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ousseau's work on The Social Contract begins with a legendary ringing indictment of society as it exists: "Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains" (ousseau 1993, p. 693). Before examining ousseau's theory of government in greater detail, however, it is worth noting what assumptions are contained in this first sentence of The Social Contract, which is perhaps the most famous line that ousseau ever wrote. It contains an assumption about human nature -- that somehow the nature of man is "free" and that the government that exists at the time of ousseau's publication in 1762 is somehow an unjust imposition upon that freedom. This is important to note because ousseau, not unlike his predecessors Locke and Hobbes, needs to establish a theory of human nature before he can outline a theory of just government. It is worth noting that in the same year ousseau published The Social…… [Read More]
Thus, it becomes necessary for society to compel this individual to act in accordance to the general will in order to stall a descent into arbitrary standards and meaningless identifications, and because acting in accordance with the general will means exercising reason and the freedom of thought and expression, this compelling takes the form of forcing someone to be free. The individual is ultimately compelled by society to utilize the full extent of his or her reasoning capabilities, which is ultimately the only means of achieving any true freedom, as freedom of action can only come from freedom of thought, expression, and an accurate, reasonable view of objective reality.
It is important to note that even in the instance where society compels an individual to obey the general will, the individual is still not suffering any kind of undue infringement of rights, because by definition the force exerted on that…… [Read More]
Rousseau: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
This is a paper that argues and proves how Rousseau would have reacted to the Declaration of Rights in the light of the French Revolutionaries. It has 3 sources.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen produced by the French Revolutionaries is considered as one of the founding documents of the human rights tradition. This paper argues that the document accurately represents Rousseau concept of the "ocial Contract" and that it had a foremost influence on the intellectual development of the French Revolution. The paper concludes that Rousseau would have agreed to most of the "Articles" in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, as it ensures both liberty and equality among men, two of the most fundamental concept in Rousseau's political philosophy.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the prolific western thinkers who believed that…… [Read More]
Rousseau on Corruption: Its Causes and Elimination
Proprietary Ownership as the Underlying Problem in Human Society
According to Rousseau, elements of human societies promote conflict in and of themselves. Specifically, Rousseau explains in his Discourse on Inequality (1754) that the very concept of proprietary ownership, especially of real property (i.e. land ownership), is unnatural and necessarily leads to respective comparisons, competition, and envy. He argues that those who come to own large amounts of property inevitably become part of a privileged class and that everybody else is relegated to being less privileged and comparatively disadvantaged. Furthermore, in addition to inspiring envy and class conflict within individual societies, the concept of proprietary ownership, according to Rousseau, also explains the antagonism that so frequently leads to conflict and warfare between different societies.
The Origin of Corruption in Human Societies
According to Rousseau, there are four fundamental human impulses promoted by proprietary ownership…… [Read More]
In Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume discuss the relationship between sympathy, natural virtue, artificial virtue, and human nature. How (if at all) do they function in Hume's account of society?
Our moral evaluation of a person comes through our sentiments -- through that which gives us pleasure or repugnance and through which we see as beneficial for the well-ordering of society. So a negative characteristic such as theft, for instance, called by us a vice is called so since it disrupts the harmony of society, whereas, a 'virtue' such as charity is commended for its constructiveness. It is in this way too that the so-called vice accords repugnance whilst the so-called virtue gives pleasure. In fact, we distinguish between virtue and vice by means of the sentiments that we feel towards these attributes. All of the virtues, moreover, have societal value in that they are either agreeable or pragmatic…… [Read More]
Morality therefore comes within but is associated with the results generated within as well:
The force of an internal sanction derives from the feeling of pleasure which is experienced when a moral law is obeyed and the feeling of pain which accompanies a violation of it (Denise, Peterfreund, and White, 1996, 202).
Kant sees the true nature of the age and stated,
Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without anther's guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance (Kant, 1973, p. 384.
Kant expresses the view that the public can enlighten itself if it is given the freedom to do so, and this would become a starting point for intellectual inquiry in the age as well as for…… [Read More]
Rousseau believed that a sovereign should rule the people, yet the State should be directed by the general will of the people and if some did not wish to go along with the rest they should be forced to do so by everyone else and "be forced to be free." Rousseau was a not really a Communist at heart, and believed that man should have a sovereign to act upon the will of the people. Marx, however, thought it would be best for the workers to rise up and take away the property, factories and property owned by the few in the ruling class in the name of Communism. Marx believed that Communists should "openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions," in the Communist revolution. "The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains," he said in Section III,…… [Read More]
Perhaps war is sometimes necessary. But always soldiers must remember they are not fighting as individuals, they have sacrificed their individuality for the common benefit, so others, paradoxically, can enjoy being individuals in society.
