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The probability that a child will succeed is considered unimportant when compared to the possibility that a child might succeed.
The racist implications of these educational problems are impossible to ignore. These deplorable conditions help reinforce white racial superiority by keeping minorities in a subservient position when compared to whites. The fact that many affluent suburban schools have minority students does not erase the fact that the single greatest predictor of socio-economic status remains race. Non-whites are significantly more likely than whites to be poor in the United States. Moreover, money is political power, so that these impoverished people literally lack a meaningful voice. epeatedly in his book, Kozol discusses attempts by community members to improve the conditions in their schools, only to have their concerns completely ignored by various government entities. Even though the Supreme Court mandated equality in school districts in the 1960s, it is clear that the…
Kozol, J. (1991) Savage inequalities: children in America's schools. New York, NY: Harper
Some newspapes, Kozol points out, muse in utilitaian tems. They ague that those childen who ae likely to poduce moe etuns ae likewise moe deseving of financial suppot. But the most butal iony of the way poo childen ae teated in New Yok is the fact that the legislatos and the affluent public ae moe willing to spend money on incaceation than education of poo childen. Most of the city's pisons ae filled with fome public school dopouts, and the cost of maintaining an inmate is $60,000 a yea -- fa geate than is equied to finance a schoolchild's education.
The next city Kozol visits is the city of Camden in New Jesey. Kozol does not find much diffeence hee. He quotes the Wall Steet Jounal which agues that bette education cannot be bought with money. The Jounal states that inceasing pe-pupil spending has not inceased student pefomance in five…
references to other nonwhite children, Kozol's discussion is revolved around white-black relations. Kozol does not discuss the existence of many organizations which have been pushing for desegregation in public schools of St. Louis, Chicago, New York, and in other cities. One wishes that in a book that describes such a serious problem in the society, the author could offer more meaningful solutions. But these problems do not significantly diminish the power of Kozol's argument. There is savage inequality plaguing the American public education system which needs to be properly addressed. In conveying this message to the reader, Kozol undoubtedly succeeds.
Kids are hungry, their parents are in jail, and the good schools are in the suburbs, where the Congress people live. Their schools are upscale and well funded, while the inner-city schools suffer all the same problems the schools in the other chapters faced. The administrators feel whites would do anything to keep blacks out of their schools, including move away if too many blacks came into the district. The author talks about housing projects, and how the children grow up fast, and see things in their community that children simply should not see. Again, he makes the point that society allows this to happen, and turns the other way. He maintains that society sees minorities as "less than human" and that is why they allow these conditions to continue. He is trying to show these are real people with very real problems and that they have the same concerns…
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools. New York: Harper Perennial, 1991.
Then the healthcare provided to rich and poor children is starkly different. Kozol suggests that African-American children do not get proper medical care which makes them more likely to fail in school. Then the high dropout rates among blacks confirm the racist biases of legislators who argue that spending on black children is bad investment. When Kozol visits a wealthy suburban school and talks to children in advanced schools, he finds that the cultural biases of rich parents are passed to their children. Many of these children do not seem to be perturbed by the plight of poor nonwhite children in neighboring communities and they support the "separate but equal" treatment. There is, however, one child named David who says that the property tax system needs to be reworked so that public schools in all areas are supported equally.
After New York, Kozol visits Camden, New Jersey. He begins his…
Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.
Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:
"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."
Both of these…
Bluestone, B. (2001, December 10). The inequality express. The American Prospect. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://prospect.org/article/inequality-express
Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (1976). Education and inequality. In Schooling in capitalistic America: Educational reform and contraditions of economic life. New York: Basic Books Inc., 347-352. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://homepage.smc.edu/delpiccolo_guido/Soc1/soc1readings/education%20and%20inequality_final.pdf
Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York: Random House.
Murray, C. (2008). The age of educational romanticism. The New Criterion, Vol. 26, Issue 9, 35-42. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=c1982738-7db5-4e79-a111-f63982ce3e61%40sessionmgr111&hid=106
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…
Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/index.html#ToC ]
Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt ]
Richard Dawkins' the Selfish Gene Jonathan Kozol's Savage Inequalities: Children America's Schools. Plus, read websites: http://www.ou./cls/online/lstd5013/dawkins.shtml http://salmonriver.
Richard Dawkins' "The Selfish Gene"
Jonathan Kozol's "Savage Inequalities: Children America's Schools"
There has recently been much controversy regarding genes, as technology has made it possible for people to make intriguing discoveries regarding the topic and a series of individuals have come up with interesting theories concerning genes. Individuals like Richard Dawkins have gone even further than most of their colleagues and produced revolutionary theories relating to how organisms work as machines having the task of transmitting genes to generations following them, with animal behaviors essentially being caused by genes.
Considering Dawkins' theory, one can gain a better understanding of Jonathan Kazol's book "Savage Inequalities: Children in American Schools," with memes being most likely responsible for the fact that particular groups experience a series of benefits in educational institutes across the U.S.
Dawkins, R. (2006)."The Selfish Gene." Oxford University Press.
