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people with high-risk of HIV infections are to avoid infection and if infected, avoid the spread of HIV to other people. How I will address the needs of this population is through research, understanding which subgroups are at highest risk for contracting the infection, and providing them with the information necessary to make sound decisions. I will also give them condoms and educate them on the importance of safe sex. Furthermore, I will provide them with resources on where to get additional condoms and/or clean needles.
HIV / AIDS has existed for more than three decades with infections occurring worldwide. Over one million people live with HIV and over 56,000 infections happen annually in the United States alone. High risk populations for development of HIV are homosexual men that engage in anal sex, and black people. Other high-risk populations are substance users, especially those that use and share needles, and…
Serovich, J. M., Craft, S. M., Mcdowell, T. L., Grafsky, E. L., & Andrist, D. (2009). Methods of Promoting Safer Sex Behaviors Utilized by Men Who Have Sex With Male Casual Sex Partners. AIDS Education and Prevention, 21(1), 1-13. doi:10.1521/aeap.2009.21.1.1
Teenagers and Safe Sex
Despite efforts to educate youth regarding safe sex, the practice of safer sex is still not at optimum levels. This is due to several factors, but chief among these is the belief of "invincibility" among youth, the belief that "it won't happen to me." In order to implement effective campaigns to increase safe sex practices in teenagers, education efforts must be directed to combat this false notion of safety, and problem-solving skills must be taught to facilitate the implementation of this knowledge.
Although sex education is a component in most schools' curricula, there is some question about the effectiveness of its message regarding safe sex. Since "by age 17 about half of both males and females report having had sexual intercourse" (ee et al., 2003, p300), the necessity of delivering accurate information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV / AIDS transmission is critical.
Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D., Akert, R.M., & Fehr, B. (2004). Social Psychology: Second
Canadian Edition. Toronto: Prentice Hall.
Bee, H., Boyd, D., & Johnson, P. (2003). Lifespan Development. Toronto: Pearson Education
For the many African-Americans who struggle with poverty, concerns about HIV and AIDS often fall to the bottom of their lists of concerns (Messina, 1994). When feeding their families, paying the rent or taking a sick child to the emergency room are everyday problems, concern about a disease that might be fatal in a decade is unlikely to be a priority.
In African-American communities, childbearing is extremely important. Various researchers have suggested that for African-Americans "who live in poverty, having children is often the only way they have to prove that they are socially productive and to demonstrate their manhood or womanhood (de la Vega, 1990). HIV / AIDS prevention messages that encourage condom use are in direct conflict with this cultural values, as condoms prevent pregnancy.
Denial of the threat of HIV / AIDS is common in African-American communities. Most people assume that they are safe from infection,…
References (March 18, 1998). The Untold Story: AIDS and Black American: A Briefing on the Crisis of AIDS among African-Americans. The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of African-Americans on HIV / AIDS.
Andriote, John-Manuel. (2005). HIV / AIDS and African-Americans: A 'State of Emergency. Population Reference Bureau.
CDC. (2003) Late vs. early testing of HIV -- 16 sites, United States, 2000-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: 581-86.
A de la Vega, Ernesto. (March, 1990). Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population With Sexuality and HIV / AIDS Information and Education. SIECUS Report 18 (3), p.3.
Essien et al. (2005). Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men. BMC Public Health: 5: 3.
Sociologist activism in the community that simultaneously brings about information processing and the ideal segment of society for the log run can contribute largely to the containment of the epidemic. (Trickett; Pequegnat, 2005)
The possible solution for the state, where the epidemic ca be spread by a known infected person is to cast a punitive punishment. Perhaps make the event actionable. Thus one of the possible laws that could be brought about to stem the growth of infection could closely follow the laws of pollution and the principles of pollution and the polluter pays principle that is much effective in industrialization. Thus the legal system has procedures to deal with the spread of epidemics although it has been used so far in the case of pollution. Another interesting area where the principle is used and can be cited is the case of cigarettes and the non-smokers inhaling second-hand smoke from…
Andersen, Margaret L; Taylor, Howard Francis. (2005) "Understanding a diverse society" Cengage Learning.
Moore, Melinda; Forst, Martin Lyle. (1996) "AIDS education: Reaching diverse populations" Greenwood Publishing Group.
Murphy, Raymond. (1997) "Sociology and Nature: Social Action in Context." Westview
Press: Boulder, CO.
According to Fulbright (2010), parents are the people best qualified to teach their children about sex and intimate relationships. The theory behind Fulbright's (2010) proposition is that parents and their children gain a more honest and open relationship, which fosters healthier identity and sexual development than if parents shun their children's questions or avoid discussing sensitive matters like these. Moreover, children will receive incorrect, patchy, and conflicting information when they rely only on friends, rumors, and formal sex education in schools. Parents teach from their own experience, and can confer not only values but also valuable practical information. In many cases, the child's experiences in terms of biology and social interactions will parallel those of the parents, which allows for more intimate and meaningful discussions than what would take place in the more generalized setting of a school. While I still believe in the importance of formal sex education…
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.
Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?
Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…
references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis
Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.
Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.
Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm
Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
Peter Eckersley, a senior technical staff of the EEF says, "What you don't want the world to know about, don't put it on Facebook. Facebook's security engineering is improving, but it's still not good enough that we'd ever advise people to put private, sensitive information there," [Juan Carloz]
As mentioned above, Facebook continuously changes its privacy policies which makes it all the more difficult for members to understand. The recent changes to privacy settings, which the company introduced, involved access to name, photos and friends list of members to third party Websites. This implementation of this new policy has led to the compromise of user privacy as witnessed in the recent episode where user email addresses which are supposed to be confidential was available to all members on the facebook website. For a short period of time everyone's email was put on public information, which is in clear violation of…
1) Facebook, 'Statistics', (2010), accessed 5th May 2010, available at, http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
2) Helen Carter, 'Facebook killer Sentenced to life for Teenagers Murder', Accessed May 6th 2010, available at, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/mar/08/peter-chapman-facebook-killer
3) Harvey Jones & Jose Hiram Soltren, 'Facebook: Threats to privacy', (Dec 2005, Accessed May 5th 2010, available at, http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/student-papers/fall05-papers/facebook.pdf
4) BBC, 'Payout for False Facebook Profile', Jul 2008, Accessed May 6th 2010, available online at, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7523128.stm
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?
Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.
The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in…
international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).
The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. (2009). African charter on the rights and welfare of the child: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Banse, R., Schmidt, A.F., & Clarbour, J. (2010). Indirect measures of sexual interest in child sex offenders: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Debabrata, R. (1998). When police act as pimps: Glimpses into child prostitution in India: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Fraley, A. (2005). Child sex tourism legislation under the protect act: Does it really protect: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
Concealing to Confronting Sex Abuse
It is one thing to consider child sexual abuse from the perspective of the criminal offender. Sexual abuse almost certainly qualifies as an anti-social behavior that is transmitted from generation to generation. Although this issue was not discussed in any of the articles, there is simply far too much evidence that child sexual abusers are very likely to have, themselves, been abused as children to ignore the idea that this behavior is transmitted from generation to generation, abuser to victim. In fact, child sexual offenders seem to have a modified version of the subculture of violence, but the subculture is actually one of sexual violence towards children. In this isolated culture, the sexual victimization of children is normalized. That explains the prevalence of child pornography and groups like NAMBLA. In fact, the offender may minimize the damage that he experienced at the hands of his…
Condon, P. (2010, December 7). "Top Catholic educator concealed abuse knowledge."
Phillips, N. (2010, July 14). "Whatever happened at Father Cooper's Cabin in 1971, the archdiocese isn't responsible." Riverfront Times.
Rodgers, A. (2010, August 2). "Episcopal leaders take steps to deal with abusive clergy."
Prostitution and Feminism: Questions for a Modern Society
In answer to the question of whether prostitution is just another line of work, the most comprehensive and simplest answer is to say, no, it is not. The reason for this is that there are too many complexities associated with prostitution -- not just ethical and moral issues -- but also social, legal, economic, political, safety, and theoretical issues that color the sex industry. True, one could argue that any field of labor or industry could be discussed using the same terms, but the issue with prostitution is that it is a term that can be used without being properly defined. As Hallie Rose Liberto points out, when feminists discuss prostitution, they are discussing much more than the sex trade: they are discussing women's rights, women's alienation, women's health, and women's equality.[footnoteRef:1] Because the issue is those so charged with underlying meanings,…
Yet women with similar or comparable education and experience or achievement still earn less than men in work organizations. A missing link or the absent ingredient, between performance and a just payoff, was identified as women's own ability to comfortably and consistently draw the attention they deserve to the contributions they made or gave. Findings of a study conducted on 322 male and female executives showed that women were less comfortable in promoting themselves than men. Many of them still believed that self-promotion by women was still unacceptable and that hard work alone would not put them in the same level as men. Women were also found to be "over-preparers" who wanted their work to be technically correct but who did not bring this sense of accuracy and care to the attention or notice of influential individuals in the organization. Goodson found that even women who understood the importance of…
1. Auster, Ellen R. professional Women's Mid-career Satisfaction. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research, June 2001
2. Hultin, Mia. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: an Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination. Administrative Science Quarterly: Connell University Johnson Graduate School
3. Lemons. Mary A. Contextual and Cognitive Determinants of Procedural Justice: Perceptions in Promotion Barriers for Women. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation
4. Moya, Miguel. Close Relationships, Gender and Career Salience. Sex Roles: a Journal of Reserch: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2000
2. I agree wholeheartedly with the author. Random acts of kindness do make the world and our society a better place. We need to become more aware of the connections between people. We do need to smile more, treat others with deep respect, and recognize the impact our actions have on other people. Instead of walking around angry all day, we need to develop a positive frame of mind and speak and act with kindness.
Universal health care would reflect a deep change in our culture. We have become so focused on our independence that we forgot the value of sharing and caring. Our selfishness and greed has led to a situation in which most Americans cannot afford adequate healthcare. Yet Americans are afraid of making small sacrifices that could benefit our society such as paying slightly more taxes to fund a truly universal system…
hether to allow same-sex marriage or not is a hotly debated topic in many estern countries at the present time. Belgium, Canada, Spain and the Netherlands have recently legalized it. Should same-sex couples, committed to a long-term monogamous relationship, be allowed to marry? Many people feel that the answer to this question should be a firm: No!
The arguments they put forth against same-sex marriage usually include the following:
marriage is a fundamental and unchangeable institution, marriage is traditionally between persons of opposite sex, if same-sex marriages are recognized then bigamous, polygamous, incestuous marriages and marriages with animals must be recognized too, same-sex couples can't have children, society has an interest in promoting marriage as the environment for procreation and child-rearing, same-sex parenting is less good for children than the parenting found in traditional family units, same-sex parenting may bias children towards a homosexual lifestyle, same-sex relationships are…
The Economist. "The case for gay marriage." Feb 26th 2004 .
Wikipedia Encyclopedia. "Same-sex marriage."
.....media contribute to violence?