The contradictions of war can never be fully resolved -- for the rest of their countrymen to live safely and not live in a brutal state of nature, soldiers kill. To be individuals and to be able to enjoy culture rather than constantly wage a struggle for the fittest, soldiers sacrifice their individuality for the sake of a grievance that is not their own in brutal battle. And as part of the modern nation-state, all human beings likewise commit similar 'infractions' of their personal liberty, spanning any number of actions they would not otherwise perform, from paying taxes, to serving on juries, to obeying the petty laws about garbage collecting of their town or municipality. To…… [Read More]
They are often discouraged from running around, exploring the world and obeying their instincts, and instead are forced to go against those instincts. Children are compelled to obey adult rules and laws, and 'sit still and learn' when they are told to do so.
While Rousseau's belief about when children should learn to read seems fairly late, especially considering what we now know about the development of the human brain, his stress upon learning through doing seems valuable. Rousseau would strongly support having art, music, and hands-on aspects of education in the schools, which he would see as more in keeping with natural childhood inclinations. Although Rousseau was an idealist, many of his suggestions can be translated into more practical applications, especially in the natural sciences and the arts.
Chapter 5: How did Rousseau view women in general, as mothers and as wives? Which of his opinions are still fairly…… [Read More]
John Keats and Jean Jacques Rousseau
Loneliness and Suffering: Romanticism in "Ode on Melancholy" by John Keats and "Confessions" by Jean Jacques Rousseau
etween the period of 18th and 19th centuries, Western civilization bore witness to important social movements that significantly influenced the culture of human societies extant during these periods. In terms of literature and philosophy, 18th century gave birth to the age of Enlightenment, while the 19th century paved the way for Romanticism, movements that influenced people's contemplation of the future of humanity, realities, and self-realizations in life.
John Keats and Jean Jacques Rousseau are examples of philosophers and writers who subsisted to the principles of Romanticism and the Enlightenment. As reflected in their writings, each have discussed the prevalent thoughts of their time: Rousseau promoted the intellectual development that flourished during the Enlightenment, while Keats contemplated life through emotional expressions that dominated Romanticism.
In Keats' "Ode on…… [Read More]
Several theorists have used social contract theory to understand the government’s role in taking care of the public and addressing the public’s needs. Current political issues offer further examination of social contract theory and how it may help with understanding government obligation and public participation. Rousseau's social contract theory is best and most relevant for understanding and offering solutions to contemporary political issues like mandatory vaccination, taxation, and universal healthcare because it offers a foundation from which to explain the perceived obligations of both the government and the public. Rousseau’s version of social contract theory contrasted against other theorists like Hobbes's and Locke's social contact theories demonstrates how one interpretation of a theory may be better suited for modern political issues over others.
According to social contract theory via Locke’s interpretation, when the government remains unsuccessful in securing natural rights or fulfilling society’s best interest often recognized as the…… [Read More]
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rousseau stated in his Social Contract that “Man is born free—and everywhere he is in chains.”[footnoteRef:2] The insistence on man’s nature right of freedom from the Enlightenment Era philosopher helped pave the way for the French Revolution with its insistence on liberty, fraternity and equality. A century and a half later, those same ideals would still hold significant appeal for the Western nations, especially following two World Wars in the 20th century that decimated Europe and parts of Asia. Liberalism was the main driver of the UN’s declaration of human rights—but the coming Cold War, the onset of which was very much in the minds of world leaders immediately following the carve-up of Europe between the unlikely Allies (capitalists in the West, Communists in the East), also played a part in the declaration: the West was anxious to promote itself as the standard bearer…… [Read More]
. . while defending these institutions themselves" (1034-1035). Peled further argues that Rousseau was not able to solve this paradox and it was one of the reasons why he became increasingly pessimistic about modernity. But Rousseau's attempts to reconcile the contradiction in his approach are worth looking at in details.
