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Size Analysis the Author of
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4610497
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A different sample looked at 144 offenders incarecerated only in Texas and 137 of those 144 completed the PAI as mentioned above to help classify them. The average age of this 144 people was 36.99 years. The same sample was pretty racially diverse given that roughly half was white, 35% was black, 16.1% was Hispanic and the other 0.7% was something else (Caperton, Edens & Johnson, 2004).

As for how all of this impacts the study, a sample of less than 100 or 200 people in a larger pool of 100,000 is pretty small. However, to have a sample near or above 100 is still not bad although the sample should have been larger for the Texas sample since they have such a large share of the United States population and, probably, the population of sex offenders as well. Even with the size of the sample being small, the results…


Caperton, J.D., Edens, J.F., & Johnson, J.K. (2004). Predicting Sex Offender

Institutional Adjustment and Treatment Compliance Using the Personality

Assessment Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 16(2), 187-191.


Sampled and the Various Types of Instruments
Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84228662
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sampled, and the various types of instruments used in data collection. The methods also differ in how the data will be collected: qualitatively, quantitatively or both.

In the following essay we will be discussing the comparisons and contrasts of the following research methods, followed by some examples and particular usage of these methods.

Field esearch Method

Experimental esearch Method


Field esearch Method

Field research is an activity used to collect primary or unusual data using methods such as face-to-face interviewing, telephonic interviews, surveys and direct observation etc. The purpose of this study is to observe the phenomena in its natural state, collection of data and then construction of theory. The field research method has much strength, such as that the researcher can conduct research in a better way to find out the specific information that is required. Similarly, flexibility is also a great strength of this method, as the…


Babbie, Earl R (1973) "Survey Research Methods" Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Experiment Resources (2008) "Experimental Research" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources: 

Shuttleworth, Martyn (2009) "Field Experiments" Retrieved 7th May 2011 from Experiment Resources:

Sample Variability and Statistical Inferences
Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21466519
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digit integers {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}.

Sampling distribution of each sample is .04

Mean () Probability P (x)

If a population has a standard deviation ? of 25 units, what is the standard error of the mean if samples of size 16 are selected? Samples of size 36? Samples of size 100?

Standard error for sample size 16 25 / 4= 6.25

Standard error for sample size 36 25/6= 4.17

Standard error for sample size 100 25/10= 2.5

According to Nielsen's Television Audience report, in 2009 the average American home had 2.6 television sets (more than the average number of people per household, at 2.5 people). If the standard deviation for the number of televisions in a U.S. household is 1.2 and a random sample of 0 U.S. households is selected, the mean of this sample belongs to a sampling distribution.

a.What is the shape of this sampling distribution?…


From candy to jewelry to flowers, the average consumer was expected to spend $123.89 for Mother's Day 2009, according to an April 2009 National Retail Federation survey. Local merchants felt this average was too high for their area. They contracted an agency to conduct a study. A random sample of 60 consumers was taken at a local shopping mall the Saturday before Mother's Day and produced a sample mean amount of $106.27. If ? = $39.50, does the sample provide sufficient evidence to support the merchants' claim at the 0.05 level of significance?

Z star is .0575, which means the p value is .48 and is not smaller than the established level of significance. Therefore, the sample does provide sufficient evidence to support the merchants' claims.

Sampling Sizes How Much Is Enough
Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55800763
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Sampling Size: Qualitative esearch

The aim of qualitative research is to ensure that the population in question is studied with sufficient rigor and above all sufficient depth to yield meaningful results. "There is a point of diminishing return to a qualitative sample -- as the study goes on more data does not necessarily lead to more information… qualitative research is concerned with meaning and not making generalised hypothesis statements" (Mason 2010:8). The advantage to large sampling sizes is that they are more representative as a whole and are less likely to be thrown off by anomalies: "for qualitative studies, where the goal is to 'reduce the chances of discovery failure,' a large sample size broadens the range of possible data and forms a better picture for analysis" ("The importance of a quality sample size," 2013, Unite for Sight). In the process of qualitative research, when a small sampling size is…


Mason, M. (2010). Sample size and saturation in PHD studies using qualitative research.

Qualitative Social Research, 11 (3): 8. Retrieved from 

Maxwell, J.A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (2nd Ed.).

Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Correctly Determining a Sample for
Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78806546
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Depending on what the particular needs are for a qualitative study, the samples should be small so that researchers can achieve data saturation, in which no new information is encountered so that redundancy occurs (Polit & Beck, 2008, p. 363). In comparison, quantitative studies are usually advantaged by larger samples that are more representative of a population.

Developing a sample for a research study requires researchers to specifically tailor their sample to the research design. Doing so involves determining whether the study will be quantitative or qualitative, and utilizing one of the many different sampling measures that categorized as either nonprobability or probability sampling. There is a distinct relationship between quantitative studies and probability sampling measures, and qualitative research and non-probability measures (particularly those that involve purposive sampling). However, researchers must ensure that their samples demonstrate a causal relationship -- that is ideally in accordance with their hypotheses -- and…


Creswell, J. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Retrieved from,%20Quantitative,%20and%20mixed%20methods.pdf 

Lunsford, T.R., Lunsford, B.R. (2005). "Research forum -- the research sample, part I: Sampling." American Academy of Orthotists & Prosthetists. Retrieved from 

No author. (no date). "What is research design." Retrieved from Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice, (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. ISBN 9780781794688

Saldanha, L., Thompson, P. (2002). "Conceptions of sample and their relationship to statistical inferences." Educational Studies in Mathematics. 51 (3) 257-270.

Pros of a Representative Sample in This
Words: 690 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58340167
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pros of a representative sample in this case? In this regard, your thread provides some of the advantages?

The study affirms the importance of cultural influences in research and management. A representative sample is particularly important in this study since the ramifications are immense. The authors argue that culture impacts perceptions and outcome of research. The researchers argue that consideration of cultural differences is critical when choosing researchers for and applying techniques in cross-cultural research as well as in the performance appraisal and international management. Implications of this study would have huge effects in an immense amount of fields from that of the social sciences where scholars and government as well as NGOs would choose researchers based on cultural specifications to conduct and evaluate research. Corporations, too, would include ethnicity as one of their criteria when choosing employees who would conduct performance appraisals. Most importantly still, management echelons would be…


People science & Policy The need for representative samples in quantitative research 

Rundblad, G (2006) Recruiting a representative sample.

Business Email Sample
Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89773805
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Company Email

Two alternatives to increase the company's customer service score

Dear Greg,

I first would like to thank you, for providing me the opportunity to oversee your four store locations as the retail division manager. This is a large responsibility, and one that I am willing to accept. One of my roles is to ensure the competitiveness of our growing franchise. Customer service is a pivotal strength of our business; however, it has been declining of late.