Some research has shown that the media contributes to the emergence and exhibition of violent behavior in young people, or at least the desensitization to violence. The American Psychological Association summarizes the body of literature and claims that at the very least, extensive exposure to violent imagery can desensitize a child to violence ("Television and Video Violence," n.d.). Other research may reveal a more causal relationship between exposure to violence in the media and violent behavior. For example, a meta-analysis of 15 different studies has shown "evidence strongly suggests that exposure to violent video games is a causal risk factor for increased aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, and aggressive affect and for decreased empathy and prosocial behavior," (Kaplan, 2012). This does not mean that all people who are exposed to media violence will exhibit violent behavior or aggression, but that care must be taken when children are…
[how] such activities fit into an individual's sexual biography and impact relationships between sexual partners and peers" (p. 1099).
Participants will be invited to complete a brief online questionnaire that details their participation in OSAs, as well as their demographic information and the nature of their current relationships, including their relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and participation in extra-dyadic sexual relations (i.e. infidelity). In addition, participants will also complete a screening questionnaire to determine whether or not they meet a clinical cut off point to be considered addicted to Internet Sexuality or OSAs (Delmonico & Miller, 2003). The surveys will be delivered using a free online survey website, such as SurveyMonkey.com, and the sample will be drawn from a selection of students on campus through posting on social networking sites such as Facebook and using flyers posted around the campus. Due to the online nature of the survey, all data collected…
Cooper, a., Morahan-Martin, J., Mathy, R.M., & Maheu, M. (2002). Toward an Increased Understanding of User Demographics in Online Sexual Activities. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 28, 105-120.
Cooper, a., Mansson, S., Daneback, K., Tikkanen, R., & Ross, M.W. (2003). Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 277-291.
Delmonico, D.L. & Miller, J.A. (2003). The Internet Sex Screening Test: A comparison of sexual compulsives vs. non-sexual compulsives. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18(3), 261-276.
Doring, N.M. (2009). The Internet's impact on sexuality: A critical review of 15 years of research. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1089-1101.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…
(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).
Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).
The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
How can we expect our children to learn how to think critically if we do not teach them about sex?
Cheers to The Dallas News for pointing out the woeful inconsistencies and shortcomings in Texan state education. The majority of Texas school districts "either teach an abstinence-only health curriculum or avoid talking about sex altogether" and the result? Texas has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the nation. When evidence proves that our methods are not working, it is time to change them. Some teens are blessed with parents who make up for their state's lack of sex education programs. Unfortunately, many Texan teens remain ignorant at the behest of irresponsible parents. If withholding medical treatment for minors is against the law, then so too should withholding access to information about safe sex.
Finally, I would like to add that young people have a right to information:…
Forms of marriage that should be legally banned
ay marriage violates the sacred texts, traditions, and beliefs among many religious organizations. For this reason, it must be banned. The American Baptist Churches, Association of Evangelicals, United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church, and the Catholic Church have all opposed same sex marriage. If marriage is expanded to incorporate, gay couples may encourage religious organization to marry same sex couples and schools will teach kids that opposite sex marriage is same as same sex marriage.
Marriage of children or underage girls has been closely linked to the increase in the spread of HIV / AIDS. The trend of men marrying young girls has been a condoned social norm. Therefore, it must be declared illegal based on the promulgation of the 2012 Children's Welfare and Protection Act. Evidently, the practice should be banned because of the conflicts with the provisions of the constitutional clauses.…
Gay marriage violates the sacred texts, traditions, and beliefs among many religious organizations. For this reason, it must be banned. The American Baptist Churches, Association of Evangelicals, United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church, and the Catholic Church have all opposed same sex marriage. If marriage is expanded to incorporate, gay couples may encourage religious organization to marry same sex couples and schools will teach kids that opposite sex marriage is same as same sex marriage.
Marriage of children or underage girls has been closely linked to the increase in the spread of HIV / AIDS. The trend of men marrying young girls has been a condoned social norm. Therefore, it must be declared illegal based on the promulgation of the 2012 Children's Welfare and Protection Act. Evidently, the practice should be banned because of the conflicts with the provisions of the constitutional clauses. Old men marrying young girls who have just entered puberty are not a customary marriage. Although this has often been done, it cannot be tolerated.
However, times are changing: the prevalence of HIV is rising day by day. This practice has made significant contributions to the spread of HIV. Girl Child Rights and public health advocates have emerged victorious in the abolition of this practice. Research studies revealed that adolescents are greatly exposed to the risk of HIV / AIDS because most of them face sexual violence, come from plural marriage, and cannot negotiate for safe sex. In this regard, because plural marriage is a catalyst for the spread of HIV / AIDS, it should also be legally banned. Girls who engage in such practices have demonstrated a high illiteracy level, low contact with peers and limited access to health and media messages.
6% of the respondents stated that this was what they did. This number however is not reflected in lower numbers for life style disease and so it must be given greater scrutiny at another time (See table below).
Fruit and vegetable consumption by ethnicity
There are a number of diseases and health conditions that have been linked to life style behaviors and belief systems. The prevalence of these diseases demonstate that while persons may report a certain behavior emperical evidence suggests that another behavior may be taking place. This may occur principally because respondents may over estimate what they do on a daily basis since they are not taking active records of their behaviors.
On several indicators African-Americans have higher rates of the disease and death as a consequency than White populations. The data for diabetes shows that African-Americans are twice as likely to report having diabetes than…
A religious portrait of African-Americans (2009) Retrieved from http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx
Department of health and senior services New Jersey. (2011).
Dowd, K. (1996). Dietary patterns and physical activity among New Jersey adults. Center for health Statistics 1(3):1-4.