Although Rousseau abhorred inequality that rose out of private property, he did not hold any illusions about modernity. He believed that private property became an essential component of the modern bourgeois society and economic relations in the modern era could not be free from errors and corruption. So, Rousseau thought that the best solution to modern inequality was to allow private property in limited amounts and regulate it through the state that represents the common will. In a perfect society imagined by Rousseau, the state would honor the right to possess private property but at the same time would retain…… [Read More]
Kant and Rousseau
Reducing Conflicts Between States
The Theories of the Great Philosophers Rousseau and Kant
The great philosophers of the 18th century were the first of their kind to fully encapsulate what it meant to be an ethnocentric state, rather than a simple nation or territory, and also were the first philosophers able to address the question of war between states as not merely individual struggles for dominance, but rather persistent frictions present in the system of states themselves. The formal idea of statehood came of age in the Peace of estphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Year's ar, and affirmed the domination of the central government of each state as the supreme power of the land, rather than any religious or social power. At this time, every state was essentially a dictatorship, and the world was divided into fiefdoms. The peace reached at estphalia created the conditions…… [Read More]
- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.
Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.
He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…… [Read More]
Here, urke argued that revolution in general, and the French Revolution in particular, must be matched with reason and a reluctance to completely give up to radical thinking.
Rousseau gave in directly to the revolution, arguing that it is a direct result of man's socialization, but urke was much more cautious: Revolution is not automatically good for urke, nor is it intrinsic to man.
Given urke's record as a strong supporter of American independence and as a fighter against royalism in England, many readers and thinkers were taken aback when urke published his Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. With this work, urke suddenly went on to became one of the earliest and most passionate English critics of the French Revolution, which he interpreted not as movement towards a representative, constitutional democracy but instead as a violent rebellion against tradition and justified authority and as an experiment…… [Read More]
Locke and Rousseau on the Question of Inequality
John Locke's Second Treatise of Government argues that "men are naturally free" (55). In other words, Locke believed that humans, in their natural state, and prior to the creation of civil society, would have been a kind of sovereign entity, possessing a set of natural rights prescribed by God and nature, and those rights would have afforded individuals the opportunity to protect themselves against the transgressions of others. Societies, for their part, were set up in order to avoid civil, interpersonal, or foreign wars -- wars that might have occurred over a dispute, for example, about property. Locke believed that in the early stages of evolution, humans would have lived with one another as co-owners of the earth and its resources, and given this type of communal existence, humans were all equal. In the natural world, a natural set of laws took…… [Read More]
Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau
Locke defends toleration as a political good, arguing for a widespread general acceptance of different religious beliefs. His view of toleration does have some limits, and he states that an individual is in the state of nature by comparing that individual's state of nature to the state of nature of other people. According to Locke, two people can be said to equal when they are not governed by nor have a higher power to report to. He states this in LETTER, and expands by saying that people are in the state of nature when they do not have a common superior on earth to settle their disputes. According to Locke, the judge is not to be one of the parties to the dispute, since he cannot be his own superior. On earth, God is everyone's superior, but he does not adjudicate and enforce his decisions in…… [Read More]
His quarrel was not with the Supreme Being as such, but with the over-dogmatic Catholicism that inspired him with a sense of awe because of its idolatry and its blind submission to the dogmas: "I had that particular aversion our city entertains for Catholicism, which is represented there as the most monstrous idolatry, and whose clergy are painted in the blackest colors."(Rousseau, 49) Rousseau feels entrapped by the strict code of Catholicism. The witty comparison that he makes between the bells that called him to mass and those that called him to breakfast, i.e. To partake of the pleasures of life, is very telling: "If the bells of the viaticum alarmed me, the chiming for mass or vespers called me to a breakfast, a collation, to the pleasure of regaling on fresh butter, fruits, or milk."(Rousseau, 52) the author feels more comfortable with his own religion, Protestantism, than with Catholicism…… [Read More]
Rousseau offers a mix of philosophical notions of liberty with advice and opinions on how to structure a government that promotes equality and liberty, but not excessively so, that the will of the majority or strong overcomes the will or the rights of the minority. as, unlike the founders of America, Rousseau was not concerned with a real, live, specific historical situation he could to some extent afford to be more theoretical in his orientation. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was even more concerned with the philosophical notions of liberty, but he detached them from their functioning in government and instead was concerned about human being's innate liberty to do morally good or evil actions. Kant saw morality as existing not as something that could be constructed at will by human beings, but as something that existed for all time, and to be commensurate with the categorical imperative, people must act…… [Read More]
Hobbes and Rousseau
The notion of the social contract -- the concept that human society is fundamentally a human construct -- originated in seventeenth-century European thought and was developed throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, receiving perhaps its most dramatic and influential expressions in Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan, published in 1651, and Jean-Jacque Rousseau's The Social Contract, published in 1762. The notion of the social contract itself arises from a conception of the condition of humanity before the contract was established, the so-called 'state of nature', and each of these works embodies a contrasting view of the state of nature from which human society has arisen.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) believed that politics was a science kin to geometry, and that political institutions could be understood using scientific principles. He perceived humans as objects pushed back and forth by powerful forces similar to those that acted upon objects in the physical universe,…… [Read More]
Wollstonecraft & J.J. Rousseau
The influence of humanity and reason in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau on education and women
The age of Enlightenment put forth the importance of humanism and reason, concepts that creates a balance between humanity's innate tendency to experience emotions while at the same time, cultivating a rational view of experiencing sensations and interactions around him/her. Indeed, discourses that were created and published in the 18th century reflected the use of reason in order to elucidate the nature of human beings. 'Enlightenment discourses,' in effect, provide an important insight into the humanism and reason that dwells inside the human mind.
