Schizophrenia Psychosis and Lifespan D
Schizophrenia and Psychosis and Lifespan Development
Schizophrenia and Psychosis Matrix
Major DSM-IV-T Categories
Schizophrenia and Psychosis
Positive (Type I): represent excesses or distortions from normal functioning
Grossly disorganized behavior
Negative (Type II): the absence of functioning
Poverty of speech
Schizophrenia and Psychosis
Delusions and Hallucinations
Grossly disorganized behavior
Active symptoms that do not fit other diagnostic types
No Type I symptoms but some negative symptoms
Symptoms of mood disorder and schizophrenia
Brief psychotic disorder
Type I Symptoms
Last less than one month
Type I Symptoms
Delusions…… [Read More]
When people think of what it means to 'go crazy,' quite often the common image that comes to mind is that of someone with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a serious mental health disorder that can be physically, socially, and personally destabilizing. "Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. It occurs at similar rates in all ethnic groups around the world. Symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men tend to experience symptoms a little earlier than women. Most of the time, people do not get schizophrenia after age 45.Schizophrenia rarely occurs in children, but awareness of childhood-onset schizophrenia is increasing" (Schizophrenia, 2012, NIMH: 2). The disease is fairly rare "about 1% of Americans have this illness," but it is so debilitating the illness warrants further research and attention (Schizophrenia, 2012, NIMH: 2). While symptoms vary with every person, some of the most common include auditory…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder, resulting in the patient hearing voices and noise inside his or her mind. Historically, this disorder has been a serious barrier to proper functioning in society. In the past many people were simply locked up in mental institutions because they were a danger to themselves and others. In some cases that is still necessary, but medications and treatments have come a long way. They allow some people with schizophrenia to live relatively normal lives. There are disagreements regarding what, specifically, causes the disease to manifest, although its onset is generally in young adulthood and it tends to run in families. That suggests a genetic component. Treatment generally involves medication, and there is no cure or prevention methods for schizophrenia. Both cultural and biblical issues play into a person's understanding of the disorder and the treatment he or she will receive. Future research must focus…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia in the Elderly: obustness of the esearch Literature
The American psychiatric community has historically ignored the presence of schizophrenia in older adults, especially the elderly, because many researchers and clinicians had attributed the etiology of the disease to organic causes such as dementia (Howard, abins, Seeman, & Jeste, 2000). A substantial body of European studies, however, have revealed that a small percentage of schizophrenia patients experience their first symptoms of psychosis after the age of 60 independent of organic causes. The lack of progress in this area has been attributed to the nomenclature assigned to the different schizophrenia age groups, which remains confusing, with some research groups designating first diagnoses after the age of 40 as late-onset, while others set the age boundary at 55 or 60-years of age. The naming of the disease has also been confusing, with early researchers, such as Kraepelin in 1919, calling the condition…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia does not really have just one single cause. It is a possibility that this disorder could be inherited but not all doctors are sure. A lot of experts suppose that schizophrenia does run in the family. Individuals that may have a close family member with the disease are more likely to advance the disorder than persons who have no kinsfolks with the disease. A lot think that might have some relation to a chemical unbalance of the brain. Some have the notion that neurotransmitters are responsible of the growth of schizophrenia. It is a probable select, even though there is no evidence yet that glutamate and Dopamine disproportions are the cause of schizophrenia. Is schizophrenia produced by a real carnal irregularity in the mind? Numerous studies of individuals with schizophrenia have established irregularities in brain construction for instance enlarged ventricles that are in the brain, and reduced brain scopes…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia as a Functional Disconnection Problem in the Brain
Studies by Schmitt et al. (2011) offer conclusive evidence that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder. While schizophrenia can be exacerbated by both genetic and environmental factors, the disease has been conclusively linked to developmental disconnectivity of the prefrontal cortex of the brain via neural imaging studies.
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that directly affects the way an individual talks, acts, and perceives the world. Schizophrenic patients often exhibit a loss of contact with reality and an inability to perceive their environment correctly. These individuals may see and hear things that are not real and these symptoms make it very difficult for patients to live and navigate normal daily tasks. Scientists have studied that onset of schizophrenia, finding that it frequently appears during the teenage to young adult years and is more severe in men than women. In recent years studies have…… [Read More]
Court Case and Trials
Confession of Andrea of drowning all of her five children came on the same day in the presence of her psychiatrist, Dr. Michael Welner. She confessed of locking her family dog so that it could not interfere with the killings or drowning.
The defense lawyer asserted that Andrea was insane while Texas law required that a proof must be given that at the time of crime, the defendant was unaware of the difference between right and wrong (Jason, 2010, p. 98). In March 2002, the court rejected the bargain based on insanity and proved Andrea guilty. The main option was the death penalty but it was clearly rejected by the jury. Thereby Andrea was sentenced to life imprisonment to Texas Department of Criminal Justice being eligible for a parole in the period of forty years.
On 5th of January, 2005, convictions proven on Andrea were…… [Read More]
When treatment for schizophrenia or other mental illness does not follow proper protocols, the results can be extreme deviant behaviors, often resulting in violent crimes. Because of the deinstutionlization of the mentally ill, the criminal justice system now increasingly has become the destination of mentally ill and developmentally disabled individuals, especially those who are ethnic minorities (Kupers, 1999). Often, the choice for the justice system is to either treat the offender's mental illness and ignore their criminality, or to ignore their mental illness and punish their criminality. Unfortunately, few states have the facilities or resources to deal with both of these types of problems at the same time. As a result, many mentally ill offenders wind up in the general population of the prison system with little or no psychological treatment.