Student counselors are can organize a student led drug abuse prevention committee and create awareness among the adolescent children. Study results have confirmed the positive value of such student led programs in preventing the malice of drug abuse. It has also been found that multiyear preventive programs have long lasting positive effects that short-term programs. . Programs such as 'Friendly Persuasion', 'Life skills Training', 'Midwestern Prevention Project' which were implemented in schools had a considerable measure of success in reducing drug abuse and in delaying the onset of drinking.[155-158]. Student counselors have to interact with teachers, social workers, health care professionals and other community-based groups to workout and implement student activity programs that can be run by adolescents.
4) by providing a positive developmental environment at school the student counselor optimizes the chances of a student succeeding in his overall development. As Pittman states, "Adolescents who are merely problem-free are…
CBASSE, "Community Programs to Promote Youth Development (2002)"
National Academy Press, Available Online at, http://books.nap.edu/books/0309072751/html/R1.html#pagetop
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…
Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7
Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.
Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23
Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
For the health promotion to be successful, they must look at the broad spectrum facing both men and women when they become sexually active and the context in which young people conduct their sexual lives should be analyzed. These limitations on both men and women work to limit the powers of the gender in relation to various situational areas. For instance, the methods advocated for safe sex are usually out of reach for many people maybe due to the cost or their availability.
'A woman is limited in making influential and important decisions and so is the man.' (Tannen, 1996) For instance, the man cannot sometime make a decision on how many children they will have especially if they both do not make the decision together. This particular discourse around gender is mainly in the developing countries where safe sex is still being introduced and efforts are at their peak…
Baxter Judy. Positioning Gender in discourse: A feminist Methodology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2003. Web. 1 Mar 2010
Tannen Deborah. Gender and Discourse. USA: Oxford University Press 1996. 6 February, 2007
Shiach Moraq. Discourse on popular Culture. New York: Stanford University 1989. Web. 10 March 1992
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
Compared to only a few decades ago, American society has become more open and accepting of teenage pregnancy. Pregnant teens are no longer hidden away with relatives. More importantly, many school and community groups have adopted honest and aggressive strategies to address the growing incidences of teenage pregnancy.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of four different styles of programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage girls. These programs include sex education in schools, one-on-one conversations between patient and health care worker in a clinical setting, service learning programs and finally, youth development programs. Emphasis is given on the effectiveness of these programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage African-American girls.
The first part of this paper is an overview of teen pregnancy statistics, both throughout the United States and with African-American teenagers in particular. The next part of the paper then identifies the factors behind the rising rates of pregnancy…
Boekeloo, B.O., Schamus, L.A., Simmens, S.J., Cheng, T.L., O'Connor, K., & D'Angelo, L.J. 1999. "A STD/HIV prevention trial among adolescents in managed care." Pediatrics, 103, 107-115.
Harding, David. 2003. "Counterfactual Models of Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty on Dropping Out and Teenage Pregnancy." American Journal of Sociology. November.
Moore, Mignon R. And Lundsay P. Chase-Lansdale. 2001. "Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy Among African-American Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment." Journal of Marriage & the Family. November.
Napier, Kristine. 1999. "Abstinence-Only Programs Reduce Teen Pregnancy." Education. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…
Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.
Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.
Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.
Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
Identify and Describe the Aggregate
This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.
In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…
Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.
Avert.org. (2014). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved from Avert: http://www.avert.org/men-who-have-sex-men-msm-hiv-aids.htm
Beyrer, C. (2007). HIV Epidemiology Update and Transmission Factors: Risks and Risk Contexts -- 16th International AIDS Conference Epidemiology Plenary. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 981-987.
CDC. (2013, Novemeber 29). HIV Testing and Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men -- United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp. 958-962.
The public will also be presented with information from the experiential view of someone who in the past failed to have their child immunized. Evaluation will be conducted by distributing surveys/questionnaires about access to immunizations in the previous 12 months. The model will be modified by identifying weak points in the efforts to inform the public.
(2) providing information to the public about cancer screening: the public will be given written and verbal information about cancer screening for their family and about how to access cancer screening in the community of providers. A special speaker will provide information about how cancer screening helped save their life. Evaluation will be conducted by distributing surveys/questionnaires about access to cancer screenings in the previous 12 months. The model will be modified by identifying weak points in the efforts to inform the public.
(3) Providing information about safe sex: the public will be given…
Clement, JJ and Rea-Ramirez, MA (2008) Model-Based Learning and Instruction in Science. Springer 2008. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=dc_14UNzOlYC&dq=GEM+model+for+learning&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Cultural Competence Education for Students in Medicine and Public Health Report of an Expert Panel (2012) Joint Expert Panel and the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Association of the Public Schools of Health. July. Retrieved from: https://members.aamc.org/eweb/upload/Cultural%20Competence%20Education_revisedl.pdf
Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies (2012) World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://applications.emro.who.int/dsaf/EMRPUB_2012_EN_1362.pdf
Kulbok, PA (2012) Evolving Public Health Nursing Roles: Focus on Community Participatory Health Promotion and Prevention. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 17. No. 2 May. Retrieved from: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-17-2012/No2-May-2012/Evolving-Public-Health-Nursing-Roles.html
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their families at night. Women who try to maintain legitimate relationships with men find more and more that their partners are visiting these brothels and sex establishments (aymond, 2003).
Legalization Does Not Protect Women's Health
The legalization of prostitution mandates that the women submit to health checks and certifications, but does not require this from male consumers. This makes no sense at all since women oftentimes contract the disease from the men. The women are not protected from contracting HIV, AIDS, or other STDs. This is not to support that both the prostitutes and male consumers be checked -- it simply points out the ridiculousness that the policy implies. "A regulated and decriminalized system of prostitution will promote safer sex and HIV…
Gerdes, L. (2007). Policies favoring legalization encourage prostitution and sex trafficking. At Issue: What are the causes of Prostitution? Detroit: Greenhaven Press. Opposing Viewpoints Resource.
