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This creates an environment for criminal organizations where they "... can operate in parallel to existing business and government institutions"
Shaw uses the Soviet Union as a good example of this phenomenon. "...the collapse of communist rule allowed the emergence of literally thousands of criminal organisations involving current and former members of the establishment " (Shaw). As Shaw and others points out, a situation where there are functional links between government and organized crime has parallels in many other regions and countries, particularly in the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
In essence, the changing international stage and the disappearance of boundaries and barriers between counties and nations provide the opportunity for criminal organizations to grow. Furthermore, it also provides for the possibility of greater interaction between criminal organizations and governments that may be dependent on these organizations for certain political and social needs.
Government and organized crime
Attorney general targeting international organized crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-crime24apr24,1,3582903.story
Carter D. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME.
Retrieved April 26, 2008, at http://www1.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/security/orgcrime.html
CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESOURCES: Organized Crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/orgcrime.htm
Jewish crime organization as a whole fails to live up to the elements that define organized crime. It certainly is violent, it recruits members, it uses monopolies to retain power, and it is a functional and individual culture. It's firm and unrelenting connection to Israel and Jewish rights, however, raises questions as to whether it is a crime syndicate. Its grounding in the promotion of Jewish rights likens it more to the terrorist groups of today than with the Sicilian mob of the 40s. It uses criminal means to support a national and religious ideology. Either Jewish groups shouldn't be labeled Organized Crime or the definition of that term should be re-examined.
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). ussian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996).…
Ebban, Abbas. (1968). My People. The Story of the Jews. New York: Behrman House.
Finckenauer, James O., & Waring, Elin J., (1998). Russian Mafia in America:
immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeaster Uni. Press.
Friedman, Jeanette, (1996). Our Dirty Little Secret is No More. Sh'ma, 26/506, Jan. 19,
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
growth of organized crime is best understood when situated within a broader societal context. Illustrate why this is so, giving specific examples from the lectures / required readings. Why is this understanding important for controlling organized crime?
It is prudent to consider organized crime within the broader societal context because research evidence and criminology theory has shown that such crime does not occur in isolation; rather, it is driven by a set of societal factors ranging from cultural values to corruption, political failures, and economic issues. Society, therefore, does have a hand in the emergence and continued development of organized crime; as a matter of fact, organized crime is integrated into society, and unless we can effectively conceptualize and understand society's role in fueling the same, we may not be able to devise a sustainable solution to the issue of organized crime.
Criminology theory and models give credence to the…
Beare, M. (2002). Organized Corporate Criminality -- Tobacco Smuggling between Canada and the U.S. Crime, Law and Social Change, 37(3), 225-243.
Finckenauer, J.O. (2005). Problems of Definition: What is Organized Crime? Trends in Organized Crime, 8(3), 63-83.
Finckenauer, J.O. & Voronin, Y.A. (2001). The Threat of Russian Organized Crime: Issues in International Crime. The U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved July 29, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/187085.pdf
Galeotti, M. (2008). Criminal Histories: An Introduction. Global Crime, 9(1), 1-7.
Organized Crime Control
Controlling Organized Crime
The purpose of this paper is to research "Organized Crime" historically and what effects it has on society in the present time as well as implications for the future and then to examine what suggestions have been offered for asserting effective control over that which is termed "organized crime."
Organized crime can be defined as structured business framework that with no regard to moral, ethic or societal concerns or standards prospers from that which promises to prosper the individual and group within that network the most. Some examples of organized crime are the drug trafficking trade, illegal weapons and nuclear arms trade, slave trade, gambling rings, pornography rings among many other variations of the major crime categories.
Many of the Organized Crime networks are based on familial relations although there are networks defined by religion, government, country, political persuasion among other groups which characteristic…
DeYoung, Karen (2001) "Alarm on Spreading Ecstasy; Illegal Pills Fly in from Europe, Eluding Standard Remedies for Smuggling: Washington Times Aug 2001 [Online] available at: http://wwwlhighbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCIS=IPI:32174317 & num=1& ctrlInfo=R
International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: "Testimony of Louise Shelley" American University Prof. & Dir. Transnational Organized Crime and Corruption [Online] available at; http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.a p-ct rlInfo=Round9a %3AProd%3ADOC%3APrint& DOCID=1P1:28418991& print=yes
Kaufman (1990) U.S. History 1990: Americas' Habit: "Drug Abuse, Drug Trafficking, & Organized Crime": Chapter VI Part 2: Interdiction U.S. History 1990: 9/1/1990;
organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.
The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."
The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…
Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html
Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm
Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm
Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
The Asian gangs are becoming dominant in many areas of illegal activities, including drug and human trafficking.
The Big Circle Gang
The Big Circle Gang has rapidly become one of the most notorious and successful Chinese gangs in the world. The origins of the group go back to China's ed Guard, and the group has units-based throughout the world, including the U.S. And Canada. The ed Guards carried out Mao Zedong's harassment of China's middle class during his rule in China. After his death in 1976, the ed Guard was dissolved, "many ed Guards were sent to re-education prison camps around the city of Canton -- represented on maps by a big circle, hence the name -- where they were tortured and starved. Having been through this degradation and having military training, they have a fearsome reputation" (Hall, 2005). Many escaped China and relocated to Hong Kong, and then immigrated…
1994). Handbook of organized crime in the United States (R. J. Kelly, K. Chin, & R. Schatzberg, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hall, N. (2005). Big Circle Boys born of Red Guards: Drugs, loansharking among Asian gang's specialties. Retrieved from the Canada.com Web site: http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/specials/websterawards/story.html?id=56ca11d5-f4e6-455a-b686-f7cc9b668c125 May 2007.
Mahlmann, N. (2007). Chinese criminal enterprises. Retrieved from the U.S. State Department Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/Chinese_Criminal_Enterprises.html5 May 2007.
Paoli, L. (2003). Mafia brotherhoods: Organized crime, Italian style. New York: Oxford University Press.
Social Institution and Organized Crime
Viewing organized crime as a social institution can enable law enforcement agencies to better understand how organized crime operates and maintains its structure and standing in society. A social institution is simply a system in which behaviors and relationships governed by the mechanisms of the system's structure; it consists of a group of social positions, relationships and social roles, all of which combine to give the institution its character. While organized crime may seem like a group that operates below the surface of society or in the underground, the fact of the matter is that organized crime is very much a social institution, in which relationships are fostered, hierarchies are evident, behavioral norms are expected, and goals are projected. This paper will discuss organized crime as a social institution using empirical and speculative theories to better understand how the term social institution applies to organized…
Lyman, M., Potter, G. (2007). Organized Crime, 4th Ed. NY: Prentice Hall.
