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Healing and Belief
Russians base much of their healing system around beneficial herbs and folk remedies. This harkens to feudal eras when professional medical service was unavailable, but was reinforced in Soviet times when doctors were poorly equipped. Russians believe in preventative medicine, so the consumption of certain foods is thought to have preventative effects.
Another traditional Russian healing practice is called bonki, and consists of glass cups that are pressed against a person's back and shoulders. This is said to heal flu and fever symptoms. This practice has been discredited, but remains common in Russia and Russian communities abroad. Russians also attempt to cure some ailments with vodka, or vodka with sugar. Heat is another preventative measure favored by Russians, who attribute illness to cold more than to viruses (St. Elizabeth Medical Center, 2006).
Russians have followed Orthodox Christianity since the conversion of Vladimir the Great in 989.…
Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. (1973). The Gulag Archipelago.
Zurcher, Christoph. (2007). The Post-Soviet Wars. Retrieved March 20, 2009 at http://books.google.com/books?id=C0DTtKEktdEC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=putin+chechnya+crackdown+popularity&source=bl&ots=Wp8PIh7RJ6&sig=E2sbBydool0JptnLyy-se2RVxFo&hl=en&ei=4SfESemyN6KKmQex99HrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result
Bergelson, M.B. (2003). Russian Cultural Values and Workplace Communication Styles. Communication Studies 2003: Modern Anthology. Retrieved March 20, 2009 at http://www.russcomm.ru/eng/rca_biblio/b/bergelson03_eng.shtml
Comrie, Bernard; Stone, Gerald & Polinsky, Maria. (1996). The Russian Language in the Twentieth Century. Retrieved March 20, 2009 at http://books.google.com/books?id=FFPzJx1jmnkC
Another important factor is that the modern ussian family structure also reflects the stress of the society as a whole. "Family stress is related to the local variant of the widespread crisis in the ussian economy (Wolfe and Vitebsky, 2002, p. 73)
This leads to the question of how social roles are defined. Social roles are linked to the authority structure in the family and are usually hierarchical and patriarchal. However, this situation is open to many variations, especially in the light of the recent changes that the society has undergone. As Schultze ( 2000) states, "Although the man is usually considered the authority in the house, the woman provides most of the discipline and the affection for the children"(Schultze, 2000, p. 45).
3. Attitudes towards activities and problem solving.
It should be borne in mind that there is a greater sense of conservatism among ussians generally than is found…
Byers, E.S., & Slattery, G. (1997). Sexology in Russia and Estonia: Reflections on an Exchange. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 6(1), 53+.
Dupont-Joshua, a. (Ed.). (2002). Working Inter-Culturally in Counselling Settings. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107530551
Elenkov, D.S. (1997). Differences and Similarities in Managerial Values between U.S. And Russian Managers: An Empirical Study. International Studies of Management & Organization, 27(1), 85+. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000524515
Goehner D. Russian / American Cultural Contrasts. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from http://www.goehner.com/russinfo.htm
Aging and Russian Culture
In order to understand and relate to an older Russian in the context of providing psychological care, it is first important to understand the context of Russian society. Russian society has been marked by a transition in recent years that has reflected the rejection of communist ideology and all accompanying notions of collectivism. In many respects, this reactionary mentality has resulted in a breakdown in traditional values. In other respects, older values have resurfaced, including but not limited to the re-emergence of Christianity under the auspices of the Russian Orthodox Church. Russians harbor a deep mistrust of authority, are extremely warm and open when among friends (in many respects more so than their western counterparts) and share a fascination for the effects of western society that stretches back several hundred years. Russian culture relies heavily on allegory and superstition, which reflects an ancient culture steeped in…
Brucan, Silviu. Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe: From Party Hacks to Nouveaux Riches. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=91465270
Demko, George J., Grigory Ioffe, and Zhanna Zayonchkovskaya, eds. Population Under Duress: The Geodemography of Post-Soviet Russia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.
Women and Russian Culture: Projections and Self- Perceptions. Ed. Marsh, Rosalind. New York: Berghahn Books, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=4932096
ussian culture compared to the culture found in Brazil is as different as night and day, yet the business environment in both countries offers unique opportunities for expansion and marketing for aggressive companies. Accordingly, there are risks and disadvantages to establishing a new business in both countries, but there are also advantages and benefits. Some of the advantages in each market include the fact that ussia is likely to present potential investors with a society comprised of an older, more established citizenry that is comfortable with working long, hard hours at laborious jobs. Brazil, on the other hand, is likely to provide a more vibrant, younger society filled with workers (both male and female) who wish to rapidly move upward. Interestingly enough though, recent and "numerous survey of young people…attest to a very strong disposition…to obtain a higher education, to find self-realization, to build a career and achieve financial…
Baumann, R.; (2010) Brazilian external sector so far in the 21st century, Revista Brasileira de Politica Internacional, Vol. 53, pp. 33 -- 53
Hamburg, A.; (2012) The world's business cultures and how to unlock them, Special chapters on: China, USA, Germany, UK, Russia, India, Brazil, France, Italy and Japan, Eastern Journal of European Studies, Vol. 13, Issue 1, pp. 205 -- 208
Ranson, L.; (2011) The Russian bear is calling, but approach with caution, Lawyer, Vol. 25, Issue 37, p. 6
Stuchevskaia, O.; (2011) Harrassment and Russian women, Russian Social Science Review, Vol. 52, Issue 2, pp. 33 -- 48
Russia and the Mongol yoke: How bad was it?
The Mongol invasion forever changed the culture of Russia. It brought to an end the period known as the 'Kievan Rus' as the Mongols took control and "captured, sacked, and destroyed Kiev, the symbolic center of Kievan Russia."[footnoteRef:1] The Mongol invasion certainly changed Russia irrevocably: it is not simply that some of the measures of the Mongols were oppressive in nature, but that the autocratic methods of control used by the Mongols were later adopted by Russian leaders, and led to the development of a Russian form of government that was profoundly different from that of Russia's European neighbors. The 'Mongol yoke' ironically produced what we think of now as 'Russian culture.' [1: Dustin Hosseini, "The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia," Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies. 12 Dec 2005. Available: http://www.sras.org/the_effects_of_the_mongol_empire_on_russia [17 Apr 2013]]
Hosseini, Dustin. "The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia." Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies. 12 Dec 2005. Available: http://www.sras.org/the_effects_of_the_mongol_empire_on_russia [17 Apr 2013]
Stearns, Peter. et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. New York, 1992. Available:
[17 Apr 2013]
Ivanits'"Russian Folk Belief"
Linda Ivanits' Russian Folk Belief is a foundational and possibly one of kind work exploring concepts of Russian culture that have previously been unknown and would probably have remained so had Ivanits not seen fit to document them. The oral tradition is a largely challenged historical source as it is so difficult to both document and record in an accurate and scientific manner. The bedrock themes that are present within Ivanits work are continually demonstrated within her text through real memories and experiences of Russian people.
Ivanits clearly demonstrates how a tradition associated with eons of standards and cultural practices has evolved through more modern times, into the age of Christianity. Each section of her book weaves the roots of Russian folk belief with the dominance of the Christian ethic and practice.
In Part I Folk Beliefs About the Supernatural Ivanits demonstrates how the historical folk entities…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6583461
Ivanits, Linda J. Russian Folk Belief. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1989.
Joseph Stalin, with some justification, is perhaps one of the least popular leaders of recent world history. His brutal actions when enforcing collectivized agriculture upon the Russian peasantry caused casualties so high the numbers of the dead, in terms of the amount of the population of his nation that was killed, exceed that of the Holocaust. According to the historian Lynne Viola in her book Peasant Rebels Under Stalin, even the cagiest estimations of the death toll that occurred suggest that over the course of the decade between the 1920s and early 1930s, more than 1,100 people were directly killed by the state. Even more Russians indirectly suffered death by famine as a result of the agricultural process of collectivization. (210; 213-214) hat is not so well-known, however, is that starvation also had its roots in the policies employed by the resistance of peasants as well as the policies of…
Lynne, Viola. Peasant Rebels Under Stalin. New York, 1998.