I understand that with any business customer service is paramount to success. BCCC is no different in this regard. This is particularly true as competition is pervasive in all of our markets. Competitors, particularly in our industry, will strike at any opportunity to steal market share from our company. I understand this dynamic and have enclosed recommendations to keep the company competitive from a customer service perspective. Over my tenure as manager,…

Sizes Are Faced With Many
Words: 5668 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 12490017
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In the context of higher education, then, redefining mission statements to reflect this wide range of influences requires a balancing act between the interests of all of the stakeholders involved. This not a static, one-time analysis, either, but requires constant reevaluation to ensure that the educational institution is delivering the type of graduates with the skill set needed in the 21st century workplace. For instance, Berg et al. (2008) emphasize that, "It is out of the complex set of alignments as well as realignments in response to changing conditions, that institutional missions are created and, when necessary, transformed. For example, the goals of the external stakeholders and those of the institution must constantly be realigned" (p. 44).

Properly developed in this fashion, some proponents of mission statements maintain that the payoff is worth the effort. According to Bartkus, Glassman and McAffee, "The aim [of the mission statement] is to…


Abdullah, Z., Samah, S.A., Jusoff, K. & Isa, P.M. (2009, February). Succession planning in Malaysian institution of higher education. International Education Studies, 2(1), 129-

Bardo, J.W. (2009, Spring). The impact of the changing climate for accreditation on the individual college or university: Five trends and their implications. New Directions for Higher Education, 145, 47-59.

Barker, T.S. & Smith, H.W., Jr. (2006, August). Integrating accreditation into strategic planning. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 22(8), 741-750.

Bartkus, M.G. & McAfee, R.B. (2008, November/December). Mission statements: Are they smoke and mirrors? Business Horizons, 24-30.

Assessing Expressive Language Samples of ECE Students
Words: 1325 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 87858703
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A sample of 25 intelligible utterances obtained during an observation in the clinic, in which Jay played and interacted with his mother, provided the basis for the language analysis. The following assessments were conducted: MLU, DSS, Correct/Incorrect Form Analysis, and Type Token atio.

Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Although oger Brown's five stages of language development differ from the scoring used in the MLU interpretation in this paper, Jay is scores within normal limits in this second version, also. Brown describes a MLU score of 3.0 to 3.75 as Stage IV of language development, which corresponds with an approximate age of 35 to 40 months. Jay has reached 41 months of age at the time of this evaluation, which puts him in Stage V of language development, with corresponding ages of 41 to 46 months. Jay's MLU score is 3.5, which may be interpreted to indicate that Jay is moderately…


Rice, M.L., Smolik, F., Perpich, D., Thompson, T., Rytting, N., and Blossom, M. (2010, April). Mean length of utterance levels in 6-month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(2), 333 -- 349. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0183) PMCID: PMC2849178 NIHMSID: NIHMS120034

C-Sections Relative to Hospital Size a Cesarean
Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24338227
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C-Sections elative to Hospital Size

A cesarean section, more commonly known as a C-section, is a surgical procedure in which a fetus is delivered via a hysterotomy rather than a more typical vaginal delivery procedure. There are many medical reasons why a c-section is necessary, although the geographic and demographic distribution of c-sections shows many trends in the prevalence of the procedure, indicating medical necessity is not the only reason that the surgery is performed. Affluence and medical availability and infrastructure have clear impacts on the rate and outcome of c-sections.

In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that on average, 10-15% of live births were via c-section, and the rate of c-sections in the United States, despite a rising popularity of alternative birthing methods (midwifes, home births, doulas, etc.), the c-sections have increased by 48% since 1996. While the size of hospitals studied when studying c-section outcomes has been…


Chen, Chin-Shyan et al. (2008). "Urbanization and the likelihood of a cesarean section" European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ad Reproductive Biology

Volume 141, Issue 2, Pp 104-110

Chris Macourt, et al. (2007). "Elective Cesarean Section and Decision Making: A Critical Review of the Literature" Birth..Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 65 -- 79.

Kritchevsky, SB et al. (1996). "Decreasing the cesarean section rate in a private hospital: Success without mandated clinical changes." American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Volume 174, Issue 1. Pp 184-191.

Corporate Governance When a Merger the Size
Words: 2372 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 266259
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Corporate Governance

When a merger the size of the AOL ime Warner merger takes place and then disintegrates, it is time to look for what went wrong. Both companies were regarded as important in their fields; both had been successful, one for many years (ime Warner), the other for only a short while (AOL), but that success was extreme.

What did go wrong? he simple answer is that is was probably a classic clash of old paradigm vs. new paradigm.

In fact, the simple answer is the whole answer, and it appears in graphic detail on the 91st page of Alec Klein's book, Stealing ime: Steve Case, Jerry Levin, and the Collapse of AOL ime Warner. On that page, Klein describes the scrambling of the lawyers for both firms -- AOL and ime Warner -- when operation Alpha ango is revealed to them. (Both Case and Levin chose to keep…

The shareholders need to be stinking mad. Time Warner executives, even after the truth was coming out, didn't want to challenge the belatedly charismatic Steve Case. Case had also belatedly reassumed his former pretty persona, perhaps to meld, at last, with the 'suits' at Time Warner. Too little too late. On Sunday, January 12, 2003, Case finally stepped down as chairman of AOL Time Warner. Too late for Jerry Levin. And Ted Turner, who had turned his initial 'nay' reaction to a yea, eased on out the door to become a philanthropist. He didn't lose enough loot to matter. Levin is sitting pretty, despite not cashing in on his AOL Time Warner stock. Case cashed out for millions. The AOL Time Warner Center, costing $1.8 billion, killed at least one worker in the building, and sits as a tony home to those who can afford $2 to $40mliion for a condo.

Very likely, few stockholders can afford that. And some stockholders actually invest with two aims: to make a good return for themselves, and to be part of the growth of American business.

In the case of AOL Time Warner, investors lost on both those fronts, and suffered the embarrassment of hatching the world's biggest merger turkey, whether they had actually cast a proxy ballot or had merely sat back and watched, as well.

Sales of Mid-Size Sport Utility
Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56602076
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With.573 correlation of Unibody directly influencing Body-on-Frame sales in the years sampled. Table 3 provides the results of the query made in SPSS Version 13.