Organized Crime. (2016). Act for Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.actforlibraries.org/organized-crime/
Takagi, D., Ikeda, K., Kobayashi, T., Harihara, M., Kawachi, I. (2016). The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26(2): 164-178.
Organized crime presents certain unique challenges for law enforcement in the 21st century. As noted by Bjelopera & Finklea (2012) in their report to Congress on the history of organized criminal activity in the United States, modern organized criminal networks tend to be more fluid and less hierarchical than organized associations of the past. Organized crime networks are also more apt to outsource critical aspects of their operations, which can make building a unified case a challenge for law enforcement agencies (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012, p.1). Diverting resources to combat terrorism have also left law enforcement agencies in the United States with fewer financial resources to combat other forms of organized crime, although some of the methods to trace both types of organizations, such as patterns of money laundering, are similar between both of these types of illicit associations.
Organized crime is defined as "criminal activity that, through violence or…
Bjelopera, J. & Finklea, K. (2012). Organized crime: An evolving challenge for U.S. law
Enforcement. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf
Bradley, T. (2015).Cybercrime is the modern-day mafia. Forbes. Retrieved from:
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…
Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
History Of Organized Crime
More than a century of motion pictures and more than a half-century of television productions have created a somewhat romanticized version of organized crime as typified in "The Godfather" series. Indeed, there is even a National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement, commonly known as "The Mob Museum" in Las Vegas which is a popular tourist destination (Green, 2013). The reality of organized crime, however, contrasts sharply with any romanticized depiction and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) emphasizes that organized crime is not only prevalent in the United States, it has become far more complex and broader in scope compared to the past. To determine the facts about the history of organized crime, this paper provides a background and overview followed by an analysis of some of the main sources of revenues for these criminal organizations. Finally, the paper concludes with an analysis of…
Calderon, F. (2015, Summer). Drug trafficking and organized crime: Connected but different. Harvard International Review, 36(4), 52-55.
Drug trafficking. (2016). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved from https:// www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/.
Green, M. (2013, October 1). How the Mob (Museum) was won: Building a history of organized crime in the U.S. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 17(2), 101-104.
Kelly, R. J. & Chin, K. L. (1999). Handbook of organized crime in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
communism," "vodka," may be "Vladimir Putin." But everyone who would be asked about Russia would also say "Russian mafia" who are very cruel and dangerous gangs from Russia and who wouldn't stop behind anything in achieving their dirty plans.
The term and the phenomenon of Russian mafia are pretty young if compared to well-known mafia of Sicily, Italy, Latin American cartels. The first news and rumors about Russian mafia in the United stated appeared in 1980 ies, when a massive immigration of predominantly Russian Jews started from the Soviet Union. Russian mafia had penetrated into the infrastructure of the main business centers of the U.S.A.: New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston. They spread their influence over the successful immigrants from Russia, who have to pay for their "protection" or who have to allow mafia representatives participate in running businesses.
If to look on the nature of relations of Russian…
3. Hoffmann, D. "Fragile Foundation," The Washington Post, December 26, 1996
4. Mafia invades New York, Article BBC NEWS available on web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/03/98/russian_mafia/70485.stm
5. Khonanikhin, A. Mafiocracy in Russia, Article available on web: http://konanykhin.com/press/wp1.htm
Organized crime has existed in society for hundreds of years in one form or another. It generally exists in prosperous societies where strong class distinctions -- sometimes brutally enforced -- exist. The history and dealings associated with major crime organizations have been well documented. In this paper, the effect of La Cosa Nostra (Our Thing or Cause) will be discussed in relation to its effects on modern society. This paper will also discuss the efforts and results of law enforcement on the Mafia.
Organized crime in the United States has been around for a long time. Since the early 1900's, "organized" crime has existed and continues to exist in the United States today. Organized crime is generally prevalent in regions of high population density, where there are sufficient opportunities available to make money illegally. Organized crime can be therefore classified as a society-influenced crime. In recent years, however, the growing…
Donn, J. "Boston Mob Informant Scandal Involved Highest Levels of FBI, Documents Show." Boston Globe 2002,
Furriel, V.J., and California Community Colleges. Office of the Chancellor. Organized Crime: History and Control. California State Peace Officers' Training Series; 80. Sacramento: Chancellor's Office California Community Colleges, 1976.
Glasgowcrewtripod.com. The Pizza Connection Case. 2003. Glasgowcrewtripod.com. Available: http://glasgowcrew.tripod.com/pizza.html. November 20, 2003.
Infoplease.com. Andreotti, Giulio. 2000. Infoplease.com. Available: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0803962.html . November 22, 2003.
Organized Crime and the ussian Mafia
Few observers would have predicted that when President onald eagan implored Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!" In 1987 that not only would the Berlin Wall be torn down, but the entire Soviet empire would collapse just a few years later. Even fewer observers would likely have predicted that the collapse of the Soviet Union would be followed by an explosion in organized crime. Many authorities today are quick to argue that this explosion in criminal activity was largely the result of decades of oppression and authoritative rule that left little room for high profile criminal activities which was replaced with a veritable "Wild West" environment in which crime was the career path of choice for aspiring ussian millionaires. This paper provides a review of the literature concerning the rise of organized crime and the ussian Mafia following the collapse of…
O'Neal, S. (2000, May). Russian organized crime. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 69(5), 1.
Varese, F. (2006, June). How mafias migrate: The case of the 'Ndrangheta in Northern Italy.
Law & Society Review, 40(2), 411-414.
Varese, F. (2011). Mafias on the move: How organized crime conquers new territories.
Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).
Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point
It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.
Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…
Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm .
Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]
Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
Smith and Kidron, the end of the Cold War ironically initiated a series of belligerent conflicts across the globe. The international news media reported shocking brutality that ravaged osnia-Herzegovina, Chechnya, and especially in Rwanda, where nearly 800,000 people were slaughtered during the brief six-week period in 1994. Despite the sharp increase in human casualties lost to warfare, states hardly lifted a finger to stop it. udgets for military spending were curtailed, the production of nuclear weapons slowed, and the United Nations embarked on more peace operations than ever before. However, the events of September 11 abruptly terminated the United States' passivity; policymakers quickly approved dramatically increased budgets for military operations while thousands of troops boarded ships and airplanes to be dropped off in the most perilous war zone of the new millennium. Though incessant warfare may seem inevitable in many parts of the world, including Georgia and Iraq, there is…
Baker, Peter. "Called Home to Rebuild, Georgian Led Revolution." The Washington
Post 27 November 2003. http://www.washingt ... / A16312-
2003 Nov26?language=printe. Online Accessed 26 November 2003.
Gordon, Michael. "Nation Building in Iraq: Lessons from the Past." The New York
He had an engineering degree from the university of Swansea in ritain. He too participated in the afghan war and was a friend of in laden since the late eighties. He was the emissary of bin laden in Philippines and trained the Muslim fundamentalists there. He made his way into the U.S. without a visa and continued his stay there by seeking political asylum. He was a skilled expert in making chemical bombs. In 1995, Yousef was arrested by Pakistani authorities and in the next year he was sentenced to 240 years of imprisonment in the U.S. For his role in the WTO bombing.
Rex a. Hudson]
Terrorism has expanded into every nook and corner of the world today. A terrorist today, does not appear with a distinctive personality but rather blends with the society leaving security experts with little clue. While organized crimes are mostly economically motivated, terrorism…
Rex a. Hudson, "The sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who Becomes a terrorist and why?," Sept 1999, Library of Congress, Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
BBC, "Profile: Mullah Mohammed Omar," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1550419.stm
Frank Bovenkerk, "Terrorism and Organized Crime," Accessed 19th November 2007, available at http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/law/2006-0803-203003/bovenkerk_05_terrorism_and_organized.doc
(Paoli, 2003, p. 4)
The mafia itself cannot be discussed without at least some history, as the film depicts the waning of the system, and not its hey day.
Initially, the American Maria was a prominent supplier of bootlegged liquor. That required good connections with the local police department and political machines. Paying off the local beat cop provided a speakeasy, with its conspicuous and regular flow of traffic, little effective protection. Instead, it was necessary to guard against any cop who might be on that beat; the efficient solution was buying the whole department, if it was for sale. In many cities it was. (euter, 1995, p. 89)
The mafia became large and respected as a result of prohibition and many would argue that once alcohol was re-legalized in the U.S. The mafia lost its cash cow and began to devolve. The mafia altered its source of income by…
Scorsese, M. Goodfellas (1990) Film
Paoli, L. (2003). Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style. New York: Oxford University Press.
Reuter, P. (1995, Summer). The Decline of the American Mafia. Public Interest 89+.
1990, United States government passed the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This mandated that state, local and federal law enforcement agencies report data on crimes that reflected a bias against a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or ethnicity/national origin. Several years later, people with disabilities were added to this list. Data collection was placed under the auger of the FBI, which complied by publishing an annual report through its Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. This program started to publish a review of national hate crimes in 1990 entitled Hate Crime Statistics, 1990: A Resource Book. By 1992, the publication reflected the reported data of all states. Because certain states, such as Wisconsin, penalize perpetrators more for the same crime if the motivation for that crime is thought to be categorical hatred, statistics reflect the opinions of law enforcement agencies.
Because of this wealth of new data, in addition to the data…
Hee, howeve, a geat many of the components of the ex-USSR have been facing anothe majo poblem: Unde Soviet nationality policy the diffeent peoples of the U.S.S.R. wee tapped in the midst of thee incompatible pocesses - nation-building by the diffeent titula goups, the constuction of 'Soviet patiotism' and the foging of 'poletaian intenationalism'. Suggested is the need fo a collective initiative in joining fo a ewiting of histoy and a edefinition to be given to cultual heitages and it is stated that this is a geat need fo the Chechen people in the following paagaph:" (Gamme, 2002)
In tadition Chechens eithe have subscibed to the Sunni Islam Shafi'I Islam, which is the least as to estictions as any othe fom in Islam and is not a faith that is laced with intoleance. Sufis ae the most peaceable of the Muslims and is focused on spiituality as well as toleant…
references already stated within this work and finally upon the February 24, 2005 report in the Chechen Times that relates the fact that the European Court of Human Rights has passed down a ruling that finds Russia guilty of the commission of extreme harm which is inclusive of torture and of having killed civilians in the country. Moscow was ordered by the court to pay fines totaling 135, 710 euros and states that:
The panel of judges, among them one Russian, were unanimous in condemning Russia for breaching the European Convention of Human Rights article on the right to life. The court also said that Moscow had breached the plaintiffs' right to a full hearing. It said in two cases that Moscow had also violated the ban on torture and inhumane or degrading treatment and, in the case of one person, breached a clause on the protection of property." (the Chechyan Times, 2005)
This verdict in itself is clear and compelling evidence against the Soviets and supports the statement that the Chechen people have suffered abuses and violence at the hands of the Soviet Government who have dealt harshly with those of Chechnya. This work has shown that the Soviet Russians have had their own agenda for the Chechen people and that the violence and violations to human right perpetrated again the Chechen people are indeed heinous and of a harsh rule that has given those same people good reason to fight again the Russian invaders, perpetrators and abusers of human rights and liberty.
Russian Oppression of the Chechen People
Usmanov, Lyoma (1999) the Chechen Nation: A Portraint of Ethnical Features 1999 Jan 9 Washington DC [Online at http://www.truth-and-justice.info/chechnat.html ]
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).
Myanmar: Effective or Not?
The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).
Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…
CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm
Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International
Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal
International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
Human Trafficking: Causes and Motivating Forces
There's no doubt that human trafficking is one of the saddest evils of our day: "On the worldwide black market, the third most profitable commodity after illegal weapons and drugs is human flesh: women and girls from all over Eastern Europe, sold for sex by the networks of organized crime that became entrenched in the aftermath after the fall of communism" (Malarek, 2011). Other scholars call it "modern day slavery" or "a slippery and confounding evil" (Skinner, 2008). egardless of what human trafficking is most accurately referred to, the more one entrenches oneself with a bold study of the literature and research that surrounds human trafficking, the better one will understand what motivates and perpetuates this crime against humanity and the better armed one becomes at abolishing it.
For example, in the article, "Human Trafficking in the United States: Expanding Victim Protection Beyond Prosecution…
Aradau, C. (2004). The perverse politics of four-letter words: Risk and pity in the securitisation of human trafficking. Journal of International Studies, 33(2), 251-277.
Chuang, J. (2006). Beyond a snapshot: Preventing human trafficking in the global economy. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 13(1), 137-163.
Finckenauer, J.O. (2001). Russian transnational organized crime and human trafficking. In D. Kyle (Ed.), Global Human Smuggling (pp. 166-186). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Malarek, V. (2011). The Natashas: The horrific inside story of slavery, rape, and murder.
Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html.
estofSicily. The Mafia estofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm.
urton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.
CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.
Franco, Celinda. "The Ms-13 and 18th Street Gangs: Emerging Transnational Gang Threats?" 21. Washington, D.C.: Domestic Social Policy Division, 2008.
Friedman, Robert I. Red Mafiya: How the Russian Mob Has Invaded America. 1st ed. oston: Little, rown, 2000.
SonofItaly. Omerta SonOfItaly.freeservers.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://sonofitaly.freeservers.com/photo2.html.
Valdemar, Richard. Exceptions to the Gang Rules: How the Intricacies and Idiosyncrasies of the Gangs in Your Jurisdiction. Policeman.com, 2007 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.policemag.com/Channels/Gangs/2007/08/07/Exceptions-to-the-Gang-Rules.aspx.
Valdez, Al. California's Most Violent Export StreetGangs.com,…
Alonso, Alex. 18th Street Gang in Los Angeles County Street Gangs.com, 2002 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.streetgangs.com/18thstreet.html .
BestofSicily. The Mafia BestofSicily.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.bestofsicily.com/mafia.htm .
Burton, Fred. Mara Salvatrucha: The New Face of Organized Crime? Strategic Forecasting, Inc., 2006 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.stratfor.com/mara_salvatrucha_new_face_organized_crime.
CrimeLibrary. Yakuza: Origins and Traditions CrimeLibrary.com, 2008 [cited May 12, 2008]. Available at http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/1.html.
This indicates that the government must take necessary measures to limit or reduce the extent of criminal activities within the economy. This can occur through legalization of human smuggling while tightening the rules and regulations governing property or product smuggling.
Smuggling and Price Disparity odel
In the Bhagwati and Hansen odel (Bhagwati-Hansen odel), smuggling is a trade at the world or international prices. This indicates that there is evasion of taxes. This trade involves less favorable transformation curve in comparison to curves under the free trade condition in the absence of the taxation system. This is under the assumption that smuggling involves real cost such as additional transport costs. In their illustration of smuggling and welfare, Bhagwati and Hansen indicate that smuggling has negative effects on welfare. This illustration explains that smuggling reduces welfare in the presence of co-existence between legal and illegal trade (smuggling). Bhagwati and Hansen explain that…
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
Matthews, Owen and Anna Nemtsova. "The Kremlin Vigilantes." 14 February 2009. Newsweek. 17 May 2009 .
Monacelli, R. "Russia: Population, Immigration and the Economy." 19 February 2009. Institute for the Study of Conflict, Ideology, Policy. 17 May 2009 .
Schwirtz, M. "For Russia's Migrants, Economic Despair Douses Flickers of Hope." 9 February 2009. New York Times. 17 May 2009 .
Yasmann, V. "Russia: Immigration Likely to Increase, Mitigating Population Deficit." November 2005. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. 16 May 2009 .
RUSSIAN IMMIGRATION STATS:
immigrant population > Immigrants as percentage of state population
immigrant population >…
Banjanovic, Adisa. "Russia's new immigration policy will boost the population." 14 June 2007. Euromonitor.com. 17 May 2009 .
Chekalin, Alexander. "Press Service - Speech by First Deputy Minister of the Interior Militia." 8 August 2006. Ministry of the Interior, Russian Federation. 17 May 2009 .
Dzieciolowski, Zygmunt. "Russia's immigration challenge." 15 June 2007. Opendemocracy.net. 17 May 2009 .
If these countries have a choice of two strategies of development, then Russia is left none. Russian foreign policy was historically based on domination over its neighbors and imperialist model of foreign policy over neighboring countries.
oreigners who visit former Soviet Union countries are often shocked by existing poverty, poor social infrastructure and corruption which erodes society from inside. It may be explained taking into consideration different historical factors: Soviet Union was based on strict dictatorship, where the interests of individual were not taken into consideration. Individual got basic facilities for living: in 1930's it was a great progress as USSR turned into a quickly developing industrial economy from a conservative and outdated agricultural one. ormal equality of all citizens created favorable conditions for unavoidable corruptions which made citizens to exploit their positions illegally in order to improve the living. There is an ethical explanation too: several generations of Soviet…
Foreigners who visit former Soviet Union countries are often shocked by existing poverty, poor social infrastructure and corruption which erodes society from inside. It may be explained taking into consideration different historical factors: Soviet Union was based on strict dictatorship, where the interests of individual were not taken into consideration. Individual got basic facilities for living: in 1930's it was a great progress as USSR turned into a quickly developing industrial economy from a conservative and outdated agricultural one. Formal equality of all citizens created favorable conditions for unavoidable corruptions which made citizens to exploit their positions illegally in order to improve the living. There is an ethical explanation too: several generations of Soviet people didn't know what religion and morality are, as the official religion of the U.S.S.R. was atheism. Atheism resulted the decline of social morals as more and more believed in impunity. It resulted the growth of organized crime, corruption and mafia. Term mafia may be not only referred to Russian federation, but to any country of former Soviet Union, as symbiosis of bureaucrats who have official power and organized crime leaders who have "real power" became a reality. Privatization process which started in early 1990's on the territory of former Soviet Union created favorable conditions for organized crime to legalize their capital and get legal profits in future. In order to find additional funds for budget governments of NIS allowed to "privatize" state owned enterprises, often by extremely low prices. Understandably it created favorable conditions for flourish of corruption. To change the system of values is quite difficult and it will take a long period in order reevaluation of moral values to take place in people's mentality.
Another characteristic feature of former communist countries is the growth of nationalism and religious extremism. Military conflicts took place on the territory of the following former republics of the U.S.S.R.: Armenia, Georgia, Tajikistan, and Moldova. If Central Asia remained to be relatively quick region, as only Tadjikistan had experienced horrors of Civil war, than in Caucasus region, the tragedies of war became common for every country. But ideas of religious extremism are very common for Central Asia:
Uzbek President Islam Karimov has declared on numerous occasions that the country is seriously threatened by Islamic fundamentalists. One Islamist movement, known as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), has called for Karimov's overthrow and the
conflicts that we are always hearing about in the media and reading about in the newspapers is the Chechen Conflict. At times bloody war, now insidious terrorist actions on behalf of Chechen nationalist, the conflict has never been as recent as we may thing. For centuries the relation between Chechnya and its larger neighbor Russia have been full of turmoil.