Fischel W.A. "How Judges Are Making Public Schools Worse." Retrieved May 31, 2011, from the City Journal Website: http://www.city-journal.org/html/8_3_how_judges.html
Kozol, J. "Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools." Harper's Perennial.
Sherer, N. "The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins." Retrieved May 31, 2011, from the Salmon River Gazette Website: http://salmonriver.com/words/bookreviews97/selfish.html
African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports
Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern orld).
Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to…
Gerald E. 17 Aug. 1998. Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern World.
The Nation, Sports: A View From Left To Right.
The African-American Sports Fixation. Available on the address http://istsocrates.berkeley.edu/~africam/sportsfix.pdf. Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
Black Children Still Victimized By Savage Inequalities. Available on the address http://www.blackcommentator.com/13_education.html . Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…
Corrales, J. (1999) the politics of education reform: bolstering the supply and demand; overcoming institutional blocks. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World Bank
Web site: http://www1.worldbank.org/education/globaleducationreform/pdf/corrales.pdf
Catalano, J. (1996) Review: Richard Dawkins: books: the selfish gene. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World of Richard Dawkins
Web site: http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/selfish.shtml
As a result, many children were schooled at home. The modern home schooling movement is a recalling of these earlier days, modernized with home schooling curricula, Internet access and activities for children, such as sports, which bring them together for social activities. Although teachers' unions insist that parents are not professionally-trained teachers, the results of home schooling are incontrovertible. Home-schooled students perform much better on standardized tests than government-schooled children, have higher college admission rates, and report greater satisfaction than those in public schools (Williams, 2007). A recent Gallup poll found that 75% of Americans favor public schooling. A similar Gallup poll, taken in 1985, found that 75% were against home schooling. In the intervening years, the continued decline of the public school paradigm has changed American minds.
Charter, Magnet and Other Schools modified way to introduce vouchers, or school choice, is to create charter and magnet schools. The founding…
Chaddock, G. (2006, June 21). U.S. high school dropout rate: high, but how high? Christian Science Monitor, p. n.p.
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. In R. Dawkins, the Selfish Gene (p. Chapter 11 "memes"). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dobbs, M. (2005, April 21). NEA, States Challenge 'No Child' Program. Washington Post.
Ehrich, R. (2007). The Impact of School Size. Retrieved December 9, 2007, from Virginia Tech: http://delta.cs.vt.edu/edu/size.html
Civic Values in the U.S.
estoring democracy and civic virtue in the United States will require major reforms that reduce the power of corporations, elites and special interests in the whole political process. ight now, there is a radical disconnect between the political and economic elites and the needs and interests of the ordinary voters. Most people today realize that the country is in its worse crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s, but government and the political system seem dysfunctional and incapable of dealing with it. emoving the power and control of big money from the political process forever would be the most important step in revitalizing American democracy and making the system more representative and accountable. So would eliminating the Electoral College and electing the president and vice president by a majority of the popular vote. Despite the protests of small states, only this type of reform…
Ackerman, B. (2002). Bush v. Gore: The Question of Legitimacy. Yale University Press.
Edwards, G.C., M.P. Wattenberg, and R.L. Lineberry. Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy, Brief Ninth Edition. Pearson Education, Inc., 2008.
Grofman, B. Legacies of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. University of Virginia Press, 2000.
Hasen, R.L. "Citizens United and the Illusion of Coherence." Michigan Law Review, Vol. 109.581, February 2011: 581-624.
IS THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN TROULE?
The United States has enjoyed a long history of providing public education for all students. However, many people believe that our educational system does not function well and that it has not for some time. Although multiple ways to improve public education have been tried, the belief persists that our schools produce under-educated students who are under-prepared for college or work. The goal of education is to teach students, but not all the students learn well, and for those who do not learn, we cannot always find either adequate explanations or solutions.
For some decades, the United States has attempted to use group testing to track the success of our educational programs. One attempt was by use of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests (Ipka, 2003). These tests provide raw scores of from 0 to 500. The Department of…
Ipka, V.W. 2003. "At Risk Children in Resegregated Schools: An Analysis of the Achievement Gap. Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 30.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. 1992: Harper Perrenial.
McQuillan, Jeff. 1998. "Seven myths about literacy in the United States." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(1). Accessed via the Internet 8/23/05.
Schrag, Peter. 2004. "What's Good Enough? Advocates Are Demanding Not Just Equal but Decent Schools for All Children." Magazine article by Peter Schrag; The Nation, Vol. 278, May 3.
Unfortunately, at least according to the literature researched here, these are neither sufficiently addressed nor remedied, in most cases, by affirmative action alone at the post-secondary level.
Bowen, illiam G., and Bok, Derrick. The Shape of the River: Long-term
Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions.
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Comer, J. And Poussaint, Alvin. Black Child Care. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975.
Constitution of the United States. Microsoft Encyclopedia Encarta, 1-32.
Retrieved August 8, 2005, from Microsoft orks Suite 2000 (CD-ROM), Disc
Dred Scott Case. Microsoft Encyclopedia Encarta, 1-3. Retrieved August
8, 2005 from Microsoft orks Suite 2000 (CD-ROM), Disc 3.