Table 3: SPSS Correlation Coefficients

Kendall's tau_b


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)

Spearman's rho


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)


Correlation Coefficient

Sig. (2-tailed)

With the statistical analysis showing reasonably strong predictability, the next step is to evaluate the specific 14-month time series for greater insights into the variability and predictability of the data. What emerges from completing a Linear egression along with every exponential smoothing techniques for curve fitting is further evidence of linear (.702 regression) in addition to quadratic (.737 regression) shows that variations in Body-on-Frame demand are explained through these statistical techniques.

Table 4: Model Summary and Parameter Estimates

Dependent Variable: BodyOnFrame


Model Summary














Monthly Energy Review (2006) - Posted: August 28, 2006 from the Energy Information Administration at Website: . Here is the specific data table used for the analysis:

Appendix a: Comparison Analysis for 14-month Analysis


Developing a Sampling Plan
Words: 5476 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16249528
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Sampling Plan

Before discussing a sampling plan, there has to be clear and unambiguous definitions of what a sample and sampling are. Despite diversity in the definition of a sample, the best meaning is that a sample could be considered as a subset of a population, with which a researcher would like to use as participants in a given research study (Landreneau & Creek, 2012). According to Deming (1990), sapling is a science, which specifically guides quantitative studies, materials, behavior and the different causes of difference. In other aspects of research such as the qualitative research, sampling could be considered as the art of selecting a part of a population, in a given research area that is a representation of the entire population.

Both the qualitative and quantitative researchers approach their sampling differently. For the quantitative researchers, samples which are selected are those that will give the researcher easy time…


Adler, E.S. & Clark, R. (2008). How It Is Done: An Invitation to Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.

Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.

Bartlett, J.E., Kotrlik, J.W. & Higgins, C.C. (2012). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Retrieved 28th October, 2012 from 

Beri, (2007). Marketing Research. India: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing.

Prediction'so We Have to Assume That
Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389
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prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…

Business Research Into the Legalization of Marijuana
Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 64387605
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Business Research

Research into the legalization of marijuana will seek to determine what people's views on the issue are. The population is going to be the entire United States, as we are seeking to determine national views about the issue. The sampling will be done at random, using databases of phone numbers and computer-generated dialing. The operators will only know of and gather non-personal information such as age bracket, gender and state of residence. The major downside to this form of sampling is that many younger people will not be sampled because they often do not have landlines.

Random sampling is the "purest form" of probability sampling in that it is free from researcher bias and is more likely to accurately reflect the total population as a result (StatPac, 2012). Landline ownership is a reasonable proxy for the total population, with the caveat noted above. However, other sampling methods are…

Works Cited:

StatPac. (2012). Survey sampling methods. StatPac. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from (2012). Glossary of statistical terms: sampling frame. Institute for Statistics Education. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from 

CRS. (2012). Sample size calculator. Creative Research Systems. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from

Random Number Research the Population
Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44634965
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A fishbowl draw (or a similar method of physically randomizing the selection of numbers from the population contained in the table, such as dropping a coin from high above an enlarged version of the table and allowing it to bounce onto selected numbers) would be preferred for this study. This means of selection would fully randomize the selection, ensuring the validity of the sample, while at the same time would be fairly easy to accomplish. The creation or utilization of a computer program to randomly select numbers form this population would also be a highly valid and reliable way of accomplishing the necessary sampling, but this would be much more time-intensive as it would require the inputting of the entire population into the computer before the sample could be created. Analysis would be accomplished much faster by the computer after the data had been input, of course, but the data…

How Incentives Effect the Performance of Managers
Words: 1749 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27787564
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Incentives and Performance

Kopelman, ., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.

Certainly, there is no one best way to ensure that either employees or managers are properly motivated. Most scholarship, in fact, indicates that motivation is a balance between the task-relevant behavior and the maturity and acumen of the group in which the individual manages or participates in. In fact, motivation is the basic driving force that helps individuals work, change and actualize to achieve their goals. This motivational behavior may be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending upon the individual and the manner in which that individual's personality uses different sets of motivation to incur actualization. Much of the basic theory of motivation tends to be based on the work of Benjamin Maslow, not only on human needs, but on the manner in which those…


Heil, G., et al., (2000). Douglas McGregor Revisited: Managing the Human Side of the Enterprise. New York: John Wiley.

Hersey and Blanchard (1977). Management of Organization Behavior, Utilizing Human Resource. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Kopelman, R., et al. (2012); Further Development of a Measure of Theory X and Y Managerial Assumptions. Journal of Managerial Issues. 24 (4): 450-62.

Martin, A. (2009). Motivation and Engagement in the Workplace. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling and Development. 41 (1): 223-43.

Law Enforcement and the Social Media
Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44555333
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data collection includes survey form, structured interviews using closed ended questions, and gathering information regarding a sample size appropriate to analyze and draw conclusion on the basis of the research results. The statistical techniques are used for data analysis to analyze collected data in quantitative research methods. The qualitative data is gathered through case study method and open ended question of an unstructured interview from notable sample. The qualitative methods of research are also equally popular in understating the ignored aspects of a topic. The research question discussed below is addressed on the basis of qualitative and quantitates research methodology.

Question 1:

What is the role of social media in affecting law enforcement?

The usage of internet has increased over the past years. Internet technology has encouraged a revolutionary change. Starting form the desktop computers, laptops, handheld computers, to a variety of internet enabled cell phones has created a huge…


Clarke, B. (2012). Deconstructing the rioters: a case study of individuals convicted and sentenced in Greater Manchester. Safer communities, 11(1), 33-39.

Denef, S., Bayerl, P.S., & Kaptein, N. (2013). Social Media and the Police -- Tweeting Practices of British Police Forces during the August 2011 Riots.

Frank, R., Cheng, C., & Pun, V. (2011). Social Media Sites-New Fora for Criminal, Communication, and Investigation Opportunities. Public Safety Canada.

Fresenko, V.L. (2010). Social media integration into state-operated fusion centers and local law enforcement potential uses and challenges (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California Naval Postgraduate School).

Powell 2008 Is Discussing the Utilization of
Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 79855999
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Powell (2008) is discussing the utilization of mixed method research. What actuaries found is that the majority of actuaries used this kind of approach sparingly (with only 13.7% of the studies classified in these categories). This is providing a basic foundation for understanding the methods that are embraced by psychologists. (Powell, 2008, pp. 291 -- 311)

How many are included in this study? Is this sample size appropriate for this study?

The sample size of the study is 873 articles. This was subdivided into a several different demographics to include: the Journal of School Psychology (157), Psychology in the Schools (365), School Psychology eview (145) and School Psychology Quarterly (206). This size is considered to be appropriate from: the different categories and the large number of articles that were reviewed. (Powell, 2008, pp. 291 -- 311)

Demographics: Explain the demographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education etc. And how these related…


Pituch, K. (2006). A Comparison of a Single Sample. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 41 (3), 367 -- 400.

