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life failed target 'zone proximal development' scaffold learning, resulted person confused / frustrated. While normal heard term, reflect back 'lessons' friends, family work colleagues understand a complete success. ID
Assessment 2,-Week 2 Journal Entry
Discuss an instance in your everyday life where you may have failed to target one's 'zone of proximal development' to scaffold learning, which may have resulted in the person becoming confused and/or frustrated. While it is quite normal to have never heard of the term before, you may now be able to reflect back on one of the many 'lessons' you have given to friends, family or work colleagues and understand why it wasn't a complete success.
The 'zone of proximal development' is what a learner can do without assistance from an outside authority. According to the learning theory of 'scaffolding,' an effective instructor builds upon the existing knowledge of the student to give the student…… [Read More]
A main goal of both scaffolding and the multiple intelligence curricula is to improve self-esteem that goes hand-in-hand with low achievement. Similarly, the diversity and respect for differences emphasis, is meant to make low achieving students (for whatever reason) less intimidated by others in the classroom. They need to see that they are being respected in the same fashion as anyone else.
egardless of the students and their achievement levels, they need to be motivated to learn. Teachers need to develop high-achieving learning environments for all students, where the most advanced curriculum and instruction techniques support learning and can be achieved in a scaffolding fashion. In high-achieving learning environments, teachers encourage students to think out of the box and participate in problem solving and the exploration of new ideas and issues, which are based on the variety of student intelligences, culture, experiences, and knowledge. Low-achieving students, especially require environments that…… [Read More]
As the article states, "Observations indicated that Harry's print motivation during the parent-child interactions with environmental print and joint-writing activities was high" (p. 317).
This high enthusiasm and ability are assumed to be in direct relation to the scaffolding techniques employed by the mother throughout Harry's early development. Therefore the researchers achieved their goal of providing parents with techniques that they can use to enhance their child's emergent literacy in the home, without great expense. This is supposed to help the child be better prepared for entering the first grade and make the task of teaching him to read and write much easier once he is in school. This is of course only a single-subject case study and although it occurred over a long period of time with very meticulous note taking on the part of the mother, as the authors admit, more research is needed on a larger population…… [Read More]
If teachers fail to design connected scaffolds than the class will develop only limited capabilities. He explains that this can be done by choosing only those scaffolding tools which have similar structures, assignment objectives, and interactive styles (Tabak, 2004). Hence when considering the scaffolds for developing skills of weak students, I will make sure that the scaffolds are complementing not only the main learning objective but also one another.
Biehler, S.M. (2010). Psychology Applied to Teaching: 12th edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
Bilal, D. (2002). Perspectives on children's navigation of the World Wide Web: Does the type of search task make a difference? Online Information eview, 26(2), 108-127.
Cho, K. & Jonassen, DH (2002). The effects of argumentation scaffolds on argumentation and problem solving. Educational Technological esearch and Development, 50(3), 5-22.
Hogan, K., & Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches & issues. Cambridge, M.A.: Brookline Books, Inc.
Jones, P.…… [Read More]
Next, the teacher, through questioning and eliminating, reduces the categories and establishes consensus on the order of information expected to be found. She also gets the students to consider the search terms that might get results. Once this in done a scaffold is constructed using the established order.
Still, in a group setting, students use personal semantic maps and begin to learn to create a collective scaffold of meaning in a way that is meaningful to their cognitive processes -- they learn how to learn, and how to communicate that learning in a classroom environment to the teacher and to their peers. (Grid of Constructs about Learning, 2004)
The teacher then takes the students to the computer room where they search the net for information that pertains to their particular category. They add the additional information that they have found their section of the scaffold.
This adds technical reinforcement and…… [Read More]
.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…… [Read More]
The audience's pride in hearing such a powerful and refreshing composition was apparent. Mr. Smith's talent is undeniable and the audience could tell.
The next two pieces were from "Symphonie Fantastique" by Berlioz. The first of the two was the appropriately titled "March to Scaffold." The movement began with a wonderful crescendo. It then began to give way to a march, but with a somewhat non-traditional mixture of different instruments. Soon after, the march became powerfully led by the strong brass instruments. The building and climax were powerful enough to captivate the entire audience. The next movement, "Witches Sabbath," was an extraordinary piece that was unexpected by much of the audience. The beginning of the songs sounded eerie and almost bizarre. After almost evil sounding music continued, the sounds of bells were heard as the music began to slow. It was a sound that is uncommon in other works and…… [Read More]
Construction design for safety in the construction industry encourages designers, contractors, project managers, site managers and engineers to design a safe construction site that, hopefully, reduces the risk and number of injuries and fatalities during the construction phase of a project. This study would focus on the different approaches used by the construction industry to ensure on-the-job safety and if there is one approach that is more efficient and effective than another.