Raymond, J. (2003). Ten Reasons for not Legalizing Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice. Haworth Press, Inc.
Roleff, T.L. (2006). Legalization and decriminalization of prostitution would not help prostitutes. Contemporary Issues Companion: Prostitution. Greenhaven Press. From Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center.
The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution
Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today. Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States. Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…
According to Tamara Kreinin, president of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S., "Manipulating facts about condoms is using a scare tactic to try and get kids not to be sexually active" (Morse, 2002).
One of the consequences of a lack of full and complete information to youth actually causes self-imposed ignorance of their own safety. If adolescents do not get the proper education on protecting themselves from STDs, it is unlikely they will get much beyond playground rumor. In several reviews conducted by the U.S. Surgeon General and by the Committee of HIV Prevention, abstinence only programs have little to no effect on the sexual behavior of adolescents ("Abstinence"). Further, denying young people full and accurate information about sex, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases puts them at needless health risks. The reality is that teens will talk about sex, will experiment, and will likely have…
Boston:Economy. (2009, March). Retrieved December 2010, from City-Data.com: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-Economy.html
Health and Social Disparities. (2010, March). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://sph.bu.edu/Maternal-a-Child-Health/department-of-community-health-sciences/menu-id-617096.html
Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social Issues. (2010, March). Retrieved November 2010, from the Namtional Campaign: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/why-it-matters/pdf/introduction.pdf
Medical Research in Boston. (2010, February). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://www.bumc.bu.edu/
Moreover, an 'abstinence-only' education program is sometimes perceived by teenagers as providing one-sided and medically inaccurate information. (Studies by Kirby, 1997 and Huberman, quoted in "educing Teenage Pregnancy" 2006) shift in attitudes towards teenage sexuality must occur in the U.S. To facilitate the development of appropriate policies and programs to reduce teenage pregnancy. Presently, sexual activity, rather than the pregnancies that can result from it, is seen as the problem requiring intervention. Teaching young people that premarital sex is a moral failure does not prevent pregnancy -- studies show that those with fearful and negative attitudes about sexuality are less likely to use contraception when they have sex than those who believe they have a right to decide to have sex (eiss, 1990).
It is, therefore, important to have a more comprehensive program of sexual education for teenagers that gives due recognition to the fact that sexual expression is a…
American Opinion on Teen Pregnancy and Related Issues 2003." (2004). Science Says: A Project of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/works/pdf/American_Opinion.pdf
Kirby, D. (2001). "Emerging answers: research findings on programs to reduce unwanted teenage pregnancy." National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/resources/data/pdf/emeranswsum.pdf
Reducing Teenage Pregnancy." (2006). Planned Parenthood. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.plannedparenthood.org/news-articles-press/politics-policy-issues/teen-pregnancy-sex-education/teenage-pregnancy-6240.htm
Reiss, Ira L. (1990). An End to the Shame: Shaping Our Next Sexual Revolution. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
, 2001). Based on the proliferation of the Internet and the near-ubiquity of personal computers in many affluent homes, these rates can reasonably be expected to have increased even further in subsequent years.
In fact, it would appear that the more people of both sexes are using the Internet for these purposes, the more ways they are finding to do so. In this regard, Green and her associates point out that, "The fact that one can access sexually related materials and interact with others anonymously on the Internet has opened the doors even wider. Using anonymous screen names, individuals can explore and express their sexual interests with little fear that friends, coworkers, or even spouses will discover their activities" (2001, p. 303). Furthermore, the individuals who participate in these encounters can do so with other anonymous individuals without the risks typically associated with face-to-face relationships; if an anonymous online relationship…
Benotsch, E.G., Cage, M., & Kalichman, S. (2002). Men who have met sex partners via the Internet: Prevalence, predictors, and implications for HIV prevention. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(2), 177.
Giuseppe, R., Tiziana, T., & Anolli, L. (2003). The use of the Internet in psychological research: Comparison of online and offline questionnaires. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(1), 73.
Green, A., Katelyn, S., Mckenna, Y.A., & Smith, P.K. (2001). Demarginalizing the sexual self. The Journal of Sex Research, 38(4), 302.
Hill, R.J. (2005, Spring). Poz-itively transformational: Sex workers and HIV / AIDS education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 105, 74.
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…
Cdc.gov. (2013, May 29). What is HIV? Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/basics/whatishiv.html
Impact-dc.com. (2010). A State of Emergency. Retrieved from Impact-dc.com: http://www.impact-dc.com/a-state-of-emergency-hivaids-impact-in-the-african-american-community/
Gelaude, D.J., Sovine, M.L., & Sawxyer, M. (2013). Hiv prevention programs delivered by community-based organizations to young transgender persons of color:
Lessons learned to improve future program implementation. International Journal
In such circumstances the first people they look to for support are their parents. Hence parents should encourage their children to frankly discuss such issues with them lest they should be inclined to gather information from other less reliable sources. Teachers can also play a vital role in educating these children to be more receptive of the changes they are going through. At this stage their guidance can help decide the way a child may react to the sexual issues arising later in life. Primary sex education needs to be included in the syllabus of various schools so that children might learn to develop a healthy sexual drive and realize the dangers of indulging in sexual activities before the correct time.