Powell, H. (2008). Mixed Methods Research. Psychology in the Schools, 45 (4), 291 -- 311

Nursing Shortages
Words: 2993 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56134089
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What causes staffing shortages in the field of nursing? Staffing shortages can be the result of many variables—turnover, unmet demand for services due to a lack of RNs, overwork (nurses calling in sick), and so on. Buchan (2002) identified the problem of staffing shortages in nursing as having an underlying cause in the nature of the health system itself as well as a social one: “Nursing in many countries continues to be undervalued as women’s work, and nurses are given only limited access to resources to make them effective in their jobs and careers” (p. 751). This is especially true in countries like Saudi Arabia, where nursing is viewed as woman’s work but is not valued highly by society—though it is recognized as being highly needed (Alyami & Watson, 2014). To address the issue of staffing shortages, the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2012) has called for more nurses to…

Left Prefrontal Cortex Hobbies and
Words: 7502 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90555739
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In short, the left prefrontal cortex is intimately connected to the cingulate cortex, the source of attentional ability (e.g. Kalish, Wiech, Hermann, & Dolan, 2006), whilst simultaneously serving as site for happiness. The hypothesis of this essay, therefore is, that the greater the span of attention accorded an activity, the more positive and more intense the level of serenity experienced.

Although Csikszentmihalyi has conducted research on 'flow' and shown that the experience of flow associated with mindfulness and attentionality has been identified as the highest level of well being (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), little if any research seems to exist on the connection between hobbies and serenity. It may be assumed that hobbies indicate a sense of flow, implicating mindfulness or attentioanlity, therefore, as per the left prefrontal cortex, sense of pleasure and serenity should be sharpened and participants should feel more serenity. Hobbies, however, are a huge field and their spectrum…


Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain. Baltimore, MA: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.

Cardoso, S.H. (2007). Hardwired for happiness. Cerebrum 2007: Emerging ideas in brain science. Washington, DC, U.S.: Dana Press. pp. 169-184.

Buckner, R, L., Raichle, M.E., & Paterson, S.E (1995) Dissociation of human prefrontal cortical areas across different speech production tasks and gender groups Journal of neurophysiology, 2, 15-25

Curtis, W.J., & Ciccheti, D. (2007). Emotion and resilience: A multilevel investigation of hemispheric electroencephalogram asymmetry and emotion regulation in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Development & Psychopathology, 19, p811-840.

Stat Notes Sampling Error and
Words: 442 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61852842
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Standard deviation is a measure of how far the data is spread from the mean, and can be used to assess the accuracy of the sample mean.

Type I errors are improper rejections of the null hypothesis.

Type II errors are failures to reject the null hypothesis hen it should be rejected.

Level of Significance measures the likelihood of committing a Type I error.

Power analysis measures the risk of committing a Type II error.

Regression analysis measures the relationship between two groups, and can be used to compare separate groups or the same group after an intervention. There are several ways to perform regression analysis.

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) measures the variance observed in groups of data and works to attribute observed variances to specific observed variables. There are different tests used to perform analysis depending on the type of data available and the desired information output.

Chi squared…

Lucidly Stated to Orbit Around Leventhal's Self-Regulation
Words: 2231 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 83336630
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lucidly stated to orbit around Leventhal's self-regulation theory which suggests that the actions which can help better explain behavioral changes are founded in the patient's unique view of their illness, and how they in turn regulate their behavior and the extent to which they engage in risk management. According to Burns and Grove (2009), this is a substantive theory.

The framework is presented in a somewhat lose manner, largely proposing that emotional and cognitive process help one in solidifying their perceptions of their illnesses and thus, impact the mode of action during a health crisis and the way in which the individual behave. As no strict framework is presented, concepts such as the identification of the illness, the presumed causes, the prospective consequences, the length of time of the disease, and the presumed control over the disease are all factors which can impact and influence the ability or perceived ability…

References (2014). Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Retrieved from 

S., C., Frasure-Smith, N., Dupuis, J., Juneau, M., & Guertin, M. (2012). Randomized controlled trial of tailored nursing interventions to improve cardiac rehabilitation enrollment. Nursing Research, 61(2):111-20.

Dealing Effectively With Organizational Change
Words: 8797 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 50486495
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Factors that affect an organization's capacity and willingness to change need to be examined and exploited. Organizational culture, which is a set of shared values and assumptions that are followed by the members of an organization, plays an important role in affecting the attitude of an organization to change. If an organizational history has been unwelcome to change in the past, it is highly unlikely that an organization will be willing to accept change in the future. Sometimes, core competency can assist in the process of change (Porter, 1980).

Lastly, at the individual level, the process of change is completed when it is implemented within a company. The task of the general manager then becomes of envisioning the future of the change and of facilitating cooperation among the workforce. He is also responsible for implementing change at various levels of production, development and distribution. In particular, what needs to be…


Saunders, M., Lewis, P. And Thornhill, A (2003). Research methods for business students. 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall.

Seaman, C.H.C. (1987). Research Methods: Principles, Practice, and Theory for Nursing. (pp. 174) Appleton & Lange.

Sudman, S. And Bradburn, N.M. (1982). Asking Questions: a Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Taylor, Aex III (October 12, 2009) Fortune: "Can GM Survive?" 60 (7), 60. Retrieved October 31, 2009, Proquest, ISSN: 00158259

Function of This Study Is
Words: 3518 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84974468
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In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.

Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…

Sources of information . nd.

Coastal Star Sales Corporation Is
Words: 493 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 65229000
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3-Organize the data on current year sales in question 1 into a frequency distribution with the following classes:

Under $500,000


$500,001 to $999,999


$1,000,000 and over


3- Organize the data on years of selling experience in question 1 into a frequency distribution consisting of two classes: less than 5 years and 5 or more years less than 5 years


5 or more years


4- in a survey of 500, 60% responded positively to an attitude question. Calculate a confidence interval at 95% to get an interval estimate for a proposition. 4.29

5-in a nationwide survey, a researcher expects that 30% of the population will agree with an attitude statement. She wishes to have less than 2% error and to be 95% confident. What sample size is needed? 30

6- City Opera, a local opera company wishes to take a sample of its subscribers to learn…

8-an automobile dealership plans to conduct a survey to determine what proportion of a new-car buyers continue to have their cars service at the dealership after the warranty period ends. It estimates that 30% of customers do so. It wants the result of its survey to be accurate within 5% and it wants to be 95% confident of the results. What sample size is necessary? 28


Creative Research Systems. Sample Size Calculator. Retrieved on January 24, 2011 from:

Marketting Research Class Design a Survey a Question
Words: 820 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34612483
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Marketting research class.Design a survey a question interest. ( make ). The survey 5 questions. You administer survey 20 people. ( make answers). Inpreparing research report-based survey, answer . 1. Who target population? 2.