Early Christians had a difficult time recognizing schizophrenia as a mental disorder and not as a demonic…… [Read More]
Much of advice to parents of schizophrenics tended to be judgmental, before the environmental and genetic factors of the illness were known: Theories blaming schizophrenogenic or emotionally withdrawn mothers are now almost totally discredited. hat current research attempts to suggest is that "family and environmental stressors -- encompassing very subtle interactions common to many families -- work only in tandem with biological determinants to produce psychosis [and schizophrenia]" (McFarlane 2007). In giving advice to families how to reduce their offspring's stress and tendency to exhibit the disorder, therapists tread a delicate line between advice and blame. Uncontrollable biological genetic and environmental factors and controllable genetic and nurturing factors all seem to play an unclear role in causing the disease to manifest in an individual.
Cocoran, Cheryl, Kristin Cadenhead, & Sophia Vinogradov. (2004). "Schizophrenia
Prevention - Risk Reduction Approaches." Schizophrenia.com. Retrieved 24 Jan 2008. http://www.schizophrenia.com/prev1.htm
Information for Parents: How…… [Read More]
There is usually a gap of one or two years between the appearance of vague symptoms and the patient's visit to a psychiatric clinic. Neurological examination may reveal a link between schizophrenia and Wilson's disease and Huntington's disease before treatment starts. The disorder has also been associated with left and mixed handedness, some physical abnormalities and mild neurological signs (Frankenburg).
Mental status examination often reveals odd and poorly understood behaviors, such as drinking water to the point of intoxication; staring at oneself in the mirror, gathering and keeping useless items, self-mutilation and disturbed sleep-wake patterns (Frankenburg, 2009). The patient has difficulty coping with change. Other observations gathered during detailed interaction with the patient include odd dressing, undue suspiciousness or social awkwardness, lack of personal hygiene, odd beliefs or delusions, small range of emotional expressions, acknowledged hallucinations or response to un-apparent auditory or visual stimuli, long pauses because of thought blocking,…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder and can be characterized by any of the following symptoms: intellectual deterioration, emotional blunting, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, social isolation, delusions, and/or hallucinations (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). In the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-T) schizophrenia has now been divided into five subcategories (APA, 2000). These subtypes are defined based on the presence of positive symptoms (excesses, such as hallucinations and delusions) or negative symptoms (deficits, such as social isolation and poverty of speech) of behavior in the presentation of the disorder.
There is no defined cause for schizophrenia although many have been proposed. First, it is generally acknowledged that schizophrenia is at least in part caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters. The classical "dopamine hypothesis" of schizophrenia has asserted that there is a hyperactivity in dopaminergic transmission at the dopamine D2 receptor in the projections to the…… [Read More]
Often, when people discover that a family member has developed a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, they may be in shock, they may be puzzled and frightened by the strange behaviors (Johnson pp). They may be concerned about what will happen, and are generally at a loss for what to do (Johnson pp). This experience is virtually the same for all families everywhere in the world, and everywhere the stress of mental illness is great (Johnson pp). Generally, after examinations are carried out, medication are prescribed and other treatments recommended, and sometimes family members are interviewed, however, after a few days when the patient is released, usually the family has been told nothing about how to cope with the patient or the patient's effects upon the family (Johnson pp).
All too often families who are coping with a brain disorder, such as schizophrenia, in a close relative tend…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia & Delusional Disorders
Case Study of Sally
Of the many psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia and paranoia are two that are perhaps most commonly known to the general public. Whether this is due to the rate of incidence or to the ease of characterizing the disorders in print, dramatizations, or media, is difficult to say. These two disorders are categorically similar and are taxonomically considered to be psychoses. There are three main classes of psychoses: Mood or Affective Disorders, Schizophrenic Disorders, and Paranoid or Delusional Disorders. The DSM-IV_T definitions of Schizophrenia and Paranoia are long and complicated, though somewhat redeemed by the intriguing histories of the discovery and definition of the disorders -- and by the associated lore.
Schizophrenia. The term schizophrenia means split mind and it was first applied to the disorder by Bleuler in 1911, who thought the brains of schizophrenics developed an inability to integrate emotions, thoughts, and…… [Read More]
Ron Howard's 2001 film biography of the life of John Nash, A Beautiful Mind, delves into the world of a man suffering from schizophrenia. However, the film treats the disease delicately, without offering too many stereotypes or classifications of mental illness. Rather, the audience is aware that behind Nash's genius is a disturbed, albeit "beautiful" mind. Russell Crowe plays Nash, a brilliant mathematician and professor. His doctoral thesis work is hailed by MIT and he begins his teaching assignment there and is also offered a position by the United States government as a cryptographer because of his ability to decipher codes and number patterns quickly. Nash also falls in love with one of his students at MIT, Alicia (Jennifer Connelly) and the couple gets married. Nash's delusions become more and more pronounced and eventually he is diagnosed with schizophrenia and is forced to undergo treatments. The treatments in the…… [Read More]
What is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder of the brain that affects the way a person sees the world, and even how they think, and behave towards other people. Schizophrenic persons find it difficult to function normally, and often have serious challenges relating with others, managing emotions, thinking clearly, making conversations, and distinguishing between what is real and what is imagined (Helpguide, 2014; NIMH, 2014). This blurred perception of reality drives such persons to hear or see things that other people cannot see, causing them to retreat from the rest of the world in fear that someone is constantly watching them and is out to harm them (Helpguide, 2014). Well, schizophrenia is widely perceived as a rare condition; however, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) places its prevalence rate at 1 out of every 100 Americans, with men and young adults between the ages of 16 and…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia is a family of severe psychotic disorders that affect the person, their family, and society as a whole. While the disorder has been described clinically for over a century, the cause of schizophrenia is not well understood. Different theories have been postulated as to the cause of schizophrenia that stirred the age-old nature vs. nurture debate. When the evidence is viewed from a holistic perspective it becomes clear that schizophrenia must result from a combination of innate and environmental factors. Such theories, integrating both biological and environmental factors, have been proposed. By taking a broader view of the cause of schizophrenia we can not only better understand it, but learn how to more effectively treat it.