These important concepts of the Enlightenment were shown in the works of Mary Wollstonecraft and Jean Jacques Rousseau. oth being proponents and believers of the principles reflective of the Enlightenment, they expressed their views of how humanism and reason influenced their position…… [Read More]
Social Contract, Rousseau argues that we are all born free and equal, yet do not live either freely or equally. Rousseau then goes on to argue that the construction of the General Will is the means by which people can achieve freedom. The General Will is the social contract where all members of society agree to obey the General Will to be part of society. Rousseau argues that by this General Will, the separate wills of each member of society converge into one. Freedom is achieved because every citizen is equal, each being a single unit of the General Will and having the same amount of influence over it. Rousseau argues that this General Will is the way individuals in society retain their equality and find freedom. Further consideration of the implications of the General Will and the social contract will show that Rousseau's version of freedom and equality may…… [Read More]
The difference resides in the use of the vocabulary. Values can not be decided upon in an arbitrary manner.
In his Two Treatises of government, Locke states that it is people's very own nature which endows them with rights. Under these circumstances, civil society can be considered to exist before the birth of the state. It is society which guarantees the legitimacy of the state and which guarantees a principle of order. The state is a mere instrument through which justice is being done.
When agreeing to the social contract people endow a single authority with an overwhelming power. This authority will make sure that everybody benefits from an impartial justice. Life, liberty and property are the most important rights that the new authority has to protect. In case of a conflict, people will have to make sure that the just principles win.
The role of the government for example…… [Read More]
Kant, Rousseau, Locke
In his book Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, how does Kant apply these concepts? Discuss Kant's EACH use of: - sensibility - transcendental idealism - objective reality - understanding - Copernican revolution
The philosophical concept of transcendental idealism holds that the subjective qualities of human perception affect how we perceive certain objects, and experience is not simply grounded in the qualities of 'things in and of themselves.' e perceive objects through our sensibilities and our sensibilities are not the same as the objective reality of a substance. "Kant's idea is that objects are given through the sensibility (in intuitions), they are thought through the understanding (through concepts), and our experience of them comes from judgments (which involve the synthesis of intuitions and concepts in the unity of apperception). (For Kant, intuitions are representations of empirical objects, as -- indeterminate -- appearances)" ("Sensibility," Kant Dictionary, 2012).
The idea…… [Read More]
S., political decisions and the policies supported by legislators in Washington are, according to many critics, inappropriately subject to the influence of lobbyists. Of course, the most common defense of politicians is that lobbyists never actually receive political favors for their contributions, but merely enjoy greater "access" to voice their concerns to legislators. Obviously, this is a very convenient fiction that completely violates Rousseau's suggestion. The simple truth is that lobbyists, such as the large tobacco companies, prescription drug manufacturers, and the National Rifle
Association (to name just a few of numerous examples) contribute large sums of money to political campaigns and provide every conceivable "perk" allowed by law to legislators for the express purpose of influencing legislators to support laws that are beneficial to their causes.
Rousseau's third and fourth points are equally insightful. As bad as it is for government authorities to misuse established laws, Rousseau points out…… [Read More]
philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.
Rousseau and Nature"
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].