There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)
Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…
Andresen, F. (2007). Walking on Ice. Denver, CO: Outskirts Press.
Ayios, A. (2004). East West Relationships in Russia. Trust and Western Russian Business Relationships. (pp. 156 -- 180). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Horton, P. (2006). Religion. Russia and Belarus. (pp. 77 -- 83). Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications.
Jones, A. (1994). Education and Society in the New Russia. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.
Russian psychologist ygotsky's Sociocultural Theory, with Input and Interaction Theory. Beginning with a definition of both theories the paper will then note how the two theories differ and where they are similar in their approach as well as how they are applied to everyday issues such as teaching language.
Sociocultural theory was first conceived and developed by Russian psychologist Lev Semyonovich ygotsky's, (1896-1934). His most productive years were at the Institute of Psychology in Moscow (1924-34), where he expanded his ideas on cognitive development, particularly the relationship between language and thinking. His writings emphasized the roles of historical, cultural, and social factors in cognition and argued that language was the most important symbolic tool provided by society. His book, "Thought and Language" is a classic text in psycholinguistics' theoretical contributions to the development of curricula and teaching strategies. (Forman, Minick, Stone 1993)
ygotsky was interested in applying Marxist…
Vygotsky was interested in applying Marxist social theory to individual psychology. The approach he took to cognitive development is sociocultural, working on the assumption that 'action is mediated and cannot be separated from the milieu in which it is carried out' (Wertsch, 1991) He devised the sociocultural theory that subsequently influenced the development of the constructivist movement. (Jaramillo, 1996) Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning contends that intelligence in humans has its origins from within our society of culture. Individual cognitive advancement thus occurs first as interaction with one's social environment followed by interaction within oneself, e.g. internalization. (Brown, 1996) These two phases observed in classroom settings shows that the first phase of the cognitive process for students is when students encourage, support and guide each other while learning. This is followed by students forming their own conclusions based on the evidence they have observed and then resolve conflict by articulating their arguments. (Wertsch).
An important concept in Vygotsky's theory is that the potential for cognitive development is limited to a certain time span which he calls the 'zone of proximal development (Kearsley 1994). The zone of proximal development is defined as having four learning stages. These stages range from the lower limit of what the student knows and the upper limits of what the student has the potential of accomplishing. This seems to be very roughly analogous to concepts of intelligent quotients and testing in modern education.
Vygotsky's zone of proximal development is the zone in which students can solve problems collaboratively and learn from one another. Or stated a different way, students may be able to complete some tasks independently; never the less, in order for them to increase their level of potential development, students need to work with others. This collaborative zone stems from the idea that learning is social and happens when speech and activity come together. Knowledge does not originate from within us, according to Vygotsky, but instead we learn from our environment: when a student learns arithmetic or writing, he or she is internalizing external knowledge (Brown).
USSR REFLECTION & RESPONSE
The end of the U.S.S.R. as explained in the very beginning of the source material is really not all that shocking when looking at the fate of other "empires" over the course of human history. One could point to other empires like the Roman one, which itself fell. More recently, even more modern versions of empires have fallen as well. For much of the 1600's, 1700's, 1800's and even the early 1900's, there were three countries that controlled most or at least much of the world, those being Great Britain, France and Spain. Regardless of the type and how big they get, they always seem to fall under the weight of their governmental structure, their compromised society or even just their sheer enormity on the global scale.
However, Russia as it is currently constituted is certainly still huge. The required source notes that the country is…
innovation is a group of steps and activities visualized for translating ideas into actual products / services / processes. The innovation process commences with identifying and defining the source problem (Sva?, 2012).The building blocks of an innovative culture are as follows:
These aforementioned building blocks are linked. For instance, the values of an enterprise affect the employee's behavior, workplace climate, and how success is perceived and quantified.
An innovative culture inherits ideas from research conducted by multiple authors. For promoting innovation, most enterprises generously invest time in resources, processes, and quantifying success. However, most companies have neglected to evaluate the more difficult to identify and/or measure factors of innovative culture with respect to people - including climate, behavior, and values.
To date, apparently, most companies have quantified innovative culture in terms of processes, management of resources, and measuring success of innovation rather than measuring building…
Curtis, S. (2013, October 15). The Innovations That Took Amazon from Online Bookseller to Dominant Global Marketplace. Retrieved from www.businessinsider.com: http://www.businessinsider.com/the-innovations-that-took-amazon-from-online-bookseller-to-dominant-global-marketplace-2013-10
Eaton, K. (2013, Febuary 05). Fast Feed. Retrieved from www.fastcompany.com: http://www.fastcompany.com/3005481/samsung-bets-billion-innovation-and-investment
He, L. (2013, March 29). Google's Secrets Of Innovation: Empowering Its Employees. Retrieved from www.forbes.com: http://www.forbes.com/sites/laurahe/2013/03/29/googles-secrets-of-innovation-empowering-its-employees/
IBM. (2006). Five barriers to innovation: Key questions and answers. IBM Global Business Services.
I find the idea that the world is becoming homogenized to American culture to be parochial, offensive and ill-formed, the product surely of American thinking. Nobody from any other culture would see the world in that light, because they are actually informed about the non-American world. Writers arguing in favor of the idea that the world is becoming homogenized to American culture are laughably ill-informed. They make heroic errors in judgment in their arguments. The reality that there is some evidence of globalization, but only in the most superficial ways has this actually made its influence. Consider a moment the supposition that food and entertainment are changing -- not only is this a great leap but food and entertainment are rather superficial when one considers the depth and breadth of individual cultures.
The first thing to point out is that culture runs rich and deep. America is an…
Ghemawat, P. (Artist) & TEDTalks (Producer) (2012) Pankaj Ghemawat: Actually, the world isn't flat. [Web] Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/pankaj_ghemawat_actually_the_world_isn_t_flat
Hall, S. (2000). The local and the global: Globalization and identity. Culture, Globalization and the World System. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis.
Hofstede, G. (2014). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html
Tapscott, D. (Artist), & TEDTalks, (Producer) (2012).Don Tapscott: Four principles for the open world [Web]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/don_tapscott_four_principles_for_the_open_world_1
It was created in 1949.
It was first showcased in 1936 (Berlin).
Cannot find any record of this person…is this the most common spelling of the
It was standardized in 1958.
It was first created in 1958.
There are 5 sections.
This information is not readily available through any sources I've researched.
They were revised in 1990.
Unable to find this information.
It was Richard Nixon.
They were a Wushu (Martial Arts) Company
It was in 495 A.D.
Damo is the Chinese name of Bodhidharma, credited for bringing Ch'an to China.
It was released in 1982.
It was in 2005, in Beijing.
It was in 1974.
Anthony Chen is a silver medalist at the 4th World Traditional Wushu Championship.
Bai Yu-Feng, from his monk name Qiu Yue Chan Shi is a martial art expert who trained at the Shaolin Temple. He is the author of the…
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
Business in ussia
The ussian Federation occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia. It stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from Arctic Ocean in the North to Black Sea in the south (Pearson Education, 2012). It is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are also 6 federal territories, 2 federal cities, 49 regions, 1 autonomous region, and 10 autonomous areas (Pearson Education, 2012). Norway and Finland borders the Federation in the northwest while Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine border it in the west. In the south it is bordered by Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea. ussia occupies a land area of approximately 17,075,500 sq km (Pearson Education, 2012).
ussia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. West of the Ural mountains from the Black Sea to the Arctic…
Kwintessential (2004). Doing Business in Russia. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/etiquette/doing-business-russia.html
Pearson Education (2013). Russia: Maps, History, Government, Geography, Culture, Facts,
Guide and Travel. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107909.html
Russian Embassy (2012). Russian Geography-Regions of Russia. Retrieved from http://rusemb.org.uk/russiageography/
Ethnic nationality comes when a "consciousness of a shared identity within a group, rooted in a shared culture and a belief in common ancestry. Ethno-nationalism is a term that refers to nationalism based on this consciousness of ethnic nationality, as opposed to civic nationality" ("Week 1"). This is in direct contrast to civic nationality.