Marketing research

With the holidays approaching, the marketers seek to identify the spending intentions of their customers in order to stock their stores and complete the financial projections. The expected behavior of the customers during the 2012 holiday season would be assessed through the development and implementation of the following questionnaire:

How many gifts do you intend to purchase this year?

a) Less than five

b) Between five and ten

c) More than ten

Question 2: Comparative to the gift budget of the previous year, how is the budget for this year?

a) Smaller

b) Similar

c) Larger

Question 3: Would you be buying Christmas presents only for the immediate friends and family, or for more…


Calculating sample size. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. accessed on December 11, 2012

Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome 2 Two
Words: 1421 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52689691
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Criminal Justice

For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…

The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995

The observation unit. Individuals.

The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The offender-level data do not contain information about the victims in these cases.

Lived Experience of Nurses With Medication
Words: 1988 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37696917
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Nurses Medication


The Lived Experiences of Nurses with Medication

Nurses are tasked with the proper distribution of medications. Unfortunately, they sometimes are unable to perform that task properly due to various factors. This paper presents five separate studies, two qualitative and three quantitative or mixed, which researched how nurses commit medication error, what the antecedents are, and how they can be avoided. The studies are examined according to research design, sample size and whether the study could be extrapolated to the broader population.

The Lived Experiences of Nurses with Medication

This is a literature review which focuses on nurses who make medication errors and what importance is placed on those errors in relation to patient safety. Five studies were examined with the express purpose of determining what types of studies are being conducted to alleviate this issue, what research designs they are using, and whether…


Hofmann, D.A., & Mark, B. (2006). An investigation of the relationship between safety climate and medication errors as well as other nurse and patient outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 59(4). 238-249.

Kim, J., An, K., Kim, M.K., & Yoon, S.H. (2007). Nurses' perception of error reporting and patient safety culture in Korea. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 29(7). 827-844.

Jones, J.H., & Treiber, L. (2010). When the 5 rights go wrong: Medication errors from the nursing perspective. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 25(3). 240-247.

Schelbred, A.-B., & Nord, R. (2007). Nurses experiences of drug administration errors. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(3). 317-324.

Baker Made Several Mistakes in
Words: 308 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 31221842
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This was incorrect. He should have recalculated the sample size again rather than assume that the sample/population ratio was scalable.

Baker also erred when he made the assumption that the sample deviation rate and allowance for sampling risk could be added and compared with the achieved upper deviation rate. This is incorrect -- the calculation should have been made differently. Indeed, his calculation of the allowance for sampling risk was done incorrectly. That is the difference between the expected error rate and the tolerable deviation rate, not the expected error rate and the actual error rate (Accounting Institute, 2009).

orks Cited:

Schilling, E. (1982). Acceptance sampling in quality control. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Kaplan, J. (2003). How to use statistical sampling. AuditNet. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from

No author. (2009). Auditing dictionary of terms. Accounting Institute. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from

Works Cited:

Schilling, E. (1982). Acceptance sampling in quality control. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Kaplan, J. (2003). How to use statistical sampling. AuditNet. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from 

No author. (2009). Auditing dictionary of terms. Accounting Institute. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from

AIDS HIV Has Been Increasingly Brought
Words: 2479 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 21339859
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The problem with using this approach is that anomalies could occur, which will make the figures incorrect. To avoid these kinds of oversights, descriptive statistics is looking at a wide variety of numbers. This allows researchers to corroborate the underlying trends with one another. (Descriptive Statistics 2006)

Inferential data is when you are trying to determine what the respondents of the sample are thinking by looking beyond the data. This is accomplished by using probability to make judgments about what the data means by: looking at the differences between the control group and the independent variable. Two types of tests that are appropriate include: the t test and analysis of variance. (Inferential Statistics 2006)

Time Line

To achieve the various objectives of the survey, we include a timeline that will serve as guide in determining the length of the project. elow is a time line that will highlight the extent…


Cross Sectional Study, 2011. Available from: [9 June 2011].

Descriptive Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].

HIV / AIDS, 2010, The Kaiser Foundation. Available from: [9 June 2011].

Inferential Statistics, 2006, Knowledge Base. Available from: [9 June 2011].

Employee Satisfaction With a Company's Review Process
Words: 7400 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74633360
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Employee Satisfaction with a Company's Review Process

The following research examines the reason for a decline in employee satisfaction regarding the review process at XYZ, Inc. The results of the survey revealed that sample biases may have confounded the results and that the survey will have to be re-administered to reflect the true attitudes and results of the preliminary research leading up to the current survey. The result showed a high degree of satisfaction with the quality and quantity of management feedback. The results of this survey are inconclusive and further research will need to be conducted to eliminate the possible effects of sample bias.

Delimitations (See Leedy)



Research question(s)

Evaluation Objective

Development Objectives



Survey Group(s)


Site contact


Chapter II

A. Literature Review

B. Introduction

C. General Management Issues

D. Project Related Issues

E. Conclusions

F. Definition of Terms

G. References

H. Project Submission…

Balanced Scorecard Method Performance Measurement
Words: 13021 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36300732
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However, none was found that centered on small hotels in China. This research add to the existing body of research by providing an assessment of the balanced scorecard method in this special business setting. The information obtained by this study will help to make small hotels in China more competitive and able to compete well into the future.

This research will play an important role in the development of the small hotel business in China in several important ways. It will help them to see what areas of their business need improvement, it will help them to pinpoint specific problems within their organization. It will help to bring weakness from obscurity into the forefront where solutions can be found. It will also show them their strengths and the area that could be developed for even greater prosperity in the future. This research will help small hotels to develop long-term vision…


Alleyne, P., Doherty, I. And Greenidge, D. (2006). Approaches to HRM in the Barbados Hotel Industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18, 2, 94 -- 109.

Balanced Scorecard Institute. 2009. Balanced Scorecard Basics. [Online]. Available at: 

Business and Strategy Insight for You. 2009. [Online]. Available at: 

Chen, C.N. And Ting, S.C. 2002. A Study Using the Grey System Theory to Evaluate the Importance of Various Service Quality Factors', the International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 19, 6, 838 -- 861.