If we have a look at the history of the region, the Chechens were recognized as a distinct people in the area as far back as the 17th century. During the 19th century, however, Tsar Nicholas I attempted to conquer the region and met fierce resistance. However, the Islamist fighters had to recognize defeat in 1858 and the Caucasus area was incorporated into the Russian Empire. A brief period of independence from 1917 to 1923 was followed by the region's invasion by the olshevik troops that created the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous…
1. Shah, Anup. Crisis in Chechnya. May 2004. On the Internet at http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/Chechnya.asp #AComparisonwithKosovo' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border
Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border
The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…
Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.
BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm
Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial
Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,
no. 2, pp. 377-379.
new head of the department of the UN system organization on the various parts that make up the organization including when it was founded, problems, and future plans.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime or the UNODC is an international leader in the battle against international crime and illegal drugs. Founded in 1997, the organization was established via a merger between the Centre for International Crime Prevention and the United Nations Drug Control Programme. Operation in all areas of the globe, it fulfills objectives via an extensive network of field offices. Because 90% of the organization's budget relies on governments, it operates mainly on voluntary contributions. In 2002 the UNODC was renamed and given its current name with headquarters in Vienna.
The UNODC employs 1,500 people internationally with Yuri Fedotov as its executive director. Its main purpose for creation is to equip governments to handle terrorism-, drug-, crime-, and…
About UNODC. (2016). Unodc.org. Retrieved 18 March 2016, from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/about-unodc/index.html
APAIC. (2016). Apaic.org. Retrieved 18 March 2016, from http://www.apaic.org/
Donors. (2016). Unodc.org. Retrieved 18 March 2016, from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/donors/index.html?ref=menuside
UNODC around the world. (2016). Unodc.org. Retrieved 18 March 2016, from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/field-offices.html#
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…
Berkowitz, Bruce D. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The CIA vindicated: the Soviet collapse was predicted. The National Interest, No. 41, Fall 1995
Morewood, Steven Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism History Review, No. 31, 1998
Fleming, D.F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960 Vol. 2 Doubleday, 1961
Militant Vol. 61, no. 24. 23 June 1997
Trafficking and Prostitution in the Developing orld
The world can be a harsh place, especially if you live in a developing nation, and especially if you are a woman. Lack of food and adequate housing, lack of access to good educational and medical facilities, an oppressive, often male-dominated social system - these are just some of the problems faced by millions of women each and every day of their lives. For most there is no hope of escape. Each new dawn brings with it the same sense of despair; the same feeling that one is a prisoner of one's fate. Change is slow in the developing world. Progress, if it comes at all, comes only very gradually, painfully, and often at a high price. Many of the nations of the Third orld were only recently communist, or colonies of the estern powers. Many still have one foot in…
1. Binder, David. "Country Report: Albania - Country Sends Its Own to Europe and Beyond." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736680.asp
2. Binder, David. "Country report: Bosnia - In a Post-War Zone the Sex trade Flourishes." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736679.asp
3. Binder, David. "Country Report: Yugoslavia - After Milosevic, Country Still Mired in Crime." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL: http://www.msnbc.com/news/736678.asp .
4. Binder, David and Mendenhall, Preston. "Sex, Drugs, and Guns in the Balkans." MSNBC News. MSNBC.com, 2002. URL:
American Ethnic Culture
What is an American?
It is clear that Progressive era Americans from different backgrounds differentially defined precisely what being an American actually meant. Stephen Meyer wrote in the work entitled "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace 1914-1921 that Americanization
"…involved the social and cultural assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of American life…" but that the process was of the nature that was comprised of "a unique and distinctly American method for the resolution of a key industrial problem -- the problem of work-discipline and of the adjustment of new workers to the factory environment." (p.323)
The Americanization campaign is stated by Meyer to have been one that was "voluntary, benevolent and educational." (p.323) However, the programs emerged from within the factories and had negative connotations as well. It was not so much an issue of the diversity represented by the national or ethnic cultures but…
Gjerde, J. (1998) Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, 1998.
Takaki, R. (2008) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, 2008
Meyer, Stephen (nd) "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace, 1914-1921"
Gerstle, Gary (2000) American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the Promised Land. Social Compass 47(1), 2000, 63-76. Online available at: http://www.pineforge.com/healeystudy5/articles/Ch2/Americanfreedom , Americancoercion.pdf
This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.
While it may seem ironic that the death…
protect the privacy of the individual via EU Directive for Protection of Personal Data
The internet revolutionized the human life as we know it. It established a culture of liberty aided by not just ingenuousness but also standardized protocols. This was achieved by transmitting the essential products for business-related growth, adopting a model of governance with no formal existence of regulations along with free availability of abundant software packages. This internet revolution can't be underestimated as it has its pros and cons, which also comes under discussion in this paper. With the surging popularity of internet, there happen to be a plethora of new dilemmas knocking at the door. There are tons of merits of Internet for that matter while its demerits have been ignored and hidden along the sidelines. These issues have materialized in the preceding decade and the demand is urgent to solidify a legislation which is tasked…
Andrew, S. (2011). The Federal Trade Commission and Privacy: Defining Enforcement and Encouraging the Adoption of Best Practices, 48 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 809, 854 -- 56.
Aquilina, K. (2010). Public security vs. privacy in technology law: A balancing act? Computer Law & Security Review. Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 130 -- 143
Asinari, M and Poullet, Y. (2004). Public security vs. data privacy -- Airline passengers' data: adoption of an adequacy decision by the European commission. How will the story end?' Computer Law & Security Report, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 370 -- 376.
Bambauer, D.E. (2013). Privacy vs. Security. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Vol. 103, No. 3.
Banks have thus the role of distributing these products to their customers. Added to that in the international arena banks are dealing more with derivatives and foreign exchange, making the role of the bank far more important in the overall well being of the economy. Banks are diversifying and redefining themselves as trading, banking and service institutions. The banks are multifunctional and are known by various terms like the 'clearing bank' in UK, 'Commercial banks' and 'Investment banks' or 'Merchant banks'. Banks are thus redefining themselves to suit the wider rage of operation sand services offered. (Cranston, 1997, p. 3)
2. Globalization of banking sector
Globalization is a phenomenon that has invaded all industries and human life. The changes that have come about after the break down of the cold war and the new social interaction between nations have affected the financial sector as well. Globalization has removed restrictions for…
Ashdown, Neil H. (2002) the Impact of Banking Policy on Trade and Global Stability.
Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Chambliss, William J; Block, Alan a; Weaver, Constance a. (2004) All Is Clouded by Desire: Global Banking, Money Laundering, and International Organized Crime. Praeger. Westport, CT.