The Construction industry represents one of the most dangerous workplace industries; with a high number of yearly deaths and injuries when compared to other industries. The construction industry has a very poor record on health and safety in Britain, and construction sites are known as very dangerous places to work. Every year roughly 70 -- 80 individuals die on construction sites and thousands of construction workers are injured.
The highest number of fatalities results from falls from scaffolds…… [Read More]
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…… [Read More]
How long this process takes and whether it will prevent the loss of seeded cells probably depends to a significant extent on the surrounding tissue and therefore represents another unknown.
HIF-1? And VEGF are also involved in osteogenesis, so the influence of these growth factors on the differentiation choices being made by the seeded stem cells is unknown (Polzer 7). The impact of prolonged hypoxic conditions on the seeded cells is another. Although Polzer and colleagues examined the timing of cell seeding relative to prevascularization, they discovered that the artificial scaffold rapidly filled with connective tissue. This process effectively clogged the matrix and prevented efficient seeding.
By comparison, researchers conducting spinal cord injury research into the efficacy of regenerative medicine techniques have been producing promising results (Sykova et al. 1113-1114). Hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or bone marrow stem cells have produced positive results in both animal models and…… [Read More]
Overall, the classes were uneven in their approach. In part of the class, they were very traditional and used lecture style. In other parts of the class, they freely allowed participation among students. For example, one teacher, despite the fact that he is more disciplined with the students, uses comparisons when explaining the concepts and refers to book when giving examples on the board. The class is quiet during a short lecture. Afterwards, the notes are left on the board and the students are asked to take notes. A special student lays head on desk and asks no questions and takes no notes. However, the teacher does the first part of the homework together with the students, which is a quasi-Vygotsky approach. He does ask the students in this class more questions individually than the other class and helps this class a lot more on homework, which is also a…… [Read More]
Parenting is a challenging occupation. Indeed, how a parent raises his or her child is the cumulative result of the mental and emotional character of the parent, the background of the parent, the financial circumstances of the parent, how the parent was raised as a child, and also the emotional character of the child or the actions of the child. Consider a situation where the parent indulges in corporal punishment. As an action agent, the parent firmly believes that this punishment is of a corrective nature, meant to discipline the child. For the child receiving this punishment, certainly it is momentarily painful. The child might resent the punishment; alternatively, the child might recognize that the punishment is in response to instances of mischief.
The spectator might as the moral purveyor of this scenario might see this as a virtue or a vice. The spectator might believe that the corporal punishment…… [Read More]
Trace the development (or lack) of one of the major characters in the story, from beginning to end.
From the opening of The Scarlet Letter, when Hester Prynne stands alone on a scaffold, condemned by the Salem community, until the end when she stands with Arthur and Pearl on that same scaffold, Hester is a remarkably strong character. Unlike Arthur Dimmesdale, her partner in sin, who appears strong initially but weakens throughout the story, Hester grows even stronger as the story progresses. Hawthorne's early descriptions of Hester are of her physical beauty: she is . . . tall, with a figure of perfect elegance," with "dark and abundant hair, so glossy that it threw off the sunshine . . ." (Hawthorne, 1334). ithin Hester's proud, haughty bearing when we are first see her, we also glimpse traces of her rebellion and impetuousness (some of which become evident in Pearl), which,…… [Read More]
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…… [Read More]
Advancement of nanotechnology has gained significant attention in the self -- assembling characteristic of a variety of molecules, which is a vital requirement for the growing bottom -- up design of nanoscale structures. hen these molecules go through molecular self -- congregation, the consequential structural elements, for instance nanotubes or vesicles, can be further transformed to give specific charactistics to the components. Like nanotubes can be covered with metals or partially -- conducting substances to fabricate nanowires.