Schizophrenia is a catastrophic illness that may appear in adolescence but more often is apparent by early adulthood. It is actually a class of severe mental disorders as opposed to one specific disorder.…… [Read More]
The second involves attempts to increase the functioning of the persons and delay or prevent a relapse. To accomplish these goals the treatment occurs in three phases.
In the first phase, attention is given to bringing the symptoms under control. The patient may be dangerous, to others or to themselves. In this phase, medication is utilized which can greatly reduce the symptoms. hen the symptoms have been repressed, the second phase begins, where attempts are made to stabilize the patient. At this time, it is possible for the patient to have moderate symptoms and to relapse. It is critical at this stage that the symptoms are further reduced so that the patient can progress toward the final phase of maintenance. The maintenance phase places emphasis on long-term recovery. This phase engages all the available therapeutic measures. The patient may receive medication, while engaging in supportive therapy. The family is educated…… [Read More]
Empirical studies, MI scans, and other medical interventions can be used to test some of these theories. However, the exact causes of schizophrenia are likely to remain unknown until the connections between social and biological factors can be isolated. For this reason, schizophrenia is often seen as the key to understanding human nature, the human brain, and the link between nature and nurture in psychological functioning.
Directly related to its causes, the treatment of schizophrenia is a mixture of chemical and therapeutic treatment. Grohol (2006) lists psychotherapy, medications, and self-help as treatments for the afflicted schizophrenic. He contends that the method for causing a schizophrenic to be able to function in society is a lifelong, regimented, treatment of support, therapy, and medications. The medications are needed to control the psychotic episodes that are most likely the result of improper brain functioning, while therapy, support, and self-help are needed…… [Read More]
B. Precipitating Factors
The manifestation of symptoms begins at the most concrete level with alterations in neurotransmitters and/or changes in cerebral blood flow patterns. Specifically, dopamine and serotonin are implicated in schizophrenia. With no set formula, upsetting the balance of neurotransmitters can precipitate disease symptom onset. Stress and other environmental triggers are implicated in the increase or decrease of symptoms. Social isolation may be a major environmental trigger. Substance abuse is also implicated as a factor that may precipitate symptom onset. Birth defects and complications that surface during childhood development, exposure to pathogens, and head injury may also precipitate disease onset.
Symptoms vary and so do patterns of symptom onset. Mainly involving profound shifts in communication and personality patterns, the symptoms of schizophrenia include social withdrawal, inappropriate emotional responses, delusional thinking, paranoid thinking, perceptual distortions, and psychotic episodes that may or may not involve hallucinations. Nonsensical speech, often referred to…… [Read More]
This view has one advantage in that it goes toward explaining why the same general disease - schizophrenia - can vary significantly from person to person. The Vulnerability Model suggests to us that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of interacting factors including physical, psychological and environmental events that work dysfunctionally together to produce what we call "schizophrenia."
This does not mean the brains of schizophrenics are identical to those without schizophrenia, however. Some evidence persuasively points to brain development that goes wrong before a baby is ever born. During gestation, brain cells have to migrate from one central location to become the different parts of the brain. In the process, some brain cells are redundant, and the brain "prunes," or destroys them. Some researchers believe that in some people who later develop schizophrenia, brain cells group together that should not be together, resulting in a baby that is born…… [Read More]
Parents with Schizophrenia
Parents with a mental illness have been shown to have offspring that have an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorder themselves. A psychiatric illness in a parent can impact the emotional, social and behavioral aspects of their children's lives. Furthermore, there is also a stigma that is associated with schizophrenia that prevents detection and treatment of this disorder that in turn makes children more vulnerable to the effects of having a parent with the disorder. For instance, a number of studies have reported greater rates and greater severity of neurological, motor, and cognitive impairments among offspring of parents with schizophrenia. This was most pronounced among offspring of parents with schizophrenia: almost 20% of children from this group in one particular study exhibited some neurological dysfunction at birth compared to less than 6% of children of unaffected parents. This analysis will look at some of the implications…… [Read More]
This paper describes and discusses schizophrenia. It looks at the disorder from the standpoint of history, etiology, treatment, prevention, culture and the Bible to explore its many facets. It shows that in spite of there being no known cause of the disorder, treating it is possible. It highlights the need to reduce the taboo and stigma associate with schizophrenia as a step in preventing it or at least in treating it before it worsens. It notes that from the Biblical standpoint faith can be a factor in prevention.
Keywords: schizophrenia, biblical worldview, history of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia literally means “split mind,” and the symptoms of schizophrenia have been observed throughout all history and have been treated differently in different cultures in different eras (Kinter, 2009). The DSM (2013) classifies schizophrenia as a mental disorder that causes the patient to experience hallucinations, delusions, irrational speech patterns, anti-social behavior, a loss…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia: A Beautiful Mind
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by both positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms may include hallucinations, delusions, and irrational beliefs. Negative symptoms may include a lack of affect, social withdrawal, and depression (“Schizophrenia,” 2016). Dissociative identity disorder is a highly controversial diagnosis which involves individuals dissociating or separating aspects of themselves into different personalities (Gillig, 2009). Unlike schizophrenia, however, the individual is not delusional, and is apparently responding to some form of concrete trauma in his or her life. As seen in the film A Beautiful Mind, schizophrenia is not necessarily triggered by a specific, traumatic incident in the individual’s life, although it does often arise during times of trauma and transition during an adolescent’s life, such as when Nash was going to graduate school at Princeton.