Cranston, Ross. (1997) Principles of Banking Law. Clarendon Press. Oxford.
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
These teams are called in to deal with highly dangerous and threatening situations, including terrorist attacks. Some of the "special operations" tactics that may be employed to deal with active shooters, barricades, and hostage situations include: three or four man entries using shields, power flooding for "large structure clearing," mobile hostage rescues, "linear entry techniques," and vehicle takedowns (Navy Seals, 2010).
eapons of Mass Destruction
eapons of mass destruction (MD) include any weapons that can cause catastrophic damage or destruction to a large number of people, structures, organizations, or the environment. Examples include bombs, nuclear, chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Due to the catastrophic threats posed by MD, in 2006 the FBI launched the eapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (MDD) to further integrate agency efforts for better prevention against MD attack.
Terrorism group, (International or Domestic)
Terrorists most often operate from within radical groups with political motivations. ithin the United…
With America's increasing dependence upon the Internet for storage and retrieval of critical information, and the use of computers to direct and make critical decisions, terrorists have more and more opportunities to hack or otherwise sabotage the Internet and cost human lives (as well as lots of money) as a result. While many people believe the threat of lost lives from a cyber attack is minimal, experts warn that the danger must be taken seriously, because "servers in the United States are the most aggressively targeted information systems in the world, with attacks increasing in severity, frequency, and sophistication each year" (CDI, 2011). Malicious computer users are becoming more skilled day-to-day, so defensive measures against these attacks must increase in strength and remain vigilant at all times. Cyber-terrorism threats can involve banks, hospitals, and government agencies; motivations include profit, general harm, or even assassination. While the U.S. has only experienced minor attacks, other countries such as the Ukraine and Estonia have suffered more massive attacks (CDI, 2011).
Bin Laden and Al Qaeda
Osama Bin Laden established his terrorist group, Al Qaeda, in 1988; it's "goals were the advancement of Islamic revolutions throughout the Muslim world and repelling foreign intervention in the Middle East" (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden's efforts began with fights against the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, and he always had access to large sums of money as the son of a Saudi Arabian billionaire. After the Gulf Wars began, Al Qaeda became involved in terrorist activities against U.S. involvement in the Middle East, particularly the presence of American troops in Islamic holy lands (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden began to align with other terrorist groups, and in 1996 moved back to Afghanistan and joined forces with the Taliban (ADL, 2011). Attacks continued over the years since then, until the culmination of Al Qaeda's efforts in the 9/11 terrorist attacks -- in which nearly 3,000 innocent people lost their lives
The Miami International Airport terminal is stated to present "notable life safety challenges because of large occupant loads, presence of significant combustible loads, complex security restrictions, and less than ideal egress provisions from interior spaces." (Miami International Airport, 1998) The Life Safety Master Plan (LSMP) is stated to provide a summary of the fire safety surveys and studies conducted. The first line of defense is stated to be that of prevention of fire however, the facility's size and complexity makes a requirement that there is complete coverage "by automatic fire protection systems...in place in case prevention fails." (Miami International Airport, 1998 ) Also required in combination with highly reliable automatic protection systems are manual fire fighting capabilities of an enhanced nature.
Drug Trafficking Threats
The South Florida HIDTA reports that the Miami International Airport (MIA) is not only the busiest airport in the United States for international cargo but it…
Miami Passenger Traffic Positive in April, But Can the Recovery Survive Swine Flu? (2009) Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. 1 June 2009. Online available at: http://www.centreforaviation.com/news/2009/06/01/miami-passenger-traffic-positive-in-april-but-can-the-recovery-survive-swine-flu/page1
City of Miami Springs NW 36th Street Commercial Corridor Market Study (2003) The Metropolitan Center. May, 2003.
Dooley, Susan Warner (nd) Revenue Optimization Assessments: Tale of Three Airports. Columbus Regional Airport Authority. http://2007conference.airportrevenuenews.com/presentations/day1/SusanWarnerDooley.pdf
Life Safety Master Plan (1998) Miami International Airport. SEC Project No. 1897081-000 Vol. 1. No. 201. December 1998. Online available at: http://www.miami-airport.com/LSMP/Vol1/201.pdf
" The book argues that the reality of history is a "ludicrously compressed and constricted warfare," Said continues; but indeed Huntington cannot grasp the notion that there are no strictly defined Muslim cultures but to make his book work he has to build a case that there is such a stereotypical, predictable Muslim culture.
Said goes so far as to say that Huntington's book attempted to give his original article a bit more "subtlety" along with "many, many more footnotes." But alas, Said believes that all Huntington did by putting out a whole book on the topic was to "confuse himself and demonstrate what a clumsy writer and inelegant thinker he was." Said has plenty more to say, albeit there is not space in this paper for all of his views; but several more of his themes will be presented. For example, Said compares the likes of Osama bin Laden…
Barder, Christopher. (1999). Professor Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations" and its Bearing on Israel's Security. NATIV, Retrieved March 31, 2008, at http://www.acpr.org.il/nativ/1999-6/barderxs.htm .
Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order.
New York: Simon & Schuster.
Said, Edward W. (2001). The Clash of Ignorance. The Nation. Retrieved March 31, 2008, at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20011022/said .
John . Kennedy
Rhetorical context: The audience is a conservative political group that advocates smaller federal government and the right for local communities and states to control as much of their needed government as possible. The occasion is their annual meeting, and the purpose is to demonstrate that although Kennedy was a liberal in many ways, he was still a great, if flawed, man.
John . Kennedy: the very name makes political conservatives cringe. However, his short role in the political history of the Presidency was so pivotal that is necessary to consider what kind of President he really was beyond the hype and the active public relations campaign that kept his many flaws out of the news media. Because the media remained silent about his personal flaws, the country was able to nearly canonize him after his untimely death.
He was a Liberal. Of that there is no doubt.…
For all his flaws, John F. Kennedy was a great president who understood the Communist threat at the most important level. Because he was willing to stand up to the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States triumphed over our greatest enemy without a single battle. By doing this, he made the end of the Cold War inevitable.
However, this made Andrei use physical torture as means of controlling her which later lead to him killing her by hitting her head constantly. His aim was not to have a casual sex with the victim but to kill her and satisfy his physical needs, which he discovered during his previous thrilling encounter.
He also showed abnormal behaviors after sexual assault when he chewed and swallowed away one of the victim's nipples. The dead body of Larissa was found the next day with no clue of the murderer. His second victim was a thirteen-year-old girl named Liyuba Biryuk, which was followed on from a bus stop. The killing took place in June 1982 by introducing several stabs to the body including the eyes. The body was found two weeks later with no sign or clue. Two more youths were victimized in July, two in September and one in December (Jenkins,…
Askenasy, Hans. Cannibalism: from sacrifice to survival. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1994.