Eaton, James. Strengthening Collegiate Education in Community Colleges. San Jose, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1994.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. New York: Crown, 1993. 4.
McCormick, R.L. "Advancing Diversity in a Post-Affirmative Action State:
Implications for the Future." Paper presented to the Association…
Bowen, William G., and Bok, Derrick. The Shape of the River: Long-term
Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions.
Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998.
Comer, J. And Poussaint, Alvin. Black Child Care. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975.
Israeli and U.S. Educational Systems
Comparison of the Educational Systems in the United States and Israel Today
Schools are unique in any society since they educate and mold the next generation who will then be in charge of how the world will shape up and how these schools will be run in the future. Educators in every country help shape the character and the morality of their students beyond the intellectual and physical instruction provided. An education today must prepare a person for the realities of life, including how to balance a checkbook, answer an employment ad, and how to comport oneself at a job interview. These fundamental skills are just part of a huge body of knowledge which includes everything about a given society and the world in which people live. This paper will provide an overview and comparison of the respective educational systems employed by the United States…
Devitis, J. And P.A. Sola. Building Bridges for Educational Reform: New Approaches to Teacher Education. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1989.
Israel. 2003. CIA World Factbook. 28 March 2004. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/is.html .
Kaminsky, John S. A New History of Educational Philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools. New York: Crown Publisher, Inc., 1991.
Nonetheless, the example is similar. An entire nation of people is in an uprising against a powerful dictator, led by one man, defeats their enemies to get to victory. There are echoes here of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s in the United States led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It is only when testimonial literature comes onto the scene that we understand how important both of these former points are. Testimonial narrative makes real the pain of poverty.
Gustavo Gutierrez's preferential option for the poor definitely becomes a misnomer when testimonial literature is introduced into the picture. The problem with preferential option for the poor is that it is a term specifically designed for the vocabulary of academics which seek to side with the poverty-stricken Other which they, the academics, most likely have little to no contact with on a daily basis.
However, they wish to have…
Bucur, Maria. "Between the Mother of the Wounded and the Virgin of Jiu: Romanian Women and the Gender of Heroism during the Great War." Journal of Women's History 12.2 (2000): 30-56.
Cockburn, Cynthia. "On The Machinery of Dominance: Women, Men, and Technical Know-How." WSQ:
Women's Studies Quarterly 37.1-2 (2009): 269-273. Project MUSE.
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
A reader would presume that these students find the materials appropriate for use in some way in the classroom, either as background information for themselves or in designing an actual curriculum, but the information provided does not reflect any such analysis. For instance, students wrote about Hearing Us Out: Voices from the Gay and Lesbian Community, "Sutton provides insights to understanding lesbian and gay communities through individuals' unique stories." This statement is so vague that it could have been written without actually looking at the book. A teacher would find this recommendation much more useful with more information: for what age level did the group think it was appropriate? Did the book provide insights that were directly applicable to school, such as stories from these people's experiences while they were in school? Does it include language some might find objectionable or excessively graphic?
The group that looked at "ability" reported…
Allocation of funds for education as a model is a notion that is looked at in the academic construct. This work emphasizes this paradigm. The issues of this construct will be viewed as an exemplar. The issue of an equitable and justified funding incorporating the ideas herein will be developed. The paradigm concept and conceptual themes of meme and the paradigm will be concurrently explored to clarify the allocation of fund allocation sought.
A 'meme' (even in English, demonstrated on quality, disconnected and not to be mistaken for the same French) is a component of cultural connotation (illustration: an idea, a propensity, a data, a marvel, a demeanor, and so forth), reproduced and transmitted by the impersonation of the conduct of a single person by a group. The Oxford English Dictionary characterizes 'meme' as a component of a Culture (taken here in the feeling of human evolution) can…
(2012, 3) .Dawkins And Kozol Researchomatic .Retrieved Nov 26, 2014 from http://www.researchomatic.com/Dawkins-And-Kozol-120063.html
Eckl, C., & Pattison, S. (n.d.). A New Funding Paradigm For Higher Education. Retrieved November 26, 2014, from http://agb.org/sites/agb.org/files/u3/NewFundingParadigm.pdf
Locke and Rousseau on the Question of Inequality
John Locke's Second Treatise of Government argues that "men are naturally free" (55). In other words, Locke believed that humans, in their natural state, and prior to the creation of civil society, would have been a kind of sovereign entity, possessing a set of natural rights prescribed by God and nature, and those rights would have afforded individuals the opportunity to protect themselves against the transgressions of others. Societies, for their part, were set up in order to avoid civil, interpersonal, or foreign wars -- wars that might have occurred over a dispute, for example, about property. Locke believed that in the early stages of evolution, humans would have lived with one another as co-owners of the earth and its resources, and given this type of communal existence, humans were all equal. In the natural world, a natural set of laws took…
Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Ed C.B. Macpherson. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1980.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. "Discourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Mankind." In The Social Contract and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality. Ed. Lester G. Crocker. New York: Washington Square, 1974. 149-258.