Civic nationality centers on the shared territory of the group of people. It matters little what each individual's ancestry is, as long as the person was born or is permanently residing within a geographic area ("Week 1"). For the Ukraine, it mattered little that the ussians were permanent residents, or that many had been born within the Ukrainian borders, what mattered was the shared culture of the Ukrainian people, and their ancestry.
It should have been little surprise that ethnic nationalism took hold over civic nationalism. Civic nationalism usually occurs in well-institutionalized democracies ("Week 1"). However,…
Developments in Selected Non-Member Economies: The Russian Federation." OECD Economic Outlook (Dec 2001). June 7, 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4456/is_2001_Dec/ai_83566086 .
History of Post-Soviet Russia. 25 May 2005. Wikipedia.org. June 7, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_post-Soviet_Russia .
Ringo, Ringvee. "Religious Freedom and Legislation in Post-Soviet Estonia." Brigham Young University Law Review (2001). June 7, 2005 http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3736/is_200101/ai_n8947384/pg_2 .
Russia. 4 Jun 2005. Wikipedia.org. June 7, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia .
ups and downs of Russian music throughout the Soviet Union's tumultuous history and will also describe the impact that music has on the Russians today. This paper will describe the music during the pre-revolutionary years, post-revolutionary years, the Stalin years, the post-Stalin years and Gorbachev's perestroika years.
The years before the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Russian revolution of 1917 are considered the pre-revolutionary years. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an unsuccessful attempt to topple the ruling czar and it all started with the Bloody Sunday Massacre. The Russian revolution of 1917 succeeded in overthrowing the imperial government and replacing them with the Bolsheviks.
The pre-revolutionary years, in Russia, were filled with Byzantium liturgical chants, nationalistic folk songs, operas, and symphonies. In 988, Prince Vladimir of Kiev decided that Russian's national religion would be Byzantine Orthodoxy and that's how the Byzantium liturgical chants ended up in Russia. However,…
Daniels, Robert V. Russia: The Roots of Confrontation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985.
Gunther, John. Inside Russia Today. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.
Smith, Hedrick. The New Russians. New York: Avon Books, 1991.
Spector, Ivar. An Introduction to Russian History and Culture. 5th ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1969.
This similarly encourages modest investment in ussia, a market of 150 million, even in the face of continuing economic difficulties and political uncertainty (Saunders, 105).
According to Sunders, the strategy developed to "globalize" ussia was known as "shock therapy." And its implementation began with the January 1, 1992 elimination of price controls on most goods. The objective of "shock therapy" was, in essence, to create a market economy in ussia as quickly as possible. Sunders claim that this was to be achieved by freeing prices and liberalizing trade policies, which would stimulate competition; and by privatization, which would create private property with all its attendant behavioral incentives for enterprises. At the same time, it was essential to make the ruble convertible and ensure that its value remained relatively stable. This meant controlling inflation and, therefore, keeping tight control of currency emissions and government spending.
Consequently, Saunders appreciates that successful economic…
Batygin, G. S. 'The Transfer of Allegiances of the Intellectual Elite'. Studies in East
European Thought 53 (2001)
Boris Yeltsin quoted in Urban, M. Re-mythologizing the Russian State. Euro-Asia Studies
50/6 (1998): 969
The two cities I am going to compare are Irkutsk and Tampa. Irkutsk is located in Siberia, along the shores of the Angara River, near the shores of Lake Baikal. Tampa lies on Tampa Bay, near the shores of the Gulf of Mexico. Its inland location and northerly latitude characterize the weather of Irkutsk, which is very cold for most of the year, with five freezing months from November to March where the temperatures drop significantly. Summers are mild. Tampa's southerly location gives it a warm climate, with freezing temperatures seldom if ever occurring. The climate is warm, sunny, and humid. Summers are hot and humid with frequent thunderstorms. The average July temperature in Irkutsk is 64.5, and the average January temperature is -0.9F. The average July temperature in Tampa is around 90, and in January it is 70 (U.S. Climate Data, 2012); orld Climates, 2012).
Irkutsk has a…
Babrs. (2006). History of Irkutsk. Thinkquest.org. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01907/history.htm
RussiaTrek.org. (2012). Irkutsk city, Russia. RussiaTrek.org. Retrieved March 29, 2012 http://russiatrek.org/irkutsk-city
US Census.gov. (2012). Tampa (city), Florida. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1271000.html
US Climate data. (2012). Tampa, Florida. U.S. Climate Data. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from http://www.usclimatedata.com/climate.php?location=USFL0481
Japanese, Chinese and Russian empires from 1500-1800. We will look briefly at the kind of structures/bureaucratic arrangements that used to keep order and control and to manage their populations . We also will compare and contrast these empires and see that the major thing that paved the way for the eclipse of China and Japan by 1800 was an inward focus while Russia's westward glance gave it the ability to forge a viable Eurasian empire.
Ming and Qing China
In Ming China, the structure of government was built around a series of professional bureaucrats schooled in their designated skills areas and Neo-Confucianism with its ideas of individual morality and responsibility (this also influenced the Japanese and Chosun Korea). The bureaucrats were the glue that held the Ming Chinese empire together. This made the period until 1644 when the dynasty was overthrown a golden age where arts, culture and the economy…
R.W. Bullet, et. al, The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History: Since 1500, (New York, NY:
Houghton Mifflin Co., 2009), 485-519.
national cultue on poject contol: emiates poject manage in *xyz company case study
This wok addesses effects of national and intenational cultue upon business, using a copoate oganization in the UAE as an example. Theoetical aspects of cultue ae discussed and a detailed eseach pogam is outlined, with data fom a Pilot Study being pesented, as a basis to plan and delineate the best appoach to the oveall eseach potocols.
The goals of this manuscipt ae to evaluate the XYZ oganization in the UAE in tems of the effects of national and intenational cultue upon a business.
The vaious aspects of a given national cultue ae used to develop theoetical hypotheses concening the manne in which cultue influences copoate actions.
This wok offes a contibution to the field though data-povision and analysis focusing on common pesumptions that copoate actions ae modified accoding to the 'home county' cultual…
Adler, NJ (1991). International dimensions of organizational behavior. 2.ed. Boston: Kent Publishing.
Ali, A.J. (1990). Management theory in a transitional society: the Arabs' experience. International Studies of Management and Organization. 20, 7-35.
Al-Rasheed, A (1994). Traditional Arab management: evidence from empirical comparative research. In Proceedings of Arab Management Conference, Bradford: 89-114.
Atkinson, R (1999). Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International Journal of Project Management. 17(6). 337-42.
Camera angles that focus on wretched faces, of young boys in red coated uniforms begging for mercy, and of the arrogance of the British officer corps, not just towards Americans, but towards their own enlisted men, are shown with filming skill. As might be expected for this type of film, John Williams' score was masterful and very much in line with the generation of epics from the 1950s and 1960s -- painting a realistic picture of the film without dialog. Similarly, the audience is set up between the idyllic farm and hard work of a widower in the opening scene to the juxtaposition and hoped for return to normalcy in the final moments -- however, knowing that things will never be as they were (See: http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title.jsp?stid=336714&contentTypeId=130&category=trailer). The scene, however, that most stays with the audience is not one of the grander battles, but a one-on-one battle between Benjamin and Tavington,…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bittarello, M.B. (2008). "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship
Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies. 10(2): 214.
TRAILERS and PREVIEWS
Brown, Todd. (2007). "Footage from Taras Bulba." Twitch. Cited in:
Language and culture are inextricably linked. The ways in which one's culture is directly attributed to language development are well documented in the academic literature, though there seems to be little consensus on the processes involved in language acquisition and the ways that culture is manifested in both socialization and language development. One assertion, however, seems widely accepted; culture is a learned attribute that language helps convey to others. Because people use language to impart cultural beliefs and societal mores, the nexus between language and culture is an important consideration in the field of education and communication, especially concerning the varied pedagogical theories of child development. Much of what has been studied in the field of both communications and education concerning the connection between language and culture is attributed to a ussian born educator named Lev Vygotsky.
Vygotsky believed that children developed and acquired knowledge through the assistance…
Kyratzis, A. (2005). Language and Culture: Socialization through Personal Story-Telling Practice. Human Development, 48(3), 146-150.
