will often attempt to control the expression of opinion, except when in doing so it makes itself the organ of the general intolerance of the public (pg. 376).”

The above societal attitude is understandable as this triad nexus has violated people’s will and freedom. As a result, democracies were created in which the common man is allowed to take part in national decision-making. However, in a democratic system the community will govern governmental decisions, giving rise to a self-governing nation. However, Mills warns and asserts that in democratic systems, public opinion (i.e., the majority’s opinion) quells the minority’s views…… [Read More]

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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26697487

In this way, religion was used in an attempt not only to make the proletariat content with their lives of alienation, exploitation and poverty, but also as a way to actually encourage them to want less and to enjoy their low stations in life as a sign of their future happiness in the religious afterlife. Regardless of Marx's beliefs concerning the Christian faith, or any other religious belief system, his critique of religion was aimed not at religious institutions per se, but at their implementation of religion as a means of subjugation.

It is for this reason that Marx believes the emancipation of humanity will necessarily involve an emancipation from religion. Because religious teachings, as Marx sees them, reinforce the ideals that create and maintain the inequalities of the capitalist system, such teachings must be done away with if the proletariat are to be able to make fully informed and…… [Read More]

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Personal Philo One of the

Words: 2584 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74764397

" (7)

Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.

Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…… [Read More]

9. Woolhouse, R.S. (1995) Locke: A Biography. Cambridge University.

10. Pinker, Steven. (2007) the Blank Slate, New York: Penguin Books.

11. Grasha, Anthony. (1989) Teaching Styles. Cambridge University.
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Education Philosophical Influences on American

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88283685

There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)

No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.


Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]


Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from 

Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from 

Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from
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Political Science Comparison of Leadership

Words: 3091 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3700418

(Ng, 1994, p. 93)

The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.

Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]


Bassnett, S. (1988). Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective. Oxford: Berg Publishers.


Hanh, T.N. (2000). Three Zen Buddhist Ethics. In Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values (pp. 98-140). New York: Seven Bridges Press.
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Civilized Societies Develop Rules and Laws That

Words: 1989 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89825192

civilized societies develop rules and laws that its members are expected to follow. The rules are in place for the purpose of cohesive living among the community and for the most part they have a positive impact on the society that they govern. In this scenario the rules and laws are not followed and in fact are completely disobeyed, yet the person who violates the societal norm not only gets away with it, but he is rewarded for his actions by being elected as a leader and ruling in power for the remainder of his life. Two well-known philosophers bring to light some understanding about how this could have happened.

In the scenario a man named John murders a mean and ruthless person who has lied and cheated his way to the top. The victim is so rich that others in the community are forced to go hungry while he…… [Read More]


Kant's Philosophy

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
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Problems in Philosophy

Words: 1724 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27391738


The Greek philosopher Plato's concept of justice in "The Republic" demonstrates his belief in the path towards rationality of the individual and society. In his discourse, he talks about the rational individual as a just individual and is guided by the pursuit of the common good. The philosopher demonstrates this by justifying that in one's pursuit to achieve self-discovery and self-realization, it is inevitable that one should interact with his/her society. Once the individual realizes his/her fullest potential and demonstrates this by committing just acts, then society in effect becomes influenced by this act of justice. However, Plato also clarifies that a just and unjust individual may pursue different paths and goals in life, but in the end, both individuals contribute to the coherence and harmony in the society. The just individual showed what behavior is desirable because it is beneficial for the society, while the unjust individual becomes…… [Read More]

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Thoreau A Man for All

Words: 1122 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 33198650

The ideal would be for human beings to be free, perfectly free, but this is not possible, Rousseau notes, given that a totally savage and free world means that the strongest person dominates the weaker people around him -- and the strongest will eventually establish a tyranny to serve his own aims, not the needs and rights of others. Locke also believed that a collective society was necessary to protect life, liberty, and property, and so long as ethical individuals enforced the system according to a rule of law, this was superior to a total state of nature. This form of collective protection often subtly threatened freedom, Thoreau believed, in a way that was just as damaging as political oppression, so he left for Walden to isolate himself from all of society.

Thoreau attempted to live an ideal, and to make his life meaningful, not living a slave to conventions…… [Read More]

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Revolutions Compare and Contrast the

Words: 480 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41314624

He believed that if people join together and make a social contract they can both preserve their nation and remain free (Rousseau 93).

The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a ten-year period of upheaval in France as it was throughout Europe during the period which followed the American Revolution. In France, the political climate changed from a monarchy with aristocrats and much influence by the Catholic Church to a democracy. Citizens formulated their desires for rights and privileges equal to the aristocracy and, fighting for this ideal, won it.

The preamble to the French Constitution is a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." The Declaration of Rights says that "No one shall be disturbed for his opinions, even religious, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law" (Knight 2).

The Constitution of the United States also has a preamble that declares that the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the discovery of the American continent. (1854-78), vol 7-10. Boston: Little, Brown, and company.

Knight, Kevin. French Revolution. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2006. .

Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy. Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books. 2003.

Rousseau, George S. Nervous Acts: Essays on Literature, Culture and Sensibility. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004.
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Nietzsche and Nihilism Nihilism Was the Term

Words: 2070 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8952586

Nietzsche and Nihilism

"Nihilism" was the term used by Friederich Nietzsche to describe what he considered the devaluation of the highest values posited by the ascetic ideal. The age in which he lived was viewed by the German philosopher as one of passive nihilism, which he defined as the unawareness of the fact that the religious and philosophical absolutes had dissolved in the emergence of the 19th century Positivism. Since traditional morality collapsed, along with its metaphysical and theological foundations, the only thing that remained was a sense of meaningless and purposelessness.

The triumph of meaninglessness coincides with the triumph of nihilism, under the slogan "God is dead." Nietzsche believed that people would start seeking absoluteness in nationalism, just as they previously did it in philosophy and religion, a conception which later lead to catastrophically consequences.

Nihilism is most often associated with Nietzsche. The philosopher felt that there is no…… [Read More]


1. Elbe, S, European Nihilism and Annihilation in the Twentieth Century. Totalitarian Movements & Political Religions, Winter2000, Vol. 1 Issue 3, p43

2.Ramos, A., Triumph of the will. Review of Politics, Winter96, Vol. 58 Issue 1, p181

3. Berges, S. Plato's Defence of Justice:Socrates contra Nietzsche University of Leeds

4. Encyclopedia Briatannica 1997 edition -- Articles on Nietzsche