Rousseau offers a mix of philosophical notions of liberty with advice and opinions on how to structure a government that promotes equality and liberty, but not excessively so, that the will of the majority or strong overcomes the will or the rights of the minority. as, unlike the founders of America, Rousseau was not concerned with a real, live, specific historical situation he could to some extent afford to be more theoretical in his orientation. The philosopher Immanuel Kant was even more concerned with the philosophical notions of liberty, but he detached them from their functioning in government and instead was concerned about human being's innate liberty to do morally good or evil actions. Kant saw morality as existing not as something that could be constructed at will by human beings, but as something that existed for all time, and to be commensurate with the categorical imperative, people must act…
Declaration of Independence." Independence Hall Association. 4 Jul 1995. 2 Apr 2008. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/index.htm
Kant, Immanuel. "Groundwork for the Metaphysic of Morals." 1785.
Translated by Steve Thomas. University of Adelaide E-text Collection.
Apr 2008. http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/k/kant/immanuel/k16prm/
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
Here, urke argued that revolution in general, and the French Revolution in particular, must be matched with reason and a reluctance to completely give up to radical thinking.
Rousseau gave in directly to the revolution, arguing that it is a direct result of man's socialization, but urke was much more cautious: Revolution is not automatically good for urke, nor is it intrinsic to man.
Given urke's record as a strong supporter of American independence and as a fighter against royalism in England, many readers and thinkers were taken aback when urke published his Reflections on the Revolution in France in 1790. With this work, urke suddenly went on to became one of the earliest and most passionate English critics of the French Revolution, which he interpreted not as movement towards a representative, constitutional democracy but instead as a violent rebellion against tradition and justified authority and as an experiment…
Discourse On The Arts and Sciences, 1750
The Social Contract, 1762
Discourse On The Origin And Basis Of The Inequality Of Men, 1754
The natural hatred between mice and cats is reflected in the mouse's expressed anguish against Alice's amazed narrative of cats in her world: "Let us get to the shore, and then I'll tell you my history, and you'll understand why it is I hate cats and dogs." This simple line carries with the weight of the history of social inequality: Carroll endeavors his readers to look into history how inequality has become a long tradition encouraged and perpetuated in human society by people with self-interests. In this example, grown-ups become symbols for the wealthy people who continually oppress the poor in order to gain control over society.
In the same respect, Carroll's expression of disdain for grown-ups as shown in "Alice's" also illustrates his disagreement over his protagonist's 'growing up.' Alice's transformation to being a giant is both a pleasant and unpleasant experience: as a giant, the possibilities of doing…
speak the word of peace and write to enable to establish the end of racism, poverty, and everything seems wrote wrong with the world. People such as Malcolm X, Richard Rodriguez and others wrote beautiful pieces on the importance on peace and harmony surrounding everyone in the world. Through the written word and the methods of the Contact Zone, these writers tried to accomplish their goal of making a difference in today's society, which the changes were for the better. Along with that, these writers have a great impact on how people view the world today on issues such as racism and harmony. Therefore, people like Malcolm X and Richard Rodriguez made a difference through their writings and speeches of peace.
Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as…
Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism
Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.
At this point, however, the match…
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/09/20/rivals-iran-vs.-saudi-arabia/56t9 .
Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/07/02/iran-s-great-game.html
Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from http://www.uni-muenster.de/Politikwissenschaft/Doppeldiplom/docs/IIR.pdf .
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
It is also argued that the insurance mandate is not constitutional since the government does not have the right to tell the United States citizens what products to purchase, even when these products are beneficial for them, and even less when the socio-economic impact of purchasing the respective items is questionable (Savage, 2009).
Arguments against changing the direction of the policy
Once again delaying any measures to restructure and resolve the two impending problems in the health care system (raising costs and insufficient coverage) does not constitute a constructive approach to resolving the impending problems
Aside the socio-economic problems it raises, the mandatory health insurance would ensure that all the U.S. citizens benefit at least from the basic health care services and this does not put tremendous strains on the federal budgets.
5. ationale of the suggestion to change the direction
Despite the benefits the mandatory health insurance would generate…
Barnett, R., 2009, Is health insurance mandate constitutional? last accessed on June 18, 2010
Berger, J., 2009, a health insurance mandate that works like auto insurance? Think again, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/09/14/health-insurance-mandate-works-like-auto-insurance-think / last accessed on June 18, 2010
Bihari, M., 2010, Mandated benefits -- understanding mandated health insurance benefits, http://healthinsurance.about.com/od/reform/a/mandated_benefits_overview.htm last accessed on June 18, 2010
Cowen, T., 2009, How an insurance mandate could leave many worse off, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/25/health/policy/25view.html last accessed on June 18, 2010
Firmin / Gobineau etc.
Is race a construct of the Enlightenment? Obviously the European encounter with a racially-constructed "other" begins a long time before the Enlightenment, with Montaigne's cannibals and Shakespeare's Caliban. But the Enlightenment facilitated a kind of scientism in thought that not only gave rise to new disciplines (like anthropology) but also permitted pseudo-science, like the so-called "scientific racism" of the Comte de Gobineau. I would like to examine how the question of race is first framed by Enlightenment thinkers, but then is later transformed in the twentieth century by thinkers like .E.B. DuBois. If indeed DuBois was correct that "the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line," I will also show how those in the Negritude movement sought to overturn the assumptions of racism while essentially upholding the abstract values of the Enlightenment.