According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit." Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…… [Read More]
Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize his line of reasoning that related to morality for he added that "the truth and certainty of moral discourses abstracts from the lives of men, and the existence of those values in the world, whereof they treat." Locke believed in inquiring everything and denying the authority either of the past or of the clergy for he desired everyone to depend on their own judgment and reasoning which is exactly the he created an contention to defend believing in God, and made sure to rebut the thought that reason is different to faith, saying that faith can never sway us of anything that opposes our knowledge and disagreeing that, apart from in the instance of divine revelation, people must constantly look first…… [Read More]
Kant and David on Causality; Rousseau and Adam Smith on Social Order
Compare and contrast Rousseau and Adam Smith, on the importance of economic or political mark in their account of social order.
Rousseau saw the development of organized political life as synonymous with generating social inequality. As "individuals have more contact with one another and small groupings begin to form, the human mind develops language, which in turn contributes to the development of reason" (Discourse on inequality, Spark Notes, 2012). This development of reason, although it seems like a positive advancement for the species, also enables human beings to compare their lot with others. As institutions are drawn up to govern the new society, persons with greater political and economic strength (generated through holding political or leadership positions or private property) come to dominate over other citizens. The more complex societies become, the more they necessitate divisions of labor,…… [Read More]
In so giving each grants the same rights to others over himself that he is in turn granted by them over them. Each member gains the equivalent of everything he loses, and a greater amount of force to protect what he has. Given these conditions, Rousseau is ready to make his argument:
If therefore one eliminates from the social compact whatever is not essential to it, one will find that it is reducible to the following terms. Each of use places his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and as one we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole."
By locating the binding force of the state in this concept of a general will, Rousseau thinks he has formulated a source for legitimate power. Of course, how he constructs the state comes to be crucial. The devil, as…… [Read More]
Firmin / Gobineau etc.
Is race a construct of the Enlightenment? Obviously the European encounter with a racially-constructed "other" begins a long time before the Enlightenment, with Montaigne's cannibals and Shakespeare's Caliban. But the Enlightenment facilitated a kind of scientism in thought that not only gave rise to new disciplines (like anthropology) but also permitted pseudo-science, like the so-called "scientific racism" of the Comte de Gobineau. I would like to examine how the question of race is first framed by Enlightenment thinkers, but then is later transformed in the twentieth century by thinkers like .E.B. DuBois. If indeed DuBois was correct that "the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line," I will also show how those in the Negritude movement sought to overturn the assumptions of racism while essentially upholding the abstract values of the Enlightenment.
Diderot's Encyclopedie and Rousseau's Discours are both central documents…… [Read More]
Jean-Jacques ousseau on the Origin of Inequality
There are apparent relations that exist between human beings and nature and also among themselves. In these relations also exists differences especially among human beings which attract a lot of attention and need explanations since if all are human beings then why the differences that exist among them. If all mankind have the same will and are from the same source, be it the evolutionary or the supernatural source, then there should be equal opportunities that would make man have equal chances and hence same lifestyle within the community, however, this is not the situation hence the need to get an explanation as to why these differences and discrepancies that exist between people. There have been various attempts to explain what brings the differences between people and among the philosophers that have given famous and renowned explanations is Jean-Jacques ousseau in his…… [Read More]
" [EU: I.III, 3]
Locke consistently favored the role played by parents in early childhood education for he argued that children learn best when they are exposed to knowledge from an early age by their parents. Nurturing by adults was thus an essential component of Locke's education philosophy.
However ousseau did not agree with such intervention. He felt that a child could develop his mental capacities best when allowed to use his own reason without supervision of a guide. The role of nature is more important in ousseau's education philosophy and hence he opposed Locke's views on nurturing. ousseau felt a child had the natural capacity to make sense of his surroundings, gain knowledge from it on his own and hence self-educate himself. He thus doesn't need to depend on adults but rather only on his own reasoning faculty. He thus encouraged freedom and non-habitual learning: He explained that a…… [Read More]
ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist
ousseau: ealist, Liberal, Critical Theorist?
What is ousseau's real Philosophical identity?
There are several questions and ideas to be addressed and analyzed in this paper. One: Is Jean-Jacques ousseau a realist -- can it be said from the assigned essay, without equivocation that his views follow those of classic realism? (ealism: the doctrine that puts forth the idea that universals only exist outside one's mind; the insistence that all things in the empirical world should be explained in terms of the "real world" and not in terms of abstractions or perceptions.)