Miller, P.J., Hengst, J. Alexander, K., & Sperry L.L. (2000). Versions of personal storytelling/versions of experience: Genres as tools for creating alternate realities. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson & P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the impossible: The development of magical, scientific, and religious thinking in contemporary society (pp. 212 -- 246). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miller, P.J., & Mehler, R. (1994). Personal story-telling, socialization, and self-construction at home and in kindergarten. In A. Haas Dyson & C. Genishi (eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Problems of Method (pp. 52-75). In Mind in Society. (Trans. M. Cole). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism: Q. Hotel
A Critical Analysis of Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism:
Italy is a country in a stage of transition. It is no longer a predominantly agrarian society nor yet a fully industrialized economy. It is also a land of striking contrasts, with no unified social or economic patterns. As a society, Italy is centuries old; as a modern sovereign state it was born but yesterday. The very nature of the political unification process probably accounts for some of the disunity. It was not a broad-based movement but occurred predominantly under the auspices of one family, the Savoys, who succeeded in expanding their influence and political rule throughout the country (Rosenzweig & Nohria, 1994). The masses participated only vicariously through national figures and agitators, such as Garibaldi, Mazzini, and Cattaneo, whose dreams of a republican…
Adams, E. 1991. "Quality Circle Performance." Journal of Management, 17 25-39.
Adler, N. 2006. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cincinnati, OH: SouthWestern.
Adler, N., and Jelinek, M. 1986. "Is Organisational Culture 'Culture Bound'?" Human Resource Management, 25, 1, 73-90.
Aran, J.D., and Walochik, K. 2007. "Improvisation and the Italian Manager." International Studies of Management and Organization. 26, 1 73-89.
This PowerPoint compares culture chooses a patient I interview. Please feel free write a report style bold headings, I research put a PowerPoint speaker slides. I add information interview I slides. I 5 days I complete interview.
Hispanic: Cultural health beliefs
"Currently, the nation's 53 million Hispanics comprise 17% of the total U.S. population" (Awakened giant, 2012, Pew Center). According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a Hispanic or Latino person is someone "of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto ican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race" (Hispanic or Latino populations, 2012, CDC). Hispanics are the fastest-growing U.S. ethnic demographic. "The U.S. Hispanic population for July 1, 2050 is estimated to reach 132.8 million, constituting approximately 30% of the U.S. population by that date" (Hispanic or Latino populations, 2012, CDC). Hispanics are also one of the youngest demographics so the population…
An awakened giant: The Hispanic electorate is likely to double by 2030. (2012). Pew Center.
Bouie, Jamelle. (2010). Skinny people shop at Whole Foods. Think Progress. Retrieved:
American Ethnic Culture
What is an American?
It is clear that Progressive era Americans from different backgrounds differentially defined precisely what being an American actually meant. Stephen Meyer wrote in the work entitled "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace 1914-1921 that Americanization
"…involved the social and cultural assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of American life…" but that the process was of the nature that was comprised of "a unique and distinctly American method for the resolution of a key industrial problem -- the problem of work-discipline and of the adjustment of new workers to the factory environment." (p.323)
The Americanization campaign is stated by Meyer to have been one that was "voluntary, benevolent and educational." (p.323) However, the programs emerged from within the factories and had negative connotations as well. It was not so much an issue of the diversity represented by the national or ethnic cultures but…
Gjerde, J. (1998) Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, 1998.
Takaki, R. (2008) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, 2008
Meyer, Stephen (nd) "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace, 1914-1921"
Gerstle, Gary (2000) American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the Promised Land. Social Compass 47(1), 2000, 63-76. Online available at: http://www.pineforge.com/healeystudy5/articles/Ch2/Americanfreedom , Americancoercion.pdf
As Paxton (2005) points out, the Russian Revolution was directly responsible for the rise of Fascism in Italy and Germany. The Russian Revolution, comprised of and led largely by a Jewish demographic, represented a threat to the nationality and national interests of European states. Fascist movements were not limited to Italy and Germany—they appeared in England, France, Spain and elsewhere—but Italy and Germany emerged as the primary Fascist states because of the force of leadership that emerged in each nation respectively: Mussolini in Italy, and Hitler in Germany. Both were at the forefront of the conservative, nationalist movement that pushed back against the rising tide of Communistic socialism, which the conservative nationalist parties vehemently opposed. The Russian Revolution was, in essence, a rejection of everything Old World, as Fitzgerald (2000) showed. The representatives of Fascism were fighting specifically for that Old World—and they were using every possible avenue they could…
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…
Baldwin, Kate A., Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
Bookwalter, John, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1899.
Carew, Joy Gleason, Blacks, Reds, and Russians Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Davis, Raymond and Andrew Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy's First Line of Defense. New York: the Dial Press, 1942.
Being a stranger in a strange land: the feeling of culture shock is both exciting but also unnerving. Even knowing the English language or being familiar with American culture through film and television does not mean we will not encounter culture shock in other ways. The subtle mannerisms and gestures, facial expressions, and other types of nonverbal communication prove complicating even when we know the spoken language. The food and clothing styles will be different, as will the customs, rituals, and realities of daily life. As a Russian studying abroad in the United States, I have experienced many different levels of culture shock. These experiences have made me a stronger person, contributing to the value of my international education. While Russians and Americans share in common a strong sense of individuality and national pride, I have experienced culture shock in terms of communication, lifestyle, and customs.
One of the most…
Collectivization on the Russian Countryside
he Soviet Union, under Stalin's leadership, embarked on a massive economic plan to industrialize the largely agrarian country. he so-called five-year plan, actually four and a quarter year plan, required the concentration of labor in urban areas. Most of the people in the Soviet Union lived on farms in small villages. o implement the plan significant social changes had to occur. he people most affected by these changes were the peasants in the small villages in the Russian countryside. he peasants represented the most conservative, most religious, and most traditional group in the Soviet Union. Conflict was inevitable when the greatest change is required of the people who are the least likely to be comfortable with change. he instability of the Soviet Union government between the Russian Revolution and the ascendancy of Stalin and the violent protests of the peasants delayed the imposition of socialist…
The collectivization of the peasants in the Russian countryside dramatically changed every aspect of a peasant's life. Socially, religiously, and politically the peasants would not be the same again. In many ways society as the peasants knew it was turned upside down. Religious practice was eliminated. The young led the elderly. The proletariats were treated differently than the non-proletariat. The belief was that the capitalistic world was intent on overthrowing the Soviet regime. The group that felt most comfortable with tradition had to give up the bulk of their traditions.
Hindus, Maurice. Red Bread. New York: Jonathan Cape & Harrison Smith, 1931.
He continued his education and got his doctorate in Near Eastern studies from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His dissertation, the Sanjak of Alexandretta: A Study in Franco-Turo-Syrian elations, is the standard in its field. He was selected to the faculty at Harvard, as the first full-time professor of Armenian studies in America during the period 1957-1965. From 1965 onward till the end of his active career, he spent at UCLA as professor of Armenian language and literature. Many Armenian families from Jerusalem have immigrated to America and they chiefly live in southern California. Secure family links describe these families. These men possess good education, reached highest level of professionalism, are commendable citizens and have immense admiration for the Armenian Church. (the Contribution of Armenian Jerusalem to Armenians in America)
Arikian, Jacqueline. Multiculturalism and the History of Poverty in the Valley. etrieved at http://armenianstudies.csufresno.edu/hye_sharzhoom/vol18/november55/multiculturalism.html. Accessed on 18 April…
Arikian, Jacqueline. Multiculturalism and the History of Poverty in the Valley. Retrieved at http://armenianstudies.csufresno.edu/hye_sharzhoom/vol18/november55/multiculturalism.html. Accessed on 18 April 2005
Armenian history in brief. Retrieved at http://www.un.int/armenia/arm/en_history.html . Accessed on 18 April 2005
Armenian People. Wikipedia. Retrieved at http://www.answers.com/topic/armenian-peopleAccessed on 18 April 2005
Kouymjian, Dickran. Armenians in the United States. Retrieved at http://armenianstudies.csufresno.edu/faculty/kouymjian/articles/us_armenians.htm. Accessed on 18 April 2005
he authorities did what they could to maintain their iron control, even if it meant destroying people and families in the process. hey were evil, and I can say that now.