Although Nash had a brilliant early career as a mathematician, eventually cumulating in the development of game theory…… [Read More]
In “Very Early and Early Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Challenge,” Unti, Moisa, Burlea, et al. (2015) offer an overview of the literature on childhood onset schizophrenia. According to the authors, relatively little is known about childhood onset schizophrenia, which makes it difficult for clinicians to make accurate diagnoses and offer interventions. Complicating matters is the fact that early onset schizophrenia is usually concurrent with developmental disorders and neurocognitive impairments. In some cases, the symptoms may be mistaken for autism spectrum disorders. The authors point to research showing that there are genetic factors that are also involved, urging researchers to develop differential diagnostic criteria. After outlining the etiology and epidemiological data, the authors proceed to discuss clinical profiles, diagnostic criteria, and comorbidity with other conditions like autism. Future research should focus on how to provide the most effective evaluations for early detection and also offer strategic therapeutic interventions, therapies, outreach,…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that results in hallucinations, paranoid delusions, confused or disordered thinking and/or speech, difficulty concentrating and functioning, and other negative symptoms. It is diagnosed according to criteria described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V, 2013): the individual should show signs of hallucinations, delusions or disorganized speech in a continuous manner for at least 6 months, with 1 at least one month of active symptoms occurring that negatively impacts the person’s ability to work or socialize consistently. The World Health Organization (2017) states that roughly 21 million people throughout the world suffer from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a treatable disease, however, and as Saks (2009) shows, an individual can lead a normal life while having schizophrenia because there are a number of treatments available to help control the symptoms.
Treatments available for individuals who suffer from schizophrenia typically include a combination…… [Read More]
Name: Article 1 Date:
Reference (APA Format)
Allen, A. R., & Pidano, A. E. (2017). Childhood Schizophrenia and Autism: An Empirical Study of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(6), 1664-1670.
A strong relationship has been established between social support and psychotic symptoms. However, there is not study that has analyzed the level of social support received by children with schizophrenia. Children who have low levels of social support have been found to be at a greater risk of increased internalizing and externalizing problems.
Youth with childhood and adolescent schizophrenia would have less social support than children with autism spectrum disorder.
Children with the least amount of social support would report the lowest level of functioning
Diagnosis and level of perceived functioning
Perceived social support
Children with Autism
Data Analysis & Statistical Methods
Tests used were the t-test…… [Read More]
The Genetics of Schizophrenia: Article Review
Schizophrenia has long been acknowledged as one of the most notoriously heritable of all mental health disorders. As noted by Mukherjee (2016) in his New Yorker article, “Runs in the Family: New Findings About Schizophrenia Rekindle Old Questions About Genes and Identity,” even before the heritability of certain characteristics through genes was well understood, the fact that schizophrenia ran in families had been noted. The first individual to define schizophrenia in a medical context, Eugen Bleuler, distinguished how young people, usually in their late teens or early twenties, began to experience visions, paranoid delusions, and the ability to express their thoughts in a continuous fashion. They often experienced extreme shifts between emotional shifts as well. A common linking element was that patients often had close relatives with similar symptoms. This was true of his own family, Mukherjee admitted.
Twin studies later confirmed Bleuler’s suspicions.…… [Read More]
chizophrenia: Description, Etiology, And Treatment
About 1% to 2% of the U.. population may suffer from schizophrenic disorders (Weiten, 2007; Rosenzweig, Breedlove, & Leiman, 2002). Usually emerging during adolescence or early adulthood and only infrequently after age 45, victims of schizophrenia usually evidence a history of peculiar behavior and of cognitive and social deficits. The onset of schizophrenia itself may be gradual or sudden, and once it emerges results of treatment vary. ome patients - approximately 15%-20% - have complete recovery; these likely have had milder symptoms (Weiten, 2007). Others experience a partial recovery intermittently receiving hospital care for the remainder of their lives. Whilst the third group of schizophrenic patients endures chronic illness that occasionally results in permanent hospitalization.
First publicized by Emil Kraeplin in his book Daementia praecox and aparaphrenia (1919), Kraeplin entitled schizophrenia dementia praecox, since he considered it a disorder that originated in adolescence and was…… [Read More]
In addition, they both realize that stress can make his condition worse, and work to reduce stress on him. That would also be an important part of his treatment today. In the movie, it may have helped Nash that his imaginary "controller" wanted him to do things he could not agree with, such has harming his wife "because she knew too much." In the movie, the little girl appears and holds his hand, and then it dawns on him -- the little girl never ages. She can't be real. The controller can't be real. It is hard to know whether these events really happened in this way; his story is presented as a movie, and Nash's perceptions may have altered even the events that help him resist the draw of his hallucinations.
John Nash's story demonstrates also that hallucinations serve a purpose for the patient's personality. As a secret code…… [Read More]
There are five kinds: hebephrenic (disorganized), catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual. The disorganized kind is marked by confusion and inappropriate or absent emotional reaction with silliness and inappropriate laughter often present. The catatonic type shows gross motor changes, which may involve a stupor or markedly agitated movements. Paranoid schizophrenics develop an organized set of delusional beliefs supported by auditory hallucinations. If the person is schizophrenic but doesn't fit one of those categories, it is called undifferentiated.