Diderot's Encyclopedie and Rousseau's Discours are both central documents…
Cesaire, Aime. Discourse on Colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000. Print.
DuBois, WEB. The Souls of Black Folk. Web. Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/408/408-h/408-h.htm
Firmin, Antenor. The Equality of the Human Races. Trans. Asselin Charles. Champaign-Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002. Print.
Formey, J.H.S. "Negro." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Pamela Cheek. Ann Arbor: Michigan Publishing, University of Michigan Library, 2003. Web. . Trans. Of "Negre," Encyclopedie ou Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, vol. 1. Paris, 1751.
Come devil! For thee is this world given..." This passage reflected Goodman's surrender to the wilderness, to the state of disorder that made him discover that he is weak and sinful. The presence of Faith in the first part of the story was also the only time that Goodman felt his strong faith in God. However, upon entering the wilderness, Faith his wife had not only disappeared, but Goodman's faith in God (and even himself) as well. Hawthorne made readers realize that human nature is in fact "naturally savage," and it is only fitting that Goodman's inherently savage nature would be discovered and uncovered (by him) in the wilderness.
Even towards the end of the story, Hawthorne continued to haunt his readers with the theme of wilderness inherent in the hearts and minds of humanity. Posing the question, "Had Goodman rown fell asleep in the forest, and only dreamed a…
Fitzgerald, S.F. E-text of "The Great Gatsby." Project Gutenberg of Australia Web site. Available at http://www.gutenberg.net.au/0200041.txt .
Hawthorne, N. E-text of "Young Goodman Brown." Available at http://unx1.shsu.edu/~eng_wpf/authors/Hawthorne/Goodman-Brown.htm.
ecognition of quality and lack there of should be a basic goal of the education system, as it strives to direct resources and change situations that are not meeting the demands of accountability, yet it is clear that High Stakes testing does a poor job identifying good schools and good teachers as it ignored, by default important information that is not available on the test scores. It has been clear for countless years that socioeconomics, for example plays a much larger role in most high stakes test scores than the ability of the teacher, as it does in many other issues surrounding student performance and even long-term lifetime outcomes. Excellent teachers in poorer school districts will be misidentified as substandard due to factors beyond their control, and students will be held back based on circumstances outside of their control, if a single form of assessment is to be the rule.…
Costigan, Arthur T. (Winter 2002). Teaching the Culture of High Stakes Testing: Listening to New Teachers. Action in Teacher Education, v. 23 no4, 28-34. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from First Search: WilsonSelectPlus.
Edwords, Fred. (May/June 2005). The Issue at Hand. The Humanist, v. 65 no3, 3. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from First Search: WilsonSelectPlus.
Johnson, Dale D., & Johnson, Bonnie. (2006). High Stakes: Poverty, Testing, and Failure in American Schools (2nd ed). Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Jones, Brett D. & Egley, Robert J. (June 2006). Looking Through Different Lenses: Teachers' and Administrators' Views of Accountability. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 87 no10, 767-71. Retrieved October 31, 2006, from First Search: WilsonSelectPlus.
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
philosophical questions about, Jean Jacque Rousseau, John Dewey, Michel Foucault and Marin Luther King, Jr. It has 4 sources.
Rousseau and Nature"
We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. All that we lack at birth, all that we need when we come to man's estate, is the gift of education. This education comes to us from nature, from men, or from things."[Rousseau 143].
According to Rousseau out of the three factors involved in a child's development, Nature, is totally uncontrollable. "Nature, we are told, is merely habit." Habits are a product of positive or negative conditioning. As a child grows in reason he uses judgment to modify his natural tendencies but often this process becomes warped due to already embedded habits. Harmony within is affected when natural tendencies conflict with what a child learns at the hands of society and other men.…
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. emile, Everyman's Library 1969.
Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline & Punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Vintage Books
Preston, Edward. Martin Luther King: Fighter for Freedom. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1986.
Dewey, John, 1859-1952. Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DewDemo.html
In other case the motive was rooted first in ideological assumption -- and that assumption was that ASP superiority was a given.
The issue of race and class finally came to a head as America continued its expansion westward. But the issue was political as well: hat right did the Federal Government have over State Government to say whether slavery should be abolished? ho was really in power in America -- the States and local government -- or federal national government? The Civil ar, of course, answered the question brutally and bloodily in 1865. But racism and classism did not end. In fact, the problems of race and class would continue even after the war for as long as American policy was determined by ASP elitism. That policy has not changed to this day.
In conclusion, issues of race and class were ingrained into the American fabric from the very…
Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: the Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Harvard University Press, 1981. Print.
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…
Achebe, C 2000, Home and Exile, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Adams, W 2006, The Future of Sustainability: Re-THinking Environment and Development in the 21st Century, viewed December 2011, http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf
Aristotle VII, 'Politics', pp. 1339a 29-30.