Later, we found out just how much trouble our exhibition had caused. oday, the papers about the exhibition are in the Hungary History Office's archives. You see, they kept files on us and on the exhibition. You can read how seditious the exhibition was, and what a danger it was to the political regime. here is also a thick folder on Gyrgy, codenamed "Painter," and compiled by a dizzying number of spies and informers. We were under more scrutiny than we even knew, and some of us are still very lucky to have survived those turbulent times. Soldiers walked the streets, and spies were everywhere. It was a terrible way to live, and hopefully, it will never happen in…
The exhibition was a turning point for us. There was no turning back after that night in January. We had all shown where our allegiances were, and they were for Hungary, not the Communists. We knew Hungary was a great country, and could be great again. We knew that commerce and trade could thrive, and so could tourism. We knew the people should have better, cheaper housing, and the opportunity to work at better-paying jobs in the private sector. We knew we should have the ability to speak our minds and show our art whenever we wanted. These things would come, but we did not know it then. We only knew we were sick and tired of living under oppression and Communist fears. The Communists were paranoid, and afraid that everyone and everything was against them. They were right, but so many people lived in fear that the Communists still had us under control. We lived as if we were caught in time. Our clothing was outmoded by Western standards, and so was our technology. We saw the world changing around us, and we wanted more. It was a difficult time, and many people disappeared, never to return. The authorities did what they could to maintain their iron control, even if it meant destroying people and families in the process. They were evil, and I can say that now.
Later, we found out just how much trouble our exhibition had caused. Today, the papers about the exhibition are in the Hungary History Office's archives. You see, they kept files on us and on the exhibition. You can read how seditious the exhibition was, and what a danger it was to the political regime. There is also a thick folder on Gyrgy, codenamed "Painter," and compiled by a dizzying number of spies and informers. We were under more scrutiny than we even knew, and some of us are still very lucky to have survived those turbulent times. Soldiers walked the streets, and spies were everywhere. It was a terrible way to live, and hopefully, it will never happen in Europe again.
In conclusion, 1984 was a bitter year for us in Hungary. We thought we were on our way to freedom, but we were still stuck right in the middle of Communism. Today, we are free, and we enjoy one of the best economies in Europe. Then, we were under the chains of Communism, and we could not walk the streets without looking over our shoulders. We were frightened, and we felt alone and in despair. We wanted so much, and it was so difficult to create. Freedom is a gift, and today, the kids of Hungary almost take it for granted. They do not remember the bad times, or the people, like Gyrgy and so many others, that worked so tirelessly to help ensure the freedom we know today.
Marcel Duchamp took a urinal, called it "Fountain," put it in an art show and then defended his action on the grounds that as he was an artist and he said the urinal was art, then it was.
This is just the sort of thing that has given modern art a bad name. But why should it have? Why should that urinal not be art?
Understanding the answer to that question - whether one believes that that urinal was art or not - allows one to understand both the Dadaist movement and much of what has happened in the four generations of modern art since.
In an interview conducted for this paper, Karen Finley, a conceptual artist who was one of the infamous NEA Four, talked about the importance of that urinal.
On the one hand, me, personally, I don't like the piece because it's got all the hallmarks of…
Finley, K. (2002). Personal interview. http://www.dadaboom.com/dada.html http://www.finesite.webart.ru/shocking/dada-2.htm http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/dada-def.html
Nash, E. (1998). Frank Lloyd Wright: Force of nature. London: Todtri Productions.
Wright, F.L. And Meehan, P. (ed.). (1992). Truth against the world: Frank Lloyd Wright speaks for an organic architecture. New York: Preservation Press.
Finley, personal interview, 2002
Starwood hotel chain expand their business into Kazan market?
Kazan is one of the largest cities in the epublic of Tatarstan in ussia. With a populace of just one, 143, 546 recorded for the year 2010 in the earlier results of the national Census, it ranks as the eighth most populated city in ussia and was branded as the third capital of ussia in 2009. Subsequently, it has also been dubbed as the sports capital of the region. The importance of the city can be recognized from the recent level of importance it has been given by the ussian government as it continues to increase the economic strength, foreign investment and trade for the country.
As technology brings the planet closer together, more businesses have become multinational corporations (MNC) and have included in a method in their administrative policies to strengthen their market share and profits. The success to become…
Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.
Becker, B.E., & Huselid, M.A. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 32(6), 898-925.
Bjorkman, I. And Schaap, A. (1994) 'Outsiders in the Middle Kingdom: Expatriate Managers in Saudi Arabian-Western Joint Ventures', European Management Journal, 12(2): 147 -- 53.
Black, J.S. (1990) 'The Relationship of Personal Characteristics with Adjustment of Japanese Expatriate Managers', Management International Review, 30: 119 -- 34.
Jews Without Money and the Mumbai Slums
Michael Gold's 1930 "Jews without Money" is a clear example that history does not only repeat itself but creates a certain pattern out of which human kind cannot be taken out and redirected to another path. Taking the topic from Gold's book and comparing it to current cases of other slums throughout the globe, it can be said that the conditions of the poor people have not changed throughout the decades and even more, despite the international development, the discrepancies between the rich and the poor are constantly increasing.
The present research takes into account the way in which the living conditions of people in the slums of Mumbai (Dharavi) can be compared to the situations to those in "Jews Without Money" by Michael Gold. It is argued that the living conditions are similar, yet for the people living in the slums of…
BBC. Life in a slum. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
Bertaud, Alain. "Mumbai FSI conundrum: The perfect storm: the four factors restricting the construction of new floor space in Mumbai." July 2004. 23 March 2014 .
Gold, Michael. Jews without money. New York: International Publishers, 1930.
Lauter, Paul. Michael Gold. 2014. 23 March 2014 .
Gerald Jonas' text Dancing -- the Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement attempts the difficult feat of conveying "The power of dance," a kinesthetic practice, into prose. Perhaps this is why the book was originally issued as a companion to a PBS video series of the same title, so the concepts Jonas talks about could be illustrated in lived, visualized, moving form on television. The first chapter of Dancing -- the Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement stresses that dance a multifaceted practice. Dance is, paradoxically a classical art form, a cultural expression, a creative individualistic way of expressing emotion with the body and also a cultural, larger 'heart beat' of national life and religious and social ritual practices.
The intellectual maneuverings involved in understanding the bodily movement involved in dancing thus involve four, somewhat contradictory elements. First of all dance is a natural practice, beyond culture. The chapter of…
Jonas, Gerald. Dancing: The Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998.
Dancing -- the Pleasure, Power, and Art of Movement. PBS Video Series. 1993
In the end she succumbs to consumption; his youngest daughter from his first marriage, named Sonia is a kind woman that ends up prostituting her body for money. The life of these women is much like the lives of many ussian women during Dostoevsky's period. Because so many were poor, they ended up prostituting or engaging in crime to help support their family or to put bread on the table (Westwood, 1993). This does not mean the women of ussia were considered unworthy of love and affection, something Dostoevsky notes in his novel. Although many would consider the actions of Sonia deplorable, the main character looks up to her, and considers her an innocent and kind-hearted woman. For this reason askolnikov tells her about the murder he commits, and it is this daughter that causes askolnikov to confess to the authorities what he did and face the penalties associated with…
Dostoevsky, F. & Onegin, E. (1993). Crime and Punishment, New York: Alfred a.
Westwood, J.N. (1993). Endurance and Endeavor: Russian History, 1812-1992. Oxford:
Edited by Glenn D. Paige and Chung-Si Ahn, Nonkilling Korea is a collection of scholarly essays and material delivered at the Asia Center/Seoul National University and the Center for Global Nonkilling in Seoul during August 18-19, 2010. The material is written primarily about Korean values and culture, with the purpose of creating a shift in the discourse used to discuss modern Korean history. Whereas most Korean historiography focuses on war, and the political and militaristic aspects of 20th century conflicts surrounding Korea, the authors that contribute to Nonkilling Korea try to reframe history to include spiritual values and ethics. The book does not limit itself to a discussion of Korean history or culture per se, either. The editors cull material from sources that address other nations and cultures in relation to both South and North Korea, including the United States, China, Japan, and Russia. Nonkilling Korea includes an…
Raeff, M. The Constitutionalism of Emperor Alexander I.