Based on this essay, is ousseau a liberal in the tradition sense -- not today's "liberal" in the popular juxtaposition of "liberal" and "conservative" -- and do his views follow that thread throughout his extensive narrative? (Liberalism: a moral philosophy that emphasizes religious toleration, personal freedom, governments being led by consent of the governed, economic…… [Read More]
Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice. Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes. As both…… [Read More]
Rousseau believes that people have unalienable rights that each form of government will have to guarantee these rights in order to survive. He finds it of paramount importance that people are able to obtain a status of personal freedom that enables them to express their own political will and to elect a government that will respect the will of the people. This form of government did not exist when the treatise was published in 1762. Rousseau disapproves of the then form of French societal order. He tries to develop a social and political concept that solves the tension between balancing the individual rights of people against the restrictions they had to endure. Rousseau asks for a form of government that will defend and protect the individual person and its property on the one hand and will guarantee on the other hand that each person, while "uniting himself with other citizens…… [Read More]
So I am glad to see something slow this massive reform down.
Nietzsche: Piddle! "Man does not repudiate suffering… he desires it" (598). He heaps guilt upon himself as a means of achieving meaning. hy should I pay for anything to benefit my fellow man. A pox on healthcare reform!
Rousseau: As I have written, "the sovereign cannot impose on subjects any fetters that are of no use to the community" (33). e do have some obligation to help each other out, and through doing so, help ourselves with the cost savings proposed. I am sad to see abortion offered as an obstacle.
Machiavelli: ell, princes should not be afraid of being seen as mean to those whom they are not likely to get anything from anyway (XVI, 1). So by passing reform in spite of objections, they get the dual benefit of being seen by liberal by those whom…… [Read More]
He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:
Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…… [Read More]
he findings in the article are persistent in that they show that these themes are important. However, whether they are persistent in the sense that they appear in every organization and are changing with the culture is harder to say. here are so many organizations today, big and small, and they all operate in different ways. No two organizations are completely identical and this must be taken into account more carefully, because one cannot make a blanket statement regarding organizational behavior and culture.
Research that is done into organizing is not only building upon but also extending many of the traditional concepts that have been seen in the field (Rousseau, 1997). his must continue. here are also some assumptions of organizational behavior research which are now finally being superseded by those people and ideas and assumptions that are more responsive to a new era in organizational behavior (Rousseau, 1997). hat…… [Read More]
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]
Reconciliation of the Liberties
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a philosopher in the eighteenth century who wrote about topics as varied as religion and politics. He famously worked on a treatise with respect to government that attempted to explain what government should be. His thoughts, called "On the Social Contract," were an attempt to reconcile the liberties of the ancients and the moderns (as they were called being, as yet, modern to Rousseau). His belief was that actual government should be as close to true human nature as is possible. This nature, he said, was such that it wanted no government, but that it needed to be a part of a collective to receive both protection and goods. He related that there were ancient societies which tried to do this, and that the liberty of the moderns was much the same because people did not change. The general nature of man had…… [Read More]
Enlightenment on the French evolution
evolutionary changes in the leadership of 18th Century France did not occur overnight or with some sudden spark of defiance by citizens. The events and ideals which led to the French evolution were part of a gradual yet dramatic trend toward individualism, freedom, liberty, self-determination and self-reliance which had been evolving over years in Europe, and which would be called The Enlightenment. This paper examines and analyses the dynamics of The Enlightenment - and also, those individuals who contributed to the growth of The Enlightenment and to the ultimate demise of the Monarchy - in terms of what affect it had on the French evolution.
Introduction to the French evolution
When the legitimate question is raised as to what role, if any, The Enlightenment played in the French evolution, the best evidence from credible historic sources is that The Enlightenment did indeed play an important…… [Read More]
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…… [Read More]
This is one of the major aspects of Romanticism, a notion that was entirely missing from raising children up to this point.
ook II of Emile describes the educational framework of a child's formative years, most likely from the approximate ages of seven to eleven or twelve, within Rousseau's philosophy. In this theory, education in this stage should take place within the context of personal experiences and interactions with the outside world. The emphasis should be on developing the senses and drawing inferences from them. ook III has the child successfully integrated with the physical world and ready to make a decision regarding his trade, which Rousseau believed was necessary in order for him to search out the appropriate role models and focus on the necessary skills.
ook IV is the section that interests this writer the most. The child is now physically strong and able to carefully observe and…… [Read More]
The Sovereign can only demand from the citizens those services that serve for the purpose of the community (ousseau, 15).
ousseau explains why the general will "is always in the right" in a civil society (idem). The society is always conditioned by "the true principle of equity" (idem) that should guide its laws. A civil society binds its citizens under the same conditions and gives them the same rights. The absolute power of the body politic, that is, the Sovereign, is legitimate in making an act of sovereignty because "it is based on the social contract, and equitable, because common to all" (idem, 16).