Mixed-Method Approach for Developing Market
Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 75030036
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The researchers triangulated the data sources by interviewing over 60 organizational members, including CCI staff, managers from diverse hierarchical positions, staff members, and employees. Each interview lasted between 45 and 120 min and was transcribed in full for coding purposes. The researchers also collected more than 2,000 pages of relevant documents, including minutes from CCI staff meetings, annual reports, intranet postings, and several drafts on a strategic communication plan. This sample size appears to be adequate and appropriate for the study being undertaken.

The article Are Consumers ational? Experimental Evidence? By Shugan (2006) looks at the different tests that can be used to try and predict consumer behavior. The difference between experimental and statistical controls explains the divergence in conclusions. Experimental controls test rationality based on whether previously absent variables exhibit significant explanatory power holding known explanatory variables constant. Statistical controls test rationality based on the incremental explanatory power of…


Rohm, a.J., Milne, G.R., & McDonald, M.A. (2006). A Mixed-Method Approach for Developing Market Segmentation Typologies in the Sports Industry. Sport Marketing

Quarterly, 15(1), 29-39.

Voort, J., Glac, K., & Meijs, L. (2009). "Managing" Corporate Community Involvement.

Journal of Business Ethics, 90(3), 311-329.

Population Identified and Described Are Eligibility Criteria
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40655635
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population identified and described? Are eligibility criteria specified? Are the sample selection procedures clearly delineated? Yes. The sample consisted of 350 college students at a Midwestern University. All the students were enrolled in a personal health class as a social science elective.

Do the sample and population specifications support an inference of construct validity with regard to the population construct? Of n=350, 86% were White, 5% African-American, 4% Asian-American, 3% Latino, and 2% Other. This is not representative of the collegiate population in general, nor is it representative of the baseline population breakdown for most of America. However, because the classes are a social science elective, the sample does serve as an adequate representation of a cross-section of this particular Midwestern University.

What type of sampling plan was used? Would an alternative sampling plan have been preferable? Was the sampling plan one that could be expected to yield a representative…

Families Society Purpose The Purpose Exercise Conduct
Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5948093
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Families Society" PURPOSE: The purpose exercise conduct a detailed, critical evaluation research design, methods analysis a study written published a peer-reviewed journal.

Valentine, K., Thomson, C., & Antcliff, G. (2009). Early childhood services and support for vulnerable families: Lessons from the Benevolent Society's Partnerships In Early

Childhood Program. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 44(2), 195-213,120.

Yes, it is very specific.

Do subtitles, if present, provide important information regarding the research?

Yes, they bullet-point the basic components of the article although they do not label all of the conventionally-expected components of a research article like a literature review.

Are the main variables expressed in the title?


Are the terms in the title easily understood by most people?

To some extent: the general subject matter is clear, although not what is meant by vulnerable families, nor is the Partnerships In Early Childhood Program (PIEC) well-known.

5) Does the title avoid any…

Groups Control and Treatment for Change in
Words: 784 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83088592
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groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F (1, 22) = 9.619,

p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.

The researchers were able to conclude that the finding was significant because the Statistical value (F) had a p-value of less than .05, which is the cut-off point for significance. Consequently, they can conclude that there is a significant difference between the control and treatment groups over time.

State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients' mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The null hypothesis is that there are no differences in mean scores. The p…

Normal Distribution Is Very Much
Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21220010
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We have a random sample of n from the population. We can find the mean and standard deviation of the proportion of that sample that has the characteristic. X 1, X2, ..., Xn are n random variables that are independent and identically distributed with mean ? And standard deviation ?. Sn= X1+X2+...+Xn is the sample sum. We can show E (Sn)=n? And SD (Sn)=?

n. CLT states: Sn-n?

/0,1: as n

Question 3

Point estimates summarize the sample by a single number that is an estimate of the population parameter. An interval estimate is a range of values within which the true parameter lies with higher probability. In any estimation problem, we need to obtain both a point estimate and an interval estimate. The point estimate is our best guess of the true value of the parameter, while the interval estimate gives a measure of accuracy of that point estimate…


Frerichs, R. (2008). Rapid Surveys. Simple Random Sampling. Retrieved from 

McClave, J. Benson, G. & Sinchich, T. (2011). Statistics for Business and Economics 11th edition. 2011 Pearson Education.

"Normal Distribution." Wolfram Math World. Viewed 8 May 2013. Retrieved from

Picky Nursing 518 Quantitative Critique
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4537057
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Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables

What are the extraneous variables in this study? (1)

In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables? (1)


Study Instruments/Tools

Identify the type of each measurement strategy (i.e. Likert scale, visual analog scale, physiological Measure, questionnaire, observation, or interview). (1)

Identify the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval/ratio) achieved by each measurement strategy. (1)

Discuss how the instrument was developed or purpose of use. (1)

Report the reliability of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)

Report the validity of each instrument from previous studies and the current study. (1)


Data Collection Methods

If appropriate, identify the intervention protocol. (2)

Detail how the data were collected. (2)

In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study? (2)

In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect…

Violence A Study of Narrative Meaning by
Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17556906
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violence: a study of narrative meaning" by Rachel Louise Shaw has as its basic premise the comparison of fictional violence, as experienced in film, with violence as experienced in real life. As a pathway between the two experiences, the concept of narrative is used to investigate how individuals make sense of these experiences. As such, it was the purpose of the study to determine how individuals experience the narrative of violence in film and how this element of film could be justified in terms of life experience. In addition, the purpose was to compare this aspect with violence as experienced in real life, and how narrative plays a role in both. To clarify this aspect, the article begins by comparing violence in real life, which can be a devastating experience, with violence in film, which is considered to be entertaining; this is then also what identifies the overarching research question…

International Business Management
Words: 1257 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83674346
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Personal Income Probabilities

Based on this sample, and clearly showing workings, appropriate graphics and your response to blank values in the data, calculate the following:

(a) the probability of randomly picking two men over 35 from the sample

The sample consists of both men and women, however the question does not delineate segmentation by gender in regard to men vs. women, but solely requests "from the sample" the possibility of selecting men over 35 years of age each draw. Therefore the equation is:

Men over 35 years of age total in the sample.

121 participants total in the sample

239 = P of men in sample

Percentage of men over 35 in the sample 23.9%

Each draw is discreet with a 23.9% chance that a man over 35 years of age will be selected on random selection each time.

For example of work in excel: Appendix

(b) given that we…

Meyer Et Al Meyer Wang Li Thomson
Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13565349
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Meyer et al.

Meyer, Wang, Li, Thomson, and O'Brien-Pallas (2009) used a convenience sample of nurses and patients from six Canadian hospitals. A convenience sample consists of participants that are drawn from sources using nonprobability sampling methods (Jackson, 2012). In this case hospitals with specific inclusion criteria were selected and case records were used. The study makes no mention of any type of random or stratified sampling outside the inclusion criteria for the hospital type (high volumes of patients in their cardiac units and certain case groups of interest).