Raeff traces shifts in social and political culture in Russia at the start of the 19th century. Russian nationalism and federalism were beginning to become salient issues, leading to different expectations from Russian leaders. The people of the nation had a difficult relationship with the elite and the monarchy, exemplified in the "unabashed joy and happiness" that resulted from the death of Paul I (p. 1). New emperor Alexander faced a changing Russia that was becoming more aware of its role on the international arena and also more aware of its internal strife and diversity. Prior emperors like Paul had ruled with an iron fist and inspired mainly fear in the people. Alexander aimed to change public perception to garner support for federalist policies. Those policies included mending relationships with neighbors like Finland and Poland but it also included a more radical…
3. Von Haxthausen on the peasant commune (1844)
One of von Haxthausen's most poignant observations and descriptions on his journey through Russia was on the peasant commune and its ubiquitous presence in the countryside. His travels were through disparate regions and he witnessed many different cultures and societies, all of which shared in common the lifestyle the author describes in this chapter of his memoir. Describing the peasant communes in an admiring light, von Haxthausen notes that this might have been what Europe had looked like just a few generations ago. Von Haxthausan romanticizes the peasant commune, which gives rise to the idealistic notion that peasant-led movements can and should characterize future revolutions in Russian political culture. Although he admires the organization evident in the society and its hierarchical stratification, von Haxthausen also critiques the aristocracy for being completely out of touch with the people they govern.
The peasant commune presents an alternative social model to the exploitation of serfs, which had been the mainstay of European societies throughout history. Economic and political reforms that would take place a few generations after von Haxthausen penned his work are based on similar principles that workers should take pride in their daily work and not become too distanced from the means of production, honoring traditional labor models like farming. Moreover, von Haxthausen echoed prevailing sentiments related to the social and political empowerment of peasant people by offering rich descriptions of what he saw through his travels and by tying in analogies to what he knows of European history. Von Haxthausen also waxes poetic about the patriarchal family structure and gendered role differentiation throughout the communal societies.
However, most of them have gradually resigned themselves to their situation and are enduring the circumstances in the best way possible.
Perhaps the most appropriate way to analyze the Soviet society in the post-Soviet period is to look at the effect of the change on different age groups of the population as has been done in a 2001 "Human Development eport" published by UNDP. The report reveals that among the different age-groups of ussians -- the "soviet" generation, born in the 1920s and 30s have been "pushed to the sidelines of public life" and suffer from an intense feeling of depression close to a feeling of being a social outcast. The "middle generation" groups too suffer from a deep "socio-emotional" crisis, considering itself as a generation "lost" in the waves of transformation and in their "struggle for survival." The younger ussian generation, on the other hand, has coped…
Country Study: Russia." (2004) Country Studies: The Library of Congress. October 1, 2004. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/rutoc.html
Human Development Report on Russia, 2001." (2002) Edited by Prof. Serguei Bobylev. UNDP. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.undp.ru/index.phtml?iso=RU&lid=1&cmd=publications
Russia." (2005). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved on February 3, 2005 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rs.html
2004 Estimate; Source: CIA World Fact book legacy of the Soviet era when the ruling ideology encouraged the adoption of a uniform Russian culture and enforced Russian as the official language throughout the Union
Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenev. Specifically it will discuss what the reader can learn about ussia's past by reading this novel. This novel has consistently divided critics, who cannot agree in their analysis of this epic ussian work by novelist Ivan Turgenev. Some find it in the ilk of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, while others found his novel fanciful -- not a decisive look into ussian history at all. However, as time passes, more critics agree, Fathers and Sons is a fascinating glimpse into an unsettling and cataclysmic time in ussia's past. It is an accurate look at families of the 1860s in ussia and the turmoil the country faced on the brink of social and radical change. While the novel may be fanciful at times, it is an excellent look into a country on the brink of revolution, and the people who agreed, disagreed, and so passionately believed in…
Binion, Rudolph. "Fiction as Social Fantasy: Europe's Domestic Crisis of 1879-1914." Journal of Social History 27, no. 4 (1994): 679+.
A journal article discussing the historical period in Europe between 1879 through 1914, and how literature played a part in that period. It includes a discussion of Fathers and Sons and its historical relevance.
Ivanov, Mikhail. "The Prose Poet." Russian Life, October-November 1998, 19+.
A short biography of Ivan Turgenev and his works, including Fathers and Sons. Helpful for background information on the early life of the author.
Nurse-Care Analysis of Sheepshead Bay
The area is 4,074 square miles. Its population is 123,178. The people density of people who live in Sheepshead Bay compared to general inhabitants of Brooklyn of people per square mile is 30,233 to 34,917 (City-data.com; web).
On my visits there, I was astounded by the mass of people rubbing shoulders one with the other. The streets seemed dense and crowded with a great number of apartment buildings, more than those in the more laid back areas such as Flatbush and Queens, and also more than those in the vicinity of Coney Island. There were also a lot of immigrant offices and lawyers specializing in immigration services that was telling of the area.
In fact, involvement with immigrants who had been seeking service with bureaucracy involved with obtaining a Green card revealed that many of them, although living in other parts of Brooklyn (sometimes far…
Berke, N. (2009). Crime Prevention and Safety Workshop. Sheepshead Bites. Retrieved on 3/6/2011 from: http://www.sheepsheadbites.com/2009/06/crime-prevention-and-safety-workshop/#
Chan, S. (2006). Fatal Construction Accidents in the City Rise Sharply Over 12 Months New York Times. p. C13.
Chiswick, Barry R., (1991). Speaking, Reading and Earnings among Low-Skilled Immigrants, Journal of Labor Economics, 9, 149-170.
City-data.com. Sheepshead Bay. Retrieved on 3/6/2011 from: http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Sheepshead-Bay-Brooklyn-NY.html )
This led to his arrest and multiple attempts at escape from the country and trips in and out of El Morro where ironically, he claimed a celibate lifestyle.
Arenas began his literary career by entering a storytelling contest. This led to his being given a writing job at the Biblioteca Nacional Jose Marti in 1963. He then produced a number of short novellas. In 1965 at 22 he his first novel Celestino antes del alba (Celestino Before Dawn) which won the First Mention Award at the Cirilo Villaverde National Competition. It was originally published in 1967 by the UNEAC (National Union of Cuban riters and Artists) and had a limited run of 2000 copies. This work won the 1969 Prix Medici in the country of France. This was the only novel that Arenas published in Cuba.
He left the Biblioteca Nacional in 1968 and became an editor for the Cuban…
Arenas, Reinaldo. Before Night Falls. New York, NY: Penguin, 1994.
Gender reflection: On identifying with a particular gender
Until I took a class in critical theory, I never gave much thought to my gender. I am sure that some of this is by virtue of being a straight male. I have female friends who have experienced discrimination or harassment in school and at work by virtue of not being male. I do not believe I have experienced such direct prejudice as a result of my gender. Also, physical fitness is a very important part of my life, and many of my female friends and girlfriends have been very passionate about working out, yet unlike me they have been told not to lift weights or box because this would give them 'bulky' and masculine-looking muscles (which is not true). Obviously, I have never faced such discrimination based upon my interests or because I look strong.
I have come to understand that…
"Dude, you're a fag." YouTube. 20 Sept 2011. [8 Apr 2013]
Fogel, Curtis. Review of Kath Woodward, Boxing, Masculinity and Identity: The 'I' of the Tiger.
New York: Routledge, 2007. Gender Forum: An Internet Journal of Gender Studies, 19 (2007): 1-2. [8 Apr 2013] http://www.genderforum.org/issues/illuminating-gender-ii/kath-woodward-boxing-masculinity-and-identity-the-i-of-the-tiger-new-york-routledge-2007/
ecause is easily shaped, these above-mentioned items were made to form by a skilled craftsman's hammer and by casting; gold was engraved and embossed; gold was used in granule form for decorative purposes; gold was pounded into thin sheets for "covering furniture, wooden coffins… for plating copper and silver and for cutting into thin strips to make wire" (Lukas, 264).