Smart polymeric gels are classified on various structural properties. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) are utilized to augment the responsiveness of hydrogels. In this case, the augmented responsiveness to stimuli is accomplished by manufacturing interconnected absorbent networks. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) correspond to a rapid -- swelling group of hydrogels with pore dimensions much bigger than the usual network of a normal hydrogel. These were firstly created as modern gastric retention devices to augment the duration…… [Read More]
The objective of this work is to examine Nathaniel Hawthorne's works and to conduct a comparison of the life of Hawthorne to his short stories and to examine how his life and his works paralleled one another.
The life of Nathaniel Hawthorne many times was played out in his stories as his life events and experiences bled forth into his works demonstrating the struggles that the writer faced within himself and his own life. unning through the threads of the stories of Hawthorne is the theme of Puritanism and this is clearly perceived as one reads the stories of Hawthorne entitled "The Scarlet Letter," "The Minister's Black Veil and "The Birthmark." In order to understand Hawthorne's view it is necessary that one understand what Puritanism is, believes, and represents.
Puritanism was first presented in the works of William Tyndale (1495-1536) as well as in the work of…… [Read More]
Prototyping is a great and exciting way to allow for faster manufacturing across numerous fields. Things like bioprinting allow for prototyping reaching new levels of science and technology. Prototyping has become an important aspect of things like tissue engineering. This means society can cross-new frontiers in the world of medicine and treatment thanks to prototyping. The one thing that surprised me the most about prototyping is the ability of organizations and people to use it in a variety of fields, especially in medicine like the aforementioned tissue engineering.
In article titled: "Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds" by Brian Derby, the author discusses the various ways in which prototyping opens new avenues for manufacturing. "New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can…… [Read More]
Shortly after taking charge of the project, Michelangelo viewed Sangallo's wooden model of the planned basilica. He was accompanied by Sangallo's followers who, according to Vasari,
Putting the best face on the matter, came forward and said how glad they were that the work had been given to him and that the model was a meadow that would always afford inexhaustible pasture, to which Michelangelo replied that they spoke truly, meaning, as he afterwards told a friend, that it would serve for sheep and oxen who know nothing of art.
In fact, a good part of Michelangelo's work on St. Peter's consisted of removing what work had been accomplished by Sangallo. Sangallo's hemicycle was demolished, and Michelangelo shored up some of Bramante's rather high-speed construction, until -- again in the opinion of Vasari -- "the columns, bases, capitals, doors and windows, cornices and projections, were perfect in every detail."
Michelangelo…… [Read More]
In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…… [Read More]
(Thompson, Morse, Sharpe and Hall, 2005, p.40)
The work of Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os (2002) entitled: "Reading Instruction for Students with LD and ED" published in the Journal of Special Education repots a synthesis of "previous observation studies conducted during reading with students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional/behavioral disorders (ED)." (p.1) a systematic process of review of research conducted between 1975 and 2000 is stated to have "yielded a total of 16 studies 11 independent samples) that met all preestablished criteria." (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman and os, 2002, p. 1) Finding from the study include: (1) There was substantial time allocated for reading instruction, though the time varied based on whether students were in special education or general education or both; (2) students were provided more individual and group instruction in special education; (3) the quality of reading instruction was low, overall, with excessive time allocated to waiting and…… [Read More]
Then she suffered them, with her two women, to disrobe her of her chain of pomander beads and all other her apparel most willingly, and with joy rather than sorrow, helped to make unready herself, putting on a pair of sleeves with her own hands which they had pulled off, and that with some haste, as if she had longed to be gone.
All this time they were pulling off her apparel, she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, 'that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.'
Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin. She, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, 'Ne crie…… [Read More]
" T. he following illustration provides the characteristics of 'fully differentiated' and 'not differentiated' instruction in programs and classrooms.
Differences in Programs and Classrooms that are Differentiated and those which are not Differentiated
Source: Walker (nd) U.S. Department of Education Publication
Therefore, differentiated instruction may take many forms and may utilize various instructional methods in differentiation of instruction and includes those listed in the table above under the heading 'Differentiated'. Flexibility is 'key' in this pursuit and instruction that is 'reactive', 'fixed', or 'closed' is not differentiated because differentiated instruction is never characterized by any of these three elements. The work of aum and Nichols (2007) states that there are four keys to differentiation. Those four keys are as follows:
The teacher should know their students and themselves in their role of teacher;
The teacher should know their curriculum;
The teacher should develop effective differentiation strategies; and the teacher should…… [Read More]
For example, the scene in which Andrea stands before the statue of Marat and sings "Credi al destino" fails to evoke for me any real sensation. Perhaps it is because, as Grout suggests, the opera is "laden with harmonies that are heavy and oldfashioned [and] has little of special interest" (p. 495). Such could explain why the scenes feel at time clunky and abysmally lacking in flair. Still, at other times, they are vibrant and alive with life -- and those times are when the drama calls for gaity (not for fatalism or idealism).