In addition, schizophrenia is broken down into Type I and Type II. Type one shows primarily positive symptoms while Type I shows primarily negative symptoms. Type I patients typically have better adjustment prior to onset of the illness than Type II's, and are more likely to improve over time. Type I is also most closely linked to biochemical disturbances while Type II is tied to structural abnormalities in the brain.
Clinical explanations for schizophrenia:…… [Read More]
Psychological Disorders and Their Treatment
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain or psychological disorder that causes the sufferer to experience hallucinations, have paranoid delusions, engage in confused speech, have trouble thinking clearly, and lose the ability to function in a normal manner. According to the DSM-V (2013), the diagnosis criteria for schizophrenia states that these symptoms must last at least in duration for 6 months and there should be at least one month in which the symptoms are active and are negatively affecting the person’s life—i.e., the individual’s ability to work or socialize. While the WHO (2017) notes that there are more than 20 million people all over the world who suffer from schizophrenia, it is a treatable disorder. This paper will discuss the disorder, its symptoms and treatments that are available.
The symptoms of schizophrenia include: hallucination, paranoid delusions, exaggerated or distorted perceptions, beliefs or actions, confused or disordered thinking,…… [Read More]
While all mental illnesses continue to carry some sort of stigma, perhaps no mental illness is more widely misunderstood than schizophrenia. In fact, prior to the introduction of some of the more modern medications, it was virtually impossible to live a normal life if one had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The complex interplay of symptoms experienced by most schizophrenics lent those patients the classic air of madness. Moreover, the combination of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thought contributed to the air of dangerousness (see APA, 2000). While the mentally ill, as a whole, are no more dangerous to themselves or others than the general population, the reality is that an individual with schizophrenia could be much more dangerous than the population as a whole. Moreover, there was no standard treatment of the patient with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia crosses all races and cultures, so that a wide variety of cultural treatments contributed…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia on the Mind and Body
An Analysis of the Etiology of Schizophrenia and Its Impact on the Mind and Body
Perhaps no other human condition has received so much publicity, but remains so misunderstood by the general public as schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is widely believed to be associated with multiple personalities and other acute symptoms that would make sufferers readily apparent; however, the reality of the condition is that people can have schizophrenia and never know it. However, while much has been learned about the disease and its etiology over the last hundred years, much remains unclear about who is at risk and precisely how the disease progresses. Nevertheless, a number of efficacious treatments have been identified, and today, some schizophrenics recover completely or sufficiently enough to lead normal and productive lives. This paper provides an overview of schizophrenia and its incidence, the etiology of the disease and its symptoms,…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia Affects the Brain, Person, & Family
This paper looks at the how schizophrenia affects the brain, the person, & the family, also looking at the history of the subject and its role within society. Bibliography cites four sources
Schizophrenia is one of a range of mental conditions that is widely misunderstood. May see it as a relatively recent disease, and the term has only been in use for about a century. However the condition is not new. This disease, which is one of the most disabling of the range of metal conditions, can be traced back for millennia. The first documented cases appears to have occurred in Ancient Egypt, where a discretion of the condition is described in the Eber papyrus, in the Book of Hearts (kasha, 1999). The condition was not understood in detail, and the treatment was usually incubation, this was an achieved by spending the…… [Read More]
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…… [Read More]
To a large degree, people's inclination to relate Schizophrenia to deviant speech is a result of their education. Brown wants to emphasize the fact that a background in psychiatry is not absolutely necessary in order for one to realize that a person is mentally ill, as (in certain circumstances) it can actually affect one's capacities of giving a diagnose. Even psychiatrists prefer to relate to their teachings in most occasions, rather than attempting newer methods of assessing a person suspected of being schizophrenic.
Brown directly contests principles which have been highly regarded in the study of Schizophrenia, but by doing so he hopes to reveal that matters can go terribly wrong when an individual is diagnosed with the disorder only because of one's speech, or even because of one's behavior. Thus, Schizophrenia cannot be diagnosed immediately, by analyzing one's speech, as one would have to go through intense studies in…… [Read More]
Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia
Their Impact on Neuro-development
Search Improvement over Published Methodology
rief Introduction -- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder, which is characterized by delusions, lack of drive and interest, changed or unusual emotional reactions and generally disorganized behavior (Kirov et al. 2012). Some signs may begin from childhood but main features become apparent in the late teens and early adulthood. Outcomes and treatment are varied but relapses are frequent. Remissions are also often only partial along with significantly reduced social and occupation involvement. Persons with this disorder are among the most vulnerable, ostracized, and thus disadvantaged in society. A recent meta-analysis reported that about 15.2 out of every 100,000 persons are afflicted with it (Kirov et al.).
Genetic epidemiological studies theorize that varied susceptibility to schizophrenia appears to be strongly genetic (Kirov et al. 2012). These studies have identified many potentials links between genes and chromosomal abnormalities. Increasing…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia in Neuropsychology
Schizophrenia is a rare but complex type of mental disorder which often has life-altering ramifications. Even though less than 1% of people all over the world are at risk of developing schizophrenia those who do may end up suffering from hallucinations, delusions and end up having difficulties in occupational and social situations they are in. with the knowledge of the symptoms and risk factors of the disorder which includes the onset of manifestation of the symptoms one can be able to spot the warning signs of this disorder.