The civil society provides its members a "better and more secure life" than what they had before uniting in forming it (idem, 16). The civil society gives its citizens liberty in exchange for their natural independence, security, in exchange for the right to harm others and…… [Read More]
Classic Liberalism Tradition
Classical liberalism tradition comes from a tradition of thinkers who developed an ideology, rather than a political system. Although many say that classical liberalism stopped after the nineteenth century, libertarians argue that is no interruption in the classical liberal tradition. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx offer a critique of various aspects of the Classical Liberal Tradition argument.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was somewhat supportive of the liberalism tradition, which argues that society exists in order to protect the basic inalienable rights of its citizens. However, he also disagreed with the tradition.
According to Rousseau" "Man is born free and yet we see him everywhere in chains. Those who believe themselves the masters of other ceases not to be even greater slaves than the people they govern. How this happens, I am ignorant but I believe it may be in my power to resolve the question." (p. 205)…… [Read More]
Rousseau implied that this proved the point that women ought to serve their husbands and children, and that they had no need to be educated as a man. Wollenscraft used the fact that women must bear children as evidence that they must be educated, because as they age they will need consolations of the mind to keep them satisfied as their motherhood and old age draws them away from the sensual pleasures of youth. A good mother and grandmother, she would suggest, will not be a Roussean heroine constantly hoping to passively seduce men and defining her life accordingly.
Unlike Rousseau or those scholars which based their opinion on old bones, the feminist thinkers of the Enlightenment based the core of their arguments regarding women on the same arguments which male philosophers of the era used to support universal (white) male suffrage and democratic proceedings. During this era, philosophers (including…… [Read More]
Oddly enough, this passage paints a brighter picture of Nietzsche than popular thought attributes to him. Nietzsche here presents a direct path -- unlike Rousseau -- out of the swamps of nothingness: the path is not necessarily religion, nor is it secularism. Rather, it is a lack of contradiction.
Nietzsche urges each man to evaluate just what he believes and desires and understand for himself whether he wishes to credit God or himself. In other words, Nietzsche calls upon man to answer the age old question: fate or control?
If mankind avoids contradiction here, he is able to pick himself up by the bootstraps and re-instill into his life some of the soul and passion that Rousseau bleakly believes is missing.
In fact, Nietzsche had a great argument with Rousseau's thinking: this hostility derives from Nietzsche's conviction that the autonomous subject of Enlightened political discourse is hopelessly inadequate. Nietzsche…… [Read More]
right in this instance, as English people who vote for Members of
Parliament can no longer control the actions of their representatives once
they are voted to office. Thus, their only recourse to altering the
political landscape is the elections.
In The Social Contract, Rousseau specifies that "The deputies of the
people, therefore, are not and cannot be its representatives," thus
reflecting on the fact that Parliament members act on their own behalf and
not of the people (Rousseau). This is because the members have control and
not the people as soon as they are elected. Election day is the only day
which the people can control the outcome, yet all it does is determine who
will be in Parliament and still has no actually control over the results of
Parliament. Members of Parliament have control over the laws, regardless
of what the desires of the people are.…… [Read More]
Vision for Society: A Just Society
The Vision: A Just Society
It is a moral duty for those in immigration department to ensure that immigrants get free English classes to help them promote their own life. In AACA, there are rules that do not allow employees to help immigrants. For instance, reading letters for immigrants who cannot read and understand English is not a responsibility of AACA staff. In this regard, clients end up going back with unsolved problems because AACA staffs are not obliged to assist them. Although such acts do not form part of the organization's duty, helping these immigrants read bills and solve their problems is a moral duty that calls for commonsense. Commonsensical thoughts from Kant's point-of-view begin with the idea that what is good; is a good will. The thought of good will is a noteworthy reasonable decisive factor that Kant employs all through his…… [Read More]
John Stuart Mill and the idea of equality
Society typically views the triad nexus of politicians, bureaucracies and the financial elite suspiciously, believing they breach the common man’s rights, and, consequently, strives to ensure they behave as it desires. Mills argues, “the government, whether completely responsible to the people or not, will often attempt to control the expression of opinion, except when in doing so it makes itself the organ of the general intolerance of the public (pg. 376).”