The opera may, therefore, be interpreted as a political piece -- but I do not wish to convey that interpretation, for I think there is already too much omanticism in contemporary politics today. I think Andrea fits better as a period piece that should be left in the period for which it was written: one that…… [Read More]
In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…… [Read More]
Lesson Plan Design: usiness/Corporate Ethics
This lesson plan will be designed to teach students traditional and conventional moral philosophies, standards and ethical convention in a corporate/business environment. As protocol students will be required to examine traditional moral and ethical standards as defined by philosophical and sociological standards.
The purpose of the lesson will be to teach students about the types of ethical considerations they might be faced with in a business or corporate environment. Students will be expected to have adequate knowledge of current events, and engage in discourse related to the morality of recent news events related to corporate ethics. The course will also require students to analyze their own experiences within corporate America where appropriate or the workplace and identify what gaps currently exist in the moral/ethical aspect of employment and asses how improvements made in this area might impact the workforce as a whole.
Students not having…… [Read More]
Outline of Critique of .E.B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk
Collective Nature of the ork
Black Spirituals as Thematic Introductions
Black Spirituals as conveyors of historical record
Black Spirituals as oral tradition
Assassination of Booker T. ashington and others who agree with him
Capitulation to society as it is, rather than the way it should be for blacks
DuBois, is one of the greatest African-American thinkers, oraters and writers of history. His works are often bold assassinations of the development of the Black, former slave class in the U.S., through periods were they repeatedly faced bold and subtle racism but were simultaneously expected to be successful, because laws were, "better than they used to be." DuBois' work The Souls of Black Folk, though constituent of several divergent essays is to many the source and center of nearly all his messages regarding the truth telling that…… [Read More]
As such, I then find myself truly understanding the concept as opposed to forgetting or misunderstanding the information if I don't have a relationship or something to hook the concept onto. The other factor that is especially relevant to me is that I truly need to feel like I have some control over the learning which is why I enjoy taking online courses which allow me to choose when to study and how to study. Lastly, I am much harder on myself as an adult learner than I was as an adolescent. When I was younger, I did not bother to even look at a teacher's painstaking commentary in my essays whereas now I cannot wait to obtain feedback and I feel an immense amount of passion toward pleasing the instructor, putting forth my best effort, and obtaining the best grade possible.
2. According to the Whole-Part-Whole learning theory, learners…… [Read More]
462). The pattern of adjusting to the feelings and needs of the advisor rather than the advisor adjusting to meet the needs of the advisee is seen repeatedly in the different types of relationships between women who are pursuing doctoral studies on college campuses and their female advisors.
One type of advisor was described as an iron maiden, while the advisee assumed the role of handmaiden. In this type of relationship, the advisors support the goals of the student, but they have little time for interpersonal communications or sympathy for the advisee's personal issues. The advisees who worked under the tutelage of such women often found themselves sacrificing "their own personal power and their own work for iron maiden advisors" (p. 454).
The inadequate advisor-over adequate advisee relationship was in direct contrast to the iron maiden/handmaiden relationship. In this scenario, the advisor was too focused upon the interpersonal relationship and…… [Read More]
Kinshuk, Liu, ., & Graf, S. (2009). Coping with mismatched courses: Students' behaviour and performance in courses mismatched to their learning styles. Educational echnology Research and Development, 57(6), 739-752. Retrieved from ERIC database.
Kinshuk and Graf first establish the fact that students are often required to learn material that is not adaptive to their preferred learning style. he work then goes on to analyze how an interactive adaptive online/computer aided system could aide these students in allowing individual learning through designs that were more adaptive to learning style preference (i.e. had multiple ways of learning the same material) the work indicates that non-adaptive computer aided designs, i.e. that simply teach with one learning style are not as effective as those which offer students in mismatched courses several ways to learn material.