Schizophrenia distorts the way a person thinks, expresses their emotions, acts, perceives reality and relates to other people. Those who have chronic schizophrenia have a problem when it comes to their functioning in the society, at their places of work, in schools and even within their relationships. Schizophrenia can leave an individual that is suffering from it frightened…… [Read More]
This is an Ehow.com article about schizophrenia.
This is an article about Schizophrenia posted on the Canadian Psychiatric Association's (CPA) website.
The information presented on the CPA's website is very accurate. The website is edited by psychologists and professionals in the field and the information is vetted by the CPA, which is a leading authority in Canada and internationally psychological issues and illnesses. The information presented on this site is a brochure on schizophrenia that was funded by a public health education grant.
The information on the EHow.com website is provided by freelance writers who work for Demand Studios. Demand studios provides freelance writers with topic titles to write about and then the writers follow pre-formatted templates to create articles about the provided topics. Freelance writers then submit their writing to a copy-editor who is supposed to fact check the information and sources provided…… [Read More]
Biopsychosocial View of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia can be a debilitating condition that adversely affects the quality of life of sufferers and their families. Although clinicians in some parts of the world view schizophrenia as a brain disease that is incurable, while most practitioners in the Western world view the condition as having a genetic or organic basis that can be successfully treated with prescription medications and psychosocial interventions. To determine the fact, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning schizophrenia using a biopsychosocial model. The review includes evidence supporting brain localization for schizophrenia, the genetic factors in the onset of this disorder and an evaluation of the environmental factors in the onset of this disorder.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, some researchers have suggested that schizophrenia is a disease of the brain that is common to all human societies, and that it is…… [Read More]
Kringlen also published more extensive case records for his monozygotic twins than any other researcher had done (pp. 7-8)."
The information gained by these studies was significant. One, in particular, conducted by William Pollin and his colleagues set out to disprove the biological or genetic factors, and to establish the basis for.".. psychodynamic, interpersonal phenomena that might have some significant etiologic role with respect to schizophrenia (Torrey, p. 9)." What Pollin and his colleagues found, instead, was that there were significant physiological conditions in the twins examined who had schizophrenia (p. 9).
The most significant findings were a history of lower birth weight and more obstetric complications in the affected twins in discordant pairs, and more neurological abnormalities in the affected twins (Pollin & Stabenau, 1968; Mosher et al., 1971). The findings, said these researchers, suggested that "the intrauterine experience of one twin, relative to the co-twin, tends to be…… [Read More]
28 subjects comprised the normal control group. They were recruited through a newspaper ad and had no histories of Axis I psychiatric disorders.
The subjects were shown images on a computer screen for 13, 26, 52, or 104 ms, sometimes upright and sometimes inverted, and were asked to indicate, by pressing one of two keys on a keyboard, whether the image of a face or a tree was located on the left side or on the right side of each drawing.
Schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly less accuracy when they tried to detect upright and inverted faces than normal controls did. Stimulus durations made no difference as the deficit existed across all durations.
Unlike the detection of faces, tree detection was not significantly different for the two groups. A reduced stimulus inversion effect in schizophrenia was shown primarily in faces but not in tree detection. The only interaction shown to…… [Read More]
These include Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Thioridazine (Mellaril), Haloperidol (Haldol), Fluphenazine (Prolixin), Mesoridazine (Serentil), Perphenazine (Trilafon) and Trifluoperazine (Stelazine)
(b). Atypical Medications-is the newer medication to schizophrenia. The atypical drugs affect different areas from those affected by the antipsychotic drugs. These include Clozapine (Clozaril) -particularly effective in younger people, isperidone (isperdal) and Olanzapine (Zyprexa).
(c). other significant medication-these can also help suppress the symptoms and include Antidepressants, Antianxiety drugs, Lithium (for bipolar disorder) and Antiepileptic drugs.
(d). Electroconvulsive ("Shock") Therapy-where low voltage electric current is induced into the patient to cause seizure. It is of late considered to be safer than drug therapy.
(e). Psychotherapy- this is where the different professionals like the psychologists, some nurses, psychiatrists and social workers work together to study and help treat the patient along side using drugs. It exploits the cognitive behavior of the individual where the normal positive behavior is emphasized. It follows on the…… [Read More]
Mental Illness vs. Developmental Disabilities
Saks (2009) displayed symptoms of schizophrenia while Kirtland (n.d.) displayed symptoms of autism. Saks would have auditory and visual hallucinations, have thoughts that were completely disconnected from reality, exhibit confused thinking, and sometimes completely breakdown and be unable to function in any capacity. Kirtland lacked the ability to effectively socialize or connect in a typical “human” way: he did not want attention, to be held, to cuddle as a child, and lacked social understanding to be able to make friends outside his immediate circle or to hold a long-term job. Saks’ (2009) case was different from Kirtland’s (n.d.) in that hers was much more immersed in having a mental illness whereas Kirtland was experiencing a developmental disorder. Saks had to cope with her thoughts being outside of her control, while Kirtland had to cope with not having developed the typical sense of self that enables…… [Read More]
Particularly after her PANSS test results, the client in this case has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, paranoid type, in which positive symptoms like delusions are prevalent. The purpose of this paper is to clarify three key psychopharmacological treatment decisions made on behalf of the client. Goals of all three decisions are symptom reduction and the promotion of the client's mental health and psychosocial functioning.