Adults may have a totally different set of problems to address in their sex lives. Some drugs and anti-depressants can reduce the desire for sex in men and women…
MikeMcCabe - Report of the working group on sex education in scottish schools. Published on: 16/06/2000.Page Number: 9
Margaret r. h. Nusbaum, Carol Hamilton, Patricia Lenahan-Chronic Illness and Sexual Functioning. Posted on:15/01/2003.Available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030115/347.html [Accessed on:13/11/05]
There are no evidences to prove how many men in general are living on low down and how many of them are Black. Moreover, nobody has an idea as how many of these men carry HIV. Similarly, there is no clue to prove that the men living on DL or their partners are engaged in unsafe-sex habits.
Men on DL, however, protest against this misconception that they are DL men who are spreading AIDS. They insist that black is not the colour of AIDS. This seems true especially when we do not have sufficient evidences to prove DL as the chief contributor to AIDS. There are no tangible facts to support this misconception. However, studies done do far indicate the frequency of high-risk behaviour with all partners among young Black men who have sex with men and women.
The practical part of the whole discussion should be "what to do…
Akil, Wilanda, Black Men on Down Low Sends Wrong Message http://www.globalblacknews.com/blackmen_nodownlow.html
Spence, Lester, the Black Slate: Rethinking Down Low Politics
" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)
However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.
3.2. Different perspectives
The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…
Albury, R.M. (1999). Beyond the Slogans. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Almond, B., & Ulanowsky, C. (1990). HIV and Pregnancy. The Hastings Center Report, 20(2), 16+. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Amaro, H., & Raj, a. (2000). On the Margin: Power and Women's HIV Risk Reduction Strategies. 723. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database,
health issues facing the differed populations of the United States today, and these health concerns differ between males and females, income levels, and races. As such, it is important, prior to discussing any particular health concern, to first establish the target age cohort for which information is to be presented. Once this cohort is established, creating programs targeted to a specific population becomes a much simpler task.
This paper discusses the top five leading causes of death for African-American women age 25 to 44 in the United States in the year 2001. Additionally, this paper will focus on one particular cause of death for this population, and will outline an existing prevention program, aimed at this target age cohort. Finally, this paper will present data from studies on this prevention effort, to determine if the effort is succeeding.
As stated, the age cohort to be analyzed in this paper is…
Center for Disease Control (CDC). (2004). LCWK3: Percent of total deaths; and death rates for the 15 leading causes of death in selected age groups, by race and sex; United States, 2001. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Lauby, J, Smith, P, and Stark, M. (2000, Feb,). A community level HIV prevention intervention for inner city women: results of the Women and Infants Demonstration Project. American Journal of Public Health, 90(2): 216-220.
Liebman, T, Bond, P, Smith, D, and Tunstall, C. (1999, April). The Women and Infants Demonstration Project: an integrated approach to AIDS prevention and research. AIDS Education and Prevention, 2(107): 107-121.
O'Leary, A. (2005). HIV-risk reduction interventions for women: how far have we come? New York, NY: American Foundation for AIDS Research.
sex education is designed to increase teenagers "tastes" for premarital sex? How could it act to increase those "tastes"?
The desire for sexual contact is a natural, innate human desire and is not something that can suddenly be stimulated by knowledge like an advertising campaign can make you thirsty for soda. It is possible that sexual education can normalize sexuality and remove a sense of guilt teens might have; however, it can also normalize safe sex and abortion.
Why could the two consequences of sex education discussed above either raise or lower the number of teenage pregnancies that result?
Sex education can lower the number of teenage pregnancies by providing accurate information to teens about sexuality and disabusing them of myths such as the idea the withdrawal method is an effective form of birth control. It can also provide them with information about the best methods of birth control possible.…
homosexual latinos: the difficulties latinos face in being homosexual; the differences between homosexual latinos and Caucasian homosexuals; how latino homosexuals are treated within their communities, by their families, and within their countries of origin; and how homosexual latinos are treated within Latin America as a whole.
People have argued that homosexuality is part of the latino culture, and has been since pre-Columbian time, as records from pottery, and accounts from conquistadors of the Aztecs' behavior confirms. As the following quote, from a website championing gay and lesbian rights, shows, "homosexuality is a part of the pre- Columbian history of America. Spanish chroniclers observed various socio-sexual roles, including private same-sex relationships, and homosexuality as public ritual. Surviving effigy pottery demonstrates that Native people practiced a wide array of sexual customs. Among the militaristic and prudish Aztecs, sex also had a religious aspect. Xochiquetzal was considered the goddess of eroticism and sexual…
Marsiglia (1998). Homosexuality and Latinos/as: Towards and Integration of Identities. Journal of Gay and lesbian Social Services 8(3): 113-125. http://www.hivtest.org/docs/factslatino.pdf "HIV / AIDS among latinos: key facts." Accessed 26th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/brazil.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Brazil." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.ilga.org/Information/legal_survey/americas/mexico.htm " The International Lesbian and Gay Association: World Legal Survey. Mexico." Accessed 28th November 2003. http://www.geocities.com/eltejanito/gaylhis.htm" Gay and Lesbian History, and "Dia de la Raza." Accessed 29th November 2003. http://www.blacklightonline.com/gaylatinos.html " Gay Latinos, "La Raza" and the new "Familia." Article by Sidney Brinkley. Accessed on 27th November 2003.