Lukas explains that he measured several specimens of sheet gold (actually gold foil) and those items varied from 0.17 mm to 0.54 mm in thickness; he also measured the leaf gold and it ran from 0.01 mm to 0.09 mm. These measures clearly show the talent of ancient Egyptian craftsmen, who were using tools that compared with today's technological sophistication were quite crude, and yet showed remarkable skill in producing what they did.
Ancient Egyptians -- men and women -- loved jewelry, according to professor Eric Cline from George Washington…
Cline, Eric H., and Rubalcaba, Jill. 2005, The Ancient Egyptian World. Oxford University Press: New York.
Corti, Christopher, and Holliday, Richard, 2009, Gold: Science and Applications. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
History-World.org. 2008, 'International World History Project / The Scythians', retrieved August 5, 2011, from http://history-world.org/scythians.htm.
Holmes, Frank. 2011, 'Jewelry drives up demand for gold', The Christian Science Monitor, Retrieved August 5, 2011, from http://www.csmonitor.com .
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is very important in leadership. It enables a leader to understand and communicate with his followers in a way that is empathetic, supportive and non-abrasive. It can be considered one of the most effective tools of a leader because it helps to create an atmosphere of trust, companionship, and teamwork. As Mandell and Pherwani (2003) point out the Intelligence Quotient is not just a matter of remembering facts or solving problems -- when it comes to leadership, one of the most needed elements of intelligence is how one a leader can relate to others -- and that takes Emotional Intelligence. However, defining EI and understanding what it means among diverse persons -- whether diverse in gender or in culture/nationality -- presents some difficulty. This paper will discuss the relation of EI to Leadership Styles according to research that has been conducted in the field.
As Quader (2011)…
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…
Berkowitz, Bruce D. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The CIA vindicated: the Soviet collapse was predicted. The National Interest, No. 41, Fall 1995
Morewood, Steven Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism History Review, No. 31, 1998
Fleming, D.F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960 Vol. 2 Doubleday, 1961
Militant Vol. 61, no. 24. 23 June 1997
She said, "What is the point? I don't want to make myself feel that way. I would rather watch something that makes me feel good." Having no need for meditated horror, Fan simply said, "Oh you mean like Nightmare on Elm Street or something?" when asked about films.
Local legends and urban legends were of more interest for Fan because they pointed to the real world and genuine human need to understand crime and victimhood. As a victim of a crime, Fan said that she felt no matter how good a person is, bad things can still happen to them. It is philosophically difficult to understand, and the most important thing is to not be depressed and get on with life.
Daymien is an African-American gay male. He is 30 years old and the boyfriend of one of my brother's friends. I interviewed Daymien because he is a…
The picture shows a larger-than-life gigantic bearded and very hairy naked man wearing a kippah (Hebrew head-covering) with the Star of David on it. He has a large and crooked nose and a ferocious, rather frightening grin as he appears to be gleefully tearing up railroad tracks and wreaking destruction on a city. There is something round, perhaps a large city water-storage tank, which has railroad tracks wrapped around it. Many of the details of the poster are slightly obscured by the glare of the lights, so one cannot be quite sure of what one is looking at. The sketchy 'city' seems to be broken, obviously destroyed by the monster, and this is well-illustrated with broken lines intended to be railroad tracks bent and strewn at random all over the city. At the very bottom of the picture, people are shown running away as they look back fearfully.…
The first quiz that I took was "Cross-cultural quiz 1." My score was 4/7. The quiz covered a lot of different cultures, so it was interesting to see which ones I had a better feel for. The Saudi question was viewed as wrong, that Tailor should have dealt with the team members individually or in small groups. Talking to 50 people individually would take about a week of Tailor's time, and he clearly has trouble motivating the Saudi workers. I disagree with the assessment -- it is a poor use of Tailor's time. The Saudi manager can do the talking, that way there is no cultural or linguistic misunderstanding and Tailor can better use his time on other aspects of the project. The Korean question was also listed as wrong, but the two answers reflecting that Koreans are unlikely to transfer to this new company are almost identical. We…
cultures have customs and traditions involving body modifications and while some generate serious controversy in the contemporary society, others are widely accepted. Some are inclined to associate body modifications with vulgar ideas and believe that people who have them are uncivilized. The fact that most body modifications involve a form of self-mutilation further contributes to making it seem that a person would have to be out of his or her mind in order to do something like this. The reality is that body modifications are an active concept today and some people believe that they are a good way to express their feelings and thinking in general.
'Normal' body modifications
Numerous individuals believe that there is nothing wrong with having a tattoo or having a part of one's body pierced. Most of the modern society promotes the idea that it is perfectly normal for girls to have their ears pierced…
Leone, Lori, "The Art and History of Body Modification," Retrieved August 25, 2013, from http://www.lightspeedmagazine.com/nonfiction/the-art-and-history-of-body-modification/
Miah, Andy, "Make me a superhero: The pleasures and pitfalls of body enhancement," Retrieved August 25, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/science/2009/may/01/body-enhancement-cosmetic-surgery-genetics
"Illegal ink: reading meaning in criminal tattoos," Retrievd August 25, 2013, from http://mindhacks.com/2008/02/03/illegal-ink-reading-meaning-in-criminal-tattoos/
"Scarification: Ancient Body Art Leaving New Marks," Retrieved August 25, 2013, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/07/0728_040728_tvtabooscars_2.html
Hee, howeve, a geat many of the components of the ex-USSR have been facing anothe majo poblem: Unde Soviet nationality policy the diffeent peoples of the U.S.S.R. wee tapped in the midst of thee incompatible pocesses - nation-building by the diffeent titula goups, the constuction of 'Soviet patiotism' and the foging of 'poletaian intenationalism'. Suggested is the need fo a collective initiative in joining fo a ewiting of histoy and a edefinition to be given to cultual heitages and it is stated that this is a geat need fo the Chechen people in the following paagaph:" (Gamme, 2002)
In tadition Chechens eithe have subscibed to the Sunni Islam Shafi'I Islam, which is the least as to estictions as any othe fom in Islam and is not a faith that is laced with intoleance. Sufis ae the most peaceable of the Muslims and is focused on spiituality as well as toleant…
references already stated within this work and finally upon the February 24, 2005 report in the Chechen Times that relates the fact that the European Court of Human Rights has passed down a ruling that finds Russia guilty of the commission of extreme harm which is inclusive of torture and of having killed civilians in the country. Moscow was ordered by the court to pay fines totaling 135, 710 euros and states that:
The panel of judges, among them one Russian, were unanimous in condemning Russia for breaching the European Convention of Human Rights article on the right to life. The court also said that Moscow had breached the plaintiffs' right to a full hearing. It said in two cases that Moscow had also violated the ban on torture and inhumane or degrading treatment and, in the case of one person, breached a clause on the protection of property." (the Chechyan Times, 2005)
This verdict in itself is clear and compelling evidence against the Soviets and supports the statement that the Chechen people have suffered abuses and violence at the hands of the Soviet Government who have dealt harshly with those of Chechnya. This work has shown that the Soviet Russians have had their own agenda for the Chechen people and that the violence and violations to human right perpetrated again the Chechen people are indeed heinous and of a harsh rule that has given those same people good reason to fight again the Russian invaders, perpetrators and abusers of human rights and liberty.
Russian Oppression of the Chechen People
Usmanov, Lyoma (1999) the Chechen Nation: A Portraint of Ethnical Features 1999 Jan 9 Washington DC [Online at http://www.truth-and-justice.info/chechnat.html ]
Although Nazarbayev is credited with maintaining domestic ethnic stability after the breakup of the Soviet Union, he has "allowed an inner circle of family members, friends, and business associates to exert formal and informal influence over vital economic resources and political positions," (Freedom House).
In the most recent presidential election in 2005, Nazarbayev obtained an unbelievable 90% of the vote. Presidential elections in Kazakhstan can generally be described as shams and have been criticized "by all major international organizations as falling short of international standards," (Freedom House). For example, in 1999 Nazarbaev barred his opponent from running based "on a technicality," (BBC). The current Kazak parliament does not include a single member from opposition parties (Freedom House). Currently, all parties represented in the Kazak parliament are supportive of Nazarbaev.