The decision was to give the patient Invega Sustenna (paliperidone palmitate) 234 mg intramuscular X1 followed by 156 mg intramuscular on day 4 and monthly thereafter, instead of either Zyprexa (olanzapine) or Abilify. The reasoning is based primarily on the fact that Invega Sustenna is a long-acting injectable with fewer compliance complications than orally administered drugs. Although Abilify has been available as a long-acting injectable, Invega Sustenna is recommended in this case because it presents fewer side effects than either Zyprexa or Abilify, particularly those…… [Read More]
etiology of schizophrenia and the ways in which researchers, psychologists, philosophers, and different cultures in different ages have attempted to understand the disease. It also examines the prevalence of schizophrenia on both a global and domestic front and discusses it in terms of individual patients according to age, gender and ethnicity. Finally it examines the disease from the standpoint of diagnostic criteria as well as evidence-based treatments and what the dropout rate of each might signify. It concludes by asserting that researchers may benefit from approaching schizophrenia from a sociological perspective since the psychosocial therapy appears to have the best clinical results and lowest dropout rate among the various treatments available.
Eugene Blueler first used the term "schizophrenia" in the early 20th century as a means of re-defining what earlier psychologists had described as a form of dementia. Blueler's term described a "split mind" -- a phenomenon that…… [Read More]
Done, D.J. Crow, T.J. Johnstone, E.C. Sacker, a. (September 1994) Childhood Antecedents of Schizophrenia and Affective Illness: Social Adjustment at ages 7 to 11.BMJ, 309:699-703.
Teacher appraisal using the national child development study was utilized to examine differences between normal individuals and those who exhibit adult psychological disorders. "At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P… [Read More]
Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Among Schizophrenia Patients
The researchers began this research with the premise that there may be gender-based difference in cognition among schizophrenia patients, though they acknowledged that prior research gave conflicting information about which results to expect. Some prior researchers had found that male schizophrenia patients experienced greater levels of cognitive impairment than female schizophrenia patients, while other studies had found no gender-based difference in cognitive functioning. egardless of level of cognitive impairment, women with schizophrenia are much more likely to have positive outcomes than men with schizophrenia. This is an interesting issue, because there is an established difference in cognition in healthy men and women. Specific neurocognitive deficits appear to impact community functioning, which is one of the significant impairments experienced by schizophrenia patients attempting to interact with the outside world. In prior studies, community functioning was determined to be related to verbal memory, verbal…… [Read More]
(Walsh & Meyersohn, 2001, p. 188)
Therapeutic interventions, as has been mentioned are frequently multifaceted. Nursing interventions can be associated with the disease treatment or can be in support of other diseases the individual has that need treatment, i.e. when and individual is hospitalized for illness or injury the diagnosis and therapeutic evidence of PS is absolutely essential to support and understand as incompliance can be global and "new" therapeutic relationships can be met with extreme distrust. Education is essential as PS patients still have some (greater or lesser) cognitive impairment and may not give appropriate clues as to how well he or she understands or intends to comply with treatment interventions. Nurses in a psych or medical setting must be careful how they word everything and how they educate patents about their treatment. Expected outcomes are dependant on severity but many people with PS can and do…… [Read More]
In one way, it can seem that Nash has low communication competence. For example, he does not have good relationships with his classmates, his workmates, or his students. However, there are various signs that this is related more to a lack of social skills than an inability to communicate. This is seen towards the end of the film where Nash is seen tutoring and teaching students. In these interactions, it is seen that Nash is an effective communicator. At the same time, Nash can seem impatient and also seems to behave in unexpected ways. Again though, this is related to Nash's inability to understand social expectations and act based on these expectations. In Nash's mind, it appears that he considers his only focus as being able to explain and teach mathematics, with no regard either for personal relationships or for social standards. Nash is shown tutoring students and it is…… [Read More]
There are several barriers to treatment that someone with schizophrenia might encounter. Those barriers can be loosely classified as personal, institutional, and social, although these three areas often intersect. Stigmas and a lack of understanding of the disease remain key barriers to treatment.
Schizophrenia is a misunderstood condition, which is one of the reasons why there may be social impediments to a person seeking treatment. Although knowledge has increased exponentially over the past few decades, the disease is still not completely understood. It is chronic, and potentially long lasting, which presents its own set of challenges to treatment (Durand & Barlow, 2013, p. 5). Treatments that have been used in the past, such as electronic stimulation, are now considered primitive and outmoded (Durand & Barlow, 2013, p. 12). There is less than a fifty percent chance that the schizophrenia is genetic, meaning that early detection is not always…… [Read More]
" Deborah learns from her fellow inmates on the ward and reacts to their vicissitudes as if they were her own. Basically she internalizes and analyzes everything in a warped way. The author presents the psychosis of schizophrenia not from a clinical perspective but from a subjective one.
Deborah's sister Suzy reacts negatively to the extra attention her sick sister receives. Adding tension to the family dynamic, Suzy is a key character in I Never Promised You a Rose Garden. Family tension and the dynamic between parents and children are a part of the illness. The parents do whatever is in their power to help Deborah but at the same time they feel a deep sense of shame and frequently blame themselves for what they perceive as personal failure. Greenberg shows how parents of mentally ill children might fall into the unfortunate trap of self-hatred.
Dr. Fried helps Deborah explore…… [Read More]
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) states that schizophrenia is a mental disorder that causes the patient to experience
hallucinations, delusions, irrational speech patterns, anti-social behavior, a loss of willpower/motivation, a possible catatonic state at times, and more.
This broad spectrum of symptoms should be seen for at least a month, with behavior being monitored for up to six months.
Who is Affected ?
According to the World Health Organization, about 24 million people around the world are affected by schizophrenia.
Men are 1.4 times more likely to suffer from schizophrenia than women
The prime age group for individuals who suffer from schizophrenia are ages 20-32
Schizophrenia is not typically found in children or in older aged individuals.