Bartlovich, C, Mannur, A (eds.) 2001, Marxism, Modernity and Post-Colonial Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Injustices based on racial discrimination and gender bias in a democratic country sounds weird and hard-to-believe. However, what history has witnessed proves what nobody wants to hear or believe. This analytical research paper addresses grave issues concerning racial discrimination and gender bias pertaining to black vs. white and the related causes for the orld ar II as well as the prejudices that led to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus, the paper revolves around the popular poem "Mending all" by Robert Frost, addressing the issue of the racial conflict between blacks and whites in America. Poems by Langston Hughes will also be incorporated in the paper to better explain the black experiences before the II and Civil Rights Movement. The orks Cited appends seven sources in MLA format.
Among many renowned literary figures that understood the cost that the world is paying for racial prejudices and the rebellious nature…
Robert Frost (1874-1963). Available at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/robertfrost/ (October 31, 2002)
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Five Poems From North Of Boston," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963
Frost, "Poetry Of Robert Frost: Essay Questions, Criticism," Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
America After Slavery: From Lynchings to White Riots." Available at http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/lynchingera.html (October
unemployment and tax reform on our social structure including theoretical framework on functionalism, social conflict and symbolic framework and so on and so forth. The orks Cited eight sources in MLA format.
Unemployment has long been the cause of ruin of the American society as well as the global social structure. Persistence in unemployment and the related tax reforms have done much harm than have benefited the mankind on this face of earth. There have been several effects of unemployment and tax reforms on our social structure. The passages below of our research paper will look into not only these effects but will also include theoretical framework on functionalism and social conflict. Before we begin our discussion on the effects of unemployment on the social structure as well as on the effects of tax reforms, it is essential that the readers have a look at the precise yet comprehensive…
Social Structure." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2003. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=117544 .
Functionalism, Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved 10 Jul, 2003 at http://www.*****/free_essays/4/sociology/functionalism-confict-theory-and-symbolic-interaction.shtml
Social and psychological effects of unemployment. Retrieved July 10, 2003 at http://www.e-resaneh.com/English/Social/Social%20and%20Psychological%20Effects%20of%20Unemployment.html
Saunders P. Direct and indirect effects of unemployment. Paper presented at the Australian National University in the F.H. Gruen Lecture Series on Welfare and the Labor Market: The New Frontier for Reform.
Slavery and its Relation to the Modern World
The history of slavery in colonial America is a story of two worlds: the world of the aristocratic landowners and the slaves from African that helped to maintain and work the plantations. Each group had its own experiences and views, and each group was impacted differently by slavery. At the time, slavery was an accepted practice in the South. It had first been introduced in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619 when 20 slaves from Africa were brought to the colony by a Dutch ship. Thus began an era of slavery in America that had lasting effects on the population of the country even unto this very day. This paper will show how slavery throughout the history of the United States influenced the Legacy of slavery today because slavery is discussed in a negative connotation.
As the Editors of History.com note, “though it is…
The reference to Montesquieu (as well as to Smith) in that part of the 'Dissertation' which deals with the 'Progress of Philosophy during the Seventeenth Century' was made just as a digression, and the further development of Jurisprudence by writers on Political Economy as well as 'the mighty influence which his [Montesquieu's] writings have had on the subsequent history of Scottish literature' (Stewart, 1854) were to be explained in the third Part of the 'Dissertation', which was never to be published.
A major task of the state is thus to ensure that the conditions of economic freedom are in fact satisfied, so far as possible, by sweeping away all legal and institutional impediments to it. Generally speaking, these obstructions can be condensed to four main groups. First, there is the problem that, in all societies subject to a course of evolution, 'Laws frequently continue in force long after the…
Arrow, Kenneth. 1951. Social choice and individual values. New York: Wiley.
Arrow, Kenneth. 1983. Social choice and justice: Vol. 1 of Collected Papers of Kenneth J. Arrow. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press.
Becker, Gary. 1976. The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hopfl, H.M. 1978. From savage to Scotsman: Conjectural history in the Scottish enlightenment. Journal of British Studies 17:19 -- 40.
Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.
Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…
9. Woolhouse, R.S. (1995) Locke: A Biography. Cambridge University.
10. Pinker, Steven. (2007) the Blank Slate, New York: Penguin Books.
11. Grasha, Anthony. (1989) Teaching Styles. Cambridge University.
Finally, in that regard, it seems that the author's choice of Christopher as Tituba's betrayer may suggest that while racial, religious, and ethnic prejudices may have subsided substantially in modern Western society, a fundamental conflict still exists in which men cannot be trusted by women.
The Significance of the Book
The significance of the book is that it provides a personal account, albeit fictionalized, of the horrors of slavery, violent oppression, gender inequality that characterized Western civilization in the 17th century. The narrative illustrates the humanity and the personal experiences of slavery from the perspective of the slave instead of the usual historical perspective. It effectively highlights the state of injustice and fear that were the everyday reality of countless individuals who were ripped fro their families and societies, sold into slavery, and usually brutalized for the rest of their lives in servitude of those regarded as the founders…
This would result in a proliferation of German success and influence throughout the continent and an effective solidarity amongst German immigrants.
5) hat was the "wolf by the ears" quandary that Takai suggests late century American slaveholders found themselves to be in? hat were they afraid of? hat solutions to the problems created by slavery were possible considering the existing conditions and mentalities in American societies at the time?