The above societal attitude is understandable as this triad nexus has violated people’s will and freedom. As a result, democracies were created in which the common man is allowed to take part in national decision-making. However, in a democratic system the community will govern governmental decisions, giving rise to a self-governing nation. However, Mills warns and asserts that in democratic systems, public opinion (i.e., the majority’s opinion) quells the minority’s views…… [Read More]
In this way, religion was used in an attempt not only to make the proletariat content with their lives of alienation, exploitation and poverty, but also as a way to actually encourage them to want less and to enjoy their low stations in life as a sign of their future happiness in the religious afterlife. Regardless of Marx's beliefs concerning the Christian faith, or any other religious belief system, his critique of religion was aimed not at religious institutions per se, but at their implementation of religion as a means of subjugation.
It is for this reason that Marx believes the emancipation of humanity will necessarily involve an emancipation from religion. Because religious teachings, as Marx sees them, reinforce the ideals that create and maintain the inequalities of the capitalist system, such teachings must be done away with if the proletariat are to be able to make fully informed and…… [Read More]
Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.
Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…… [Read More]
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…… [Read More]
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…… [Read More]
civilized societies develop rules and laws that its members are expected to follow. The rules are in place for the purpose of cohesive living among the community and for the most part they have a positive impact on the society that they govern. In this scenario the rules and laws are not followed and in fact are completely disobeyed, yet the person who violates the societal norm not only gets away with it, but he is rewarded for his actions by being elected as a leader and ruling in power for the remainder of his life. Two well-known philosophers bring to light some understanding about how this could have happened.
In the scenario a man named John murders a mean and ruthless person who has lied and cheated his way to the top. The victim is so rich that others in the community are forced to go hungry while he…… [Read More]
The Greek philosopher Plato's concept of justice in "The Republic" demonstrates his belief in the path towards rationality of the individual and society. In his discourse, he talks about the rational individual as a just individual and is guided by the pursuit of the common good. The philosopher demonstrates this by justifying that in one's pursuit to achieve self-discovery and self-realization, it is inevitable that one should interact with his/her society. Once the individual realizes his/her fullest potential and demonstrates this by committing just acts, then society in effect becomes influenced by this act of justice. However, Plato also clarifies that a just and unjust individual may pursue different paths and goals in life, but in the end, both individuals contribute to the coherence and harmony in the society. The just individual showed what behavior is desirable because it is beneficial for the society, while the unjust individual becomes…… [Read More]
The ideal would be for human beings to be free, perfectly free, but this is not possible, Rousseau notes, given that a totally savage and free world means that the strongest person dominates the weaker people around him -- and the strongest will eventually establish a tyranny to serve his own aims, not the needs and rights of others. Locke also believed that a collective society was necessary to protect life, liberty, and property, and so long as ethical individuals enforced the system according to a rule of law, this was superior to a total state of nature. This form of collective protection often subtly threatened freedom, Thoreau believed, in a way that was just as damaging as political oppression, so he left for Walden to isolate himself from all of society.
Thoreau attempted to live an ideal, and to make his life meaningful, not living a slave to conventions…… [Read More]
He believed that if people join together and make a social contract they can both preserve their nation and remain free (Rousseau 93).
The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a ten-year period of upheaval in France as it was throughout Europe during the period which followed the American Revolution. In France, the political climate changed from a monarchy with aristocrats and much influence by the Catholic Church to a democracy. Citizens formulated their desires for rights and privileges equal to the aristocracy and, fighting for this ideal, won it.
The preamble to the French Constitution is a "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen." The Declaration of Rights says that "No one shall be disturbed for his opinions, even religious, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law" (Knight 2).
The Constitution of the United States also has a preamble that declares that the…… [Read More]
Nietzsche and Nihilism
"Nihilism" was the term used by Friederich Nietzsche to describe what he considered the devaluation of the highest values posited by the ascetic ideal. The age in which he lived was viewed by the German philosopher as one of passive nihilism, which he defined as the unawareness of the fact that the religious and philosophical absolutes had dissolved in the emergence of the 19th century Positivism. Since traditional morality collapsed, along with its metaphysical and theological foundations, the only thing that remained was a sense of meaningless and purposelessness.
The triumph of meaninglessness coincides with the triumph of nihilism, under the slogan "God is dead." Nietzsche believed that people would start seeking absoluteness in nationalism, just as they previously did it in philosophy and religion, a conception which later lead to catastrophically consequences.
Nihilism is most often associated with Nietzsche. The philosopher felt that there is no…… [Read More]