What is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder.
Exaggerated or distorted perceptions, beliefs or actions
Confused or disordered thinking
Problems concentrating…… [Read More]
Only a minority of studies have found advantages in social adjustment (four of 16) or employment (three of nine, and these jobs represented mostly sheltered rather than competitive employment)."
A psychological aspect of schizophrenia involves the intervention of patients with the use of cognitive behavior therapy or CBT. Such treatment is used for those whose psychotic symptoms constantly occur despite consumption of medication. The objective of CBT is for schizophrenics who do not respond to their medication and to have their episodes of delusions and hallucinations or other distress to be decreased. As well, CBT's goal is to reduce the risk of relapse and social dysfunction. Bustillo (2001) noted such therapy centers on "rationally exploring the subjective nature of the psychotic symptoms, challenging the evidence for these, and subjecting such beliefs and experiences to reality testing."
n a study led by Kuipers, it was discovered that CBT schizophrenics demonstrated a…… [Read More]
Quiet oom: A Journey Out of the Torment of Madness by Lori Schiller and Amanda Bennett. Specifically it will discuss the author's life and how mental illness affected her family and herself. Lori Schiller suffered from schizophrenia since she was a teenager, and this is a true account of her struggles with the disease.
This book, written by the patient and a writer, is the real story of Lori Schiller, a schizophrenia patient who managed to conquer, or manage, her disease. She writes powerfully of how the illness affected her and her family, and what how it affected her life. Her experiences began with hearing "Voices" in her head and these voices rarely disappear from her mind. She writes, "Sometimes those Voices have been dormant. Sometimes they have been overwhelming. At times over the years they have nearly destroyed me. Many times over the years I was ready to give…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia is considered to be one of the most sever psychiatric disorders. The incidence of the condition each year is approximately 15 in every 100,000 people, and the lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia is 0.7% (Tandon et al., 2008). Family history and genetics have been identified as contributing to the development of schizophrenia in 80% of cases (Tandon et al., 2008). Some environmental factors associated with increased likelihood of the development of schizophrenia include prenatal malnutrition or infection, use of cannabis, birth complications, and winter birth (Tandon et al., 2008). However, the mechanisms by which genetic and genetic-environmental factors interact to cause the onset of schizophrenia are not well understood. It is important that effective treatments be developed to help individuals cope with this serious and debilitating psychiatric disorder. What types of therapies outside of pharmaceuticals have been found to be successful in the treatment of schizophrenia? Is any type…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia, Dissociative Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
While some symptoms of schizophrenia, dissociative disorder and bipolar disorder might seem similar, prompting individuals to suspect that the three different mental health disorders are interchangeable, the reality is that these three problems are quite distinct. This paper will discuss the broad differences between them as well as way to educate the client about his or her disorder, his or her family about it, and ways to reduce stigma.
As the DSM-5 points out, schizophrenia a mental disorder that causes the patient to experience hallucinations, delusions, irrational speech patterns, anti-social behavior, a loss of willpower/motivation, or even a possible catatonic state at times. Symptoms include incoherent speech, paranoia, distorted perceptions, confused or disordered thinking, and an inability to concentrate. This broad spectrum of symptoms should be seen for at least a month, with behavior being monitored for up to six months (American Psychiatric Association,…… [Read More]
Given that schizophrenia is known to impact cognitive functioning, it is no surprise that the results demonstrated significant impairment in all cognitive domains except for psychomotor speed. Furthermore, there were gender differences in both the experimental and control groups; both healthy and schizophrenic and healthy women outperformed men in verbal learning and memory. While the findings reaffirmed the researchers' expectations, the research could have some implications for future research as well as treatment for schizophrenics. It is worth noting that the patients with schizophrenia, despite being considered stable, showed significant impairment vs. The control group. The researchers believe that these differences could indicate that schizophrenia is more than the symptoms that manifest, but is more of an underlying cognitive disorder. Moreover because the impairment exists even in stable patients, they believe that this cognitive disorder is resistant to the current treatments for schizophrenia. However, there are two things that make…… [Read More]
Who lives with you in you household? Quien vive con usted en la casa?
B. Tell me about you family. Cuenteme aceca de su familia
C. What's a typical day like fo you? With you Family? With you fiends? Como pasa Usted el dia? Con su familia? Con sus amigos?
D. Tell me about you fiends Cuenteme sobe sus amigos
E. Who ae the people you can count on the most in time of need?
Quienes son las pesonas con las que puede conta cuando las necesita?
F. Do you belong to goups o oganizations that you feel you get suppot fom? Examples? What kind of suppot?
Petenece an algun gupo u oganizacion que le popociona apoyo?
Pongame algun ejemplo, que tipo de apoyo?
G. How does the family and fiends suppot you and you family?
Como le apoya la familiay/o amigos a usted y su familia?
Idioma (About…… [Read More]
Even a person not living near the poles can suffer from this condition because in many areas of the world, winter time means a decrease in sunlight. Thus, someone with SAD might blame the end of the hustle and bustle of the holiday season as the reason for their depression, but it might actually be a manifestation of the lack of sunlight. The holiday season might have simply been an ample distraction from the lack of sunlight.
3. On average, people who use much marijuana are more likely than others to develop schizophrenia. However, over the last several decades, the use of marijuana has increased substantially while the prevalence of schizophrenia has remained steady or decreased. What would be a reasonable conclusion about the relationship between marijuana use and schizophrenia?
One could conclude that people suffering from schizophrenia are using marijuana as a means of self-medicating. Marijuana can have a…… [Read More]