The problem of slavery had become pressing, not just insofar as it represented a serious humanitarian crisis for the U.S. But even further, as it presented the U.S. And many of its citizens a serious threat to stability. Jefferson's comments, which sound derisive enough, were actually couched in the understanding that the slave class of the United States was justifiably angry, restless and therefore, dangerous to its master. Accordingly, Takaki reports that "As it is,' Jefferson cried out, 'we have the…
Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
He had an opportunity to utilize his theories when he became head of the Florentine militia and helped overthrow the de Medici family rulers. His byword was "force and prudence," and he believed that demonstrating a combination of these two things is the mark of an effective leader. Kotter may agree that prudence is a valuable characteristic in a leader, but disagrees with the outdated principle of force, saying that change cannot be forced, it must be incorporated into one's life and future:
Change sticks only when it becomes "the way we do things around here," when it seeps into the very bloodstream of the work unit or corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are always subject to degradation as soon as the pressures associated with a change effort are removed (Kotter, 1996, 14).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an influential philosopher, artist and…
Kotter, John. Biography. Harvard Business School, 2007. Website: http://drfd.hbs.edu/fit/public/facultyInfo.do?facInfo=bio&facEmId=jkotter&loc=extn .
Kotter, John. Leading Change. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.
Kotter, John. Power and Influence. New York: Simon & Schuster Free Press.1985.
Bread and Roses
Watson's book deals with a period in America's labor history that most history books ignore, and it captures this period in a fresh, unforgettable manner.
he strike, in early 20th century New England, commenced on January 12, 1912 with textile workers storming out of a mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts. It engaged the attention of the International Workers of the World (IWW), also known as the Wobblies, and the American Federation of Labor, and, from thence, absorbed nationwide interest with charismatic and fearless veterans of other strikes involved. Replete with descriptions of unforgettable acts of cruelty, and the dedicated and inspiring acts of sacrifice of participants from fifty-one nations, with the inclusion of a protracted murder trial that centers around the issue of free speech, the Bread and Roses strike is a story that is as pertinent as ever.
hrough Watson's unforgettable prose, we are drawn into the…
The strike awoke something in the heart of the nation. It severed class differences and bespoke of a better, truer America where each could help the other regardless of national and social distinction: "Dirty-faced, malnourished, bewildered [children] were housed by sympathetic families who gave them their first decent meals in a month and took them the zoo, to museums, to wonders beyond their wildest dreams" (p.162). The book talks of a society where rich aided poor, where class and ethnic differences war flung aside for justice, where the victims rose against their oppressors and won, where powerful executives were thrust to their feet and knocked senseless. This is the stuff of dreams what we can only wish for today and as such the book reminds of an America that was supposed to be and one whose plot is so appealing and gripping to us today.
Watson, Bruce. Bread & Roses: Mills, Migrants, and the Struggle for the American Dream. Penguin, UK, 2006
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…
"America at War: World War II." Digital History. Web. 23 May 2012
Black, Helen K., and William H. Thompson. "A War Within a War: A World War II Buffalo Soldier's Story." Journal of Men's Studies 20.1 (2012): 32-46. Web. 23 May 2012.
Clive', Alan. "Women Workers in World War Ii." Labor History 20.1 (1979): 44. Web. 23 May 2012.
De Graaf, Lawrence B. "Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African-Americans in the West." Journal of the West 35 (1996): 24-33. Web. 23 May 2012.
The Greek philosopher Plato's concept of justice in "The Republic" demonstrates his belief in the path towards rationality of the individual and society. In his discourse, he talks about the rational individual as a just individual and is guided by the pursuit of the common good. The philosopher demonstrates this by justifying that in one's pursuit to achieve self-discovery and self-realization, it is inevitable that one should interact with his/her society. Once the individual realizes his/her fullest potential and demonstrates this by committing just acts, then society in effect becomes influenced by this act of justice. However, Plato also clarifies that a just and unjust individual may pursue different paths and goals in life, but in the end, both individuals contribute to the coherence and harmony in the society. The just individual showed what behavior is desirable because it is beneficial for the society, while the unjust individual becomes…
It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.
Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…
Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.
A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in estern societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It…
Fourny, Jean-Francois, & Ha, Marie-Paule. "Introduction: The history of an idea." Research in African Literatures 28.4 (1997): 1-8.
Frazier, Herb. "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures." NABJ
Journal 13.5 (1995): 4-7.
Gikandi, Simon. "Chinua Achebe and the Invention of African Culture." Research in African
The typical American diet is one high in sugars and processed foods. Accordingly, The United States has earned the unfortunate nickname of "Fast-food Nation." The initiation of the rapid growth in fast-food consumption rates in America is likely a result of this country's lack of a widely embraced and highly diverse national cuisine. The United States as a country is truly a melting pot for cultures, religions, ethnicities and beliefs. This vast assortment has certainly carried over into the world of food. That is, most Americans have easy access to a large array of different cuisines on a daily basis and this chronic presence of other cultural food choices has virtually destroyed any possibility of creating a truly American cuisine. Therefore, American citizens along with the rest of the world have transfixed fast-food into this national category. Without question, on the global stage, McDonald's and urger King are…
Allison, C. (2010, May). Barbecue Master. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://barbequemaster.blogspot.com/2010/05/chopped-pork-bbq-sandwich-with-sam-dog.html
Baker, E.A., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., & Kelly, C. (2006, July). The Role of Race and Poverty in Access to Foods That Enable Individuals to Adhere to Dietary Guidelines. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research Practice and Policy, 3 (3).