Prostitution: Causes and Consequences
Prostitution has been termed as one of the oldest professions, with its history going back to as early the ancient period. Indeed, records of most ancient societies -- from Greeks and omans to Jews, Hebrews, Asians, and Muslims -- point to the existence of prostitution several thousand years ago (Sanders, O'Neill & Pitcher, 2009). Today, though illegal in some jurisdictions, prostitution is a widespread practice, with virtually every major urban area across the globe having numerous brothels, escort services, and joints disguised as massage parlors. Prostitution is also practiced at the sex worker's or client's residence as well as in adult entertainment locations such as strip clubs. Emanating mainly from individual and socioeconomic factors, prostitution is associated with a number of dangers on the individuals involved, and may expose one to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This paper describes the causes and consequences of prostitution, clearly demonstrating…
Elmes, J., Skovdal, M., Nhongo, K., et al. (2017). A reconfiguration of the sex trade: how social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable. PLoS ONE, 12(2): e0171916
Farrell, A., & Cronin, S. (2015). Policing prostitution in an era of human trafficking enforcement. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 64(4-5): 211-228.
Gorkoff, K., & Runner, J. (2003). Being head: the experiences of young women in prostitution. Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.
Jeffreys, S. (1997). The idea of prostitution. 1st ed. Melbourne: Spinifex Press.
Imposing a sort of "rating system" on the Internet interferes with the freedom of expression. Such software could also violate a youth's right to a wide variety of information (Reilly 2001).
Finally, many critics question the effectiveness of such filtering technologies.
Some charge that filtering technologies have a tendency to "overblock" sites. In high schools, for example, some children complain increased difficulty in conducting research on topics like breast cancer and safe sex. Another reported difficulty conducting a search on the term "Mars exploration," because the letters formed the forbidden term "sex." These difficulties interfere with the intent of sharing information over the Internet (Reilly 2001).
Critics do have valid concerns, and were able to articulate these all the way to the Supreme Court. The Court, however, rightly ruled that filtering technology remains an effective solution to keeping children away from violent, pornographic or otherwise dangerous content. The…
Reilly, Rob. 2001. "Government Efforts to Protect Children from Online Pornography Are Ineffective."
James Torr, ed. Current Controversies Series. San Diego: Greenhaven Press
Teens, Technology, and Drugs: An Inside Look; How Technology Is Hooking Teens Up With Drugs." 2006. PR Newswire. July 18.
African-Americans and AID Risk
The increased incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency yndrome (AID) among the African-American population is an alarming issue. 35% - more than one third - of all cases reported in the United tates and 43% of newly reported AID cases are among African-Americans, even though this population only comprises 12% of the American population (PR Newswire, 1998). Among all new AID cases reported by women, African-American Women account for 60%, and African-American men comprise 39% of all new cases among men. This latter rate is six times the rate of reported AID cases by white men (PR Newswire, 1998). Overall, African-Americans have the highest transmission rates of HIV in the United tates (Adimora & choenbach, 2002), and AID is the leading cause of death of African-Americans between the ages of 25 and 44 (Hodge, 2001). What are the factors underlying these distressing statistics,…
Sanders-Phillips, K. "Factors Influencing HIV / AIDS in Women of Color." Public Health Reports 117.1 (2002): S151-6.
Sterk, C.E. "The Health Intervention Project: HIV Risk Reduction Among African-American Women Drug Users." Public Health Reports 117.1 (May - June 2002): S88-95.
Stoskopf, C.H., Richter, D.L., Kim Y.K. "Factors Affecting Health Status in African-Americans Living With HIV / AIDS." AIDS Patient Care and STDS 15.6 (June 2001): 331-8.
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…
Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.
Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.
Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
Interestingly enough, one of the themes in the post-modernism period of American history has been the reexamination of the "real America," particularly the moral, ethical and sexual changes that have evolved since the turn of the century. This has not been a new theme, nor has it been relegated to non-fiction. At the beginning of the 20th century, American novelists were expanding the role fiction took by examining high and low life in society. Edith harton, for instance, found tremendous hypocrisy within the ranks of the Eastern elite in terms of morality and sexuality and in Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser portrayed a country girl who moved to the big city of Chicago to become a "kept woman," relinquishing her American morals for the pleasures of the flesh. Similarly, even in the stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, and Ernest Hemingway there are notions and reexaminations of…
Bales, R. (2001). Social Interaction Systmes: Theory and Measurment. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Berthrong, J. (2004). Love, Lust and Sex- A Christian Perspective. Buddhist-Christian Studies, 24(2), 3-22.
Gosine, M. (2010). Whatever Happened to the Real America. Boston: Pearson.
Smith, J. (1996, March). The Christian View of Sex: A Time for Apologetics, not Apologies. Retrieved July 2011, from Cathlic Education Research Center: http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/sexuality/se0004.html
Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…
American Social Health Association. (1998), Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Fleming DT, et al. (1997), Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. NEJM; 337:1105-11.
Gandhi, M. (February 2006), Division of Infectious Diseases, VeriMed Healthcare Network UCSF, San Francisco, CA.
Genital Herpes," (May 2005), Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179/DSECTION=8
Teenage pregnancy is described as being pregnant or being a mother below 20 years of age in most of the conducted researches. Only two researches considered had an age limit of 20 years, while another one had a limit of 21 years (Noll, Shenk, & Putnam, 2009).
The rate of teenage child birth differs by a 10 factor in case of first world nations. Netherlands on one hand has a negligible rate of 12 infants per 1,000 teenagers each year while Russia on the other hand has a rate of 100 infants per 1000 teenagers. During the 1990's United States of America spiked with teenage pregnancies which was the same in 1980's as well. Japan and European nations have controlled pregnancy rates (40 infants per 1,000). England peaks the European bloc with teenage pregnancy. One research in 2000 concluded that annually in England, around 90,000 child births…
Amoran, O. (2012). A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria. Amoran International Journal for Equity in Health, 2-7.
Dickins, T., Johns, S., & Chipman, A. (2012). Teenage Pregnancy In The United Kingdom: A Behavioral Ecological Perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 344-359.