Fido, Martin and David Southwell. True Crime. London: Carlton, 2010.
Jenkins, Philip. Using Murder. Chicago: Transaction Publishers, 1994.
Philbin, Tom and Michael Philbin. The Killer Book of Serial Killers. Chicago: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2009.
Death penalty is generally conceived of as the supreme legal sanction, inflicted only against perpetrators of the most serious crimes. The human rights community has traditionally held a stance against the death penalty for a wide variety of reasons: critics argue that the death penalty is inhuman and degrading; that it is inappropriately applied and often politically motivated; and that rather than reducing crime, the viciousness of the punishment only serves as an inspiration to further violence.
Historically the death penalty has existed all around the world. Only since the beginning of the twentieth century has the death penalty been rejected by a growing number of people and states. International law discourages but does not prohibit it. Article 6 (paragraphs 2 and 5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights states that "sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the…
Bernard, T. (1992). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York: Oxford.
Bohm, R.M. (2010). Death penalty opinions: Effects of a classroom experience and public commitment. Sociological Inquiry, 60, 285-297.
Bohm, R.M. (2003). American death penalty opinion: Past, present, and future. In J. Acker, R.M. Bohm, & C.S. Lanier (Eds.), America's experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (pp. 27-54). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Bradizza, C.M., Collins, R.L., Vincent, P.C., & Falco, D.L. (2006). It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1559-1577. doi: 10.1016jaddbeh.2005.12.001
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
The read on him is that he can be "volatile" and "difficult to manage," but that he is an intelligent, effective leader. The general read is that Saakashvili attacked South Ossetia first, and Putin responded with massive overkill.
There have been numerous charges tossed about that George ush somehow triggered the Georgia-Russia crisis for many different reasons. Most of these charges have come repeatedly from Vladimir Putin. No independent, objective analysis of the crisis has found any evidence of the truth of those charges. (Zunes, 2008) a lame-duck president with most of his troops fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan, George ush warned, threatened, cajoled, negotiated and sent aid. U.S. Secretary of Defense, Robert Gates, held countless phone calls with Georgia and Russia asking them to back off. They didn't.
Aftermath - Solutions?
Russia currently has approximately 7600 "peacekeeping" troops stationed in South Ossetia, Abkhazia, and a few Georgian locations. There…
BBC news. (2008, August 21). Day-by-day: Georgia-Russia crisis. Retrieved November 19, 2008, from BBC news: Europe: day-by-day:
Drive, D. (2006, November). Blogs about: Georgia Russia crisis. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from WordPress.com: http://wordpress.com/tag/georgia-russia-crisis/
International Crisis Group. (2008, November 10). Russia-Georgia: the aftermath. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from International crisis group: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=5772
Breach of Faith
Over the course of twenty-two years, from 1979 to 2001, Robert Hanssen participated in what is possibly the most severe breach of national intelligence in the United States' history. hrough a combination of skill and sheer luck, Hanssen was able to pass critical information from his job at the FBI to Soviet and later Russian intelligence agencies, information that may have contributed to the capture and execution of a number of individuals. Hanssen's case is particularly interesting because it takes place over the course of two decades that included the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the internet age, and as such examining the various means by which Hanssen was able to breach security offers extra insight into the security threats, new and old, that face those tasked with protecting sensitive government information. Ultimately, the Hanssen case reveals a number of ongoing vulnerabilities concerning…
The first substantial action that could be taken to help ensure future breaches do not occur is a reorganization of the FBI's security and intelligence functions. The Webster Commission compared the FBI's organization of its security functions with the rest of the Intelligence Community and found that, "in sharp contrast to other agencies," the FBI's security and intelligence functions "are fragmented, with security responsibilities spread across eight Headquarters divisions and fifty-six field offices" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). This fragmentation of security functions dramatically increases the likelihood of a breach because it means that the overall security apparatus is that much more porous, with adequate, lacking, or inconsistent oversight depending on particular Headquarters or field office.
To combat this phenomenon, the Webster Commission recommended that the Bureau establish an Office of Security tasked with, among other things, consolidating security functions under a senior executive" in order to "prompt management to focus on security, resolve conflicts between operational and security objectives, and foster Headquarters and field coordination" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). The FBI did not establish an Office of Security, which would have meant a high level office reporting directly to the deputy director, but rather in 2005 established the National Security Branch, a lower-level division responsible for Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, Intelligence, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Holder, 2011, & FBI, 2012). Even with the consolidation of these security-related functions under one Branch, the FBI's security functions still remain fragmented and ultimately lacking. For example, while Counterintelligence and Intelligence are both divisions of the National Security Branch, a Security Division still remains under the control of the Associate Deputy Director. Furthermore, the Bureau still lacks one of the most important assets recommended by the Webster Commission: a unit dedicated to information system security, clearly an important aspect of overall security considering that much of Hanssen's success depended on being able to use the FBI's automated databases without fear of being flagged for suspicious behavior, or even identified at all (Webster, 2002, p. 4).
Just as the FBI's security issues prior to Hanssen's arrest were microcosmic of the larger problems facing the Intelligence Community prior to the attacks of September 2001, so too is the FBI's failure to institute necessary reforms while exacerbating existing problems microcosmic of the difficulties facing the Intelligence Community in its attempts to institute the intelligence reforms passed in the wake of 9/11. Though the FBI's National Security Branch was born out of a presidential directive and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence out of an act of Congress, both organizations represent attempts to fix security and intelligence
4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington's 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism? What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots -- namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations? Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy in terms of our efforts to thwart terrorism?
First, the post-Cold War reorganization of nations causes conflicts between and among the resulting civilizations left after national fracturing. Second, the continued promotion by the West of quasi-Western values and political philosophy on the rest of the world antagonizes non-Western civilizations. Third, the deterioration of economic, military, and political power of the West facilitates increased resistance of other nations, such as in the Far and Middle Eastern societies (i.e. China and Islamic countries) to follow the international order established by the West in previous eras and to combine…
" He concluded that "the prosecutor's office must be centralized and completely independent of the local organs of authority." This conclusion, quite naturally, was buttressed with the appropriate reference to the guiding hand of the revolution's leader: "From the principle that there is a single legality obtaining throughout the epublic "and the entire federation" (Lenin) and from the obligation of the public prosecutor to see to it that no single decision of local authority deviated from the law, Lenin deduced all the most important principles for the organization of the prosecutor's office..." (Vyshinsky, Law, 525). Contrast this with Vyshinsky's admonition of a witness, "Don't pay attention to the laws, just listen to me" (Huskey, "Vyshinsky, Krylenko," 427).