Sahin, a., Cermik, H., & Dogan, B. (2010). Is it "Writing on Water" or "Strike it Rich?" he experiences…… [Read More]
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…… [Read More]
However this research fails to focus on the outcomes of this particular teaching method. For instance, the existing research does not reveal conversational abilities, level of comprehension or whether or not the learner is able to read and write English proficiently. All of these issues are relevant to understanding the success of teaching ESL online. A better understanding of the failure and/or success rates of online learning when compared to traditional teaching methods is needed so that instructors and administrators know whether or not they want to utilize online learning as a curriculum tool.
For the purposes of carrying out this type of research, the researcher must seek out institutions of learning that currently use online language learning to teach English as a second language. A decision must be made concerning whether or not the research will focus on adult learners or young learners. Once this decision is made,…… [Read More]
Ge, L., & Voss, S.. (2009). ERP application in China: An overview. International Journal of Production Economics, 122(1), 501.
Of the many challenges of planning, implementing and using ERP systems in China, the two greatest unmet needs of these systems on a consistent basis is business intelligence and data analytics. This analysis evaluates these two unmet needs from the standpoint of their use in supply chains. Included in the analysis is an overview of value chain management and the costs associated with implementing ERP business intelligence and analytics throughout an organization.
The article also discusses how ERP implementations are being successfully completed with case studies with examples. Each of the case studies highlights how China, for the most part, lacks enterprise-wide system integration to generate real-time supply chain metrics yet does have an excellent series of reporting processes in place for managing their supply chains. The study concludes with best…… [Read More]
One counterargument to the practice of teaching vocabulary is that children learn the meanings of many words by experiencing those words in the actual world and in text without explicit instruction. Unfortunately, such incidental learning is filled with possible problems. The definitions learned range from richly contextualized and more than sufficient, to incomplete to wrong. Children do develop knowledge of vocabulary through incidental contact with new words they read. This is one of the many reasons to challenge students to read incessantly.
There is considerable evidence that readers who possess prior knowledge about the topic of a reading often comprehend the reading better than classmates with no, or lower prior knowledge. Nevertheless, even when students have knowledge relevant to the information they are reading they do not always relate their world knowledge to the content of a text. Unless inferences are absolutely necessary to make sense of the…… [Read More]
Labor relations are mentioned in almost all five sections of the idolatry chapter. In the first section, Jews are listed as possible helpers for Roman basilica-builders, bath-builders, scaffolds, or stadiums. Gentiles are not mentioned as possible construction labor for the Jewish population. On the other hand, Jews do appear to play a key role as merchants during the Roman Empire. Several passages in the chapter on idolatry relate to what can and cannot be sold to a Gentile, and when. Rules establish boundaries between the business partners, so that they are not on equal footing. The authors of the Mishnah are either reacting to or creating social stratifications that are necessary for the preservation of group identity. The social stratifications and normative boundaries might also have been important for the economic cohesiveness of Jewish communities during Roman times. In other words, the taboos against the selling of certain goods might…… [Read More]
At the beginning of the semester, I will write in my planner my major project due dates and the dates of major tests. Then I will write down my shorter assignments, as well as self-scheduled blocks of study time in my day planner. I will try to cluster the periods devoted to the same or similar subject matter together.
Using mnemonics is a useful and fun method of fact retrieval and create indelible memories. For example, back when I first studied the planets, I remember learning a series of fun mnemonic devices to remember their order. Similarly, in biology I remember learning the mnemonic 'King Phillip came over for good spaghetti' to recall the taxonomy order of Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. Mnemonics provide more effective retrieval cues than simply memorizing information by rote: creating my own retrieval methods would be a fun way to use…… [Read More]
Students should be graded upon 'deep learning' as well as factual retrieval in this final phase. Unlike formative learning assessment, in a summative assessment, the students must be fully engaged with the material at this phase and can use it in a non-directive fashion. Assessment learning principles stress the need for learning to be demonstrated in a 'real life' context and to apply those principles. Writing an essay about the gospel stories or explaining how the lessons of the various gospels might be useful in their own lives is two examples of how authentic assessment might take place in a religion classroom in a summative fashion.
The advantages of Grajczonek's process of authentic assessment are that it takes into consideration different learning styles. if, during the assessment for learning phase, students have difficulty visualizing the difference between the gospel narratives, a teacher might make a list of all of the…… [Read More]
hakespeare's rhetoric has always astounded his contemporary audiences through his almost supernatural ability to perceive and present the universality of human nature on stage, regardless of the time his characters lived in.