Fonseca, L., Araujo, H., & Santos, S. (2012). Sexualities, teenage pregnancy and educational life histories in Portugal: experiencing sexual citizenship? Gender and Education, 647-664.
Hoggart, L. (2012). I'm Pregnant...what am I going to do? An examination of value judgments and moral frameworks in teenage pregnancy decision making. Health, Risk and Society, 533-549.
Therefore, HM is designed to help those who would likely not succeed in traditional treatment methodologies as well as to address the indirect harms associated with the behavior targeted for intervention (Brocato & Wagner, 2003).
In that respect, existing HM-based drug treatment programs have confirmed the social benefit and individual welfare achievable through the more tolerant form of intervention. Universally, the literature documents the extent to which social problems such as petty crime and personal harm such as disease transmission and other types of intravenous infection have been substantially reduced through the HM approach to drug abuse.
In Opposition to the Harm eduction Model
Critics of the HM (especially in connection with illicit drug abuse) strongly object to that approach, largely because they believe that it is tantamount to condoning that behavior or even enabling it in the classical codependency context (O'Neill, 2002). In general, that is equally true with…
Brocato, J. And Wagner, E.F. (2003). "Harm reduction: A social work practice model and social justice agenda." Health & Social Work. Retrieved November 02, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-334573631.html
Denning, P. (2000). Practicing Harm Reduction Psychotherapy: An Alternative
Approach to Addictions. New York: Guilford Press.
Ghetti, C.M. (2004). "Incorporating Music Therapy into the Harm Reduction Approach
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
She eventually does however, and this particular episode merely shows the types of problems that families have with one another. It functions as a piece of foreshadowing since it occurs in the beginning of the film. While the aforementioned couple argues about whether or not the husband looks better with his glasses on or off, or why the wife has chosen to hide her crucifix because it is not expensive enough or gold, the viewer is merely given visual clues that the tension, arguments, and problems that have befallen this particular couple is one of the themes in the movie. The couple, therefore, functions as a microcosm of the couples and families in the film, and of the problems that plague them.
Not all of the portraits that Morris is shown taking at the beginning of the film are as argumentative as that of the aforementioned couple. However, the vast…
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bancroft, J. (1999). Sexual Science in the 21st Century: Where Are We Going? A Personal Note. The Journal of Sex Research, 36(3), 226.
Clerics' Objections Erode U.N. Condom Stance. (2002, June 21). The Washington Times, p. A15.
Formichelli, L. (2001, January). The Male Pill. Psychology Today, 34, 16.
communicable disease for discussion is HIV. HIV is the precursor to AIDS and is a virus with possible origins within the monkeys and chimp population of Africa. Some humans in certain areas of Africa ate these animals and may have been exposed to the virus where it transformed into aids. Because of HIV's ability to destroy CD4 cells, a particular kind of white blood cell, which plays a big part in aiding the body fight illness, it severely weakens a person's immune system. Eventually, it can progress to AIDS. This happens when an individual's CD4 count goes below 200 or experience complications that define AIDS like tuberculosis.
Transmission of HIV comes from infected semen, blood, or vaginal secretions that must enter a person's body. Ordinary contact does not result in infection like hugging, dancing, or kissing a person with HIV. HIV cannot be transmitted through water, insect bites, or air.…
Aids.gov,. (2015). Presidential Advisory Council on HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 1 April 2015, from https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/pacha/about-pacha/
Layzell, S., & McCarthy, M. (1993). Specialist or generic community nursing care for HIV / AIDS patients?. J Adv Nurs, 18(4), 531-537. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1993.18040531.x
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
Hell Is for Other People
Me: Boy, you're here a lot earlier than usual.
Stranger: Yeah, I have a hot date tonight: hopefully, tonight's the night, if you know what I mean (Winks).
Me: You're sexually active?
Stranger: What do you mean by that? Of course I'm sexually active, why do you ask.
Me: Oh. Well, because the other day you mentioned going to church ... you said you were Catholic, right?
Stranger: (Laughs) Yes, I am...but that doesn't mean I can't have a little fun, you know? (Winks again).
Me: Aren't all unmarried Christians supposed to be celibate though? I thought premarital sex was a mortal sin ... "fornication," right?
Stranger: Yes, it is, but we all sin because human beings weren't created perfectly; only God is perfect.
Me: I'm sorry, but I don't really understand...as a Christian, aren't you supposed to refrain from all sexual activity except in…
One survey at a college also contemplating condom dispensers arrived at this surprising finding: 41% of students "said that they would have sex without a condom if one was not immediately available" (Cooper 2006, p.2). hen condoms were left out for free at the health center, noted one nurse, the students took them by the handful. "Condom dispensers are a good, consistent source," of condoms for students, in other words, students do not need to do a great deal of pre-planning to use them, which lessens the chance they will accidentally find themselves unprepared. "They ensure that condoms are both affordable and available to students" (Cooper 2006, p.2).
Regarding the cost, most universities that have implemented the plan have found the machines extremely cost-efficient: "One benefit of condom dispensers is that they would pay for themselves…The money placed into the machines would be used to purchase more condoms" (Cooper 2006,…
Cooper, Adra. "Condom dispensers proposed to help CAP STDs." The Guilfordian.
September 26, 2006. May 20, 2009. http://media.www.guilfordian.com/media/storage/paper281/news/2006/09/29/News/Condom.Dispensers.Proposed.To.Help.Cap.Stds-2318180.shtml
Wexler, Kimberly. "South Carolina Students' Demand for Condom Dispensers Denied."
University Wire. February 20, 2008. May 20, 2009.