In general there are two different types of sampling: random sampling methods and non-random sampling methods such as convenience sampling already discussed above. andom sampling methods allow researchers to extend the findings of the study beyond the sample of participants in the research study because these methods statistically control for differences in the sample and differences in the population from which…


Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th

ed).Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Meyer, R.M., Wang, S., Li, X., Thomson, D., & O'Brien-Pallas, L. (2009). Evaluation of a patient care delivery model: Patient outcomes in acute cardiac care. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(4), 399-410.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson

Crisis Nature of Health Care
Words: 1937 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75473270
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The way in which these quotes were related to previous research also asserted trustworthiness. The reliability and validity of ethnographic research is often questioned in comparison to experimental research, although there are several strategies recognized to enhance credibility (LeCompte and Goetz, 1982); there is little evidence of use of such strategies in the study.

The findings of the study enabled the researchers' to put forward several indications towards future practice in health care in rural communities, although it was recognized that in order for a comprehensive set of nursing care management regulations and interventions to be identified, further research within the specific types of community used are required.

Summary of critique and conclusions

Overall, the piece of research effectively identified several gaps in the current research regarding the effect of health care transitions in rural communities. The study identified three relevant research questions, although presented little information regarding the current…


Boyd, C.O. (1993) Toward a nursing practice research method. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 9-25.

LeCompte, M.D. And Goetz, J.P. (1982) Problems of reliability and validity in ethnographic research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (1), 31-60.

Lowenberg, J.S. (1993) Interpretive research methodology: broadening the dialogue. Advances in Nursing Science, 16 (2), 57-69.

Magilvy, J.K. And Congdon, J.G. (2000) the crisis nature of health care transitions for rural older adults. Public Health Nursing, 17 (5), 336-345.

Hourly Rounding of Nurses to
Words: 1879 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40881955
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The participants of the case study were the members of the medical surgical nursing staff and patients were in hospital since last 6 months. Data was collected and summarized by Gallup Organization, which surveyed 200 medical surgical patients in for two quarter. Patients were also interviewed during the rounding to get their feedback.

The results showed that rounding made a significant difference in the patients and nurses satisfaction. 4P program was also used in this study as it was used in last studies. It was also reported that patients used less call lights less than before and only for serious needs. Patient's complaints regarding staff also decreased to 43% during these two quarters.


Health care including Nursing are very sensitive issues and any conclusions made in this field have impact on the lives of people. Therefore it is not convenient at all to reach to conclusion only by analyzing…


Blakley, D., Kroth, M., & Gregson, J. (2011). The Impact of Nurse Rounding on Patient Satisfaction in a Medical Surgical Hospital Unit. MEDSURG Nursing (MEDSURG NURS), 2011 Nov-Dec; 20(6): 327-32.

Ford, B. (2010). Hourly Rounding: A Strategy to Improve Patient Satisfaction Scores. MEDSURG Nursing

(MEDSURG NURS), May- Jun; 19(3): 188-91.

Gardner, G., Woollett, K., Daly, N., & Richardson, B. (2009). Measuring the effect of patient comfort rounds on practice environment and patient satisfaction: A pilot study. Journal of Nursing Practice (INT J. NURS

Nurses Will Continue to Wrestle With Is
Words: 1656 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87353937
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nurses will continue to wrestle with is patient safety. This is because of the increasing demands and larger roles for these health care professionals are continually shifting. To deal with these challenges, a number of facilities have been utilizing a team based approach to increase staffing levels. The basic idea is that this can reduce mistakes by having more staff available to monitor patients. A good example of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the American Association of Nursing. They found that when nursing staff levels are higher is when the overall quality of care will improve with shorter hospital stays and lower secondary medical issues. This is important, in showing how nursing staff levels will have a dramatic effect on patient safety. (McGillis. 2005, pg. 17) (Kalisch, 2011, pp. 82 -- 88)

To fully understand what is occurring requires carefully examining the study that…


Kalisch, B. (2011). Nurse staffing levels and teamwork: A cross-sectional study of patient care units in acute care hospitals. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(1), 82-88.

Klenke, K. (2008). Qualitative Research. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

Lucas, P. (1980). The Definition of Test Items. American Educational Research Journal, 17 (2), 133 -- 140.

McGillis, L. (2005). Quality Work Environmentalists. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Nursing Study Ozkan and Gokdogan
Words: 1272 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1223056
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A prediction of the outcomes is not made in the initial development of the research. ather, this appears to be an exploratory study to better understand the issue.

eview of the Literature

The literature included in the review is relevant and recent. The data demonstrates the need for understanding the problem and the importance of the issue to the health and safety of healthcare workers. Although the initial literature review is quite brief, the literature is expanded in the discussion of the results.

esearch Design

The research design is a quantitative methodology utilizing a survey to collect data. Information collected was appropriate given the overall scope and focus of the research -- i.e. exploratory. Although the results provide some insight into the specific survey that was used, pertinent information about the survey has been omitted from the study. This may make replication of the study difficult.


Examining the target…


Ozkan, O., & Gokdogan, F. (2003). The prevalence of latex allergy among health care workers in Bolu (Turkey). Dermatology Nursing, 15(6), 543-548.

Participant Selection & Sampling Procedures Media Psychology
Words: 821 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 75389459
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Media Psychology

I will select my sample by first reviewing statistics about reality television programming. I want to find how about programs categorized as "reality television" in the United States of America. I want to know how many shows qualify as reality television. I want to know who the targeted audiences are for the programs. I want to determine the age range of intended viewers/demographics. My sample will contain participants from the youngest ages in the range to the oldest ages in the range. The sample will also contain the average age viewer and the mean age viewer based on the data gathered about reality television programming. Further, I am interested in participants that range across ethnicity, location, and class. Additional helpful information from the participants maybe how much television/media they consume in general so as to determine what percentage of their overall viewing is…


Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology: Chapter 3 -- Research Methods in Media Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: Mahwah, NJ.

Jensen, K.B. (ed.) 2002. A Handbook of Media and Communication Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies -- Chapters 13: The quantitative research process; Chapter 15: The complementarity of qualitative and quantitative methodologies in media and communication research; Chapter16: The social origins and uses of media and communication research. Routledge: New York, NY.

Kallet, R.H. (2004) How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper. Respiratory Care, 49(10), 1229 -- 1232.

Methodology on Child Obesity Fast Food
Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10744300
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Childhood Obesity and Fast Food

Inductive Reasoning

Empirical Research

Applied Research

Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

Exploratory Research

Focus Groups


The paper is a research based on the topic of "The influence of fast food on child obesity." The study aims to evaluate and identify the root cause of child obesity. The study is based on a scientific approach by developing a hypothesis and then proving it through data collected.