The three different types of techniques used in rendering the play to the public are different, but related art forms: literature, theater and film. They reflect their author's or directors' vision of the story originally presented by hakespeare on stage at the Globe, in London, at the beginning of the seventeenth century.
Kings of cotland, England, and later Great Britain, had always been challenged in keeping their place on the throne and hakespeare himself lived through times that were still full of intrigue and plotting against the sovereign. Mary tuart, accused of plotting against the queen of England, Elisabeth I, had been executed in 1587, still a vivid memory for many who attended the shows put on…… [Read More]
hen Hester is first alone with Chillingworth, for instance, and in several preceding descriptions, she appears to be undergoing a process of destruction herself. She is immensely ashamed, and very aware of the eyes that dart furtively towards the letter emblazoned on her chest; she is too weak to think straight when Chillingworth administers a medicine to Pearl that could, for all Hester knows, be poison, and she is far too weak to resist Chillingworth's insistence that she keep his secrets.
Hester is the first of the three major characters, however, to make a transition to a stronger and more secure position with herself and with her sin; she has clearly found an inner redemption long before the others. The reason for this is the same as the reason that she is the first, and for the bulk of the book the only, character to acknowledge her sin -- Pearl.…… [Read More]
For example, at the end of a history class' unit on the Revolutionary ar, a summative test would asses how much the student had retained about this critical period in the nation's history. It would measure the student's effort and the teacher's relative success in imparting knowledge to the student.
In contrast, a formative assessment like a quiz measures what is currently being taught in class. It measures the student's learning as a work-in-progress, to show the teacher what the student does or does not understand. It functions as a potential wake-up call for the student, in terms of his or her present state of learning. In math or foreign language classes, it is essential the teacher knows if the student is uncertain about a particular concept, given how learning is scaffolded upon previous knowledge in these subjects. Formative assessments are particularly critical in these two areas of teaching.
Survey…… [Read More]
" (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998)
Activities in the classroom that use generative themes derived from the adult learner's lives "have been seen to facilitate their acquisition of literacy." (Friere, 1992; as cited in: Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson (1998) the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning." Stated as an example is "...workplace literacy programs teach literacy skills as they are needed within specific work contexts. Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy." (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) However, it is noted that other studies state findings that "much of the growth made by participants in general literacy programs is likely to be lost if recently learned skills…… [Read More]
Louis and Smith (1991) identify such congruence as an indicator of the quality of work life influencing levels of teacher engagement with their work."
An appreciation by teachers of a significant gap between their current practices and those implied by the changes being proposed within their schools." perception, on the part of teachers, that participating in the school's change initiative is a significant but achievable challenge. Shedd and Bacharach (1991) argue that teaching provides intrinsic motivation under those restructuring initiatives which conceptualize teaching as a highly complex act and help teachers significantly expand their technical repertoires and their capacities to apply them reflectively and constructively. Contributing to the perception of a goal's achievability are opportunities to learn more about how the goal can be accomplished." perception by teachers that they know, specifically and concretely, what they will need to do (or that such specificity can be developed) eventually to implement…… [Read More]
Marius notes, "More was not above wrenching a historical tale around to make it prove what he wanted to prove." (pg. 104)
As with any published academic endeavor, Marius has opened himself (or opened himself, since he has been dead since 1999) to inevitable criticism from other (perhaps jealous), scholars with differing opinions.
But ultimately, Marius proved his merit repeatedly. Not only did he continue to further his research and engage interest in More through articles, but he also went on the speaking circuit. All of this validated what he initially wrote in his More biography.
Marius examines other prominent figures and important scholars of the time, including Erasmus and Martin Luther (Marius wrote a biography on latter, too).
If Marius demonstrates any bias, it's the concerted effort he makes to present More as a whole person, flaws and all. He carefully cites incidents, some more documented historically than others,…… [Read More]
Evangeline: A Tale of Arcadia material
"Evangeline" Part I
Describe the village of Grand-Pre. What overall impression is given?
The village of Grand-Pre is a kind of Eden, an idyllic place. The village is happy, and filled with simple, rustic people. The people are hard-working but they enjoy their labor and receiving gifts of nature. For example, the "hands of the farmers had raised with labor incessant," dikes that "shut out the turbulent tides;" yet they sometimes let the sea into the fields to water their crops, allowing nature's bounty to enrich their harvest. The streets are filled with simple but beautiful maids and matrons dressed in plain clothes, and everyone is "at peace with God and the world."