In response to accusations that he and his Otan party have been suppressing political dissent, Nazarbayev claims that he supports a…
Bashiri, Iraj. "Kazakhstan: An Overview." Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/Kazakhstan/Kazakh.html
BBC News. "Country Profile: Kazakhstan." 10 Dec 2006. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1298071.stm#facts
CIA. "Kazakhstan." The World Factbook. 30 Nov 2006. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 from https://www.cia.gov /cia/publications/factbook/geos/kz.html
The Economist Intelligence Unit's Quality of Life Index." The World in 2005. Retrieved Dec 10, 2006 at http://www.economist.com/media/pdf/QUALITY_OF_LIFE.pdf
To the north of Tajikistan lies Kyrgyzstan, to the west lies Uzbekistan, to the east lies China and to the south lies Afghanistan. This state was formed due to the split of Central Asia in 1920 under Soviet rule. It covers an area of 143,100 sq. km. 
Soghdiana, the northern part of today's Tajikistan, was settled by Iranian tribes between 1,000 and 500 C. Important cities of Tajikistan today Khujand and Panjkakent belonged to Soghdiana in ancient times. During their tarvelling to China and to the west, Soghdians adopted other religions such as Zoroastrianism, Christianity, huddism and they also shared their knowledge with people whom they met on their way. During sixth to fourth centuries .C, Tajikistan belonged to ancient Persia's Achaemenid Empire that was ruled by Darius I. In 333 .C., Alexander the Great conquered it. 
In early Eighteenth Century, Islamic Arabs…
 Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov (accessed February 18, 2013)
 The Land of Tajiks, http://www.oocities.org/tajikland/History.html (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Early History, http://countrystudies.us/tajikistan/3.htm , (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Tajikistan - History & Background, http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1503/Tajikistan-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html , (accessed February 18, 2013)
The second passage is very relevant as to the nature of Boris. The opposition between the two brothers is generated by their different approaches to possession, faith, and brotherhood. Sviatopolk plans to kill his own brother whereas Boris refuses even to defend himself from his brother. Also, the two siblings view possession differently. Boris is loved and well respected by his people, and knows how to be a good ruler whereas his older brother is only interested in accumulating wealth and power but does not care about his people as seen in the first selected paragraph when he gives them gifts only in hopes of buying their submission and approval. Last but not least, the difference in approach as far as religion is concerned between the two brothers is overwhelming. Boris chooses death over neglecting Christian morals whereas his brother has no problem killing him. Hence the parallel between Cain/Abel…
Constantin Stanislavsky is the father of modern acting theory. His theories which he extols in his four books, My Life in Art (1924), An Actor Prepares (1936), uilding a Character (1941), and Creating a Role (1961) have had an unparalleled effect on actors and acting instructors throughout the world. Acting theorists such as Vsevelod Meyerhold, Uta Hagen, and ertold recht have all taken his theories into account while developing their own. Indeed, entire movements in world drama have been in part inspired by the work of Stanislavsky.
ut what of his influence on Russia? During Stanislavsky's life and his career Russia went through many changes. Two major events in Russian history would determine the fate of theatre and as a result Stanislavsky. The first was the failed revolution in 1905. "The great rehearsal," Lenin called it and that's exactly what it was. The second major event was the 1917…
Staislavski, Constantin. An Actor Prepares. New York: Theatre Arts Books. 1936.
Brockett, Oscar G. The History of Theatre. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. 1991.
Meyerhold and Stanislavsky: Art and the Politics in the Russian Theatre." Russian Theatre Website. http://rutheater.home.att.net/stana.htm
Konstantin Sergeyevich Stanislavsky." King Norton Boys. http://www.kingnortonboys.bham.sch.uk/sujects/drama/pages/stanisl.pdf
Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov v. The FBI
There is much controversy with regard to the FBI's involvement in capturing Russian cyber criminals Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov, taking into account the unorthodox method the bureau used. Many are likely to consider that such actions are against principles associated with law enforcement and that the authorities were wrong in taking on such attitudes. However, when considering the contemporary society being a place where the general public unites against crime, it would be safe to say that the FBI acted on behalf of the whole world at the time when it decided to go through with their plan.
Gorshkov and Ivanov were responsible for having performed a series of illegalities like stealing credit card information, deleting important information on the servers of particular U.S. companies, and attempting to persuade some of these respective companies to hire them in exchange of the…
Ghosch, S., & Turrini, E. (2010). "Cybercrimes: A Multidisciplinary Analysis: A Multidisciplinary Analysis." Springer.
Lemieux, F. (2013). "International Police Cooperation: Emerging Issues, Theory and Practice." Routledge.
Purpura, F. (1997). "Criminal Justice: An Introduction." Elsevier.
Schroeder, S. (2012). "The Lure:: The True Story of How the Department of Justice Brought Down Two of the World's Most Dangerous Cyber Criminals." Cengage Learning.
In ussia, any display of the swastika would generate a hostile response, just as it does in virtually all other Western cultures and societies simply because of the social context in which it was first introduced in the 20th century.
The Swastika in Buddhist and Hindu Social Culture:
Prior to the 20th century, the swastika was used in various ancient and medieval societies in a manner that had no relation to its subsequent revival and adoption by the Nazis many centuries later (Macionis, 2003). In some respects, it was adopted many different times as a fairly common symbol in so many different societies mainly because of its geometric simplicity and its symmetry. In many Far Eastern societies, particularly among Buddhists and Hindus, the swastika is a symbol that has decorated temples and other culturally significant structures for thousands of years.
In fact, in Thailand, where both Buddhism and Hinduism are…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2007). Psychology and Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Myers, D.G., Spencer, S.J. (2004). Social Psychology. Toronto, Canada: McGraw-Hill.
Then in 1949, China was liberated and the state controlled by Mao Zedong, took over all music and artistic activities. Mao made great efforts to change musical traditions which he had associated with the older, defeated Chinese society. Promoted revolutionary songs and "Yangko Plays," (Yu un 1991). He moved the traditional away from professionalism, and towards exploring the life of the proletariat, the common people. Mao then allowed ussian influences to permeate into Chinese cultural traditions based on the nature of communism in the Soviet Union. Communism forced music like you would force production. Mao basically destroyed creative expression, all music other than state approved works were banned Popular musical developments were still occurring in British held Hong Kong, where the 1950s saw movements of Chinese ock and oll based on its Western influences (Wong 2000). Yet, it is clear that the music being handed down by the generations in…
During, Jean. 1982. "Music, Poetry and the Visual Arts in Persia." In The World of Music, 24(1). pages 72-84.
Nelson, Kristina. 1982. "Reciter and Listener: Some Factors Shaping the Mujawwad Style of Qur'anic Reciting." In Ethnomusicology 26(1). pages 41-47.
Nueman, Daniel M. 1985. "Indian Music as a Cultural System." Asian Music 17(1). pp.98-113.
Nueman, Daniel. 1989. "Music." The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives Francis Robinson, ed. Cambridge University Press. (pp.445-8).
Immigration policy, distance and financial constraints reduce the flow of people. Religions are notoriously difficult to pass from culture to the next because of the deep level of personal involvement. Languages are passed to outsiders only when pragmatic, as in the case of lingua francas. As long as the barriers to passing important cultural artifacts between cultures remain, globalisation will remain in evidence mostly with what can be transferred easily -- money, goods, and sometimes information and entertainment, but only when the receiving side is willing, which is no guarantee.
Part B. Junction Hotel is going to have to deal with an international set of guests and is likely to have an international staff as well. It will be imperative for the managers of the hotel, therefore, to be able to deal with both of these. (French, et al., p.25) note that the global manager must be culturally sensitive. This…
Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions (2009). Geert Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions [Internet] Available from http://www.geert-hofstede.com / [April 25, 2011]
Waters, M. (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge. Powerpoint presentation in possession of the author.
French, et al., (no date) no title -- powerpoint presentation in possession of the author.