The Soviet people, however, lost a great deal more from their ordeal of the 1930s. Not only did they lose the best of their intelligentsia and military, they ultimately lost the power for…
Abramovitch, R. (1962). The Soviet Revolution. New York: International Universities
Amba, a. (1952). I Was Stalin's Bodyguard. London: Frederick Mueller.
Armstrong, W., et.al. (2009). World War II: Behind Closed Doors. London: BBC Video.
Directly linked with cultural globalization and actually deriving from the basic concepts at the forefront of globalized culture - glocalization and grobalization - is McDonaldization. The term is generically used to present the strategies implemented by the American fast food chain in 'conquering' the world, strategies which are now more broadly applied by other companies in various industries. And their strategies are worth analyzing. In ussia for instance, the company's success is given by their early penetration of the market (only a few months after the fall of the Soviet egime) and by their choice to personally run their operations (unlike Subway, KFC or other American emblems which used franchising and failed in ussia). Penetration of the ussian market was a difficult task for the company at least from a legislative stand point, which demands foreign companies to go through 20 or 30 agencies and get between 50 and…
Hernandez-Diaz, R.J. Summer 2004. The Globalization of Nothing and the McDonaldization of the Church. The SEMI, Issue One
Ritzer, George. 2007. The Globalization of Nothing 2., Second Revised Edition, Pine Forge Press
Ritzer, George, 2007, the McDonaldization of Society, Fifth Edition, Pine Forge Press
Rothkop, David. June 22, 1997. In Praise of Cultural Imperialism? Effects of Globalization on Culture. Foreign Policy
For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.
Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.
3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…
ocial Web and You
Explain how social media/web is changing or has changed the ways you, your family, and colleagues find information. Also, how has social media/web changed the ways you interact in your personal and professional life as well as within academic spheres? What functionalities do you think will be invented in the future? Make sure you support your argument with facts, figures, and intelligent analysis. Also, consider any opposing arguments. (One page).
When social networking was just getting started, critiques were concerned that it would lead to isolation -- that people would only connect online and would increasingly neglect their real time friends and family (Putnam, 2000). The Pew Foundation has been conducting a longitudinal study called the Internet & American Life Project that examines how people use the Internet and how that use is changing communication, social interactions, and political activism, among other dynamics. As…
Croucher, S.L. (2004). Globalization and Belonging: The Politics of Identity in a Changing World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Friedman, T. (2005, April 5). The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (1st ed.). New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Taibbi, M. (2005, April 21). The peculiar genius of Thomas L. Friedman. New York Press. Retrieved http://rolocroz.com/junk/friedman.html
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
Terrorism in ussia on an International Level
[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]
Terrorism in ussia has existed since the ussian Empire. Its long history has brought violence against countless civilians in order to accomplish ideological or political objectives through the generation of fear and panic. Tactics so often seen in terrorism such as hostage taking saw extensive use in Soviet secret agencies. The greatest example of this was during the Great and ed Terror campaigns against their own countrymen as stated by historians like Karl Kautsky. As the end of the 20th century approached, major terrorist activity took place in the capital of ussia, Moscow. These events involved the Moscow theater hostage crisis as well as apartment bombings. Aside from Moscow, Dagestan, Chechnya, and other areas of the nation experienced terrorism. The worst part of it all is that scholars and journalists believe some of these…
Cavaliero,, C. (2011). PROTECTING ITS OWN: SUPPORT FOR RUSSIA'S FEDERAL LAW ON THE COUNTERACTION OF TERRORISM. George Washington International Law Review, 43(4), 663. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/77480580/protecting-own-support-russias-federal-law-counteraction-terrorism
Cohen, A. (2002). Russia, Islam, and the War on Terrorism: An Uneasy Future.Demokratizatsiya, 10(4), 556.
Cross, S. (2006). Russia's Relationship with the United States/NATO in the U.S.-led Global War on Terrorism. The Journal Of Slavic Military Studies, 19(2), 175-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13518040600697738
Omelicheva, M. (2010). Russia's Counterterrorism Policy: Variations on an Imperial Theme. Perspectives On Terrorism, 3(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/61/html
According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."
Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…
1. Article: online
Kim Zetter (February 3, 2010). Threat Level: Privacy, Crime and Security Online
Report Details Hacks Targeting Google, Others, (1), 1. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/02/apt-hacks/
2. Article Publication: online and hardcopy
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175
Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067
Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…
9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)
10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)
11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)
12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It was difficult for the Russian people to accept quickly. Their pace of life was not the same as America's and yet they were expected to adjust very quickly. The economic reform took a down turn when the Russian people did not catch onto a lot of these American products. As a result consumer spending went down and many companies failed in their ventures. Another factor to this failure is found in the quick need for the new Russia to do away with the old Russia' state owned companies by introducing privatization. This concept was hard for the Russian businessperson to grasp. "For both cultural and ideological reasons, the attitude toward private business in the Soviet Union could hardly be described as friendly"…
Dornberg, John. The New Germans: Thirty Years After. New York: MacMillan
Publishing Co., 1976.
Goldman, Marshall I. Lost Opportunity: Why Economic Reforms in Russia Have
Not Worked. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.
It is estimated that between 1900 and 1967, there were 526 civil wars called throughout the world (Civil pp). Today, there are literally dozens of wars going on around the globe, and dozens more that have ended during recent years, such as the civil wars in Guatemala and Tajikistan.
According to Christopher Cramer, most literature concerning civil wars has highlighted the role of political instability in the relationship between growth and inequality (Cramer pp). Although there are interlinkages between distribution, conflict and growth, these interlinkages are complex and cannot be read off or predicted from any convincing repeated empirical relationship between variables that are often loaded with too much and unclear meaning (Cramer pp). Cramer takes the title to his article, "Civil ar is Not a Stupid Thing: Exploring Growth, Distribution and Conflict Linkages" from a short story by Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, about a Sicilian dragooned into…
"Civil Wars Throughout the World."
Cramer, Christopher. "Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: exploring growth, distribution and conflict linkages."
http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:N00ZR7tRHzsJ:mercury.soas.ac.uk/economics/workpap/adobe/wp73.pdf+countries+that+have+had+civil+wars& ; hl=en