What story did the notary public tell to prove the point that justice triumphs in the end?
The notary tells a tale of a nobleman's palace where a necklace of pearls…… [Read More]
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…… [Read More]
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…… [Read More]
Many critics consider the name Godot to be a hidden name for God. Godot in the end is a paradox. The dramatist described in his play the person at the end of the World War II. It is a person who can be characterized as master and victim of will. The characters have a will but their wishes destroy them. The characters are waiting for someone or something to save them.
From the aesthetic point-of-view the postmodernism movement pleads for an anti-narrative structure of the work. Tarantino's film, "Pulp Fiction," doesn't have a classic plot. Two stories that seem unrelated come together in a "non linear plot." The first story is about two thieves, Honey unny and Pumpkin who decide to rob a restaurant, and the second story of two hit men working for mob, named Vincent and Jules.
The novel "Finnegan's Wake" by James Joyce is constructed using strange…… [Read More]
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…… [Read More]
The History of Resurrection Tradition
According to Merriam-ebster dictionary, the word 'resurrection' stands for "the state of one risen from the dead." Generally, resurrection refers to restoration to life of the person who is clinically dead.
Concept of resurrection has been in existence in one form or the other since the very birth of the first human being in this planet. Over the centuries, different religions and mythological schools of thought have defined and taken the tradition of resurrection in different ways; therefore, it is always hard to find any commonly agreed fact about it.
For further clarification, it will be necessary to point out that resurrection stands apart from the concepts of 'immortality of soul' and 'resuscitation' as it involves the rebirth of both body and soul (Harrington).
It will not be wrong to say that the tradition of resurrection is closely associated with the philosophy of…… [Read More]
Managing High Performance
A familiar challenge for any expanding enterprise is how to find and manage the highest potential employees who can over time mature into leadership positions. While there are always more applicants that positions available in senior management, the task of any leadership team is to accurately and with insight find those employees with the greatest potential of success (uggiero, 2008). From the very informal succession planning techniques small businesses use that are tantamount of planning sessions, to the much more rigorous and thorough high potential employee development programs, there is a very wide variation in approach and results (Bloch, 1996). The intent of this analysis is to provide a small, rapidly growing company with insights into how best to manage the dilemma of having 50% of its workforce looking to advance their careers with a limited number of positions available while also giving the majority of employees…… [Read More]
Differentiated Instruction is an approach to education that is increasingly taking hold in the earlier stages of primary education. This proceeds from the understanding that all individuals learn, integrate and apply knowledge differently. This is true of learners at all ages.
The lesson plan here employs such strategies as they apply to a classroom of 3rd graders. The average age of students here is 9 and most students are believed to be of generally proficient learning capability.
Goals of the Lesson:
The lesson plan laid out here is contextualized by the Geography discipline with a specific focus in this unit on the 50 States. The primary goals of the lesson are to: teach students to identify all 50 States; to teach students to identify their geographical arrangement; and identify states according to key landmarks or other identifying symbols. The overarching goals is to help students connect the geographical and cultural…… [Read More]
Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).
Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]
Dangers and Injuries from WOKING AT HEIGHTS IN CONSTUCTION INDUSTY UK
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) of Britain is involved in a campaign concerning safe work practices at UK organizations especially the construction industry which has been its key target for many years due to high number of fatalities and injuries resulting from working at heights in construction industry. Explaining the major problems of work related injuries in UK, Bill Callaghan, Chair of the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) said: "Falling from height is the single biggest killer of workers in Great Britain. Last year 49 workers died and many thousands were seriously injured as a result of falling from height. In most of these cases, these deaths could have been prevented. We are working with industry to reduce the number of deaths and injuries and this campaign is one way we hope to reduce the risk of falls…… [Read More]
General George W. Casey, Jr.'s Calendar Year 2010 Objectives vs. he Six Key Mission Areas 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review Report
he Calendar Year 2010 Objectives set by General George W. Casey, Jr. define the priorities for the U.S. Army first and foremost in terms of its continued support for the U.S. mission in Afghanistan and Iraq. He also resolves to restore strategic flexibility and balance to the ability of the armed services to respond to threats. His third stated objective is in regards to the quality of life for soldiers, not simply the mission's advancement itself: "We have made great progress over the last 3 years in the quality and quantity of support we provide to our Soldiers, Civilians and Families. his year we need to consolidate and improve on the gains we have made. We will also institutionalize both a Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program and an Army Risk Reduction…… [Read More]
Racine's Phaedra -- Compared to Blake's "Lamb" and Melville's Billy Budd
As Bernard Grebanier states, Racine's Phaedra speaks "with the violence of life itself" (xiv). If one were to compare the French playwright's most famous female lead to the English-speaking world's most famous male lead (as Grebanier does), it would have to be to Hamlet, whose passionate assessment of life is likewise problematic. Indeed, Phaedra raises many themes, including the importance of origin, innocence, and sin -- themes that may be found in as seemingly disparate works as illiam Blake's "The Lamb" and Herman Melville's Billy Budd. hile Racine's Phaedra is the tale of a woman, torn by a passion that possesses her so cruelly that it destroys not only her life but the lives of others around her -- including the innocent man who is her obsession, Hyppolytus; Blake's poem deals with the triple theme of origin, innocence, and…… [Read More]
William Shakespeare was born into a world of words that took him from cold, stone castles in Scotland to the bustling cities of Italy and the high seas of colonial change. An emblem of the Renaissance, the Bard of Avon was not only the conqueror of his own mind and pen, but also of the language of his own social, political, and religious reality. His theatre, the epic Globe, mirrors the stories of the early, bustling London and ever-morphing England in the duration of its own life, from plank and dirt to flame and fame.
By 1598, Richard Burbage was the practicing don of the London theatre world, extending his fingertips for production all over the lively center of British commerce and governance. His players, a collection of all-male actors, were widely recognized throughout the theatre world, one of the only sources of popular entertainment.
Burbage produced the works of…… [Read More]
teacher has in helping students develop their writing. Traditional methods of grading and scoring children's writing are being replaced in the modern educational system with feedback and constructive criticism of the work, rather than a trophy grade or labeling score. This study reviews literature previously compiled on the subject of feedback in the development of children's writing, as well as conducting original research with a small group of students and teachers that helps evaluate the role of feedback in writing, as well as determining what types of feedback are the most effective.
Overview & Evaluation of the Project
According to a seasoned author of the ritish Educational Research Journal, "Education without educational research can be governed by dogma, superstition, tradition and other forms of prejudice about what will work well and be 'good for' those involved in the educational process." (Murphy 1996) Education is an ongoing process, and even the…… [Read More]
Corporate Governance & Business Ethics
It is quite interesting to note that, academic research in business ethics was a totally distinct discipline from research in corporate governance, and the application of the word 'ethics' was uncommon in available research on corporate governance. The chief responsibility of corporate governance was understood to be safeguarding the benefits of the shareholders. Because of the severance between ownership and management, and the incapability of the independent owners to supervise the performances of those managers, a possibility was available for vital strategic decisions to be taken which would advantageous for the managers to a more larger extent compared to the owners. For example, takeovers not related to the organization's core competence outcome in a bigger corporation, however, it does not result in a more profitable company all the time. Certainly, research has proved that extremely increased extent of isolated diversification normally resulted in lower…… [Read More]
Abstract: An original, 150-word, brief description of the study and not a paraphrasing of the body or the research report. Although Scott did present an Abstract outlining his study there was a definite absence in presenting to the reader a professional conviction as to why such a study is needed or beneficial. The closest Scott came to fulfilling this requirement was to state that the aim of reviewing case studies is to prepare future teachers for real life situations. He might have informed the reader that case study research is a practical manner whereby students preparing to enter the educational field of reading disability is to garner information, as well as to evaluate situations that will resemble real life situations that will most likely be encountered.
In other words, learning through example.
Introduction: Contained within the Introduction section of a research report is a review of the literature along with…… [Read More]
When students can see and manipulate objects, they can be asked to describe them and put objects in visual and verbal terms that they can relate to, in their current developmental stage. Piaget observed students relate to objects at this age by touching what is concrete, describing objects and an object's location in space.
How well did Jenny follow constructivist guidelines? What could she have done differently to make the lesson more constructivist?
Jenny made use of group activities, and socially engaged forms of learning, although a strict constructivist would have wanted her to begin with such group activities.
Discuss constructivism in terms of the constructs defined and discussed by both Piaget and Vygotsky in the text. What is the basic difference between the approaches of these two theorists?
Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next, while Vygotsky stressed the need…… [Read More]