Bedell, J. (2008). Food, Fitness, Obesity and Diabetes in the Bronx. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from New York City Department of Health: www.phanyc.org/files/food-fitness-obesity-in-bronx-bedell.ppt
Block, J.P., Scribner, R.A., & DeSalvo, K.B. (2004). Fast Food Race/Ethnicity, and Income: A Geographic Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27 (3).
Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects
hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).
There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…
Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal
Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook
Got Wrong. New York: The New Press, 2008.
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
Pilgrimages in India
A Quest for Finding Oneself in India: Introduction
Humans are born with an incredible amount of mental capacity to learn and grow, yet we are not born with a pre-determined set of rules guiding our thoughts. Religious practice around the world is thus the result of a collaboration of ideas between humans within a society in order to bring a framework of understanding into everyday life. Yet even with justifications of existence provided by religion, some individuals choose to pursue unanswered questions, in order to find a deeper meaning to life, and existence. Pilgrimage is such a quest, and is the pursuit of knowledge, as well as a journey of the mind and body, in search of answers to the unknowable questions of the universe. Pilgrimage also serves to prove one's own devotion to his or her faith, and can be qualified as a measure of…
"Essay on Bhakti Movement of India." PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
"Foot Pilgrimage to Murugan Shrines." Murugan Bhakti: Skanda-Kumara Website. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
Haberman, David L. Journey through the Twelve Forests: an Encounter with Krishna. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.
"History of Pilgrimage." HOME. Web. 14 Dec. 2011. .
The art of argumentation is a style of reasoning with civility that is the foundation of discourse in business, public affairs, and group process. The emphasis on freedom of speech in a democracy is based on a civil society's need to resolve complex problems using discourse and argumentation instead of violence. In the interpersonal sphere, mastering the rhetoric of reasonable argumentation is an effective way to get people to listen to and respect what one says.
Americans are lucky to live in a society that offers its citizens freedom of speech. This freedom has, for decades, provided Americans with the right to have ideas that are originally and not necessarily "politically correct." However, in today's society, many people are joining a movement aimed at stripping us of freedom of speech in an effort to become more politically correct.
In Michiko Kakutani's essay, The Word Police (1996), the author…
Goshgarian, Gary. (2001). Exploring Language. New York: Longman.
Churchill, Ward. (1996). "Crimes against Humanity." Left, Right, and Center: Voices Across the Political Spectrum. Ed. Robert Atwan and Jon Roberts. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 423-433.
Kakutani, Michiko. (1996). "The Word Police." Left, Right, and Center: Voices Across the Political Spectrum. Ed. Robert Atwan and Jon Roberts. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 420-424.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Transformation from the decades of the civil war through the early twentieth century was one of the most defining moments in U.S. history. This period set the foundation for the modern environment in which we live in today. Many things changed in this period, some were good, and many were bad. For example, during this period, the material holdings for normal Americans changed dramatically. Some pictures show how many people went from having wooden bowls to pewter to china (Davidson & Lytle, 2009). If you just looked at evidence such as this, you would assume that life greatly improved for many Americans, and it did in many ways.
However, there were also many social and demographic changes taking place. The country went from something of a rural nation to that of an urban and industrializing power. Factories and steel mills flourished. The first railroad to connect the coasts was completed…
Davidson, J., & Lytle, M. (2009). After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. McGraw-Hill Education.
Secchiaroli, D. (2001, April 1). Dubunking the Myth of the American West. Retrieved from Yale: http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2001/4/01.04.10.x.html
UTEP. (N.d.). Native Peoples and the Fronteir Myth. Retrieved from UTEP: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDwQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Ffaculty.utep.edu%2FLinkClick.aspx%3Flink%3DFrontier%2BMyth%2B%2526%2BIndians.pdf%26tabid%3D57572%26mid%3D162095&ei=KT-9VKT5Foy8ggTmgoP4BQ&usg=AFQ
The relationship between the Russian Revolution and the rise of fascism is distinct and marked. Both movements were revolutionary in their own way, and both were provoked to a certain extent by a Marxist inspiration. Lenin was one of the leaders of the Russian revolution and he was a committed Marxist. He did not want Russia to participate in any part of the war, but was the one who surrendered to German invasion. When Lenin died, the gap that was left open in his death was quickly taken over by Stalin. Fascism was the outgrowth of a revolution that was meant to create more freedom, justice and equality. This is because the Russian revolution and the nation were vulnerable during this time of transition: this vulnerability meant that someone strategic could have the power to come in and corrupt the policies in place. This paper will explore the nuances, events…
The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution.
The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution.
John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John Locke was political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking,…