Inductive Reasoning:

The hypothesis of this research has been developed after a number of general observations. These observations came from generally observing the school friends, cafes and restaurants, and family members. It was observed that children who were eating fast food regularly were fat. Another observation was that when we talk to obese people they often mention that they blame fast food restaurants for their obesity. Since we have developed specific conclusions from general observations, it is an inductive approach.…

Consumer Internet Commerce a Rhetorical Approach
Words: 4073 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41216100
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complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.

Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…


VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)

Survey Questionnaire


1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!

Patient Visits
Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 2520737
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older patients over the age of 80 due to complications in health such as dementia and depressive symptoms, do not go for additional follow-ups. Yes, the authors explain repeated in person visits help better identify risk factors. There is no obvious research question however they do highlight the use of a study to confirm the hypothesis of whether or not repeated in person follow-ups help with problems experienced as patient's age. "We hypothesized that the type of visit would be related to key demographic, lifestyle, health and function characteristics and that the oldest aged participants would have the poorest retention for in-person visits, particularly clinic visits" (Strotmeyer et al., 2010, p. 697). This is a directional hypothesis because the retention rates are directly associated with increase in age. It is a simple hypothesis because it directly states a cause and effect. The hypothesis was tested and it revealed in-home visits…


Strotmeyer, E.S., Arnold, A.M., Boudreau, R.M., Ives, D.G., Cushman, M., Robbins, J.A., Newman, A.B. (2010). Long-Term Retention of Older Adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study: Implications for Studies of the Oldest Old. Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, 58(4), 696-701. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02770.x

Caring Nurses
Words: 1329 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55082621
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Palese et al. (2011). According to Wood & Haber (2014) " the critique is process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report's content for scientific merit and application to practice." Using the text's understanding of this examination this essay will explore the article and examine it for practical use and valid argument.

The problem that this research is premised upon is the idea that nurse's caring has gone mostly under examined in relation to patient's view of quality of care. The role of caring within the nursing profession is described as the factor which inspired this research. The variables within this examination are the patients' satisfaction measured against the practice of caring executed by nurses in their professional duties.

This problem is clearly identified and can be empirically tested as the article revealed in its conclusions. To help lessen the distortion of the ideas and values…


LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (Eds.). (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Palese, A., et al. (2011). Surgical patient satisfaction as an outcome of nurses' caring behaviors: A descriptive and correlational study in six European countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 341-350.

Negative Aspects and Perceptions of
Words: 480 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46368691
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ixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) will be used in this study. Qualitative instruments, including interviews and open-form questionnaires, will be distributed to a smaller and more purposefully selected population of faculty and administrators than the qualitative survey instruments, which will be distributed to much wider and more randomized population of faculty, administrators, and students, in accordance with standard mixed methods research collection practices (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). The qualitative sample size will include at least twenty-five participants from different institutions; target sample sizes for the quantitative research will be at least fifty each of students and faculty as well as at least ten administrators at every institution. All instruments will be developed by the researchers in accordance with established practices and with input from subject area experts as warranted/needed (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007).

Data Analysis

The latest edition of the commonly used SPSS software will be used to perform…

Mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) will be used in this study. Qualitative instruments, including interviews and open-form questionnaires, will be distributed to a smaller and more purposefully selected population of faculty and administrators than the qualitative survey instruments, which will be distributed to much wider and more randomized population of faculty, administrators, and students, in accordance with standard mixed methods research collection practices (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007). The qualitative sample size will include at least twenty-five participants from different institutions; target sample sizes for the quantitative research will be at least fifty each of students and faculty as well as at least ten administrators at every institution. All instruments will be developed by the researchers in accordance with established practices and with input from subject area experts as warranted/needed (Cresswell & Plano-Clark, 2007).

Data Analysis

The latest edition of the commonly used SPSS software will be used to perform regression analysis on qualitative findings to determine the likelihood of a relationship between specific attitudes and perception post-tenure review processes and changes to institutional culture as well as the impact on teaching and overall service. Chi-square analysis of the quantified survey results will also demonstrate the likelihood of relationships amongst the various items on these instruments. This will provide clear analyses of both quantitative and qualitative data, which can then be rationally compared to each other in writing.

Image & Problem of Crime
Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48343043
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The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:



Independent variable:

Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes

Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:

Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes

Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:

Dependent variables:

Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent



Educational attainment


Personal annual income

Access to mass media

Viewing behavior of TV crime programs

Kind of TV crime programs usually watch

Frequency of watching TV crime programs

Duration of crime TV-watching

Personal concern for crime and public safety

Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety

Units of Analysis

Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…


Bollhofer, B. (2006). "Screenscapes': placing TV series in their contexts of production, meaning and consumption." Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 98, No. 2.

Hennigan, K., L. Heath, and J. Wharton. (1982). "Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: empirical findings and theoretical implications." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3.

Holbert, R., D. Shah, and N. Kwak. (2004). "Fear, authority, and justice: crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 2.

Yanich, D. (2004). "Crime creep: urban and suburban crime on local TV news." Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 5.

Promoting Community Awareness of the Need for
Words: 1537 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21314408
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Promoting community awareness of the need for colorectal cancer prevention and screening," which was written by Causey and Greenwauld, is appropriate. It clarifies the purpose of the research study on which this article is based and provides an effective summary of the particular area of nursing and science that the authors are writing about. Nonetheless, it does not allude to the key variables that influence the study, its results, nor the particular model it utilizes, which is reflective of the principle area in which a sufficient title could be improved.

he abstract for the aforementioned paper is extremely effective. In a paragraph of just a few sentences, the authors are able to identify the key factors related to this study: the problem, the methods and the model used to gather data, the results and the conclusion gathered from those results. he writing is relatively terse and straightforward, and is bolstered…

There really was no intervention in this study, other than the educational session that all of the participants received. Nonetheless, the data collection method was not biased and the authors seemed appropriately trained to collect this data.


Other than the unusual way in which the paper was structured in which the literature review combined various aspects of a general overview of CRC (some of which was not germane to the research question) this document was well written presented in an accessible manner to nurses. Since one of the researchers had done a previous study on a topic closely related to this subject, the credibility of the authors was not dubitable and was enhanced by their professional and academic credentials. The validity of the study findings is also considerably compromised by the fact that the researchers "knew" (Causey and Greenwauld. 2011, p. 39) a percentage of the participants. Still, the study does function as a launching point for future research in this area as it specifically applies to nurses and educating the population regarding CRC.